PAR'T .

II

ADMINIScTRATIVE DEVELOPMENcT AND DEVELOIPMENT ADMINIScTRATION

Eric E,. Otenyo and Nancy S. Lind

The concept of administrative deselopment is closelyassociated wwth developmenr administration, In its raw fO!'TO. ad~ninistnlt]ve devernopnillent encon~p.~~s:s,e,s acts of Ionaing new il,]sti~li.!tim1li8- especially g:ovenllmeIDt agencies. In. HlIaUY parts of theworldwhere this term was widely 1!Jsed,admiurustralivQ development was about reengiueering or 8~Juply establishing institutions thul

"" ~ -' "" . -

served COIOH]ul adminisarations to meet new objectives and gmds in emerging

countries, Am.ong tbefi.rs~ anempts;at describing adnl~nistrati\i'e developnnenl was Ri:gg.s U'9'64), Early forms 'of adminlstrative developmentwere ba8icuUy analyses of institutional development in. deye~opingSirca:s"

Riggs expanded our understanding of administrative dev~~lol'n'lent by observing that societies that sought to' promote r.~p:id development often had centrally contmmed politica! sy.s~ems that hampeted progress, Such societies eften lacked greater appli.cadotl ofr:ati.onal.RySfJerI1S ofmal!lagh:!i!g bureauc, racy, Thus; ro undo, some of tbeexeesses releted ~o unneeessary bureaucratie formalities enhanced prospects (;01" development, Accordingly, the greater theapplieation differentiated rational buceaucracies, the more :like,ly those systems wculd meet the gOills for development, Moreover, "if (I. bureaucracy became incre<1si!.'lgJ:y more responsible," as an. agent for ihe implemeutarion of public policies, ~hefclchances, for development would be

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ERJC R OTENYO AND NANCY S. UNO

enhanced. That: by-itself was auimportant dynamic of edministratlve development (Rflggs,; l'9,66, p, 253). In a m.ns~lIe,li,; expanding bureancratic outreach and sectoral and strnctnral differentiation was a key element in admini strative developmen t.

Unfortunately, eonceptual writing 0]1 HIe phenomenon greppled with operationai defljn~ti.ofi:S of development. However, there were numerous country-level reJ')o~·~,s accouming for various levels of bureaucratic exp«nsian. Significantly, ilHOS~, of the COlultr.y-®pecific studies tended to be thick descriptions. of bueeaneratic responses to political realities or moreaecu-

-' ,_.,

rately, political responses eo bureaucratic governance. Essentially thesewere

bureaucratic adjustments to changil.1lg political circumstances -especially tb:, changing of the guard (;ronl, colcuial administration 10 newly indepeudent countries, Mamy of these adjustmeuts had to do W:~t.Elorilen[.]ng bureaucracies awa.y f'rom Jaw and! order to newer Iorms of admiaistratlon and perhaps more impcrtantly, nation building (see forexa.miPh~. Tilman, 1964~ Adamolekun, ] 976; Esman, 1972;. M Q rgau, 1974;. Hyden, 1970; 1";1 0111Cy, ] 9(8). Impoetantly, thesewere area studies, which gave deepermeaning to our understauding of bureaucratic po]i~.]cs, and the applicability of the politics. - administration dichotomy froma global multicultural perspective. The formation of newinstitutions attracted other studies, especially ehose that tested ~h.e relevance of Western organization theories to ]l0111':Weste1"[1 cultures. Obviously, such studies mnnber in the thousands. Theimportant pointis that ~here was widespreadresentment of a,p~ng western style bureaucratie forms in the developingereas, This, iu part, is Deva's (1979) disconlent: wi~:h U1i:e: emerging discourses .

. DEVELOPMKNT A.DMIN]STRATEO.N~ TjHEN AND NOW

Nearly three decades IUHfe passed. since the "heyday" of development admiuistmtiou. Huddleston (]984. p, U 77) anlOI.lg others d:isti.:n.gil!li.shed development administration from mainstream publieedministratios ~t the practltioner level, He considered it as an area ofcompurative adminiserntion th~ltt focuses on the special problems and possibilities of countries of the Third W 0[ Jd. Accordrnngly, it was an attempt to upgrade or develcpadmiaistration in these countries. It also entailed the ereation of~mique administrative sy:st:el,ns where none existed .. The field was a pmdu,ct of its distinctive z.f'~fgeist and reffected the nge of pronounced. 'co nfidence in ~iggovernmeu[

223

(Ecs'luan" 19S8,;friedi" 1990). Then, developmenr theory scholars assumed incorrectly thai, progress would be linear with societies aiming toward a "take-off' stage, From there, development processes would be self-sustainlng,

, "

Pnlrlic adminlstrationw<ls considered a 'Vita] tool ('0,[ managing aheeconomic

growth and development process. Successive U.S. administrations from Harry Truman, Dwight Eisenhewer.and John Kennedy promoted the doctrine of development assistance (aid) 1.0 ~,he developing areas, Aid provided [he academywith oppcrtnnities W study such issues as development '(;100- nomics, community development, development educaticn, and finaJly,~ development administration ('(V'eidlil:t:r. ] 962, p, '9'7).

Vietor Thompson (~,964) provided the most lucid sh1~cn:u:n~: of' objectives for the emerging subfield of develcpmeut adminisrratiou. Hiswork reproanced here specifies UU~.~ develepment adminiseration required objedi\leS such as the ability to change and innovate Besides, there isneed for administrators to establish clear goa~s thatmust be shared among the implementing individuals, Development administration also requires a careful look at decentralization aud centralization strategies as well as adopting it cosmopelitau-professioual outlook. The ~~fler is considered H better orientation than parochialism,

At the eonceptual level, several scholars grappled withproviding working definitions and a locus for the field .. Themost wieldy read. :s;ta!~ements in the fonna ~ive ye~us were proba blywritten by R~ggs (1966. ] 967. 1970, 191 i . 1916a..,1,97,6b)" Gant (1979) andWaldo (~9g0). Weidner attempted [0 describe the emerging area of interest in a horniMic sense .. lie W:l"ON;\'~dleve],opment administratiou .~[Il gnvernntent refers tothe processes of guiding an. organization toward the aehlevement of progressive political, ecoaomie, and. socialobjectives tha~ al"e~~utho:dhl~]vcly determined ill, Ol1lC manner or another" (1'962, p. 98l'., Rl.ggS, on the of her hand, poinjed out that develepmeut admiuistration typically referred ~.O the "administrative means toacbieve developmental goals' > (19,f).fj, p .. 225)..

Likeallliterature, works on development administration were value biased. The writings served a specific ideological purpose, To a ]arge extent, the writingswere ill. product of the "decades of development." Developnsent then was the fashion. It stemmed from the desire by richer ccnntries to provide aid to the poor and di.~tldvall.l~lg.ed. ccuntries. These co untries were in tnrn expected. to conform ideologically .. Brian. Loveman 0'9'15) In "The Comparative Administration GI"OUp. Development .Admini.~i'~rati,on. and Ant.i,de'!;"el.opnlcl.lIIt~·~' makes It similar point" albeit with a different perspective ..

A similar opinion is expressed by Deva (l979)lin "Westem Conceptualizaticn of Administrative Deveio'Pn,u~nt: A Critique and. an Alternative"

224

ERIC E. OTENYO AND NA NCY S. UNO

originally published in ~,J1,e Intemauona! R'el)'i:ewq/ Adnl.inL~tfmil)(! Setenees. Hiscentra! thesis is 'that d.eve~Op'i::L1e[Jt adusinistration, as eonvenricnally understood in the We:st,hiad its roots, in the auti-eormnucismmovement of the 19:50s. I~ therefore provides an. inappropriate framework for adminlstratien inthe Third World. He offersan alternative scheme built around values of deceutralizatiou .. , anti-cerruptieu.economic equality and polirieal par t i,eip~ ~j.on.,

Regardless of the ideelogical f:rm:neworks., there were also local elite interests :8ie.e;king to respond to the massive challenges of poverty, illiteracy. and disease, Previous administrative systemswere tailored 1::0 provide: basic security and law and order .. 0]1 the other hand, develepmentedmiaistraticu focused on establishing administrative systems for achieving these ,IU!UlaU developmenr goals OOlues, l'9'16; Gant, 1'979.;. Riggs, ] 970),

In. the ]960s, government was rlll]ied upon for the administration of development projects .. Development occurred In several Asian countries but the, African scene was less thanadmirable .. Latin America had mixed experiences, btu for the most partremaiued underdeveloped. Generally, development assistance or aid triggered some progressiu a, nmnber of areas but not others. Countries without absorptivecapacity f1dled 10 achieve sustainable economic growth [Dresang, 19'13,. pp, "6-85;. Curtis, ]988. pp .. 47-.59). Whrule developmeat edministratioe Wi.:li:;5 dependent on the availability of development assistance, it showed promise, hut project faihsres weakened its Inetu~.norplms:~s intoa subfield of note .. NIi:!n1erOHS ease studies spoke voIU111e"s about the negative uttributes of employing western bureaucratic models on developing countries and other cultures I(Adamo~ekull. 1976; Sigl!ell1.llIfJ1, ~.9"6; Moris, 1977; neva. 1979.; Rondinelli, ] 98'). Scholarsnoted that analyzing bureaucracies in developing countries, w.i.~h .~bnalyticuJ tools not suitable for these cultures, was iuappropriate (Mor,is, ]977. p" 75) .. As Dwivedi and Henderson (~990) observed, for mcst of the developing areas.a value-free bureaucracy was: not areality but a myth ..

Briefly • in most de'v'elop~ng counsries, the most visible forms of developl1J]C'I.Tht were through projects funded by western donor agencies, Arguably. the Cold War envirnmneut offered ~he best cpportunities for development assistance, Then, funds were available towin over allies in the globalideological eompetitiou. There was also an element of compassion ][1 the 1'9505 ~UlJJd. 1960swhc]l the more developed countries moved substantial amounts of resources ~I],to the Third World - especially through the CXPi:U1I5.lom of educarion and healthcare. .. hl the Cold War framework, theadministration of de!\le.lo:pnle:n.~: aid ,01.' b~clln:ica.~. assistance proved to be a ehallenge for both local and expatriate administrators ..

225

Perhaps the most interesting debate in the largee public administtatiou literat u reou the efficacy of aidwa s in Public A dlnfn iss ration RC,!iiew \)~.'9g0 reproduction of a d!eba~,e~na,o.n.g the field's most eminent development administration scholars and ad ministrators. The debates capture the most salient features of transfeii of bureaucratic styles from the developedcouu ... tries to developing arcas.Altboug]} there moe; several books (for example, Rondinelli, 1987) and articles written on. transfer of managerial skills through technical assistance, none-capture HU:l nuances as well a's the articles reproduced in. thispresentwork,

The failure of Western. experts. to understand political and cultural dynamics. in foreign areas reeeieing aid was a key val~Hble inmany of the instances l,!;rllepe aid failed. to!!liCl1ieve sustainable developmenr. This seems to havebeen [~'Jie conceptual fnune:work adopted by John Seitz ,(1980,. p, 4(7). In hiis "The

ft:d.lufe of U.8" Tecimiea! Assistance in Public A dinirtisu(lt,r.(J~l: The Iranian Case" he arguedthat the U.S". 'Technical. assistance projects to ministriee and police in Iran in 1953-~ 96,8 failed because American project irnplementers were ignorant ofha:ni~m, objectives .. Amesican teelmieal assistauee failed to recognize the existence of massive maladmiuissratien including cvereemralization, lack of sUmc.~el1il open debate, eorrnptiou, Ineffleieney, arrogance, and structural problems within the bureaucracy" Seitzplaced blame on USAID for the success or rhe revolution in .1111n. tlaat gave: the AyahJ1lah po~]tica] power, The article sparked a lively debate ou the role of technical assistanee ~n deveI opment Eldin i nist ration a nd project m a uagemen t as a whole,

In the de ba te, Sherwood (] 981~J) disagreed wi th Seitz and instead pointed out that public admjnistmtionwas a S11l1,~:n component of the Shah's troub~es,and it did not plrl)i a. 111aJor role In the regime's fall . Other Iaetors included class "struggles," and the: rich versus poor. dicJlOtOl111.Y - especially because theedueatedwere ,dieuated, Moreov,er, there was attrition from the civil service eo the private sector, when oil revenues rose as a result of the 1913 increases .. Salaries were mow andtherefore c~vil servants were 11l0t motivated to perform optimally, Foreign aid to SAVAK (secret po~ke) was also au impediment iu the SC.llSC that it exacerbated ill feelingsagainst the regime .. The advisors could not understnud the political implications of their work and. could not forestall the: revolutionary process.

For his pad. WiUi:;]!ulI Siffin '(1981~) agreed. thatlessous were learned in the lra.llliaJ.[1 casco But, he thought it was not ~I failure efawell-intended solution. It was a Ihi~u!1e to define the problemswisely .. Accardi ng; to' Siffin, the fact that developing countries d.~d notinitiate p:rojec~s was their undoing, An assensptiou rhat developing countries could! use: Western Public Administration tools for developmeut was also reason for faihu'e.

ERIC E. OTENYO AND NA NCY S. UNO

A third rejoiuder was Jehu Mo,ntgol1iH.U·Y·S (J 980) argument that neither capital aid! noil'" teebuical assistaneeis an unmixed blessing ~o the receiving society". To him, the decision to prep up unsavory regimes was more responsible for the OiIJlOO1l1.es. He suggested ti:lrnJ,~ the greatest success in foreign aid occurred when two conditious maintain: (I) a political context ofmutual purpose and {2) the existence of ~1 sophisticated calculus ofthe benefrts that could be appropriately expected from each partner, Consequentty he concluded that, in Iran, aid didwork for at least ten years and the fact dH~,~, a revolution wok place should not be blamed on aid, He cpined that aid would have worked better with. ~]!'eru~er decentralization of authorlty and decisienmekiug. In tandem with tltis inrutiative,an increase of resources to the "field," use nfinfarnral organizations andimproved project design were esseutial comp onents for a sueeessful S I: rategy, Fiually ~ M iltonEsman [l 980, pp, 426-431), argued that technical a ssistance p>eFSO nnel made false assumptlonsthat develcpment administration wag a process that combined economic growth and! modemiaatiou, and would also trigger develcpmcnt in the developing areas, Experiences such as in Iran proved the contrary; reebnieal assistance and development adm~:ni:strat.~on did 1.]01 seem U) help much, Bsmen rejected! the practice of employirrg ~he western style administrative model with its strong dosage of values such as political neutrallry, effieiencyeconomy, and effectiveness .. These values, be eoutended, were not necessarily appreciated OVers.e!J1S. Much or what is centained in the debates applies Wco[ltieul[pora,ry situations and is worth our attention especially post-Septem ber ~ l, 200 lwher; the g~Ob111 war against Al Qa ida and 0 ther terroristgronps has necessitated provisica of western technclogies to ~aw enforcement rO'l~OOS in severaleountries,

RUNNING OUT OF ST'E~AM

As a subfield of public aJdmin.is~,:I"a~io:ll. developmeutadminlstration matured RI.lJd "ran QU.t of interesting ideas," but retained a weak presence Wll the broader publiced ministrntion d i seipline I(ESltIH u, ] 988,. p [3. 3.; V ~Ul Wart & Cayer, 1990; Heady, 200~. 1~'P. 390-395). More profoundly. Jreisar (2002) in a recent tide declared ~ha~ "plainly, developmentadmicistrarion thinking at present SCCl'DJS to be at a crossroads .. " If development administration has lost its Just-ell' then a lot has to do with thephenomenoe of failed states. This CS5~tY' wi.n not address the reasons for shl~:e farulun\ 'but acconnts for the .. IUlU .in the development adminlsrratlou enterprise. Tbe very esisteace of war

ravaged, fuHed, and collapsed states is initselfan antithesis for development, The [tl,~le{I statescome in different shapes and forms and ~nd.llde "anarchic 5WU';S. phantom or mirage states, anemic states.captured states and aborted stares' {CoUier & Hoeffler, 2(102).

Rccen tly, atatesthet required considerable infusion of development assistanee include Bosnia-Herzegeviua, Angola, Congo, Nicaragua, East Timor, Somalia, Rwanda, AfghaI:Jiis~:an. Jraq Liberia, Sr~i Lanka Indonesia and pa:rls of India devastated by a Tsunami in December 20014. More dum 20 countrleshave, since the 19808" experienced decline .111 economic, (:11'0- ductivity and growth from a host OF C3.111.8eS including eiviland internal '''iUS., devastating natural disasters, and outright: mismanagement or policy failures due topoor administrativepractices including tardhtess, incempetence, .IU iseonduct, inefficiency, discon ten 1; and absenteeism.

Of '~::Cl~U"S:e, there are C~!5!6:5. of failed development tu~sing from maladministration, Maladministration encompasses abuse of powerv reslstanee to change, rigid adherence to rules, sycophancy" insistence on status symbols, xenophobia, paperasserie, aecou III ]nl:dd:i 11':I.!ih and so on (0;] id en, ] 99~ •

I·.. 4"6' ]"',;1" runa "00' 3: If'I "t A ·1-;" '\1: 1 "1..;III'e- '",' nl (),fII, ~ '1" ·,-.,11 '1). A,- rguably mal "c!~ m ';1"

,01.. .0 , -"".11" l~ i;1'!J; _, , . '"' ~ ... , .. .,.~ I~ rlf~ Il.,~ ~ I~" W ~~,.)!!; . ~~ 1''1r' .'i, 'I ~'. :''''.'''' ,. ~ ,~I~''''~IL In,·, ~" .IU ~,-

istration and espeeialty corruption was ~I. key cause of pOOJ perfurmance in. economic development in many eountrles of the south". In. fact, several accounts attributed. the negative giiOwt]1 rates tomassive eorrupticnend incompetentpublic administration systems (SiIIl1S &. Voglemanu, 2002).

There are several theories that attempt to explain state fail:l!.I:re. A ill ong theseare cnnditionsresulting from the newly emerging g]obal realignmeots, The faihlire of several states to hold togedlsr at the end ofthe Cold WatrWHS in part a consequence of decliolng rescarces resulting from competition or resourceswidely 1I.IiIU]VaUa.ble in the post-Cold War developing an:as, - especially of Af:r.ica .. The [lew global environmeet is: the subject of JeanClaude Garcia-Zamor's (19914) work reproduced in this volume, GarciaZamor'swork conriuued the trend to cootendthat development is stilla subject of interest ill the Tbird World, He explored the subject of the implication of the «New World Orde['~at the end of the Cold War. According to Garcia-Zamor, the dramatic d.is[IlUlnJliil1g of ideological eommunismaffeeted the disbursement of aid. If aid was one of thepri.mary engines of developmenr administration. then the cihanging aid environment required some newanalysis, Garcia-Zamor proceeds to. outline the major directioes .of aid in Hille post-Cold War era. especially the: reduced flow of aid ~o Afriea, Asia,. and Latin AU1IerlCn and its implications for deveI.Q~'nleD t admi D is trators,

I:lJzeoaQeqll~ue]J!" m. program "cOO~.1g!I.]!~I.~~OU or expresseu enecuvery ru p:mJec:t timing and 'execution so that program objectives are no~. metor are delayed or are not achieved to their flllH expectation, Complete lnstituticnal success de .. pends on. anenvironment of well-ceordinatedand thus effectrnve relationships among sfsteriastitutions, complementing each other to their mutua] advan(age as theyprogress toward a COIJUll0n pl.'ogrfHupurpose ..

THE MEANING OF DEVELOPM'ENT ADMINISTRATION

Traditioual systemsand in~nitl!.!~~O:!'Hl: 'Qf~;ub~ic administtation were Fl'~H designed to respond 10 demands for soda] and economic development, whether in colonies such as Indonesia and Nigeria. or in kingdoms such as Thailandand Ethiopia. They were no t expected to be' responsive to legislaaures or other representatives of thepeople. They did not recognize the f~]ncti.on ·of rectifyi.:n.g inequities in the social system. They were not as much concerned with the encouragement or support of economic growth or the

Copyr' gh ted m aleri a

distribution of the benefits () r th at growl h as 'with the all oca tion of reso urees [0 assure continning :pmfils and revenues to government or, rather, to [hose who controlled the governmena, These traditional administrative systems were established to. perform other functions. Those functions included the maintenance of la W !.ii.rIId order SO!:1JS to assure a reasonable degree nf security and of stabilityin the cennnunity, Theyincluded the provision. of certain public services considered 10 be essential at ahe time, such as roads. and they included. mechanisms for setU~l.lg disputes,

Traditional governments and their bureaucracies were high~y oenu:arn1:z.ed ...

Allthod[,y was focused in. the capital city andcomparatively few decisions could be made by officialsin outl.y[ug districts. Even at. ~E1e center, authority was not well dispersed for expediticnsaud well-informedexpressice. The top offleials could not Of did 110'1: share the power of office with colleagues or with subordinates or evenwith other offlcials in. the same omo~ .. They were not supported by specialist staffs which could give informed advice based upon sound analysis ... 'They wen; not supplied withan adequate number of middle-level personnel trained to ~.lund:le the routines and details of office management, This personnel situation and the limited and narrow concept of theexercise of authority were aggravated by ponderous procedures of

distribution of the benefits 'Q r th at growl h as 'with the all oca tion of reso urees [0 assure continning :pmfils and revenues to government or, rather, to [hose who controlled the governmena, These traditional administrative systems were established to. perform other Iunetions. Those functions included the maintenance of la w a.rIId order SO!:1JS to assure a reasonable degree of security and of stabilityin the cennnunity, Theyincluded the provision, of certain public services considered 10 be essential at ahe time, such as roads. and they included. mechanisms for setU~llg disputes,

Traditional governments and their bureaucracies were high~y oenU':arni:z.ed", AlllthodlY WHS[OCllSed in. the capital city andcomparatively few decisions could be made by officialsin outl,y[ug districts. Even at. ~E1e center, authority was not well dispersed for expediticnsaud well-informedexpressice. The top offleials could not or did 1101: share the power of office with colleagues or with subordinates or evenwith other offlcials in. the same omo~ .. They were not supported by specialist staffs which could give informed advice based upon sound analysis. 'They wen; not supplied withan adequate number of middle-level personnel trained to ~,lund:le the routines and details of office management, This personnel situation and the limited and narrow concept of theexercise of authority were aggravated by ponderous procedures of administration, The failure to delegate declsion-making powers to field officers ]11 the ouUyin.g distriets and the dilatory p~.ce: of action at the cell ter had the effect of impedingaed 11Iot expediting *1!Ct~O]].

Tbemajor suppo~.'t~ve systems of these traditional bureaucracies, notably the fiscal and the personnel systems, also represented barriers to development processes 110 metter bow relevant they seemed to be to the processes of security and stability and status quowhich they had. been designed to support, Budgets in this environment tended to ibe more restrictive than energizing both j,n their fOl."11.1 and in the ~:i:n1iitedautl,m]"]ty they granted for expendlture. The persoanel, the civil servants who manned these &)'s~erns, weee the instnunents of throne: and empire and not of uationsand partieularly 11O't of the people. of nations .. These civil servants were on the whole honest and 'efficient and effective in preserving order and maintaining stu" bility and iu nssu:rhllg the revenues, Theywe~"egQye.rnors. iu that sense. and were notinvolved :~n the Fe~l~ila[i.on of popular aspirations,

The term "developrnentadministratieu" was coined in 1955 or [956. U seemed to be a simple and clarifying way to distinguish the focus of administration on the support and management of developmem as distin .. guisbed from the: administration of law and order, In S0l11e respects it is the cOllut.ie:rp~~I .. t of the term "development economics," which came into renewedandheightened usage wilh thegrowing impact of economic iP~anni[l~

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GEORGE F. OANT

in newlyiudependenscnuutriesetter \V'orld War II. TI:lIc tern]! and concept of develcpment adUlil]listnni·mn: ]:5 now found in the titles Sind programs of many agencies and institutions, such as the Institute of Development Administration in Thailand and the Development Adminlstratlon HnH. in the prime minister's office in MaJaysia. The U, S, Agency fm' Interuatienel Develnpment changed the name of its pubHc administration unit 10 development administration ~n the IlIlid-]960s, The United Nations' regional center for training andresearch ill admiuisteetion in Asia 11m;· the title Asian and Padftc Development Administration Center, M.a:ny universities have introd needcourses in. developmentadministration.

The five-year phH1S and the reports of the administrative reform C''OUlmissions of 111any countries in Africa and Asia .HlS well as Latin America can fOI.' the strengthening of administration to assure acceptable levels of implememation of national plans of social and ·~COlIlOm.[iC development. These include, for example. India and Pa,k]s:ul.n.~lndQl'D.eS]a~]od Malaysia, N]geria and Ghana. Kenya and Tanzania, There are many others, reflecting the fact that administretion for developmentis tile concern and the responsibility of each of t~le deve~.Clp:ing countries,

"Development administration" is ~he term used to denote the complex of agencies, rnanagsment systel1t1Js,and processes a. government establisheste achieve its development goals .. It is the p~bi]cme-c.l.llan]s:m setup to relate the severalcomponeats of developmeot in order to articulate and aoomnplish national social and economic o~jlect~ves. It is the adjustment of [be bureaneracyto the vastly increasednumber, \luridy. and complexity ofgoverumental fundions required to. respond to public demands for developmem. Development admlniserationis theadminlstration of policies, programs, and projects toserve deve.]opmenhll purposes.

DevleloJ)J:nelJtad:rn~ni.stnlti.o[li is characterized by its purposes, its loyalties, and its attitudes, The p~I'"I)OseS of development administrarion are '[0 stimulate and facilitate defined programs of social and. eeonomicprogress, They are purposes of change and inuovation and movement as eontrasied with purposes of 111u.i ntaining tbe status quo, Theyare 1. 0 make change attractive andpossible, Thesepurposes are to applypolicies and to cendnctprograms of de\,le~oJJlnent specified by the people as a: whole ~hmu.gh, evolving political systems of democratic decision-making This defiuitiou of purpose makes the bureaucracy for development, administration accountable to the public, through j ts representatives, Bureaucratic ]0y.aJ tyin development administra ~ tion .1.][IUst ~hU5 be to the people and not to its own. vested institutieaal ~n~erests nor to a uonpu'tili.c sovereign such as king or empire, Theettlmdes of developmem administration areposirive tn~he~' th!;1.11 negative, persuasive rajher

than restneuve. Develepment administrasion encourages inuovaticu and! change where desirable or necessary to accomplish development purposes and discourages adhereaee to tradltional norms and forms for their own sake, The nttltude of development admhl~gtmtio.flI. Is eurwardreachingand not inward looking.

Development administration is distiuguished fro lUI , although notindependent 0(, other aspects and concerns ef [public administmtion. Certainly the maintenance of law and order is 11 prime function of government and is basic to developmentcal H10UgJl it precedes and is not usually encompassed wruthjn the deflniticn of development adminiatratlon. Similarly the provision of such essential services as roads arid other ecmmunication systems and health and school r~ci]it.ies, .!!liS well ~IS water supplyaud other utility systems 1u.1JJcl the orgamiZtlti,olfl for tax. collection, are dii.stinguisllJed. from develnpment administration because tbey have been aresponsibility of government traditionally, The comprehensiveness and effectiveness of these services support and srreagrheu the envireameut for development, however. and their provision in adequatemeasure is necessaryte development,

Distinctions shonld also be Blade between udmin:istraJi·on for d1evelopment and 0 ther systems ofadmi nistratiousuch as: those for the police and the: mihtary, the judic.ial,['I.nd for foreign representation .. Each of these other systems has its: own unique requirernents, attitudes, and methods .. Again; each system, dependingupon its operatien, has an impact UpO[l developmenradministration, and ~herefo]'·e. development administration and the governmenr as a whole must be aware of and accommndating of the 0011- sequences of these impacts and! interrelatinnships. The police and nllmtal~Y systems could he repressive toward the people, Iorexample, andi nhibit the kinds of freedom of movement CCHICoOR1i'ihult w.i~h the development process. O~· they C01!II.d he so mtertwined w.i~h. disrrlct administration as to' inhibit the conduct of development activities, On. the other hand, enlightened police and military systems C~Ul, through their own or the regularly constituted agencies, enceurageand support educatienal .• health, social welfare, and evenpublic works programs so us to enhance ma rkedly the overall programs of development, These separate systems thus become acoucern of development administration,

The quality of the adm.wnish·i.liti:on of'justiee, similarly, is related to attitudes toward development administration by giving evidence to the people of the gevemment's intentions of achiesing equality of treatment and opportunity regardless of wealth, class, 'Of race, The administmtien of fOI.''e;i,gn representation can have a direct be.ar.in,g on development, notonly by :frlc~lit~ltil.'i!g the good general relaticuships eond ueive to business associations but even more

OEORGE F .. GANT

by providing for economic experts ~ll the embassies who can work directly tc realize frllilfu~ trade and investment eounections.

The methods of'edministratien In these diverse systems vary, and vary quite appropriately, because of the distinctive purposes of the several 8)18'· terns, The methods of law and order, for example, arc those of restraint and punishment, Lawand order administretors, aud also those who collect the taxes, must by uature be objective, aloof, and even distant in their relationshipswith the public, The primary interest of public admmistraters.wh» provide public services ]$ eJnci~e[ll.cy in the performance of their specified functions. Efflciency - that is. the achievement of economies In. time, personnel, aad materials in the accomplishment of'purpose - is animportant aspect ofpublic administration. These aspects ofadrniuistration might be called "internal administration" as distinguished from the primary methodological COI1JCerJ.lS of development administrators, which might be called "extemaladministration." Internal administration is defined here to mean rhe management of UIlJ organ.iza.trnon.al[1 agency. It involves ~:he systems and processesand methods by which needed resources of persounel, materials, and technnlugy are used 10 performprescribed functions.

Extemaledministration, on. the other hand refers to the activities and processes of ndrninistration which are needed to establishundtcactfvate reletionships with agencies and gl10UpS outside theadministrative control of au agency, relationships which are essential tojhe achievement of that agency'spurposes. These re~aliol.ls,hjps arerequired to implement a .[I)olic,)I or program or ~Ooca.rry out a project because snchimplementation would be impossihle without the purticipationand contribution of these external 131].titles, Bxternal administration thus involves patterns, of ~nterag;ency collaboration U.I.1id. of client purticipationabove and beyond the regular ]XI.Ue~rIThS and systems of coordinetion and supervisioe,

Forms of interagencycollaboretion range from i.nfonn~l, nnstructured relationships, expressed in. meetings, conferences, and the exchange of i[lfo.rmation to more formal associations expressedincontracts OJ agreements caning for systematic methods of cooperation- Panerns of client participationase needed to involve the peop;~e served by and: also ~:h ose e41lgag.oo :~:n. the executiou ofa collaborative effort-people in their private capacity either as indlviduals or. more 1!~I!J~d]y. threugh ~]}ejl" autonomous private orga.lllizat~ons. Such groups include agel.1Lcy sponsored m' enccuragedcoanuittees or councils for advisory purposes; cooperatives and. fi:lJUIDers' organizations; special districts [0:1: conservation, education, unci Sal'DI]~'lt:iou; tnlde assoeintiousrunions; and pro fessional crganizaticus. Patterns of clien [ part.i,dpat[on also range fi."Om. the infcrmal to the formal, the unsrruetured to the structured. A pr-ogram which

illustrates extemal administration is a major irrigatiun project involving the collaboration ofa central .agency such asthe public 'works de'p~H'I:nllent, a state or local ag'e'.ncys,1!]ch as the department of' agrlcultural exrension, and the farmersas individ II.1!IIls3nd through theirprivate (H~fln~ZaUOl1J.s. Development admiuistration ]S oatwardlcoking; it is basically external,

Effidencyis. by :110 meEIJI1I5 iucnnsistentwith development administratieu, or out ofplace in its conduct, Qu:i~,e the contrary; the application of tech- 11O]Ogy to tlre performauce of management functi,orls and! tbeimprnvemeut of management skills, particularly at. the middle levels of management service, have their ownimportant contribution to make ~o the effectiveness of administration for development, In spite of this dependency on competent adminisrrarion, however" U1Ie term "development administration" is usually 1:1.0.1 employed to referto scientific menagemeut or administrative enicieli1C)i as such." For the purposes of understanding development administration, and discussing it, emphasis Is placed upon its dlstlncttve features .. [f ell of its interdependencies were included ill the definition, "development administration't would be brut another term forpublic administration and too broad therefnre to permit the partieulariaed eenslderaticnit deserves and requires as a phenomenan in. the development process.

Another aspect of tbis ecnsideretion of efficiency in publicadministration calls ror attention WIll this context. A part of the concept of development administration is that its function is to achieve specifically defined development purposesiits effectiveness sheuld be 'measured and judged in these terms, ~f the purpcses of administratios are accomplished, ]l ~s considered good; if the pnspeses are poorly Oil: Inadequately accomplished, adrninistration from this de"llclopmcnt point of view is considered bad, TI1J.is ap- 1JOOach to the design of administrative sys~eli1ls is quite different from approaches based on some generalized concept of what is eonsidered to be "geed administration," Development administration is designed to achieve specified results and is good or bad in terms of its delivery of results .. This approach to admini.strati.on does not exclude efficiency erconsiderations of time and money and honesty, but it beginswith it definition ofthetarget and proceeds with the formulation of admiuisrrative methodology suited ro its achievement, rather than with anabstract conception of dfi.cien~ adminlstration as such .. Merely efficient (]dl~.i.nistration 'could in fact thwart development if itwere its purpose to do. so,

Touse the develcpment approach. toadmiuistratioe, sometimes called "sectoral admiuistration," is to design management systems needed. to curry out defined and agreed-upon policies, programs, 01.' projiec~s. This apprmld.l! is quite different [ron) t.hnt uSlJn~ly expressed in the term "administrative

27·8

GEOR.GE F. GANT

reform." The targets ofndmi ui serative reform are ~yplcaJI.y the cen tral management system and,predonl')jlulutJy,; the dv~1 service. The ~~unction of development administration is to assure that an appropriately eongenial environment and effective administration support are provided for de]].very of capital materiels, and services whereneededin the productive process - wD]ether in publia private, or 11JI1bl,ed economies.

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ADJVIINISTRATION

The manifestations of develcpment administration. its unique purposes, loyalties, and. attitudes, are found. in new and reoriented agencies and in new management systemsand proOO!)S~S. These agencies laelnde planning boards to facilitate decisions a bout developmeet policies and ~he allocation of resources toward the accornplishmeut of those policies, and reecnsntuted "nation-building" departments such as these for agriculture, industry, edueat i OIl; and heal th, A 111 essen tial aspect of the eompetence of these agencies is their ability ~o jiudige· the manegemenr as wen as the, technical andfinancial and econemic feasibilities of development projectsand programs and.when such feasibijities are suspect. to take theleadersbip .iln assuring the adequacy of such programeandprojecrs from, the management point o[v"i:ew . nile essence of development tu::huinistrati,(Hl ]S its coucern with (he ~'how'·'o.r accomplishing the "what" of the development plan au <'I ~ls. constimentprograms and projects ... New kinds of agencies are: often needed for dlev13]op- 11I.1Je'nt.fubUc enterprises andalso stronger private enterprise management systems are called fOi[ ... In the fiehi. cooperative organizations, community developmeat programs and avariety of farurers' organizations ate 'evidence of requirements for new agencies 10 support development,

The major expression Qf development ~dnl.ini.;s:l['atio.n ill the field is decentralization, the unclogging O'f business at the center by delegating authority to t] larger number of agencies and to a larger number of [lJlcl!oes in the countryside. New l1UU1!ilige!lJeut systems, aswell as management agencies, must be devised tomake such decentralizarion possible> new budget and fiscal aswell as planuing systemsc infonnaticn and reporting systems, personnel systems, and systems of coordination. Development administration therefore, is not Oldy the admiuistration of development; it is the development of admiuistratien. Development administratlon encompasses the in- 1,1OV~I,t](lnS which stre Ilgthen. the cap:achy of the burenccracy to st i ~,]lU la te and fiici]it~~te development. For these purposes developmenr udmiaiserarlou