POLITICAL LAW REVIEWER 2007

“LEAVE NO MAN BEHIND” - SANDOVAL
This reviewer is originally based on the BAR REVIEW LECTURE OUTLINE Political Law and Public International Law of Atty. EDWIN REY SANDOVAL with his permission. * Updated and Enhanced by Atty. Rene Callanta, Jr Political Law defined POLITICAL LAW

That branch of public law which deals with the organization and operation of the government organs of the state and defines the relations of the state with the inhabitants of its territory. (Sinco, Philippine Political Law 1, 11th ed., 1962) Political law has been defined as that branch of public law which deals with the organization and operation of the governmental organs of the State and defines the relations of the state with the inhabitants of its territory. (Macariola v Asuncion, 114 SCRA 77) THE PHILIPPINES AS A STATE

STATE DEFINED.

A State is a politically organized sovereign community, independent of outside control, bound by ties of nationhood, legally supreme within its territory, and acting through government functioning under a regime of law. CIR v. Campos Rueda, 42 SCRA 23 (1971) A state is a community of persons, more or less numerous, permanently occupying a fixed territory and possessed of an independent government organized for political ends to which the great body of inhabitants render habitual obedience. (Prof. Samilo Barlongay quoting Garner, Introduction to Political Law, 41.)

THE ELEMENTS OF A STATE ARE: territory, people, sovereignty, government. People refers simply to the inhabitants of the State. Territory is the fixed portion of the surface of the earth inhabited by the people of the State. Government is the agency or instrumentality through which the will of the State is formulated, expressed and realized. Sovereignty is the supreme and uncontrollable power inherent in a State by which that State is governed. PEOPLE

As a requisite for Statehood: The people comprising the state must be adequate enough for self sufficiency and defence. Furthermore they must be of both sexes in order that they may perpetuate themselves

THE NATIONAL TERRITORY  Art. I, 1987 Constitution The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago,

regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines.

In short, the Philippine territory consists of: (1) the Philippine archipelago, and (2) all territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction.

THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO

Basis of Art. 1 of the 1987 Constitution [PIL, I. Cruz] 1All the waters within the limits set forth in the: a) Treaty of Paris of December 10, 1898 (Cession of the Philippine Islands by Spain to the U.S.), b) between Spain and U.S., The Treaty of Spain and U.S. at Washington, November 1, 1900 (Cagayan, Sulu & Sibuto), c) Treaty between U.S. and Great Britain, January 2, 1930 (Turtle and Mangsee Islands); 2All the waters around, between and connecting the various islands of the Philippine Archipelago, irrespective of their width or dimension, have always been considered as necessary appurtenances of the land territory, forming part of the inland or internal waters of the Philippines; 3All the waters beyond the outermost islands of the archipelago but within the limits of the boundaries set forth in the aforementioned treaties comprise the territorial sea of the Philippines. 4The baselines from which the territorial sea of the Philippines is determined consist of straight lines joining the appropriate points of the outermost islands of the archipelago (straight baseline method); The definition of the baselines of the territorial sea of the Philippine archipelago is without prejudice to the delineation of the baselines of the territorial sea around the territory of Sabah, situated in North Borneo, over which the Republic of the Philippines has acquired dominion and sovereignty.

ARCHIPELAGIC DOCTRINE: Outermost points of the archipelago shall be connected by straight baselines and all islands and waters therein are regarded as one integrated unit


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The archipelagic doctrine has a two-fold purpose:(1) economic reasons;(2) security.

national

The archipelagic doctrine is the principle that it is an integrated unit; everything within it comprises the archipelago. The Constitutional provisions embodying this doctrine are: 1. "archipelago, with all the island and waters embraced therein" 2. "the waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of the breadth and dimensions, form part of internal water"

Method of determining the baselines 1. RA 3046 (17 June 1961) Determine appropriate points of the outermost Islands of the archipelago, then connect them by means of a straight line until all islands are surrounded or enclosed by the imaginary straight lines. "The baselines from which the territorial sea of the Philippines is determined consist of straight lines joining appropriate points of the outermost islands of the archipelago." (fifth whereas clause.) 2. RA 5446 (8 September 1968).-- Sec. 2 of the Act provides that the definition of the territorial sea of the Philippine Archipelago as provided in this Act is without prejudice to the delineation of the baselines of the territorial sea around the territory of Sabah, situated in North Borneo, over which the Republic of the Philippines has acquired dominion and sovereignty. Uses of the baseline: a. Determine what is internal water (all waters inside the baseline, whether or not more than 12 miles from the shore). b. Determine the 200 mile EEZ. c. Archipelagic Doctrine

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GOVERNMENT

Government is that institution or aggregate of institutions by which an independent society makes and carries out those rules of action which are necessary to enable men to live in a social state or which are imposed upon the people forming that society by those who possess the power or authority of prescribing them. Government is the aggregate of authorities which rule a society. (US v. Dorr, 2 Phil 332, 339). The government performs two kinds of functions, to wit, the constituent and the ministrant. Constituent functions constitute the very bonds of society and are therefore compulsory. Ministrant functions are those undertaken to advance the general interests of society, such as public works, public charity, and regulation of trade and industry.

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Doctrine of Parens Patriae One of the important tasks of the government is to act for the State as parens patriae, or guardian of the rights of the people. This prerogative of parens patriae is inherent in the supreme power every State, whether that power is lodged in a royal person or in the legislature, and has no affinity to those arbitrary powers which are sometimes exerted by irresponsible monarchs to the great detriment of the people and the destruction of their liberties. De Jure and De Facto Governments A de jure government has rightful title but no power or control, either because this has been withdrawn from it or because it has not yet actually entered into the exercise thereof. A de facto government, on the other hand, is a government of fact, that is, it actually exercises power or control but without legal title. The three kinds of de facto government are as follows: (1) The government that gets possession and control of, or usurps, by force or by the voice of the majority, the rightful legal government and maintains itself against the will of the latter. (2) That established as an independent government by the inhabitants of a country who rise in insurrection against the parent state. (3) That which is established and maintained by military forces who invade and occupy a territory of the enemy in the course of war, and which is denominated as a govt of paramount force, like the Second Republic of the Philippines established by the Japanese belligerent. The characteristics of this third kind of de facto government are: (a) Its existence is maintained by active military power within the territories, and against the rightful authority of an established and lawful govt. (b) During its existence, it must necessarily be obeyed in civil matters by private citizens who, by acts of obedience rendered in submission to such force, do not become responsible, as wrongdoers, for those acts, though not warranted by the laws of the rightful govt. SOVEREIGNTY • The supreme power of the State to govern persons and things within its territory. "Sovereignty is the supreme and uncontrollable power inherent in a State by which the State is governed. There are two kinds of sovereignty, to wit, legal and political. Legal sovereignty is the authority which has the power to issue final commands whereas political sovereignty is the power behind the legal sovereign, or the sum total of the influences that operate upon it. Sovereignty may also be internal or external. Internal sovereignty refers to the power of the State to control its domestic affairs. External sovereignty, which is the power of the State to direct its relations with other States, is also known as independence. xxx" (Cruz.)

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'Theory of Auto-Limitation' is the property of the State-force due to which a State has exclusive legal competence of self-limitation and self-restriction (Jellinek)

DOMINIUM and IMPERIUM Imperium refers to the State's authority to govern. It covers such activities as passing laws governing a territory, maintaining peace and order over it, and defending it against foreign invasion. When the State act in this capacity jure imperii, it generally enjoys sovereign immunity. Dominium refers to the capacity of the State to own property. It covers such rights as title to land, exploitation and use of it, and disposition or sale of the same. The Regalian doctrine whereby all lands of the public domain belong to the State, and anyone claiming title has the burden to show ownership, comes within this concept. In this capacity jure gestium, the State descends to the status of ordinary persons and thus becomes liable as such." Distinguish sovereignty from dominion. Sovereignty is the right to exercise the functions of a State to the exclusion of any other State. It is often referred to as the power of imperium, which is defined as the government authority possessed by the State. On the other hand, dominion, or dominium, is the capacity of the State to own or acquire property such as lands and natural resources. (Separate Opinion, Kapunan, J., in Isagani Cruz v. Secretary of DENR, G.R. No. 135385, Dec. 6, 2000, En Banc, See Footnote 86)

Is sovereignty really absolute? While sovereignty has traditionally been deemed absolute and all-encompassing on the domestic level, it is however subject to restrictions and limitations voluntarily agreed to by the Philippines, expressly or impliedly, as a member of the family of nations. In its Declaration of Principles and State Policies, the Constitution "adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land, and adheres to the policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation and amity, with all nations." By the doctrine of incorporation, the country is bound by generally accepted principles of international law, which are considered to be automatically part of our own laws. One of the oldest and most fundamental rules in international law is pacta sunt servanda — international agreements must be performed in good faith. "A treaty engagement is not a mere moral obligation but creates a legally binding obligation on the parties . . . A state which has contracted valid international obligations is bound to make in its legislations such modifications as may be necessary to ensure the fulfillment of the obligations undertaken." (Tanada v. Angara, 272 SCRA 18) Kinds of Sovereignty Political Refers to the Refers to the power Authority that has behind legal sovereignty, i.e., the power to issue the Final commands, different sectors That is the Congress that mold public Opinion Legal Internal External

Refers to the powerRefers to the power of the state to of the state to control its domesticdirect its relations affairs with other states a.k.a. Independence

(Separate Opinion, Kapunan, J., in Isagani Cruz v. Secretary of DENR, G.R. No. 135385, Dec. 6, 2000, 347 SCRA 128, 268-270, En Banc [Per Curiam] (Concept of “ Jura Regalia” vs. Concept of “Native title”) Generally, under the concept of jura regalia, private title to land must be traced to some grant, express or implied, from the Spanish Crown or its successors, the American Colonial government, and thereafter, the Philippine Republic. The belief that the Spanish Crown is the origin of all land titles in the Philippines has persisted because title to land must emanate from some source for it cannot issue forth from nowhere

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In its broad sense, the term "jura regalia" refers to royal grants, or those rights which the King has by virtue of his prerogatives. In Spanish law, it refers to a right which the sovereign has over anything in which a subject has a right of property or propriedad. These were rights enjoyed during feudal times by the king as the sovereign. The theory of the feudal system was that title to all lands was originally held by the King, and while the use of lands was granted out to others who were permitted to hold them under certain conditions, the King theoretically retained the title. By fiction of law, the King was regarded as the original proprietor of all lands, and the true and only source of title, and from him all lands were held. The theory of jura regalia was therefore nothing more than a natural fruit of conquest. The Regalian theory, however, does not negate native title to lands held in private ownership since time immemorial. In the landmark case of Carino v. Insular Government (41 Phil. 935, 212 U.S. 449, 53 L. Ed. 594 [1909]), the United States Supreme Court, reversing the decision of the pre-war Philippine Supreme Court, made the following pronouncement: x x x Every presumption is and ought to be taken against the Government in a case like the present. It might, perhaps, be proper and sufficient to say that when, as far back as testimony or memory goes, the land has been held by individuals under a claim of private ownership, it will be presumed to have been held in the same way from before the Spanish conquest, and never to have been public land. x x x The above ruling institutionalized the recognition of the existence of native title to land, or ownership of land by Filipinos by virtue of possession under a claim of ownership since time immemorial and independent of any grant from the Spanish Crown, as an exception to the theory of jura regalia. Carino was decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1909, at a time when decisions of the U.S. Court were binding as precedent in our jurisdiction (Section 10, Philippine Bill of 1902). We applied the Carino doctrine in the 1946 case of Oh Cho v. Director of Lands (75 Phil. 890 [1946]), where we stated that “[a]ll lands that were not acquired from the Government either by purchase or by grant, belong to the public domain, but [a]n exception to the rule would be any land that should have been in the possession of an occupant and of his predecessors in interest since time immemorial, for such possession would justify the presumption that the land had never been part of the public domain or that it had been private property even before the Spanish conquest.” . Dominium was the basis for the early Spanish decrees embracing the theory of jura regalia. The declaration in Section 2, Article XII of the 1987 Constitution that all lands of the public domain are owned by the State is likewise founded on dominium. If dominium, not imperium, is the basis of the theory of jura regalia, then the lands which Spain acquired in the 16th century were limited to non-private lands, because it could only acquire lands which were not yet privately-owned or occupied by the Filipinos. Hence, Spain acquired title only over lands which were unoccupied and unclaimed, i.e., public lands. TERRITORIAL, PERSONAL, and EXTRATERRITORIAL JURISDICTION

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Jurisdiction is the manifestation of sovereignty. The jurisdiction of the state is understood as both its authority and the sphere of the exercise of that authority. (Sinco 26.)

a. Territorial jurisdiction is the authority of the State to have all persons and things within its territorial limits to be completely subject to its control and protection. b. Personal jurisdiction is the authority of the state over its nationals, their persons, property, and acts, whether within or outside its territory. The Civil Code provision that prohibitory and mandatory laws follow citizens wherever they go is an example. c. Extraterritorial jurisdiction is the authority of the State over persons, things or acts, outside its territorial limits by reason of their effects to its territory. Art. 2 of the RPC is a classic example of this. DOCTRINE OF STATE IMMUNITY FROM SUIT BASIS:

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it is the duty of the courts to accept this claim so as not to embarrass the executive arm of the government in conducting the country's foreign relations (World Health Organization v. ii. . (Holmes in Kawananakoa v Polyblank) Sociological theory: If the State is amenable to suits. we abide by the certification of the Department of Foreign Affairs. As in International Catholic Migration Commission and in World Health Organization. As the department tasked with the conduct of the Philippines' foreign relations (Administrative Code of 1987. 3). 48 SCRA 242 [1972]). with all the more reason should immunity be recognized as regards the sovereign itself.i. 156-157). Rosario. WHEN A SUIT IS AGAINST THE STATE AND WHEN IT IS NOT. The added basis in this case is the principle of the sovereign equality of States. Constitutional: Art.) Basis of the Doctrine of State Immunity ETHICAL PRACTICAL As to a foreign As to a local state state "There can be no "Par in parem non The state will be legal right against habet imperium" busy defending Doctrine of itself from the authority that sovereign lawsuits makes the law on equality of all states which the right depends" DOCTRINE OF INCORPORATION . under which one State cannot assert jurisdiction over another in violation of the maxim par in parem non habet imperium. Aquino. Where the plea of immunity is recognized and affirmed by the executive branch. 6 . which are considered to be automatically part of their own laws DOCTRINE OF PACTA SUNT SERVANDA — international agreements must be performed in good faith. 1. privileges and immunities of a diplomatic mission or embassy in this country (Rollo. Book IV. 238 SCRA 524.the local country is bound by generally accepted principles of international law. pp. 190 SCRA 130 [1990]). Sec. A state which has contracted valid international obligations is bound to make in its legislations such modifications as may be necessary to ensure the fulfillment of the obligations undertaken. En Banc [Quiason] In Article 31(a) of the Convention. Calleja. XVI. Sec. . The State may not be sued without its consent. If this immunity is provided for a diplomatic envoy. The issue of petitioner's non-suability can be determined by the trial court without going to trial in the light of the pleadings. Jurisprudence Positivist theory: There can be no legal right as against the authority that makes the laws on which the right depends. The determination of the executive arm of government that a state or instrumentality is entitled to sovereign or diplomatic immunity is a political question that is conclusive upon the courts (International Catholic Migration Commission v. Title I. the privilege of sovereign immunity in this case was sufficiently established by the Memorandum and Certification of the Department of Foreign Affairs. 1994. particularly the admission of private respondent. all its time would be spent defending itself from suits and this would prevent it from performing its other functions. 54 SCRA 83) • The doctrine is also available to foreign States insofar as they are sought to be sued in the courts of the local State. Dec. To do so would "unduly vex the peace of nations." (Cruz. Besides. the Department of Foreign Affairs has formally intervened in this case and officially certified that the Embassy of the Holy See is a duly accredited diplomatic mission to the Republic of the Philippines exempt from local jurisdiction and entitled to all the rights. 3." The Holy See v. "A treaty engagement is not a mere moral obligation but creates a legally binding obligation on the parties . (Republic v Villasor. a diplomatic envoy is granted immunity from the civil and administrative jurisdiction of the receiving state over any real action relating to private immovable property situated in the territory of the receiving state which the envoy holds on behalf of the sending state for the purposes of the mission. which in this case is the Holy See.

2) When the suit is against an unincorporated government agency. In the following cases. 1. Court of Appeals (191 SCRA 713 [1990]). When the purpose of the suit is to compel an officer charged with the duty of making payments pursuant to an appropriation made by law in favor of the plaintiff to make such payment. DA v. this Court saying that immunity from suit cannot institutionalize irresponsibility and non-accountability nor grant a privileged status not claimed by any other official of the Republic. 51 SCRA 340 both involving the War Widow Benefits Law due the veterans. 227 SCRA 693. En Banc [Campos] [When is suit deemed suit against the State? Liabilities of public officers who exceeded their authority] Some instances when a suit against the State is proper are: 1) When the Republic is sued by name. While it is true that nothing is better settled than the general rule that a sovereign state and its political subdivisions cannot be sued in the courts except when it has given its consent. 32 SCRA 466 and Del Mar v PVA. Nov. the suit is not really against the State. this Court has pronounced that an officer cannot shelter himself by the plea that he is a public agent acting under the color of his office when his acts are wholly without authority. having been found to have acted beyond the scope of their authority. And because the activities of states have multiplied. When from the allegations in the complaint. The result is that State immunity now extends only to acts jure imperii. commercial and proprietary acts (jure gestionis). This rule is a necessary consequence of the principle of independence and equality of States. Sandoval. it has been necessary to distinguish them between sovereign and governmental acts (jure imperii) and private. this doctrine still found application. the rules of International Law are not petrified. NLRC. may be held liable for damages. Instead. the suit is intended to compel performance of a ministerial duty. 7 . when the relief demanded by the suit requires no affirmative official action on the part of the State nor the affirmative discharge of any obligation which belongs to the State in its political capacity. In line with the ruling of this Court in Shauf v. Until recently in 1991 (Chavez v. but an action in rem that does not name the government in particular. even though the officers or agents who are made defendants claim to hold or act only by virtue of a title of the state and as its agents and servants. as in this case. 11. 1993 [Vitug] [Can government properties be levied to satisfy judgment against the State? Waiver under Act No.” The inescapable conclusion is that the State cannot be held civilly liable for the deaths that followed the incident. For in this case. 1993. and by the heirs and victims to demand indemnification from the government. its commercial activities or economic affairs. the State having acknowledged its liability to the plaintiff through the enactment of an appropriation law. It does not apply where the contracts relate to the exercise of its sovereign functions. 3083] Waiver of State Immunity: “The traditional rule of immunity exempts a State from being sued in the courts of another State without its consent or waiver. it is clear that the respondent is a public officer sued in a private capacity. (Begoso v PVA. if it produces adverse consequences to the public treasury in terms of disbursement of public funds and loss of government property. Sandiganbayan. 220 SCRA 124. This Court has made it quite clear that even a “high position in the government does not confer a license to persecute or recklessly injure another. The principle of state immunity from suit does not apply.A suit is against the State. however. Republic v. The restrictive application of State immunity is proper only when the proceedings arise out of commercial transactions of the foreign sovereign. When the action is not in personam with the government as the named defendant.) 2. the suit is not really against the State. 3) When the suit is on its face against a government officer but the case is such that ultimate liability will belong not to the officer but to the government. March 19. When a suit is against the State. However. it cannot prosper unless the State has given its consent. Rather. the liability should fall on the named defendants in the lower court. 193 SCRA 282 [1991]). Stated differently. they are constantly developing and evolving. 4) When the suit is against a foreign state or embassy As early as 1954. a State may be said to have descended to the level of an individual and can thus be deemed to have tacitly given its consent to be sued only when it enters into business contracts. 3. regardless of who is named as the defendant. it cannot be invoked by both the military officers to release them from any liability. herein public officials.

G. it is deemed to have descended to the level of a private individual But if it entered into a contract in its governmental capacity it is not deemed to have impliedly waived its immunity from suit a bond. Public officials are not exempt. 23. of State Immunity This doctrine provides that only contracts entered into by the government in its proprietary capacity amounts to a waiver of its immunity from suit By filing a pleading The pleading filed must assert an affirmative relief because in doing so. although the acts complained of may have been committed while he occupied a public position. [Quisumbing] [Suits against public officers] The doctrine of state immunity from suit applies to complaints filed against public officials for acts done in the performance of their duties. elevate case to SC (certiorari) By doing so. 2180 NCC "The state is liable for quasi-delicts when it acts through a special agent" Through a General law Act 3083 in relation with CA 327 as amended by PD 1445 ACT 3083 deals with money claims arising from contracts with the gov't. 2nd Div. Where the waiver is through a special law. & other public works under their control & supervision. Lansang v. CA. 12When public officials can be sued personally To REQUIRE him to do a duty required by law To RESTRAIN him from doing an act alleged to be unconstitutional or illegal 8 . or be asked to pay legal fees because it is assumed that it is always solvent. file the suit with the courts. or injuries suffered by any person by reason of defective conditions of roads. Neither does it apply where the public official is clearly being sued not in his official capacity but in his personal capacity. No. The rule is that the suit must be regarded as one against the State where the satisfaction of the judgment against the public official concerned will require the State itself to perform a positive act." When the state litigates. bridges. 102667. public buildings. it is not required to put up Procedure to collect: File your claim with COA COA must act upon it Within 60 days from filing If COA refuses pay. The rule does not apply where the public official is charged in his official capacity for acts that are unlawful and injurious to the rights of others. Feb. from liability arising from acts committed in bad faith. whether jure imperii or jure gestionis IMPLIEDLY By entering into a contract Restrictive Doc. 2189 NCC "LGUs shall be liable for damages for the death of.R.Y EXPRESSL Through a Special law Art. such as appropriation of the amount necessary to pay the damages awarded to the plaintiff. it opens itself to a possible counterclaim Art. 2000. in their personal capacity. streets.

or after the certification by the COMELEC of the Sufficiency of the Petition as the Case may be Lambino vs. 1987 Constitution SECTION 1. upon a vote of three-fourths of all its Members. XVII. (*RA No. or revision of. 3 ’99 days nor later Than 90 days After the approval Of such amendment/revision. votes case in of registered voters of Which at least 3% of Each legislative dist. October 25. Must be represented No amendment shall be authorized oftener than Plebiscite Here it will not Act as a legislanot 60 tive By a majority vote of all its members The plebiscite shall be held earlier than Body but a if calling is submittedonce every 5 years beginning Feb. submit to the electorate the question of calling such a convention. or by a majority vote of all its Members. The second Constituent Body to the people 9 . Comelec. The Congress shall provide for the implementation of the exercise of this right.  Modes of Proposing Amendments or Revision Proposal Thru Con. of which every legislative district must be represented by at least three per centum of the registered voters therein. this Constitution under Section 1 hereof shall be valid when ratified by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite which shall be held not earlier than sixty days nor later than ninety days after the approval of such amendment or revision. Con. SECTION 4. The first mode is through Congress upon three-fourths vote of all its Members. 174153. Amendments to this Constitution may likewise be directly proposed by the people through initiative upon a petition of at least twelve per centum of the total number of registered voters. call a constitutional convention. 6735 is now a valid law for peoples initiative) SECTION 3.3- To RECOVER from him taxes unlawfully assessed or collected AMENDMENTS OR REVISIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION  Art. this Constitution may be proposed by: (1) The Congress. or revision of. or (2) A constitutional convention. 2006 HELD: Article XVII of the Constitution speaks of three modes of amending the Constitution. By a 2/3 vote of all members of Congress Thru People’s initiative By petition of at least By Ratification Thru Congress By a ¾ vote of Majority of All its members a 12% of the total no. Any amendment to. Any amendment under Section 2 hereof shall be valid when ratified by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite which shall be held not earlier than sixty days nor later than ninety days after the certification by the Commission on Elections of the sufficiency of the petition. by a vote of two-thirds of all its Members. The Congress may. Any amendment to. GR No. No amendment under this section shall be authorized within five years following the ratification of this Constitution nor oftener than once every five years thereafter. SECTION 2.

that only Congress or a constitutional convention may propose revisions to the Constitution. and wrote. referring to the third mode. Consequently. (3) The constituent power.Revamp or Rewriting of the entire instrument 10 . Cuenco. While the authority to call a constitutional convention is vested by the present Constitution solely and exclusively in Congress acting as a Constituent Assembly.” In contrast. acting as a Constituent Assembly. Where the intent and language of the Constitution clearly withhold from the people the power to propose revisions to the Constitution. 2 as amended by Res. when acting as a Constituent Assembly pursuant to Art. which authority is expressly recognized in Sec. No. by a three-fourths vote of each House in joint session assembled but voting separately. Section 2 of Article XVII. omits to provide for such implementing details after calling a constitutional convention. this Constitution. they are valid. and wrote. the people cannot propose revisions even as they are empowered to propose amendments.” X x x There can be no mistake about it.  AMENDMENT. The framers of the Constitution intended. number. the power to enact the implementing details. and wrote. 8 of Res. all other powers essential to the effective exercise of the principal power granted. does not exclusively pertain to Congress acting as a Constituent Assembly. Such implementing details are matters within the competence of Congress in the exercise of its comprehensive legislative power. for it is not irremediable as Congress can override the Presidential veto or Congress can reconvene as a Constituent Assembly and adopt a resolution prescribing the required implementing details. which are now contained in Resolutions Nos. or the power to amend or revise the Constitution. 21 SCRA 774 (1967) DOCTRINES: (1) Proposal of amendments is not a political but a justiciable question subject to judicial review. applies only to “Amendments to this Constitution. referring to the first and second modes. XVII). and compensation of the delegates as well as appropriation of funds to meet the expenses for the election of delegates and for the operation of the Constitutional Convention itself. Imbong v. can enact the necessary implementing legislation to fill in the gaps. (2) The choice as to whether to propose amendments or to call a constitutional convention for that purpose or to do both was a question of wisdom and not of authority and hence was a political question not subject to review by the courts. 6132. acting as a legislative body. or revision of. No. This doctrine is reaffirmed in Sanidad v. Congress. 2 and 4 as well as in R. COMELEC. a clear distinction between “amendment” and “revision” of the Constitution. apportionment. XV of the Constitution (now Art. 100 Phil 1101 DOCTRINE: The courts can inquire into whether or not the prescribed procedure for amendment has been observed.mode is through a constitutional convention. as well as all other implementing details indispensable to a fruitful convention. 4. by virtue of the doctrine of necessary implication. The fact that a bill providing for such implementing details may be vetoed by the President is no argument against conceding such power in Congress as a legislative body nor present any difficulty. which power encompasses all matters not expressly or by necessary implication withdrawn or removed by the Constitution from the ambit of legislative action. The framers intended. The third mode is through a people’s initiative. when Congress. No. Gonzales v. (1970) HELD: Congress. The framers intended. 35 SCRA 28. has full and plenary authority to propose Constitutional amendments or to call a convention for the purpose.Isolated or Piecemeal change  REVISION. The grant to Congress as a Constituent Assembly of such plenary authority to call a constitutional convention includes. that a people’s initiative may propose only amendments to the Constitution.A. Section 1 of Article XVII. such as the power to fix the qualifications. is different from the law-making power of Congress Tanada v. COMELEC. And as long as such statutory details do not clash with any specific provision of the Constitution. COMELEC. applies to “[A]ny amendment to.

” A change in the nature of the basic governmental plan also includes changes that “jeopardize the traditional form of government and the system of check and balances. writes: An amendment envisages an alteration of one or a few specific and separable provisions. The abolition alone of the Office of the President as the locus of Executive Power alters the separation of powers and thus constitutes a revision of the Constitution. however. the proposed changes alter substantially the basic plan of government. The guiding original intention of an amendment is to improve specific parts or to add new provisions deemed necessary to meet new conditions or to suppress specific portions that may have become obsolete or that are judged to be dangerous. a leading member of the Constitutional Commission. S. Revision generally affects several provisions of the constitution. Quantitatively. (Emphasis supplied) X x x 11 .” Whether there is an alteration in the structure of government is a proper subject of inquiry. The qualitative test inquires into the qualitative effects of the proposed change in the constitution. or deletes without altering the basic principle involved. for instance a switch from the presidential system to a parliamentary system would be a revision because of its over-all impact on the entire constitutional structure. X x x Revision broadly implies a change that alters a basic principle in the constitution. On the face alone of the Lambino Group’s proposed changes. In revision. the Lambino Group’s initiative is a revision and not merely an amendment. and from a bicameral to a unicameral legislature. So would a switch from a bicameral system to a unicameral system be because of its effect on other important provisions of the Constitution. There is also revision if the change alters the substantial entirety of the constitution. By any legal test and under any jurisdiction.” The court examines only the number of provisions affected and does not consider the degree of the change. it is readily apparent that the changes will radically alter the framework of government as set forth in the Constitution. reduces. A shift from the present BicameralPresidential system to a Unicameral-Parliamentary system is a revision of the Constitution. This alters the separation of powers in the Constitution.Lambino vs. as when the change affects substantial provisions of the constitution. “a change in the nature of [the] basic governmental plan” includes “change in its fundamental framework or the fundamental powers of its Branches. courts have developed a two-part test: the quantitative test and the qualitative test. Thus. The main inquiry is whether the change will “accomplish such far reaching changes in the nature of our basic governmental plan as to amount to a revision. Comelec. 2006 HELD: Courts have long recognized the distinction between an amendment and a revision of a constitution. while amendment generally affects only the specific provision being amended. is beyond doubt a revision. October 25. A change in the structure of government is a revision of the Constitution. as when the three great co-equal branches of government in the present Constitution are reduced into two..J. Likewise. a shift from a Bicameral-Presidential to a Unicameral-Parliamentary system.” Under both the quantitative and qualitative tests. The quantitative test asks whether the proposed change is “so extensive in its provisions as to change directly the ‘substantial entirety’ of the constitution by the deletion or alteration of numerous existing provisions. not a mere amendment. from presidential to parliamentary. or of provisions of the document which have over-all implications for the entire document. In California where the initiative clause allows amendments but not revisions to the constitution just like in our Constitution. the abolition alone of one chamber of Congress alters the system of checks-and-balances within the legislature and constitutes a revision of the Constitution. the Lambino Group’s proposed changes overhaul two articles . like altering the principle of separation of powers or the system of checks-and-balances. the guiding original intention and plan contemplates a re-examination of the entire document. On the other hand. GR No.Article VI on the Legislature and Article VII on the Executive affecting a total of 105 provisions in the entire Constitution. to determine how and to what extent they should be altered. amendment broadly refers to a change that adds. Thus. 174153. involving the abolition of the Office of the President and the abolition of one chamber of Congress. Qualitatively. Father Joaquin Bernas. Merging the legislative and executive branches is a radical change in the structure of government.

These three examples are located at the far green end of the spectrum. each specific change will have to be examined case-by-case. Second. A revision requires harmonizing not only several provisions. a change reducing Filipino ownership of mass media companies from 100 percent to 60 percent is an amendment and not a revision. depending on how it affects other provisions. such as the rights to vote. These essential elements are present only if the full text of the proposed amendments is first shown to the people who express their assent by signing such complete proposal in a petition. constitutions normally authorize deliberative bodies like constituent assemblies or constitutional conventions to undertake revisions. Otherwise. the substitution of the word “republican” with “monarchic” or “theocratic” in Section 1. as an initiative upon a petition. However. A change in a single word of one sentence of the Constitution may be a revision and not an amendment. For example. This means two essential elements must be present. IV. Whether natural-born or naturalized. 174153. the petition must state the fact of such attachment. the people must author and thus sign the entire proposal. 1987 Constitution SECTION 1. although both of them come under the term “person” as protected by the due process and equal protection clauses. Submission for ratification of piecemeal amendments disallowed Lambino vs. a change reducing the voting age from 18 years to 15 years is an amendment and not a revision.Where the proposed change applies only to a specific provision of the Constitution without affecting any other section or article. it is physically impossible. For example. to exploit natural resources. this status confers upon the individual certain prerogatives which may be denied the alien. to operate public utilities. Also. the change may generally be considered an amendment and not a revision. to prove that every one of the millions of signatories had seen the full text of the proposed amendments before signing. which do not have fixed and identifiable deliberative bodies or recorded proceedings. constitutions allow people’s initiatives. First. 2006 HELD: The essence of amendments “directly proposed by the people through initiative upon a petition” is that the entire proposal on its face is a petition by the people. These changes do not also affect the structure of government or the system of checks-and-balances among or within the three branches. an amendment is “directly proposed by the people through initiative upon a petition” only if the people sign on a petition that contains the full text of the proposed amendments. given the time constraint. opposite the far red end where the revision sought by the present petition is located. CITIZENSHIP * Citizenship is membership in a political community with all its concomitant rights and responsibilities. Thus. The changes in these examples do not entail any modification of sections or articles of the Constitution other than the specific provision being amended. GR No. The following are citizens of the Philippines: 12 . as well as how it affects the structure of government. and the underlying ideological basis of the existing Constitution. Article II of the Constitution radically overhauls the entire structure of government and the fundamental ideological basis of the Constitution. to undertake only amendments and not revisions. If so attached.  Art. On the other hand. to administer educational institutions. Similarly. but also the altered principles with those that remain unaltered. the carefully crafted system of checksand-balances. there can be no fixed rule on whether a change is an amendment or a revision. Thus. Since a revision of a constitution affects basic principles. This is an assurance that every one of the several millions of signatories to the petition had seen the full text of the proposed amendments before signing. Comelec. The full text of the proposed amendments may be either written on the face of the petition. or attached to it. Thus. DOCTRINE OF PROPER SUBMISSION > The entire constitution must be submitted for ratification at one plebiscite only. or several provisions of a constitution. a change requiring a college degree as an additional qualification for election to the Presidency is an amendment and not a revision. and to manage the mass media. Thus. the proposal must be embodied in a petition. October 25. No agent or representative can sign on their behalf. the citizen enjoys certain exclusive rights. to run for public office. a deliberative body with recorded proceedings is best suited to undertake a revision.

Application of Res Judicata in citizenship issues Petitioner is correct insofar as the general rule is concerned. an exception to this general rule was recognized. 1973. Thereunder. Citizens of the Philippines who marry aliens shall retain their citizenship. * The principle of Jus Sanguinis does not apply to adopted children. However. SECTION 5. the principle of res judicata generally does not apply in cases hinging on the issue of citizenship.. Application of Res Judicata in citizenship issues] Jus sanguinis principle The Philippine law on citizenship adheres to the principle of jus sanguinis.(1) Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution. COMELEC. SECTION 3. i. and (4) Those who are naturalized in accordance with law. (3) Naturalization – the legal act of adopting an alien and clothing him with the privilege of a native born citizen. the following must be present: 13 . Manzano. Those who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3). As held by this Court in the aforecited case of Aznar. a child follows the nationality or citizenship of the parents regardless of the place of his/her birth. SECTION 4. The application of the herein private respondent for an alien certificate of registration. SECTION 2. as opposed to the doctrine of jus soli which determines nationality or citizenship on the basis of place of birth. to have renounced it. For renunciation to effectively result in the loss of citizenship. an application for an alien certificate of registration does not amount to an express renunciation or repudiation of one’s citizenship. 2000. Aug. THREE METHODS OF ACQUIRING CITIZENSHIP: (1) Jus Sanguinis – Citizenship is conferred by virtue of blood relationship. Republic (51 SCRA 248 [1973]). the fact that a child of Filipino parent/s was born in another country has not been included as a ground for losing one’s Philippine citizenship. as well. (3) Those born before January 17. (2) Jus Soli – Citizenship is conferred by virtue of the place of birth. Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to the national interest and shall be dealt with by law. the same must be express. renunciation of Philippine citizenship. Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law. Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. at the most. Renunciation of Philippine citizenship The mere fact that private respondent Rosalind Ybasco Lopez was a holder of an Australian passport and had an alien certificate of registration are not acts constituting an effective renunciation of citizenship and do not militate against her claim of Filipino citizenship. who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority. were mere acts of assertion of her Australian citizenship before she effectively renounced the same. Section 1 hereof shall be deemed natural-born citizens.e. The Court ruled in that case that in order that the doctrine of res judicata may be applied in cases of citizenship. and her holding of an Australian passport. Thus. En Banc [Purisima] [Jus sanguinis principle. in the case of Burca v. Since private respondent did not lose or renounce her Philippine citizenship. private respondent had dual citizenship – she was an Australian and a Filipino. 337 SCRA 543. of Filipino mothers.  Valles v. 9. (2) Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines. unless by their act or omission they are deemed. Moreover. it applies only to children of natural filiations. under Commonwealth Act 63. under the law. as in the case of Mercado v. petitioner’s claim that respondent must go through the process of repatriation does not hold water.

an American citizen. could qualify a person to being a “natural-born” citizen of the Philippines. The issue was whether the 14 . a Filipino. Poe were a Filipino citizen. Bessie Kelley. his death certificate. four modes of acquiring citizenship naturalization. de Leon(82 Phil. Birth to unmarried parents would make FPJ an illegitimate child. According to petitioner. Documentary evidence adduced by petitioner would tend to indicate that the earliest established direct ascendant of FPJ was his paternal grandfather Lorenzo Pou. COMELEC. Poe. married to Marta Reyes. unmarried. and an American citizen. Jus soli. of the 1987 Constitution expresses: "No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines. Secretary of Labor (1947). Only two. the latter being an illegitimate child. Poe and Paulita Gomez on 05 July 1936. contracted marriage with a certain Paulita Gomez. The certificate of birth of the father of FPJ. would disclose that he was born on 20 August 1939 to Allan F. Pangasinan. is most convincing. i. Vivo. a resident of San Carlos. But if the pronouncement was irrelevant to the lis mota. 771)] and Serra vs. Poe and Bessie Kelley reflected the date of their marriage to be on 16 September 1940. X x x Petitioner would have it that even if Allan F. On the above score. FPJ so followed the citizenship of his mother.e. Poe.1) a person’s citizenship be raised as a material issue in a controversy where said person is a party. a stepson who was the child of a Chinese mother and a Chinese father. identified him to be a Filipino. The birth certificate of FPJ. In the same certificate. Introduced by petitioner was an “uncertified” copy of a supposed certificate of the alleged marriage of Allan F. Vivo(20 SCRA 562). Morano vs. twenty-one years old and married. “First. citing Chiongbian vs. the father of Allan F. res judicata and jus sanguinis – had been in vogue. 2) the Solicitor General or his authorized representative took active part in the resolution thereof. But the documentary evidence introduced by no less than respondent himself. and Bessie Kelley to be twenty-two years old. Allan F. month and year of birth of FPJ appeared to be 20 August 1939 during the regime of the 1935 Constitution.. Bernas. the disquisition made by amicus curiae Joaquin G. 424 SCRA 277 (2004) HELD: Section 2. basing his stand on the ruling of this Court in Morano vs." is defined to include "those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. per Roa vs. SJ. If the pronouncement of the Court on jus sanguinis was on the lis mota. While the record of birth of Lorenzo Pou had not been presented in evidence. With the adoption of the 1935 Constitution and the reversal of Roa in Tan Chong vs. on July 5. jus sanguinis or blood relationship would now become the primary basis of citizenship by birth. Allan F. and 84 years old at the time of his death on 11 September 1954. twenty-four years old. married to Bessie Kelly. at least forty years of age on the day of the election. Lorenzo Pou. prior to his marriage to Bessie Kelley. showed that he was born on 17 May 1915 to an Español father. The case was not about an illegitimate child of a Filipino father. 1936. Poe. however. Republic (91 Phil. Article VII. and a Filipino citizen. making his subsequent marriage to Bessie Kelley bigamous and respondent FPJ an illegitimate child. or on 16 September 1940. Poe and Paulita Gomez could be most doubtful at best. Allan F. and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election. I therefore invite the Court to look closely into these cases. and 3) the finding on citizenship is affirmed by this Court. and a mestiza Español mother. unmarried. the pronouncement would not be a decision but a mere obiter dictum which did not establish doctrine." The date. able to read and write. a registered voter. he could not have transmitted his citizenship to respondent FPJ. jus soli. the pronouncement would be a decision constituting doctrine under the rule of stare decisis. an American citizen. It was about a stepson of a Filipino. Poe was stated to be twenty-five years old. Tecson v. The veracity of the supposed certificate of marriage between Allan F. Marta Reyes." The term "natural-born citizens. he states "We must analyze these cases and ask what the lis mota was in each of them. The marriage certificate of Allan F. jus soli and jus sanguinis. consisting of a birth certificate of respondent and a marriage certificate of his parents showed that FPJ was born on 20 August 1939 to a Filipino father and an American mother who were married to each other a year later. did not last long. Poe. 914). Petitioner contended that as an illegitimate child. Collector of Customs] (1912). Through its history.

x x x But real differences alone do not justify invidious distinction. Leoncio. No one was illegitimate here. Serra vs. The thesis of petitioner. de Leon. “The Court should have stopped there. should indeed fail. There is nothing there about invidious jus sanguinis. xxx xxx xxx "Aside from the fact that such a pronouncement would have no textual foundation in the Constitution. neither was his son Quintin. 15 . Section 1(2) of the 1935 Constitution. Nothing about jus sanguinis there. Providing neither conditions nor distinctions. First. based on a contrary to fact assumption. It was to help the child. x x x It was obiter dictum. it would also violate the equal protection clause of the Constitution not once but twice.” The other amici curiae. Quintin would not be Filipino because Quintin was illegitimate. I would grant that the distinction between legitimate children and illegitimate children rests on real differences. was absolutely unnecessary for the case. But the Supreme Court said that there was no valid proof that Leoncio was in fact the son of a Filipina mother. were Filipino. at bottom. Republic. There is neither justice nor rationality in that. The issue was whether one who was already a Filipino because of his mother who still needed to be naturalized. The stepson did not have the blood of the naturalized stepfather. Mr. it would make an illegitimate distinction between the illegitimate child of a Filipino father and the illegitimate child of a Filipino mother. his father. Paa vs. This statement about Quintin. unfortunately hinging solely on pure obiter dicta. Why deprive the child of the fullness of political rights for no fault of his own? To disqualify an illegitimate child from holding an important public office is to punish him for the indiscretion of his parents. not to prejudice or discriminate against him. and second. It was to ensure a Filipino nationality for the illegitimate child of an alien father in line with the assumption that the mother had custody. This case was not about the illegitimate son of a Filipino father. It was about a legitimate son of a father who had become Filipino by election to public office before the 1935 Constitution pursuant to Article IV. And if there is neither justice nor rationality in the distinction. month and year of birth of respondent FPJ. Justice Vicente Mendoza (a former member of this Court). The Court therefore concluded that Leoncio was not Filipino. Real differences may justify distinction for one purpose but not for another purpose. it would make an illegitimate distinction between a legitimate child and an illegitimate child. The fact of the matter – perhaps the most significant consideration – is that the 1935 Constitution. The case was not about the illegitimate son of a Filipino father. But instead it followed with an obiter dictum. Cayat (68 Phil. The case was about the citizenship of Quintin Chan who was the son of Leoncio Chan. then the distinction transgresses the equal protection clause and must be reprobated. Professor Ruben Balane and Dean Martin Magallona. it did so for the benefit the child. Quintin's father. the fundamental law prevailing on the day. the Constitution states that among the citizens of the Philippines are “those whose fathers are citizens of the Philippines. Vivo. Chan(21 SCRA 753) This is a more complicated case. Quintin therefore argued that he got his citizenship from Leoncio. Quintin therefore was not only not a natural-born Filipino but was not even a Filipino. simply repeating the obiter dictum in Morano vs. The Court said obiter that even if Leoncio.” There utterly is no cogent justification to prescribe conditions or distinctions where there clearly are none provided. It was not the fault of the child that his parents had illicit liaison. Quintin Chan claimed that his father. “Finally. “The doctrine on constitutionally allowable distinctions was established long ago by People vs. would exercise parental authority and had the duty to support her illegitimate child. can never be more explicit than it is. 12). have expressed similar views.stepson followed the naturalization of the stepfather. Serra was an illegitimate child of a Chinese father and a Filipino mother. Chiongbian vs. pure and simple. was the illegitimate son of a Chinese father and a Filipino mother. If Leoncio was not Filipino. “x x x What is the relevance of legitimacy or illegitimacy to elective public service? What possible state interest can there be for disqualifying an illegitimate child from becoming a public officer. Where jurisprudence regarded an illegitimate child as taking after the citizenship of its mother. “Third. “Second.

the child elected Philippine citizenship. would have himself been a Filipino citizen and. That citizenship (of Lorenzo Pou). Lorenzo would have been born sometime in the year 1870. and (2) by naturalization. in the affirmative. Allan F. 63 (An Act Providing for the Ways in Which Philippine Citizenship May Be Lost or Reacquired [1936]).In ascertaining. Commonwealth Act No. Re: Application for Admission to the Philippine Bar. upon reaching the age of majority. could have well been his place of residence before death. 1999. Naturalization and Repatriation] There are two ways of acquiring citizenship: (1) by birth. naturalized citizens are those who have become Filipino citizens through naturalization. depended on whether or not the father of respondent. whether grave abuse of discretion has been committed by the COMELEC. and that San Carlos. which. R. natural-born citizens “are those citizens of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect his Philippine citizenship. whether or not the alleged illegitimacy of respondent prevents him from taking after the Filipino citizenship of his putative father. it is necessary to take on the matter of whether or not respondent FPJ is a natural-born citizen. 161824. the applicant has (1) not left the Philippines. These ways of acquiring citizenship correspond to the two kinds of citizens: the natural-born citizen. xxx Philippine citizenship can never be treated like a commodity that can be claimed when needed and suppressed when convenient. The 1935 Constitution. Effect of Repatriation.A. En Banc [Kapunan] [Failure to elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority] Under Article IV. in turn. Poe.R. and (3) by direct act of Congress. when the Philippines was under Spanish rule. an applicant has to prove that he possesses all the qualifications and none of the disqualifications provided by law to become a Filipino citizen. One who is privileged to elect Philippine citizenship has only an inchoate right to such citizenship. III v. (2) by repatriation. (2) has dedicated himself to a lawful calling or profession. naturalization as a mode for reacquiring Philippine citizenship is governed by Commonwealth Act No. (3) has not been convicted of any offense or violation of government promulgated rules. generally under Commonwealth Act No. Oct. 530 …xxx To be naturalized. G. would thereby extend to his son. 2001. 914. Allan F. confers citizenship to all persons whose fathers are Filipino citizens regardless of whether such children are legitimate or illegitimate. otherwise known as the Revised Naturalization Law. which repealed the former Naturalization Law (Act No. Vicente D. 2927). or (4) committed any act prejudicial to the interest of the nation or contrary to any government announced policies (Section 1. 473. No. he should avail of the right with fervor. father of respondent FPJ. and the naturalized citizen. As defined in the x x x Constitution. Bar Matter No. A person who at the time of his birth is a citizen of a particular country. such that Lorenzo Pou would have benefited from the “en masse Filipinization” that the Philippine Bill had effected in 1902. 63 enumerates the three modes by which Philippine citizenship may be reacquired by a former citizen: (1) by naturalization. is a natural-born citizen thereof. as amended. 1. 142840. Filipino citizens who have lost their citizenship may x x x reacquire the same in the manner provided by law. 530). his place of residence upon his death in 1954. Section 1(3) of the 1935 Constitution. As such. As a mode of initially acquiring Philippine citizenship. The decision granting Philippine citizenship becomes executory only after two (2) years from its promulgation when the court is satisfied that during the intervening period. in the absence of any other evidence. during which regime respondent FPJ has seen first light. xxx The phrase “reasonable time” has been interpreted to mean that the election should be made within three (3) years from reaching the age of majority. the citizenship of a legitimate child born of a Filipino mother and an alien father followed the citizenship of the father. No. Ching. Pangasinan. Poe.” On the other hand. En Banc [Kapunan] [Natural-born Philippine citizenship. 473. Any conclusion on the Filipino citizenship of Lorenzo Pou could only be drawn from the presumption that having died in 1954 at 84 years old. if acquired. in G. unless. On the other hand. …xxx Naturalization is a mode for both acquisition and reacquisition of Philippine citizenship. and by Republic Act No.R. naturalization is governed by Commonwealth Act No. May 7. enthusiasm and promptitude. HRET. 16 . Bengzon.

3Those who marry aliens if by the laws of the latter’s country. persons with mere dual citizenship do not fall under this disqualification.A. which has lapsed into law on October 23. 1995. if by the laws of their father’s country such children are citizens of that country. While dual citizenship is involuntary. the former are considered citizens.Under this law. As distinguished from the lengthy process of naturalization. 473.A. Section 40(d) (Local Government Code) must be understood as referring to “dual allegiance.A. No. Republic. repatriation simply consists of the taking of an oath of allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines and registering said oath in the Local Civil Registry of the place where the person concerned resides or last resided…xxx Moreover. Dual allegiance. a former Filipino citizen who wishes to reacquire Philippine citizenship must possess certain qualifications and none of the disqualifications mentioned in Section 4 of C. refers to a situation in which a person simultaneously owes. is concurrently considered a citizen of both states. by some positive act. 132244. unless. and (5) political and economic necessity (Ibid). 307 SCRA 630. 1. upon the filing of their certificate of candidacy. on the other hand. he will be restored to his former status as a naturalborn Filipino. 1. Such a person. 8171 [1995]). who must. Sept. May 26.” Consequently. An application for repatriation could be filed with the Special Committee on Naturalization chaired by the Solicitor General with the Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs and the Director of the National Intelligence Coordinating Agency as the other members. On the other hand. is an act providing for the repatriation (a) of Filipino women who have lost their Philippine citizenship by marriage to aliens and (b) of natural-born Filipinos who have lost their Philippine citizenship on account of political or economic necessity. by their act or omission they are deemed to have renounced Philippine citizenship. Republic Act No.A. No. 965 [1953]). Repatriation. the phrase “dual citizenship” in R. No. repatriation results in the recovery of the original nationality. Instances when a Philippine citizen may possess dual citizenship: 1Those born of parents whose country adopts the jus sanguinis principle in fereign countries which follows the jus soli principle. PRINCIPLES AND POLICIES OF THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT PREAMBLE 17 . on the other hand. it should suffice if. No. For instance. be subject to strict process with respect to the termination of their status. (2) service in the armed forces of the allied forces in World War II (Section 1. En Banc [Mendoza] [Dual citizenship and dual allegiance] Dual citizenship arises when. loyalty to two or more states. Manzano. (4) marriage of a Filipino woman to an alien (Sec. a person is simultaneously considered a national by the said states. if he was originally a natural-born citizen before he lost his Philippine citizenship. 2Those born in the Philippines of Filipino mothers and an alien father. they elect Philippine citizenship to terminate their status as persons with dual citizenship considering that their condition is the unavoidable consequence of conflicting laws of different states. for candidates with dual citizenship. dual allegiance is the result of an individual’s volition…xxx Hence. such a situation may arise when a person whose parents are citizens of a state which adheres to the principle of jus sanguinis is born in a state which follows the doctrine of jus soli. G. 14. Republic Act No. 8171. ipso facto and without any voluntary act on his part. Unlike those with dual allegiance. x x x. 8171] R. Mercado v. C. Angat v. Republic Act No. (3) service in the Armed Forces of the United States at any other time (Sec. 63).A. 2630 [1960]). This means that a naturalized Filipino who lost his citizenship will be restored to his prior status as a naturalized Filipino citizen. 1999. 1999 [Vitug] [Repatriation under R. 7160.R. as a result of the concurrent application of the different laws of two or more states. may be had under various statutes by those who lost their citizenship due to: (1) desertion of the armed forces (Section 4.

but only through the medium of their duly elected representatives.electing the officials to whom they delegate the right of government. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State.We. supreme over the military. The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy. do ordain and promulgate this Constitution. Sec. Civilian authority is. 1. it is equally the case that they cannot exercise the powers of government directly. scope. and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth. Their participation in government consists of : 1) Suffrage . mergers. and purpose of the constitution. and even abolition of local offices d) Creating metropolitan authorities. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the protector of the people and the State. There is periodic holding of elections. of. "Adopts the generally accepted principles of international law" means the Philippines uses the incorporation theory (Doctrine of Incorporation). imploring the aid of Almighty God. local or national. 4) Recall (Under the Local Government Code. and (2) state the general principles upon which the Constitution is founded. ADHERENCE TO INTERNATIONAL LAW Art. the sovereign Filipino people. in order to build a just and humane society and establish a government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations. CIVILIAN SUPREMACY CLAUSE  Sec. and adheres to the policy of peace. justice. divisions. 3. and peace. freedom. at all times. it is useful as an aid in ascertaining the meaning of ambiguous provisions in the body of the constitution SOVEREIGNTY OF ITS PEOPLE AND REPUBLICANISM Art. Without need of statute. these principles of international law become part of the Philippine body of laws from the municipal point of view. while it is true that the people are the possessors of sovereign power. There is observance of principle of separation of powers and of checks and balances. But it is not a pure democracy. Under this principle. Art. 1987 Constitution SECTION 3. love. Sec. freedom. There is observance of the role that the legislature cannot pass or enact irrepealable laws. as such. Thus.enacting or proposing laws. in a referendum.) Features of Republicanism: 1. conserve and develop our patrimony. the Philippines is a democratic state that is. and e) Creating autonomous regions 3) Initiative and referendum . a government for. equality. 2. (Sets the tone for the succeeding provisions) * Does not confer rights nor impose duties * Not a source of power or right for any department of government * It only sets down the origin. II. cooperation. It is a government of laws and not of men. 3. A preamble has two functions: (1) identify the authors of the Constitution. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the national territory. 2) Plebiscite a) Ratifying the Constitution b) Approving any amendment thereto c) With respect to local matters. equality. approving any changes in boundaries. 2. 4. justice. and amity with all nations. Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them. promote the common good. 18 . and by the people. adopt the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land. II. II.

The supremacy of civilian rule over the military is ensured by. It is noteworthy that the local police forces are the ones in charge of the visibility patrols at all times. 141284. Relief and rescue operations during calamities and disasters. En Banc [Kapunan] The deployment of the Marines does not constitute a breach of the civilian supremacy clause. 31. 6.R. 1999. Aug. Where it is shown that the conferment of an honor or distinction was obtained through fraud. 9. 2000. Inc. Jr. (v) prohibition against the appointment to a civil position. Amateur sports promotion and development. (vii) a 3-year limitation on the tour of duty of the Chief of Staff. Under the LOI. 1993 [Vitug] 19 . of the military. depends on Congressional declaration of emergency. Aug. likewise. Sanitary inspections. 8. Administration of the Philippine National Red Cross. 13. x x x The limited participation of the Marines is evident in the provisions of the LOI itself. as well as (ix) the establishment of a police force that is not only civilian character but also under the local executives. it cannot be properly argued that military authority is supreme over civilian authority. CA. X x x It is worth mentioning that military assistance to civilian authorities in various forms persists in Philippine jurisdiction. v. a university has the right to revoke or withdraw the honor or distinction it has thus conferred. IBP v. the Metro Manila Police Chief is the overall leader of the PNP-Philippine Marines joint visibility patrols. 16. It is. 15. the highest civilian authority. 2. Conduct of census work. their duty to provide the necessary equipment to the Marines and render logistical support to these soldiers. (iii) the professionalization of the service and the strengthening of the patriotism and nationalism. Isabelo. Nov. Perpetual Help College of Rizal. (ii) the requirement that members of the AFP swear to uphold and defend the Constitution. 10. This freedom of a university does not terminate upon the “graduation” of a student. [Mendoza] Academic freedom of institutions of higher learning is a freedom granted to “institutions of higher learning” which is thus given a “wide sphere of authority certainly extending to the choice of students. The calling of the marines in this case constitutes permissible use of military assets for civilian law enforcement. 134625.. which although extendible in case of emergency by the President. 11. 8. No. 4. which is the fundamental law of the civil government. 17. Enforcement of customs laws. the police forces are tasked to brief or orient the soldiers on police patrol procedures. The Philippine experience reveals that it is not averse to requesting the assistance of the military in the implementation and execution of certain traditionally “civil” functions.R. 15. 7. exemplifying the activities that bring both the civilian and the military together in a relationship of cooperation. Elections. Conduct of nationwide tests for elementary and high school students. x x x [S]ome of the multifarious activities wherein military aid has been rendered. G. 5. ACADEMIC FREEDOM UP Board of Regents v. which sufficiently provides the metes and bounds of the Marines' authority. 12. Peace and order policy formulation in local government units. and respect for human rights. G. Zamora. No. 3. (i) the installation of the President. Administration of the Civil Aeronautics Board. so as to avoid propagation of power). 14. as the commander-in-chief of the military. are: 1. for it is precisely the “graduation” of such a student that is in question. so as to avoid any regional clique from forming within the AFP. Conservation of natural resources. it certainly can also determine on whom it can confer the honor and distinction of being its graduates. 227 SCRA 595. Assistance in installation of weather forecasting devices. It is their responsibility to direct and manage the deployment of the Marines. Conduct of licensure examinations. In fact. Composite civilian-military law enforcement activities. (iv) insulation of the AFP from partisan politics.staying of officers). Implementation of the agrarian reform program.” If such institution of higher learning can decide who can and who cannot study in it. (vi) compulsory retirement of officers (no over. Anti-drug enforcement activities. 2nd Div. In view of the foregoing. Development of the culture and the arts. (viii) requirement of professional recruitment. the real authority belonging to the PNP.

212 U. made the following pronouncement: x x x Every presumption is and ought to be taken against the Government in a case like the present. AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Isagani Cruz v.R. of DENR.. PROTECT AND PROMOTE THE RIGHTS OF INDIGENOUS CULTURAL COMMUNITIES/INDIGENOUS PEOPLES. 53 L.. ESTABLISHING IMPLEMENTING MECHANISMS. 6.” but likewise “who may be admitted to study. CREATING A NATIONAL COMMISSION ON INDIGENOUS PEOPLES. Dec. Dec. It might. it will be presumed to have been held in the same way from before the Spanish 20 .A. Secretary of DENR. The rights of ICCs/IPs to their ancestral domains (which also include ancestral lands) by virtue of native title shall be recognized and respected (Section 11. and defines the extent of these lands and domains. 135385. IPRA). when solicited by ICCs/IPs concerned. 8371 AN ACT TO RECOGNIZE. be proper and sufficient to say that when. what may be taught (and) how it shall be taught. These lands are deemed never to have been public lands and are indisputably presumed to have been held that way since before the Spanish Conquest. Ed. stealth or as a consequence of government projects or any other voluntary dealings with government and/or private individuals or corporations. deceit. 6. shall be embodied in a Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title (CADT). It grants these people the ownership and possession of their ancestral domains and ancestral lands. APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR. however. force majeure or displacement by force. 449. 2000. Puno. traditions. No. 2000. Ancestral lands are lands held by the ICCs/IPs under the same conditions as ancestral domains except that these are limited to lands and that these lands are not merely occupied and possessed but are also utilized by the ICCs/IPs under claims of individual or traditional group ownership. G. Insular Government (41 Phil. which shall recognize the title of the concerned ICCs/IPs over the territories identified and delineated…xxx The Regalian theory. as far back as testimony or memory goes. or (2) by torrens title under the Public Land Act and the Land Registration Act with respect to ancestral lands only.S. reversing the decision of the pre-war Philippine Supreme Court. En Banc) Concept of "native title" Native title refers to ICCs/IPs preconquest rights to lands and domains held under a claim of private ownership as far back as memory reaches. does not negate native title to lands held in private ownership since time immemorial. J. 594 [1909]). The rights of the ICCs/IPs to their ancestral domains and ancestral lands may be acquired in two modes: (1) by native title over both ancestral lands and domains. perhaps. 935. the United States Supreme Court. G. in Isagani Cruz v. the land has been held by individuals under a claim of private ownership.The essential freedoms subsumed in the term “academic freedom” encompassing not only “the freedom to determine x x x on academic grounds who may teach. The ownership given is the indigenous concept of ownership under customary law which traces its origin to native title…xxx Within their ancestral domains and ancestral lands. the right to preserve and protect their culture.” SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES’ RIGHTS ACT  R. communally or individually since time immemorial. Sec. except when interrupted by war. continuously until the present. social justice and human rights (Sections 21 to 28). occupied or possessed by ICCs/IPs by themselves or through their ancestors. 135385. et al. [Puno and Kapunan. and the right to develop their own sciences and technologies (Sections 29 to 37)…xxx Ancestral domains are all areas belonging to ICCs/IPs held under a claim of ownership.R. En Banc. the ICCs/IPs are given the right to selfgovernance and empowerment (Sections 13 to 20). (Separate Opinion. Formal recognition. institutions and community intellectual rights. No. No. Separate Opinions] The IPRA recognizes the existence of the indigenous cultural communities or indigenous peoples (ICCs/IPs) as a distinct sector in Philippine society. In the landmark case of Carino v.

Court were binding as precedent in our jurisdiction (Section 10. Art. it refers not only to the natural resources of the Philippines. the State shall give preference to qualified Filipinos. when the national interest dictates. and concessions covering the national economy and patrimony. while this may neither be expressly stated nor contemplated in the bidding rules.. Secretary of DENR. Art. corporations.conquest. or ownership of land by Filipinos by virtue of possession under a claim of ownership since time immemorial and independent of any grant from the Spanish Crown. Manila Prince Hotel v. there is no question that the Filipino will have to be allowed to match the bid of the foreign entity. The State shall regulate and exercise authority over foreign investments within its national jurisdiction and in accordance with its national goals and priorities. or associations qualified to acquire or hold lands of the public domain. and never to have been public land. XII. the State shall give preference to qualified Filipinos. certain areas of investments. privileges and concessions covering the national economy and patrimony. En Banc) THE FILIPINO FIRST POLICY  Sec. no private lands shall be transferred or conveyed except to individuals. No.R. The Congress shall enact measures that will encourage the formation and operation of enterprises whose capital is wholly owned by Filipinos. reserve to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens. 2000. Kapunan. x x x (Carino v. G. When our Constitution mandates that [i]n the grant of rights. In the grant of rights. Insular Government. And if the Filipino matches the bid of a foreign firm the award should go to the Filipino. It must be so if we are to give life and meaning to the Filipino First Policy provision of the 1987 Constitution. at a time when decisions of the U. 8. 1987 Constitution SECTION 7. privileges. 135385. it means just that – qualified Filipinos must be preferred OWNERSHIP/ACQUISITION OF LANDS BY ALIENS  Sec. in Isagani Cruz v. For.S. upon recommendation of the economic and planning agency. J. 1987 Constitution SECTION 10. as the Constitution could have very well used the term natural resources. where we stated that "[a]ll lands that were not acquired from the Government either by purchase or by grant. 267 SCRA 408 [1997][Bellosillo] When the Constitution speaks of national patrimony. and concessions covering the national economy and patrimony. Philippine Bill of 1902). (Separate Opinion. XII. GSIS. Dec.S. XII. or such higher percentage as Congress may prescribe. but [a]n exception to the rule would be any land that should have been in the possession of an occupant and of his predecessors in interest since time immemorial. 890 [1946]). thereby exceeding the bid of a Filipino. Art. 1987 Constitution 21 . Save in cases of hereditary succession. 6. It is per se judicially enforceable. for such possession would justify the presumption that the land had never been part of the public domain or that it had been private property even before the Spanish conquest. but also to the cultural heritage of the Filipinos…xxx Where a foreign firm submits the highest bid in a public bidding concerning the grant of rights. Director of Lands (75 Phil. the constitutional fiat is omnipresent to be simply disregarded. as an exception to the theory of jura regalia…xxx Carino was decided by the U.  Sec. To ignore it would be to sanction a perilous skirting of the basic law…xxx From its very words the provision does not require any legislation to put it in operation. at 941) The above ruling institutionalized the recognition of the existence of native title to land. privileges. The Congress shall. We applied the Carino doctrine in the 1946 case of Oh Cho v. Supreme Court in 1909. supra note 75. 7. belong to the public domain. 10.

The State shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen.” Moreover. II. and." Nature means the created world in its entirety. considers the "rhythm and harmony of nature. Article II). 1987 Constitution SECTION 16. In accordance with the Regalian Doctrine. Such a right. and marketing assistance. Aug. 224 SCRA 792 [1993] [Davide] [the Concept of InterGenerational Responsibility] While the right to a balanced and healthful ecology is to be found under the Declaration of Principles and State Policies and not under the Bill of Rights. What must be borne in mind is the State policy enshrined in the Constitution regarding the duty of the State to protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature (Section 16. their “exploration. Such a right belongs to a different category of rights altogether for it concerns nothing less than selfpreservation and self-perpetuation. develop.SECTION 8. If they are now explicitly mentioned in the fundamental charter. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 7 of this Article. Art. pursuant to the first paragraph of Section 2. 1987 Constitution SECTION 7. and conserve such resources. subject to limitations provided by law. G. to the preferential use of local marine and fishing resources. production. 7. No. XIII. these basic rights need not even be written in the Constitution for they are assumed to exist from the inception of humankind. Their personality to sue in behalf of the succeeding generations can only be based on the concept of intergenerational responsibility insofar as the right to a balanced and healthful ecology is concerned. Oposa v. and other services. Factoran.R. The protection shall extend to offshore fishing grounds of subsistence fishermen against foreign intrusion. the day would not be too far when all else would be lost not only for the present generation. the advancement of which may even be said to predate all governments and constitutions. The State shall also protect. development and conservation x x x imply certain restrictions on whatever right of enjoyment there may be in favor of anyone. thereby highlighting their continuing importance and imposing upon the state a solemn obligation to preserve the first and protect and advance the second. their mandated protection. 21.. Socrates. THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE TO A BALANCED AND HEALTHFUL ECOLOGY  Sec. as hereinafter expounded. especially of local communities. a natural-born citizen of the Philippines who has lost his Philippine citizenship may be a transferee of private lands. Fishworkers shall receive a just share from their labor in the utilization of marine and fishing resources. both inland and offshore. Article XII of the Constitution. it does not follow that it is less important than any of the civil and political rights enumerated in the latter. THE PREFERENTIAL RIGHT OF MARGINAL AND SUBSISTENCE FISHERMEN  Sec. 110249. The right to a balanced and healthful ecology carries with it the correlative duty to refrain from impairing the environment. every generation has a responsibility to the next to preserve that rhythm and harmony for the full enjoyment of a balanced and healthful ecology. it is because of the wellfounded fear of its framers that unless the rights to a balanced and healthful ecology and to health are mandated as state policies by the Constitution itself. 1997) THE RIGHT OF THE STATE TO RECOVER PROPERTIES UNLAWFULLY ACQUIRED BY PUBLIC OFFICIALS OR EMPLOYEES 22 . adequate financial. • The “preferential right” of subsistence or marginal fishermen to the use of marine resources is not absolute. As a matter of fact. (Tano v. Art. marine resources belong to the State. 16. Jr. but also for those to come – generations which stand to inherit nothing but parched earth incapable of sustaining life. development and utilization x x x shall be under the full control and supervision of the State. The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. It shall provide support to such fishermen through appropriate technology and research. Needless to say.

(Chavez v. or estoppel.There are instances under the Constitution when powers are not confined exclusively within one department but are in fact assigned to or shared by several departments. 1998 [Panganiban]) DELEGATION OF POWERS  Potestas delegatas non delegari potest “What has been delegated cannot be further delegated. Presidential Ad Hoc Fact-Finding Committee on Behest Loans. Article XI of the Constitution may be barred by prescription. and not to criminal cases. Jurisdiction. from them or from their nominees or transferees.g. because granting such motion is equivalent to effecting a disposition of the case itself. laches. 1999. for said dismissal is not within its sole power and discretion. the matter of its dismissal or pursuance lies within the full discretion and control of the judge. 9. et. the PCGG. In a criminal case.” From the proceedings of the Constitutional Commission of 1986. 15. STRUCTURE AND POWERS OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT SEPARATION OF POWERS Cruz: Purpose. PCGG. validly bind itself to cause the dismissal of all cases against the Marcos heirs pending before the Sandiganbayan and other courts in a Compromise Agreement entered into between the former and the latter? Held: This is a direct encroachment on judicial power. is not lost despite a resolution. the prosecution of offenses arising from. to withdraw the information or to dismiss the complaint. The prosecution’s motion to withdraw or to dismiss is not the least binding upon the court. 25. shall not be barred by prescription. it was clear that this provision applies only to civil actions for recovery of ill-gotten wealth. the power of appointment. As a result of this blending of powers.-. No. there is some difficulty now in classifying some of them as definitely legislative. even by the justice secretary. 1987 Constitution SECTION 15. the manner in which the prosecution is handled. according to J. Thus. to prevent depotism and to obtain efficiency. Sec. Art. which can rightfully be exercised by each department over its own administrative personnel. The right of the State to recover properties unlawfully acquired by public officials and employees. in what manner it will dispose of the case.” 23 . or estoppel. Well-settled is the doctrine that once a case has been filed before a court of competent jurisdiction. to forestall overaction. the doctrine is intended to secure action. particularly in regard to criminal jurisdiction.R. v. Homes put it vividly when he remarked that "the great ordinances of the Constitution do not establish and divide fields of black and white. through the PCGG. or involving ill-gotten wealth contemplated in Section 15." The powers of government may not at all times be contained with mathematical precision in water-tight compartments because of their ambiguous nature. from them or from their nominees as transferees. On the contrary. once acquired by the trial court. Even the more specific of them are found to terminate in a penumbra shading gradually from one extreme to another. shall not be barred by prescription. As J. cannot guarantee the dismissal of all such criminal cases against the Marcoses pending in the courts. Desierto. Laurel..-The doctrine of separation of powers is intended to prevent a concentration of authority in one person or group of persons that might lead to an irreversible error or abuse in its exercise to the detriment of our republican institutions. based on the evidence proffered. decisional rules require the trial court to make its own evaluation of the merits of the case. Article XI. xxx ISSUE: May the Government. 1987 Constitution provides that “The right of the State to recover properties unlawfully acquired by public officials or employees. Dec. e. but the court decides. however. Oct. executive or judicial. En Banc [Davide] Section 15. G. al. may lie within the sound discretion of the government prosecutor. 299 SCRA 744. 130140. More specifically. relating or incident to. laches. xxx Blending of Powers. as the government prosecutor of ill-gotten wealth cases. Thus. including the matter of whom to present as witnesses. XI.

and 4. to promulgate rules and regulations is a form of delegation of legislative authority x x x. ORDINARY – power to pass ordinary laws • The people. typhoon. DERIVATIVE – that which has been delegated by the sovereign people to legislative bodies (Congress) and is subordinate to the original power of the people also 1. by law. economic crisis. It is valid only if the law (a) is complete in itself. Unless sooner withdrawn by resolution of Congress. (Santiago v. setting forth therein the policy to be executed. VI. Facility in pinpointing responsibility for legislation. ordinary legislative power 24 . Sec. CONSTITUENT – power to amend and revise the constitution 2. an administrative body exercising quasi-judicial functions. exercise constituent power. However. authorize the President. Art. flood or other similar catastrophe or nationwide proportions or effect” 3) The delegation must be for a limited period only 4) The delegation must be subject to Congressional limitations & restrictions 5) The power must be exercised to carry out a national policy declared by Congress Tests of a valid delegation of power : Empowering the COMELEC. through the amendatory process. Allows for a body with a national perspective to check the parochial tendency of representatives elected by district. Constitution (2) In times of war or other national emergency. in every case of permissible delegation. carried out. 1987 Constitution SECTION 23. and (b) fixes a standard – the limits of which are sufficiently determinate and determinable – to which the delegate must conform in the performance of his functions. A sufficient standard is one which defines legislative policy. and 3. It indicates the circumstances under which the legislative command is to be effected. Makes the legislature less susceptible to control by the executive. or implemented by the delegate. Unless sooner withdrawn by resolution of the Congress. or epidemic. pestilence. (2) In times of war or other national emergency. by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses in joint session assembled. marks its limits. ORIGINAL – possessed by the sovereign people 2. shall have the sole power to declare the existence of a state of war. 23. COMELEC. there must be a showing that the delegation itself is valid. 1997) THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT LEGISLATIVE POWER – Authority to make laws and to alter and repeal them Advantages of BICAMERALISM 1. (1) The Congress. through initiative and referendum. maps out its boundaries and specifies the public agency to apply it. Avoidance of duplication Kinds of Legislative power 1. to exercise powers necessary and proper to carry out a declared national policy. Serves as a training ground for national leaders Advantages of UNICAMERALISM 1. Simplicity of organization resulting in economy and efficiency. Conditions for a valid delegation of Emergency Powers to the President: 1) There must be a law 2) There must be a war or other national emergency * “other national emergency” may include rebellion. authorize the President.  Delegation of Emergency Powers to the President Article VI. 23. March 19. Allows a more careful study of legislation. voting separately. 270 SCRA 106. and. to exercise powers necessary and proper to carry out a declared national policy. 2. such powers shall cease upon the next adjournment thereof. such powers shall cease upon the next adjournment thereof. the Congress may. 3. for a limited period and subject to such restrictions as it may prescribe. Sec. the Congress may. for a limited period and subject to such restrictions as it may prescribe. by law. 2.

24 Senators elected at large by qualified voters QUALIFICATIONS Citizenship: Age on the day of election: Education: Registered voter: Residence: election) TERM OF OFFICE . The districts are to be apportioned among the provinces. AND TERM OF OFFICE A. 4) B. cities. 5(3)] 5. even if these are not contiguous). [Sec. regional. [Sec. PROCEDURAL LIMITS – curtail the manner of passing laws Ex. and sectoral parties or organizations.) b) Party-list system of registered national. [Sec. (Art. Each city with a population of at least 250. that is it may legislate on any subject matter. 5(3)] QUALIFICATIONS Citizenship: Age on the day of election: Education: Registered voter: Residence: TERM OF OFFICE . Each province. the power of present and future legislatures must remain plenary Legislative power may be delegated either by a specific constitutional provision or by the immemorial practice of it being delegated to local governments • COMPOSITION.Six (6) years Natural-born citizen 35 Able to read and write In the Philippines 2 years (immediately preceding the • No Senator shall serve for more than 2 consecutive terms. 5(2)] The districts are to be determined according to the following rules: [200 districts or 80%] 1. The apportionment must be based on the number of inhabitants. and Metro Manila. Each legislative district must comprise as far as practicable. compact. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES COMPOSITION Not more than 250 Members (*unless otherwise fixed by law) elected from: a) Legislative districts (80% of the seats shall be allotted to district representatives. and for this purpose. [Sec. regardless of population must have at least one representative. VI. 5 (4)] 3. no voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall be considered for the purpose of interrupting the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected. [Sec. contiguous. A bill must generally be approved by the President before it becomes a law • The power of congress to legislate is PLENARY. [Sec. if district representative 1 year in the district (immediately preceding the election) 25 . Congress may not pass irrepealable laws.3 years Natural-born citizen 25 Able to read and write In the district.Kinds of limits on legislative power 1. SUBSTANTIVE LIMITS – curtail the contents of the law Ex. using a uniform and progressive ratio. based on the standards herein provided (to make it representative and more responsive to the people). SENATE COMPOSITION . Sec. or putting together of areas where a candidate is strong. 5 (3)] 4. and adjacent territory (to avoid gerrymandering.000 must have at least one representative. “ No law may be passed which impairs freedom of speech” 2. Within 3 years following the return of every census. 5(1)] 2. Congress shall make a reapportionment of legislative districts. QUALIFICATIONS.

one intends to return. No. VI. X x x As a general rule. No change of domicile will result if either of these elements is absent.R. A man can have but one domicile for the same purpose at any time. if his intent is to leave as soon as his purpose is established it is residence. 147589. COMELEC. and the residence at the place chosen for the new domicile must be actual. THE PARTY-LIST SYSTEM  The Party-List Law (R. 890). coupled with conduct indicative of such intention. June 26. 310 SCRA 546 (1999) HELD: It is doctrinally settled that the term "residence. community or country. AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR Ang Bagong Bayani – OFW labor Party v. It is thus." which imports not only an intention to reside in a fixed place but also personal presence in that place. namely: (1) that a man must have a residence or domicile somewhere. this Court concluded that the framers of the 1987 Constitution obviously adhered to the definition given to the term residence in election law. No voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall be considered an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected for the purpose of circumventing this 3-term limitation. The essential distinction between residence and domicile in law is that residence involves the intent to leave when the purpose for which the resident has taken up his abode ends. X x x A person’s "domicile" once established is considered to continue and will not be deemed lost until a new one is established. it becomes his domicile. there must basically be animus manendi coupled with animus non revertendi. whether permanent or temporary. for various reasons. one has the intention of returning. (Art. If a person's intent be to remain. pleasure. It is the physical presence of a person in a given area. means the same thing as "domicile.A. A man may have a residence in one place and a domicile in another." X x x In Co vs. in its ordinary conception. "Domicile" denotes a fixed permanent residence to which. nor does the fact of physical presence without intention. Sec. the change of residence must be voluntary. In other words. En Banc [Panganiban] 26 . must concur in order to establish a new domicile. implies the factual relationship of an individual to a certain place. we laid this distinction quite clearly: "There is a difference between domicile and residence. (2) when once established it remains until a new one is acquired. the principal elements of domicile. 248 SCRA 300 (1995) HELD: Residence. To successfully effect a change of domicile one must demonstrate an actual removal or an actual change of domicile. but he may have numerous places of residence. 7) Romualdez-Marcos v. or health. His place of residence is generally his place of domicile. when absent. a person can only have a single domicile. three rules must be borne in mind. 'domicile' denotes a fixed permanent residence to which." as used in the law prescribing the qualifications for suffrage and for elective office. In the consideration of circumstances. In Uytengsu vs. The purpose to remain in or at the domicile of choice must be for an indefinite period of time. COMELEC. Electoral Tribunal of the House of Representatives (199 SCRA 692). Republic (95 Phil. physical presence in the locality involved and intention to adopt it as a domicile. and (3) a man can have but one residence or domicile at a time. "Domicile" is a question of intention and circumstances. However. quite perfectly normal for an individual to have different residences in various places. a bona fide intention of abandoning the former place of residence and establishing a new one and definite acts which correspond with the purpose. unless. Residence is not domicile. but it is not by any means necessarily so since no length of residence without intention of remaining will constitute domicile. No. One may seek a place for purposes such as pleasure. Domino v. or some other reasons. 7941) AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE ELECTION OF PARTY-LIST REPRESENTATIVES THROUGH THE PARTY-LIST SYSTEM.• No Member of the House shall serve for more than 3 consecutive terms. regarding it as having the same meaning as domicile. 2001. COMELEC. but domicile is residence coupled with the intention to remain for an unlimited time. business. G. he successfully abandons his domicile in favor of another domicile of choice. Intention to acquire a domicile without actual residence in the locality does not result in acquisition of domicile. Residence is used to indicate a place of abode. whenever absent for business.

entitled to 1 AS c) If proportion is less than 4% . that is. but active participants in the mainstream of representative democracy. It intends to make the marginalized and the underrepresented not merely passive recipients of the State’s benevolence.the combined number of all party-list congressmen shall not exceed twenty percent of the total membership of the House of Representatives.NOT entitled to AS • Formula for determining AS of other qualified parties Number of votes of party entitled to QS x # of AS of 1st party Total votes cast of 1st Party * Do away with fractional representation • Formula for determining No.HELD: The party-list system is a social justice tool designed not only to give more law to the great masses of our people who have less in life. regional or sectoral party or organization or 27 . one "qualifying" and two additional seats. but also to enable them to become veritable lawmakers themselves. empowered to participate directly in the enactment of laws designed to benefit them. The party-list system seeks to enable certain Filipino citizens – specifically those belonging to marginalized and underrepresented sectors. Formula for determining Additional Seats of 1st party (with highest votes) Number of votes of First Party = Total votes for the Party List System Proportion of votes of FP relative to votes of PLS • • Rules: a) If proportion is greater than 6% . then multiply it to the number of seat to which the latter is entitled. INVIOLABLE PARAMETERS IN PARTY LIST SYSTEM (Republic Act No. b) The ration for each party is computed by dividing its votes by the total votes cast for all the parties participating in the system. including those elected under the party list.the additional seats which a qualified party is entitled to shall be computed "in proportion to their total number of votes. is entitled to a maximum of three seats. organization or coalition for purposes of the party-list system by filing with the COMELEC not later than ninety (90) days before the election a petition verified by its president or secretary stating its desire to participate in the party-list system as a national. of Party List Representatives Number of District Representatives = No.each qualified party. 3) The three seat limit . c) All the parties with at least 2% of the total votes cast for PLS are guaranteed one seat each." Method of Allocating PL Seats a) Rank all the participating parties from the highest to the lowest based on the number of votes they each received.only those garnering a minimum of two percent of the total valid votes cast for the party-list system are "qualified" to have a seat in the House of Representatives. 7941) 1) The twenty percent allocation . (Only these parties shall be considered in the computation of additional seats) Formula: Allocation of Additional Seats: Divide the votes received by a party who is entitled to a Qualifying Seat (QS) by the total number of votes cast in favor of the party who received the highest number of votes cast under the party-list. 4) • Proportional representation . regardless of the number of votes it actually obtained. organizations and parties – to be elected to the House of Representatives. 2) The two percent threshold . of PLR 4 REGISTRATION: Any organized group of persons may register as a party.entitled to 2 AS b) If proportion is between 4% to 6% .

list of officers. peasant. majority of its membership should belong to the marginalized and underrepresented. urban poor. refuse or cancel. after due notice and hearing. QUALIFICATIONS OF PARTY-LIST NOMINEES: No person shall be nominated as party-list representative unless: (1) He is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines (2) A registered voter (3) A resident of the Philippines for a period of not less than one (1) year immediately preceding the day of the election (4) Able to read and write (5) A bona fide member of the party or organization which he seeks to represent for at least ninety (90) days preceding the day of the election (6) At least twenty-five (25) years of age on the day of the election GUIDELINES FOR SCREENING PARTY-LIST PARTICIPANTS: (Ang Bagong Bayani – OFW labor Party v. it has chosen or is likely to choose the interest of such sectors. becomes incapacitated in which case the name of the substitute nominee shall be placed last in the list. Verily. after due notice and hearing. regional or sectoral party. women. indigenous cultural communities. organization or association organized for religious purposes. veterans.a coalition of such parties or organizations. coalition agreement and other relevant information as the COMELEC may require: Provided. from which party-list representatives shall be chosen in case it obtains the required number of votes. overseas workers. (3) It is a foreign party or organization. resolve the petition within fifteen (15) days from the date it was submitted for decision but in no case not later than sixty (60) days before election. organization or coalition on any of the following grounds: (1) It is a religious sect or denomination. (6) It declares untruthful statements in its petition. (5) It violates or fails to comply with laws. (2) It advocates violence or unlawful means to seek its goal. And it must demonstrate that in a conflict of interest. bylaws. whether directly or through any of its officers or members or indirectly through third parties for partisan election purposes. articles of incorporation. or (8) It fails to participate in the last two (2) preceding elections or fails to obtain at least two per centum (2%) of the votes cast under the party-list system in the two (2) preceding elections for the constituency in which it has registered. That the sectors shall include labor. DISQUALIFICATIONS: The COMELEC may. youth. organization or coalition must represent the marginalized and underrepresented groups identified in Section 5 of RA 7941. No change of names or alteration of the order of nominees shall be allowed after the same shall have been submitted to the COMELEC except in cases where the nominee dies. platform of government and track record – that it represents and seeks to uplift marginalized and underrepresented sectors. not less than five (5). (7) It has ceased to exist for at least one (1) year. In other words. (4) It is receiving support from any foreign government. 2) While even major political parties are expressly allowed by RA 7941 and the Constitution to participate in the party-list system. sector. fisherfolk. foundation. and professionals. or withdraws in writing his nomination. handicapped. attaching thereto its constitution. A person may be nominated in one (1) list only. The COMELEC shall. they must comply with the declared statutory policy of enabling “Filipino citizens belonging to marginalized 28 . The COMELEC shall publish the petition in at least two (2) national newspapers of general circulation. The list shall not include any candidate for any elective office or a person who has lost his bid for an elective office in the immediately preceding election. organization or coalition shall submit to the COMELEC not later than forty-five (45) days before the election a list of names. organization. COMELEC) 1) The political party. history. the registration of any national. Incumbent sectoral representatives in the House of Representatives who are nominated in the party-list system shall not be considered resigned. foreign political party. by-laws. it must show – through its constitution. motu proprio or upon verified complaint of any interested party. Only persons who have given their consent in writing may be named in the list. elderly. platform or program of government. rules or regulations relating to elections. NOMINATION OF PARTY LIST REPRESENTATIVES: Each registered party.

the party or organization must be a group of citizens. which disqualifies a party or group for violation of or failure to comply with election laws and regulations. it is the registration of a religious sect as a political party.” Note should be taken of paragraph 5. 7) It has ceased to exist for at least one (1) year. organized by citizens and operated by citizens. that does not comply with this policy must be disqualified. To allow otherwise is to betray the State policy to give genuine representation to the marginalized and underrepresented. 3) In view of the objections directed against the registration of Ang Buhay Hayaang Yumabong. easily conveys the equally simple message that Congress was vested with the broad power to define and prescribe the mechanics of the party-list system of representation. or a project organized or an entity funded or assisted by. the Constitution provides that “religious denominations and sects shall not be registered. but also deleterious to the objective of the law: to enable citizens belonging to marginalized and underrepresented sectors and organization to be elected to the House of Representatives. By the very nature of the party-list system. x x x DOES THE CONSTITUTION REQUIRE ALL SUCH ALLOCATED SEATS TO BE FILLED UP ALL THE TIME AND UNDER ALL CIRCUMSTANCES? The Constitution simply states that “[t]he party-list representatives shall constitute twenty per centum of the total number of representatives including those under the party-list. That is not prohibited here.” Surely.” (Sec. neither can those of the urban poor or the working class. It must be independent of the government. organizations and parties. the nominees must be Filipino citizens “who belong to marginalized and underrepresented sectors. which enumerates the grounds for disqualification as follows: 1) It is a religious sect or denomination. foreign political party. 3) It is a foreign party or organization. they must show. The Constitution 29 . under Section 2 of RA 7941. the nominee must likewise be able to contribute to the formulation and enactment of appropriate legislation that will benefit the nation as a whole. its nominees must likewise do so. the government. while they are not disqualified merely on the ground that they are political parties. however. the interests of the youth cannot be fully represented by a retiree. 8) While lacking a well-defined political constituency. organization or association organized for religious purposes. which is allegedly a religious group. rules or regulations relating to elections.” In other words. These laws include Section 2 of RA 7941. 6) It declares untruthful statements in its petition. 2) It advocates violence or unlawful means to seek its goal. x x x Furthermore. so also must its nominees. the Court notes the express constitutional provision that the religious sector may not be represented in the party-list system. foundation. 5) It violates or fails to comply with laws. 4) It is receiving support from any foreign government.” 4) A party or an organization must not be disqualified under Section 6 of RA 7941. 5) The party or organization must not be an adjunct of. I do not see any prohibition here against a priest running as a candidate. To repeat. x x x 7) Not only the candidate party or organization must represent marginalized and underrepresented sectors. 2 [5]. which states that the party-list system seeks to “enable Filipino citizens belonging to marginalized and underrepresented sectors. Article VI of the Constitution.” We rule that a simple reading of Section 5.” A party or organization.and underrepresented sectors x x x to be elected to the House of Representatives. that they represent the interests of the marginalized and underrepresented. The participation of the government or its officials in the affairs of a partylist candidate is not only illegal and unfair to other parties. 6) The party must not only comply with the requirements of the law. by an industrialist. or 8) It fails to participate in the last two (2) preceding elections or fails to obtain at least two per centum (2%) of the votes cast under the party-list system in the two (2) preceding elections for the constituency in which it had registered. Article IX [C]) The prohibition was explained by a member of the Constitutional Commission in this wise: “[T]he prohibition is on any religious organization registering as a political party. therefore. organization. whether directly or through any of its officers or members or indirectly through third parties for partisan election purposes. organizations and parties x x x to become members of the House of Representatives.

but if a salary is passed in 1988 decreasing the salary of members of Congress. the particular House of Congress must pass either a resolution by the House concerned. there is a deterrent factor to any such measure unless the need for it is clearly felt. X x x Considering the foregoing statutory requirements. VI." (Philconsa v. for practical reasons. Not that the power to provide for higher compensation is lacking.” Furthermore. 18 SCRA 300) Illustration: If a salary law is passed in 1988 increasing the salary of members of Congress. Those garnering more than this percentage could have “additional seats in proportion to their total number of votes. 6645 (December 28. 1987). 9) Funds certified by the COMELEC as necessary to defray the expenses for holding regular and special elections. we will just have to wait for the next regular election. Act No. When the vacancy occurs during the period when special elections are allowed to be conducted (18 or 12 months or more before the next regular election). is to place a "legal bar to the legislators yielding to the natural temptation to increase their salaries. or a certification by the Senate President or the Speaker of the House. COMELEC. through a salary law. therefore. the top twelve senators elected on the 2nd Monday of May. 11) SALARIES While it is Congress. shall be provided in the regular or special appropriations and. Under the law. since the Constitution prohibits only the increase. Effectively. It merely provides a ceiling for party-list seats in Congress. But the Senator or Member of the House thus elected shall serve only for the unexpired portion of the term. and recalls. such law can take effect only after the expiration of the longest term of a Senator. if Congress is not in session. Congress enacted RA 7941. initiatives. 2000.R. even if the term of the Representative who voted for the law is only 3 years. IX-C. It however deemed it necessary to require parties. PARLIAMENTARY IMMUNITIES AND PRIVILEGES  Sec. Mathay. Sec. in these cases.explicitly sets down only the percentage of the total membership in the House of Representatives reserved for party-list representatives. Purpose of the provision -. referenda. (Art. 136781. Article VI of the Constitution is not mandatory. or (ii) less than 1 year before the next regular election in the case of the House. plebiscites. the same law can only take effect for the term that begins at noon of 30 June 1992. Art.The reason for the this rule. 1992 would still be holding office then. the law can take effect right away. the same can take effect not in the term beginning at noon of 30 June 1995. which is six years. (a) declaring the existence of the vacancy and (b) calling for a special election to be held within 45 to 90 days from the date of calling of the special election (that is. the Court said. from the date of the resolution or certification). that determines the salary to be received by its members. Oct. En Banc [Panganiban]) SPECIAL ELECTIONS TO FILL UP VACANCY The law that governs and lays down the details concerning the special congressional elections is Rep. (Veterans Federation Party v. shall be released automatically upon certification by the Chairman of the COMELEC. no winning party. Sec. 11. 6. 1987 Constitution 30 . VI. No. As said earlier. but with the length of time that has to elapse before an increase becomes effective. organization or coalition can have more than three seats in the House of Representatives. Congress declared therein a policy to promote “proportional representation” in the election of party-list representatives in order to enable Filipinos belonging to the marginalized and underrepresented sectors to contribute legislation that would benefit them. it will be shown x x x that Section 5(2). if Congress is in session. In the exercise of its constitutional prerogative. organizations and coalitions participating in the system to obtain at least two percent of the total votes cast for the party-list system in order to be entitled to a party-list seat. the Constitution mandates that no increase in said compensation shall take effect until after the expiration of the full term of all the members of the two houses approving such increase. G. If another salary law is passed in 1993 to increase the salary. (Art. once approved. It can only take effect in 1998. no special election will be called if the vacancy occurs (i) less than 18 months before the next regular election in the case of the Senate.

however. socializing in a private party. punished for disorderly behavior. statements made. the latter two upon concurrence of 2/3 of the membership. It is important to note that this privilege is not absolute. whether the same is in session or not. 3. The members of Congress cannot compel absent members to attend sessions if the reason for the absence is a legitimate one. either in Congress or outside the premises housing its offices. the majority of the • 31 . in all offenses punishable by not more than six years imprisonment. in the official discharge of their duties as members of Congress and of Congressional Committees duly authorized to perform its functions as such. in the case of Osmena v." which means that he may be called to account for his remarks by his own colleagues in Congress itself."Said expression refers to utterances made by Congressmen in the performance of their official functions. the making of reports. so long as Congress is in session. even communicative actions. Pendatun (109 Phil 863). implication or equitable considerations. It follows too that if the crime is punishable by 6 years and 1 day of prision mayor or more. 15) or special (supra). 17 SCRA 876 (1966) HELD: Scope of Parliamentary Freedom of Speech and Debate. even if he is in session in the halls of Congress. and other acts performed by Congressmen. be privileged from arrest while the Congress is in session. It may not be extended by intendment. Speech is not confined to traditional speech but even to the casting of votes. 2000. from possible disciplinary measures that his peers may impose upon him. or sleeping at home). The speech. his speech may constitute disorderly behavior as in Osmena v. Pendatun. No Member shall be questioned nor be held liable in any other place for any speech or debate in the Congress or in any committee thereof." • The provision protects the Member of Congress only from being held liable outside of Congress ("in any other place"). or expulsion. Jalosjos. a debate or discussion. as well as bills introduced in Congress. Nonetheless. The rule provides that the legislator may not be questioned "in any other place. 2) The crime for which the member is to be arrested is punishable by 6 years of imprisonment or less. People v. the President himself who had been vilified by the petitioner could not file any civil or criminal action against him because of this immunity. Cabangbang. • Jimenez v. whether regular (sec. 324 SCRA 689. En Banc [Ynares-Santiago] HELD: The immunity from arrest or detention of Senators and members of the House of Representatives x x x arises from a provision of the Constitution. Feb. must be made "in" Congress in the discharge of legislative duty. It does not matter where the member of Congress may be found (attending the session. The provision granting an exemption as a special privilege cannot be extended beyond the ordinary meaning of its terms. freedom from arrest holds. or votes cast in the halls of Congress. "Punishable" refers to the maximum possible penalty which a penal statute attaches to the offense. while the same is in session. i.-. A Senator or Member of the House of Representatives shall. and any other form of expression.SECTION 11. The confinement of a Congressman charged with a crime punishable by imprisonment of more than six years is not merely authorized by law.. the member can be arrested. it has constitutional foundations. For as mentioned above. suspension for 60 days. FREEDOM FROM ARREST Elements of the privilege: 1) Congress must be in session. The history of the provision shows that the privilege has always been granted in a restrictive sense. it does not protect him from liability "inside" Congress. such as speeches delivered.e. Thus. at the time of the performance of the acts in question. and when warranted. SPEECH AND DEBATE CLAUSE • This privilege protects the member concerned from any libel suit that may be filed against him for a speech made "in" the halls of Congress or in any of its committees. and this may be penalized with censure.

But although he can be prosecuted. because while he is not immune from prosecution. he cannot be arrested nor prosecuted for slander because of the speech clause. The prohibition lies in the "fiduciary" nature of the relationship involved. he cannot be arrested while Congress is in session. 32 . 13. VI. or its subsidiary. if he waives or forfeits his seat. the prohibition is not forever (as in the Jones Law). The court must thus wait for the recess of Congress before it can order his arrest. But he can be punished by his peers for disorderly behavior. a physical assault is not immune. provided that the “agency” consists precisely in assisting the legislator in the performance of “legislative action” (Bernas citing Gravel v. xxx Neither shall he be appointed to any office which may have been created or the emoluments thereof increased during the term for which he was elected. or any subdivision. assuming the penalty does not exceed prision correctional. VI. quasijudicial bodies. he may accept the other post.members of the House of Representatives in which the questioned speech was delivered were not precluded from demonstrating their loyalty to the chief executive by declaring Osmena guilty of disorderly behavior and suspending him in the exercise of their disciplinary power [now Art. it is for the term for which he was elected. Sec. committee on education. or (b) franchise or special privilege granted by. The effect of his resignation from the Congress is the loss of his seat therein but his disqualification for the forbidden office nevertheless remains. 16(3)]. including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. The prohibition is for the duration of his term of office. a governmentowned or controlled corporation. agency. the Electoral Tribunal. Such a member cannot resign in anticipation of the passage of the law creating such office or increasing its emolument as a way of circumventing the prohibition. (ii) Being interested financially in any (a) contract with. NOTE: No forfeiture shall take place if the member of congress holds the other government office in an “ex officio capacity” e. A sensu contrario. he is immune from arrest. or instrumentality thereof. assaults Congressman Y and inflicts physical injuries. agency or instrumentality. in the Senate • FORBIDDEN OFFICES: Art. since the incompatibility arises only because of his simultaneous membership in both.g. of the chairman. VI. (iii) Intervening in any matter before any office of the government for his pecuniary benefit. Illustration: If Congressman X makes an oral abuse against Congressman Y in the halls of Congress. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may hold any other office or employment in the Government. 13. YES. • OTHER PROHIBITIONS: (i) Personally appearing as counsel before any court of justice. the Government. • A FORBIDDEN OFFICE is one to which a member cannot be appointed even if he is willing to give up his seat in Congress. 90 LW 5053) DISQUALIFICATIONS INCOMPATIBLE OFFICES: Art.P. xxx • An INCOMPATIBLE OFFICE is a post which a member cannot accept unless he waives or forfeits his seat in Congress. However. Does the privilege extend to agents of congressmen or senators? A. in the course of heated debate. Q. he can be criminally prosecuted (for direct assault with grave or less grave physical injuries) because although a verbal assault is immune. Sec. and other administrative bodies. (iv) Intervening in any matter where he may be called upon to act on account of his office. membership in the board of regents of U. its subdivision. during his term without forfeiting his seat. Sec. US. But if Congressman X.

" (Art. and have a partner or associate appear for him in court. Guingona. Feliciano. a President. Pertinent to the instant case are Rules I and II thereof. But. for said rules may be waived or disregarded by the legislative body at will. do not have the imprints of permanence and obligatoriness during their effectivity. unlike statutory laws. a member may still sign and file his pleadings. the Constitution vests in each house of Congress the power "to determine the rules of its proceedings. upon the concurrence of a majority. give legal advice. in the absence of constitutional or statutory guidelines or specific rules. by tradition and long practice. legislative rules. such offices. sec. INTERNAL GOVERNMENT OF CONGRESS ELECTION OF OFFICERS • • First order of business . it is." Being merely matters of procedure. this Court is of the opinion that where no specific. it is not within the province of courts to direct Congress how to do its work. The officers of the Senate shall be elected by the majority vote of all its Members. 33 . the Senate formulated and adopted a set of rules to govern its internal affairs. Therefore. In this regard. then the legislature must be given a real and effective opportunity to fashion and promulgate as well as to implement them. the Rules of the Senate do not provide for the positions of majority and minority leaders. however. the practice of law in any court. are actually extant. the method of choosing who will be such other officers is merely a derivative of the exercise of the prerogative conferred by the aforequoted constitutional provision. Paraphrasing the words of Justice Florentino P. modification or waiver at the pleasure of the body adopting them. A majority vote of all the respective members is required to elect these two officers. and such other officers that the rules of each house may provide. dead silent on the manner of selecting the other officers in both chambers of Congress. RULE II ELECTION OF OFFICERS "SEC. Thus.election by each house of the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House. which provide: "Rule I ELECTIVE OFFICERS "SEC. 2. not by this Court. VI. a Secretary. Needless to state.• What the Constitution prohibits in the case of members of Congress who are also members of the bar is their personal appearance before any of these bodies. otherwise. continue as partner. On grounds of respect for the basic concept of separation of powers. the elections shall be by viva voce or by resolution. before the courts may intervene. their observance are of no concern to the courts. courts may not intervene in the internal affairs of the legislature. and a Sergeant-at-Arms. This is not a prohibition against. "These officers shall take their oath of office before entering into the discharge of their duties. they "are subject to revocation. Should there be more than one candidate for the same office. At any rate. the Constitution deems the Houses "organized. such method must be prescribed by the Senate itself." To our mind. All that the Charter says is that "[e]ach House shall choose such other officers as it may deem necessary. In fact. 1. Neither is there an open clause providing specifically for such offices and prescribing the manner of creating them or of choosing the holders thereof." Pursuant thereto. The Senate shall elect. a nominal vote shall be taken. this Court is devoid of any basis upon which to determine the legality of the acts of the Senate relative thereto." Notably. operable norms and standards are shown to exist. 298 SCRA 756 (1998) HELD: While the Constitution is explicit on the manner of electing a Senate President and a House Speaker. in the manner hereinafter provided. 19) • Santiago v. a President Pro Tempore. Upon the election of the President and the Speaker.

" The House may set aside the rules it adopted as it sees fit. And it is certainly within its own jurisdiction and discretion to prescribe the parameters for the exercise of this prerogative. • • JOURNAL AND CONGRESSIONAL RECORDS • The journal is only a resume of minutes of what transpired during a legislative session. Smith. 109 Phil. The penalty may consist of (i) censure. May the SC intervene in the implementation of the rules of either house of Congress? A. or (iii) expulsion. the number of votes needed to pass a bill would correspondingly increase. This is known as the "shifting majority". X x x QUORUM • The quorum required to conduct business is a majority (1/2 + 1) of all the members. 286 US 6) DISCIPLINE OF MEMBERS • Each house may punish it members for "disorderly behaviour. of the Commission on Appointments. i. But as the number of those present increases. But to pass a law. (ii) suspension. If only 13 members are present. there being a quorum. Constitutional respect and a becoming regard for the sovereign acts of a coequal branch prevents this Court from prying into the internal workings of the Senate. Although a member of either house cannot be held accountable in any other place for any speech he make in the Congress or in any committee thereof. or upon a 2/3 vote of all the members of the house. When. The record is the word-for-word transcript of the proceedings taken during the session. a smaller number may adjourn from day to day.. it is a justiciable matter. because these rules are only of a temporary nature. The rules of the Commission on Appointments concerning its internal business could be reviewed by the Courts. the legislative rule affects private rights. To illustrate: 13 members of the Senate are sufficient to constitute a quorum. the courts cannot altogether be excluded (Bernas citing US v. and compel the attendance of the absent (recalcitrant) members by the means of arrest or such other measures and penalties as the House may provide in its rules." What constitutes "disorderly behaviour" is solely within the discretion of the house concerned.e.In view of the foregoing. These rules include the procedure to be followed in "inquiries in aid of legislation. In Avelino v. that is. when a certain construction of such rules would defeat the right of the individual to a public office. without running afoul of constitutional principles that it is bound to protect and uphold — the very duty that justifies the Court's being. Sec. shift. This Court has no authority to interfere and unilaterally intrude into that exclusive realm. • When a quorum cannot be had. Cuenco (83 Phil 17). Congress verily has the power and prerogative to provide for such officers as it may deem. Pacete v. On matters affecting only internal operation of the legislature. Pendatun. 34 . However. only the votes of the majority of those present in the session. not exceeding 60 days. 863 (1960). the legislature’s formulation and implementation of its rules is beyond the reach of the courts. a vote by 7 in favor of a bill is sufficient to pass it. 40 SCRA 58 (1971) • Q. are required. • RULES OF PROCEEDINGS • • Each House or its committees may determine the rules of its proceedings. he can be found guilty of disorderly behaviour by his own peers. so ruled the Court in Osmena v. the ruling then was: The quorum was computed on the number of Senators over whom the Senate has jurisdiction at the time of session.

De Venecia. his objection to a bill when he vetoes it) [Art. Herron v. in United States v. 26(2)]. Aug. 27(1)]. any other matter does not enjoy such conclusiveness. they should be permanent. in the absence of evidence to the contrary. and this "Enrolled Copy of the Bill" bears the certification of the Presiding Officer of the house (either Senate President or Speaker of the House) that this bill as enrolled is the version passed by each house. (d) The yeas and nays on any question at the request of 1/5 of the members present [Art. VI. A record. 16(5) Neither house during the session of the Congress shall. the Constitution speaks of the vote of each member of the House either affirming a favorable or overriding its contrary resolution of the impeachment complaint to be "recorded. to pass the law. Smith. VI. 14.” Journal Entry Rule vs. (c) The yeas and nays on the repassing of a bill vetoed by the President (Art. this Court spoke of the imperatives of public policy for regarding the Journals as “public memorials of the most permanent character. 35 . • SESSIONS REGULAR SESSIONS Art. 3(3). Sec. But aside from these 4 matters. that the statute was passed past the midnight after February 28. but that the members stopped the clock at mid-night..e. The SC rejected this claim. contains the verbatim transcript of all proceedings of the house or its committees. Sundays and legal holidays. VI. 44 Ohio 348 [1886]). however. unless a different date is fixed by law. or at some remote period of time. 729 (1916). XI. xxx Sec. The enrolled copy is then sent to the President for his action. (b) Veto message of the President (i. He contended. 729. on the other hand. 15. 735 [1916]]. The Constitution is silent as to what the record must contain. Pons (34 Phil. However. the Journals have also been accorded conclusive effects. Enrolled Bill Theory • As to matters required by the Constitution to be placed in the journal. VI. Thus. 34 Phil. Sec. VI. 1914.” thus: “They should be public. Matters Required to be Entered in the Journal • The Constitution requires that the following matters be contained in the journal: (a) The yeas and nays on third and final reading of a bill [Art. 1997 [Mendoza] HELD: The Journal is regarded as conclusive with respect to matters that are required by the Constitution to be recorded therein. the journal is conclusive. otherwise proof of legislative action would be uncertain and would now have to depend on the imperfect memory of men. because all are required to conform to them. With respect to other matters. The Congress shall convene once every year on the fourth Monday of July for its regular session. Pons. in this case was prosecuted under a criminal statute. Sec. exclusive of Saturdays. The purpose of the certification is to prevent attempts at smuggling in "riders". without the consent of the other house. ruling that the probative value of the journal could not be questioned. 27(1)]. so the SC ruled in US v. adjourn for more than three days. the last day of session of the legislative body. and shall continue to be in session for such number of days as it may determine. in Art. nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. Sec. Sec. the journal contains the summary of the proceedings. by facts resting only in the memory of individuals. 277 SCRA 268. that rights acquired today upon the faith of what has been declared to be law shall not be destroyed tomorrow. until thirty days before the opening of its next regular session. 16(4)] In addition. Pons.Probative Value of the Journal • The journal is conclusive on the courts as to its contents. the bill is engrossed or enrolled. The Enrolled Bill Doctrine: Once a bill has been approved by both houses. Sec. quoting ex rel." • • • Arroyo v.

who was elected "at large". and Congress has to decide whether to revoke or to extend such proclamation or suspension (majority vote of all members. and the same weight of vote to a representative. > Congress. In the last three cases. 5). 1987 Constitution SECTION 17.• “Place” as here used refers not to the building but to the political unit where the two Houses may be sitting. 18). VII. 10) in which Congress shall convene at 10 a. It would be bad policy to give one vote to a Senator. Sec. Sec. VII. convene. VI. THE ELECTORAL TRIBUNALS  Sec. without need of a call. without need of a call. par. but after the President has disputed this initial declaration. 4. 17. there has been a proclamation of Martial law or a suspension of the writ by the President. JOINT SESSION AND SEPARATE VOTING TAKE PLACE IN THE FOLLOWING INSTANCES: (a) Voting Separately a) When Congress. c) Whenever there is a vacancy in the Office of the VP. without need of call. Art. 4). such person shall assume office upon confirmation by a majority vote of all the members of both Houses. Congress convenes without need of a call. VII. VII. Sec. Sec. has to break the tie between two or more candidates for either position having an equal and the highest number of votes (Art. 18). b) When it decides (by 2/3 vote) on the question of the President's inability to discharge the powers and duties of his office (Art.m. 9). Sec. and qualifications of their respective 36 . 11. XVII. of the third day after the vacancy. (This takes place not when the Cabinet first sends a written declaration about the inability of the President. These are exceptions to the general rule in the 1st case that when Congress is not in session. while acting as the canvasser of votes for the President and VicePresident. VII.) (Art. 1(1)]. e) When it proposes to amend the Constitution (3/4 vote of the members) [Art. within 24 hours following such proclamation or suspension. The reason is obvious: there are only 24 senators. 15) b) To call a special election due to a vacancy in the offices of President and VicePresident (Art. VI. VI. VII. SPECIAL SESSIONS • Special sessions are held in the following instances: a) When the President calls for a special session at any time (Art. d) When it declares (by 2/3 vote) the existence of a state of war [Art. it can only meet in special session call by the President. shall. Sec. returns. The Senate and the House of Representatives shall each have an Electoral Tribunal which shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election. Sec. within 48 hours. par. voting jointly) (Art. while there are at least 250 representatives. when it confirms the nomination of a VP by the President from among the members of Congress. Sec. if not in session. they generally vote separately. voting separately (Art.) > Congress shall convene. • JOINT SESSION • When both houses meet jointly. (b) Voting Jointly • There is one exceptional instance when the two houses meet and vote jointly: When. 23(1)]. d) To revoke or extend the Presidential Proclamation of Martial Law or suspension of the writ of habeas corpus (Art. 11. if it is not in session. c) To decide on the disability of the President because the Cabinet (majority) has "disputed" his assertion that he is able to dispose his duties and powers. Sec. who is either elected only by one legislative district or a partylist. Sec. VII.

Pineda [G. Pimentel v. within constitutionally defined limits. political factors which have nothing to do with the merits of the case. (Bondoc v. in view of the sensitive constitutional functions of the Electoral Tribunals as the "sole judge" of all contests relating to the election. the three justices asked to be relieved from membership in the HRET. party-list representatives must first show to the House that they possess the required numerical strength to be entitled to seats in the HRET and the CA. returns and qualifications of the members of Congress. "disloyalty to party" and "breach of party discipline. Under the doctrine of primary jurisdiction. Section 18. who among their members would occupy the allotted 6 seats of each chamber's respective electoral tribunal. and the remaining six shall be Members of the Senate or the House of Representatives. not including political disloyalty. Under Section 17. Thus. as the case may be. the members-legislators.1991) In said request." are not valid grounds for the expulsion of a member of the tribunal.Members. thereof. To further bolster the independence of the Tribunals. three of whom shall be Justices of the Supreme Court to be designated by the Chief Justice. within constitutionally defined limits. impartiality. permanent disability. prior recourse to the House is necessary before petitioners may bring the instant case to the court. resignation. or removal for valid cause. Hence. However.] 37 .R. even assuming that party-list representatives comprise a sufficient number and have agreed to designate common nominees to the HRET and the CA. petitioners' direct recourse to this Court is premature. Each Electoral Tribunal shall be composed of nine Members. sit in the Tribunal no longer as representatives of their respective political parties but as impartial judges. the term of office of every member thereof should be considered co-extensive with the corresponding legislative term and may not be legally terminated except only by death. Cruz and Feliciano to be relieved as members of the HRET (Res. The SC resolved to direct them to return to their duties in the Tribunal. They therefore suggested that there should be a provision in the Constitution that upon designation to membership in the Electoral Tribunal. Consequently. Otherwise. being subject to the mandatory constitutional rule on proportional representation. the Court may not interfere with the exercise by the House of this constitutionally mandated duty. The senior Justice in the Electoral Tribunal shall be its Chairman. and independence — even independence from the political party to which they belong. 97710. the doctrine of separation of powers calls for each branch of government to be left alone to discharge its duties as it sees fit. September 26. to insure their independence and objectivity as they sit in Tribunal deliberations. were blocking the accomplishment of their constitutionally mandated task. No. under the doctrine of separation of powers. to choose from among its district and party-list representatives those who may occupy the seats allotted to the House in the HRET and the CA. the members of the House Electoral Tribunal must be non-partisan. upon assumption of their duties therein. who shall be chosen on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties and the parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein. According to them. 393 SCRA 227 (2002) HELD: The Constitution expressly grants to the House of Representatives the prerogative. Article VI of the Constitution explicitly confers on the Senate and on the House the authority to elect among their members those who would fill the 12 seats for Senators and 12 seats for House members in the Commission on Appointments. their primary recourse clearly rests with the House of Representatives and not with this Court. 1991. Only if the House fails to comply with the directive of the Constitution on proportional representation of political parties in the HRET and the CA can the party-list representatives seek recourse to this Court under its power of judicial review. each chamber of Congress exercises the power to choose. According to the court. March 19. Article VI of the Constitution. Request of Justices Melencio Herrera. • As judges. absent a clear violation of the Constitution or grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction. Under Sections 17 and 18. The discretion of the House to choose its members to the HRET and the CA is not absolute. Neither can the Court speculate on what action the House may take if party-list representatives are duly nominated for membership in the HRET and the CA. all members of these bodies should be guided only be purely legal considerations in the decision of the cases before them and that in the contemplation of the Constitution. Article VI of the Constitution. those so designated should divest themselves of affiliation with their respective political parties. They must discharge their functions with complete detachment. HRET.

A candidate who has not been proclaimed and who has not taken his oath of office cannot be said to be a member of the House of Representatives subject to Section 17 of Article VI of the Constitution. and qualifications of members of the House of Representatives. Sept. Thus. 18.. although attached to Congress. once a winning candidate has been proclaimed. COMELEC. COMELEC. taken his oath. the Senate and the House of Representatives shall have an Electoral Tribunal which shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election. Sec. • INDEPENDENCE OF THE ELECTORAL TRIBUNALS: Although the Electoral Tribunals are predominantly legislative in membership and the provision creating them is found in Article VI on the Legislative Department. and the HRET's own jurisdiction begins. In Suares v. it is obvious that the HRET at this point has no jurisdiction over the question. (then under the 1935 Constitution) as adjunct of Congress. The electoral tribunal clearly assumes jurisdiction over all contests relative to the election. its refusal to exercise that power following the proclamation and assumption of the position by Fariñas is a recognition of the jurisdictional boundaries separating the COMELEC and the Electoral Tribunal of the House of Representatives (HRET). (Romualdez-Marcos v. returns and qualifications of members of Congress begins only after a candidate has become a member of the House of Representatives. FUNCTIONS (id. and assumed office as a member of the House of Representatives. Chief Accountant. in deference to the HRET's own jurisdiction and functions. the HRET has sole and exclusive jurisdiction over all contests relative to the election. 1995. While the proclamation of a winning candidate in an election is ministerial. returns and qualifications of candidates for either the Senate or the House only when the latter become members of either the Senate or the House of Representatives. Dec. was ruled to be an independent body. B. • Under Section 17 of Article VI of the 1987 Constitution. returns and qualifications of their respective Members. and qualifications ends. Sec. 248 SCRA 300) While the COMELEC is vested with the power to declare valid or invalid a certificate of candidacy. Under Article VI. returns. suffice it to say that HRET's jurisdiction as the sole judge of all contests relating to the elections. ORGANIZATION (Art. returns.A. the SC held that the then Electoral Commission was an independent body. it is not correct to say that they are mere adjuncts of the Congress of the Philippines. because even after the elections the COMELEC is empowered by Section 6 (in relation to Section 7) of R. Thus. 6 of RA. 283 SCRA 520. 336 SCRA 458) • • Libanan v. En Banc [Kapunan]) As to the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal's supposed assumption of jurisdiction over the issue of petitioner's qualifications after the May 8. they are independent of the legislature. Petitioner not being a member of the House of Representatives. Section 17 of the Constitution. 1997 [Vitug] (No appeal from Decisions of the Electoral Tribunal) 38 . the Commission on Audit. (Guerrero v. HRET.P. 881 in conjunction with Sec. VI.STATUS In Angara v. although attached to Congress. COMELEC's jurisdiction over election contests relating to his election. Electoral Commission. and also of the other departments for that matter. COMELEC. and (iii) qualifications of their respective members. the COMELEC's decision to discontinue exercising jurisdiction over the case is justifiable. 248 SCRA 400. in the discharge of their constitutional duties. 6646 allows suspension of proclamation under circumstances mentioned therein. and so the salary of its staffers need not be the same as those of the Senate. petitioner's contention that "after the conduct of the election and (petitioner) has been established the winner of the electoral exercise from the moment of election. 19) The Electoral Tribunal shall be constituted within 30 days after the 2 houses shall have been organized with the election of the President and the Speaker. 22. (ii) returns. the COMELEC is automatically divested of authority to pass upon the question of qualification" finds no basis in law. In fact.(Aquino v. 1995 elections. 17) The Senate and the House of Representatives shall each have an Electoral Tribunal which shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the (i) election. Thus. 6646 to continue to hear and decide questions relating to qualifications of candidates.

429]). October 20. The Commission shall rule by a majority vote of all the Members.” The Court did recognize. 1992. The Commission shall act on all appointments submitted to it within thirty session days of the Congress from their submission. (Guingona v. as ex officio Chairman. returns and qualifications of members of the House of Representatives. Section 18 in effect works as a check on the majority party in the Senate and helps to maintain the balance of power. No party can claim more than what it is entitled to under such rule. upon a clear showing of such arbitrary and improvident use by the Tribunal of its power as constitutes a denial of due process of law. There shall be a Commission on Appointments consisting of the President of the Senate. elected by each House on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein. otherwise. twelve Senators. The power granted to the Electoral Tribunal x x x excludes the exercise of any authority on the part of this Court that would in any wise restrict it or curtail it or even affect the same. No party can claim more than what it is entitled to under such rule. to discharge such powers and functions as are herein conferred upon it. HRET (181 SCRA 780). however. as a rule. 1987 Constitution SECTION 18. Section 18 also assures representation in the CA of any political party who succeeds in electing members to the Senate. Gonzales [G. in the Senate. Art. In Robles v.R. No. its power of judicial review in exceptional cases. SECTION 19. Therefore. respectively. Bocar [66 Phil. a political party must at least have 2 duly elected senators for every seat in the CA. The Commission on Appointments shall meet only while the Congress is in session. VI. To allow it to elect more than its proportional share of members is to confer upon such a party a greater share in the membership in the Commission on Appointments and more power to impose its will on the minority. of course. 18 and 19. 106971. or upon a demonstration of a very clear unmitigated error. The Electoral Tribunals and the Commission on Appointments shall be constituted within thirty days after the Senate and the House of Representatives shall have been organized with the election of the President and the Speaker. manifestly constituting such grave abuse of discretion that there has to be a remedy for such abuse. THE COMMISSION ON APPOINTMENTS  Secs. or with grave abuse of discretion or paraphrasing Morrero (Morrero v. but only “in the exercise of this Court’s so-called extraordinary jurisdiction x x x upon a determination that the Tribunal’s decision or resolution was rendered without or in excess of its jurisdiction. the Court may do so. who by the same token. not be reviewed by this Court.]) 39 . provided that the number of senators so elected enables it to put a representative in the CA. be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election. suffers a diminution of its rightful membership in the Commission. The Chairman of the Commission shall not vote. at the call of its Chairman or a majority of all its Members. it comes in only when it has to vindicate a denial of due process or correct an abuse of discretion so grave or glaring that no less than the Constitution itself calls for remedial action. returns and qualifications of their respective members. the party with a majority representation in the Senate or the House of Representatives can by sheer force of numbers impose its will on the hapless minority. The Court has stressed that “x x x so long as the Constitution grants the HRET the power to be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election. the Court has explained that while the judgments of the Tribunal are beyond judicial interference.The Constitution mandates that the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal and the Senate Electoral Tribunal shall each. any final action taken by the HRET on a matter within its jurisdiction shall. • The provision of Section 18 on proportional representation is mandatory in character and does not leave any discretion to the majority party in the Senate to disobey or disregard the rule on proportional representation. and twelve Members of the House of Representatives. By requiring a proportional representation in the Commission on Appointments.” The Court does not x x x venture into the perilous area of correcting perceived errors of independent branches of the Government. except in case of a tie.

Chairman and members of 3 Constitutional Commissions b. Experience has shown that mere requests for such information are often unavailing. • To enforce this right. Art. The Commission rules by a majority vote of all its members. is a proper subject for investigation. and also that information which is volunteered is not always accurate or complete. being a legitimate subject for legislation. 2006 The power of inquiry HELD: The power of inquiry – with process to enforce it – is an essential and appropriate auxiliary to the legislative function. and consuls 3. or (b) a majority of all its members. Members of the Regional Consultative council SESSIONS AND PROCEDURE (Secs. April 20. v. the Court therein ruled. Other officers whose appointments are vested in him in this Constitution a. GR No. is co-extensive with the power to legislate. VII. and where the legislative body does not itself possess the requisite information – which is not infrequently true – recourse must be had to others who do possess it. But in addition to obtaining facts that may be useful in enacting laws. their amendments and as well as their repeal. X x x 40 . The Senate or the House of Representatives or any of its respective committees may conduct inquiries in aid of legislation in accordance with its duly published rules of procedure. Senate of the Phil. Regular members of the Judicial and Bar Council c. the power of inquiry may be utilized by Congress for the scrutiny of executive action as well as the formation of public opinion. the SC upheld the power of Congress to hold in contempt a person required to appear before Congress or its committee and answer questions relevant to a matter of legislative interest in the Arnault cases. INQUIRY IN AID OF LEGISLATION (LEGISLATIVE INVESTIGATIONS)  Sec. 169777. 1987 Constitution SECTION 21. That this power of inquiry is broad enough to cover officials of the executive branch may be deduced from the same case. Ambassadors. other public ministers. The Commission shall act on all appointments submitted to it within 30 session days of the Congress from their submission. Officers of the Armed Forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain 4. Sec.FUNCTION (Art. • • Legislative investigations are carried out in order to ascertain (a) what new legislation is needed (b) the existing law to be repealed and (c) whether a new legislation is effectively accomplishing its purpose with a view of amending it.to guide and aid Congress in the enactment of laws. 16) • The Commission shall confirm or approve nominations made by the President of certain public officers named by the Constitution or by law: 1. except to break a tie. • The power of Congress to conduct investigations exists for the primary purpose of enabling it to discharge its legislative functions wisely and effectively-. 21. 18 & 19) The Commission on Appointments shall meet to discharge its powers and functions only while the Congress is in session. Heads of the executive departments 2. Each house or any of its committees may conduct "inquiries in aid of legislation" according to its duly published rules of procedures. The rights of persons appearing in or affected by such inquiries shall be respected. The Chairman of the Commission does not vote. It follows that the operation of government. The power of inquiry. so some means of compulsion is essential to obtain what is needed. VI. The matters which may be a proper subject of legislation and those which may be a proper subject of investigation are one. A legislative body cannot legislate wisely or effectively in the absence of information respecting the conditions which the legislation is intended to affect or change. Ermita. The meeting may be called by (a) the Chairman. Congressional investigations have the salutary effect of keeping the public informed of what is happening in their government since congressional investigations are given wide publicity by media.

however. the doctrine of executive privilege was recognized by this Court in Almonte v. wherein a clear pattern of abuse of the legislative power of inquiry might be established. objective. with differing degrees of success. the courts. The privilege is fundamental to the operation of government and inextricably rooted in the separation of powers under the Constitution x x x ” ARNAULT vs. recommendations and deliberations comprising part of a process by which governmental decisions and policies are formulated. These abuses are.” Executive privilege is. In such instances. like the claim of confidentiality of judicial deliberations. Tribe.Legislative Contempt HELD: No person can be punished for contumacy as a witness before either House unless his testimony is required in a matter into which that House has jurisdiction to inquire. the courts.Section 21. there may be exceptional circumstances. attempts by the Executive Branch to forestall these abuses may be accorded judicial sanction. The provision requires that the inquiry be done in accordance with the Senate or House’s duly published rules of procedure. remediable before the courts. It has encompassed claims of varying kinds. added to those values. X x x That a type of information is recognized as privileged does not. the question that must be asked is not only whether the requested information falls within one of the traditional privileges. Even where the inquiry is in aid of legislation. No. Vasquez. July 18. Another variety is the informer’s privilege. for example. or the privilege of the Government not to disclose the identity of persons who furnish information of violations of law to officers charged with the enforcement of that law. a generic privilege for internal deliberations has been said to attach to intragovernmental documents reflecting advisory opinions. Tribe explains. but also whether that privilege should be honored in a given procedural setting In this jurisdiction. Presidents. is the necessity for protection of the public interest in candid.” X x x Executive privilege Schwartz defines executive privilege as “the power of the Government to withhold information from the public. and may be asserted. and even blunt or harsh opinions in Presidential decision-making. Rozell defines it as “the right of the President and high-level executive branch officers to withhold information from Congress. even if they belong to the executive branch. NAZARENO [G. none appearing to obtain at present.R. necessarily implying the constitutional infirmity of an inquiry conducted without duly published rules of procedure. not a clear or unitary concept.” it may be more accurate to speak of executive privileges “since presidential refusals to furnish information may be actuated by any of at least three distinct kinds of considerations. an imposition that obligates Congress to adhere to the guarantees in the Bill of Rights. is the state secrets privilege invoked by U. beginning with Washington. It quoted the following portion of the Nixon decision which explains the basis for the privilege: “The expectation of a President to the confidentiality of his conversations and correspondences. nonetheless. Nonetheless. comments that while it is customary to employ the phrase “executive privilege. necessarily mean that it would be considered privileged in all instances. upon the proper suit filed by the persons affected. Article VI likewise establishes crucial safeguards that proscribe the legislative power of inquiry. and the Congress.S. there are still recognized exemptions to the power of inquiry. and ultimately the public. has all the values to which we accord deference for the privacy of all citizens and. which exemptions fall under the rubric of “executive privilege.] . depending on the particulars of each case. resulting in palpable violations of the rights guaranteed to members of the executive department under the Bill of Rights. A President and those who assist him must be free to explore alternatives in the process of shaping policies and making decisions and to do so in a way many would be unwilling to express except privately. For in determining the validity of a claim of privilege. Finally.” One variety of the privilege. Almonte used the term in reference to the same privilege subject of Nixon. Section 21 also mandates that the rights of persons appearing in or affected by such inquiries be respected. in the context of either judicial or legislative investigations. of course. These are the considerations justifying a presumptive privilege for Presidential communications. on the ground that the information is of such nature that its disclosure would subvert crucial military or diplomatic objectives.” Similarly. in fact. 41 . L-3820. 1950.

sui generis. immunity is granted to those who are compelled to appear. NORECO v. The power attaches not to the discharge of legislative functions per se but to the character of the legislature as one of the three independent and coordinate branches of government. however. The critical element is the existence of. 203 SCRA 767 (1991) HELD: The power of both houses of Congress to conduct inquiries in aid of legislation is not. the investigation must be "in aid of legislation in accordance with its duly published rules of procedure" and that "the rights of persons appearing in or affected by such inquiries shall be respected. must be material or necessary to the exercise of a power in it vested by the Constitution. et al. The same thing cannot be said of local legislative bodies which are creations of law. — There is no sound reason to limit the power of the legislative body to punish for contempt to the end of every session and not to the end of the last session terminating the existence of that body. the Senate may refer to any committee or committees any speech or resolution filed by any Senator which in its judgment requires an appropriate inquiry in aid of legislation. subject of the course to his constitutional privilege against self-incrimination. the Sangguniang Panlungsod of Dumaguete which. and the weight to be ascribed to." It follows then that the rights of persons under the Bill of Rights must be respected. Under Sec. Such inquiries may refer to the implementation or re-examination of any law or in connection with any proposed legislation or the formulation of future legislation. therefore. and local legislative bodies cannot correctly claim to possess it for the same reasons that the national legislature does. In order therefore to ascertain the character or nature of an inquiry. Notable among these rights is the right against "self. such as to legislate or to expel a member. press. X x x The exercise by the legislature of the contempt power is a matter of self-preservation as that branch of the government vested with the legislative power. absolute or unlimited. The contempt power of the legislature is. the rights of the persons (a) appearing in. Bengzon v. Panlunsod of Dumaguete. • • However. As held in Jean L. that of the Senate is not so limited. Thus. the interest of the Congress in demanding disclosures from an unwilling witness. e. Its exercise is circumscribed by the afore-quoted provision of the Constitution. asserts its authority and punishes contempts thereof. Leon Nazareno. therefore. and those that may be exercised by the legislative bodies of local government unit. as provided therein. as mere creatures of law. that every congressional investigation is justified by a public need that overbalances any private rights affected. religion or assembly. including the right to due process and the right not to be compelled to testify against one's self. To do so would be to abdicate the responsibility placed by the Constitution upon the judiciary to insure that the Congress does not unjustifiably encroach upon an individual's right to privacy nor abridge his liberty of speech. Usually. resort must be had to the speech or resolution under which such an inquiry is proposed to be made.Once an inquiry is admitted or established to be within the jurisdiction of a legislative body to make. While the existence of the House of Representatives is limited to four years. possess delegated legislative power. The Senate is a continuing body which does not ceases to exist upon the periodical dissolution of the Congress or of the House of Representatives. Sang. or (b) affected by such inquiries shall be respected.. There is no limit as to time to the Senate's power to punish for contempt in cases where that power may constitutionally be exerted.g.incrimination". AUTHORITY OF EITHER HOUSE OF CONGRESS TO COMMIT A WITNESS FOR CONTEMPT BEYOND PERIOD OF LEGISLATIVE SESSION. They may also extend to any and all matters vested by the Constitution in Congress and/or in the Senate alone. to be within the jurisdiction of the legislative body making it. The materiality of a question that it may be propounded to a witness is determined by its direct relation to the subject of the inquiry and not by its indirect relation to any proposed or possible legislation. 1 of the Senate Rules of Procedure Governing Inquiries in Aid of Legislation. Senate Blue Ribbon Committee. 4 of the aforementioned Rules. The power to conduct formal inquiries or investigations is specifically provided for in Sec. Aznault vs. 155 SCRA 421 (1987) HELD: A line should be drawn between the powers of Congress as the repository of the legislative power under the Constitution. the inquiry. the investigating committee has the power to require a witness to answer any question pertinent to the subject of the inquiry." QUESTION HOUR 42 . We cannot simply assume. independently of the judicial branch.

appear before and be heard by such House on any matter pertaining to their departments. Written questions shall be submitted to the President of the Senate or the Speaker of the House of Representatives at least three days before their scheduled appearance. While the executive branch is a co-equal branch of the legislature. it was compulsory in inquiries in aid of legislation. 2006 HELD: A distinction was thus made between inquiries in aid of legislation and the question hour.Art. This is consistent with the intent discerned from the deliberations of the Constitutional Commission. or upon the request of either House. should not be considered as pertaining to the same power of Congress. PEA that certain information in the possession of the executive may validly be claimed as privileged even against Congress. is essential to protect the independence of 43 . Interpellations shall not be limited to written questions. but may cover matters related thereto. states that Congress may only request their appearance. In fine. When Congress exercises its power of inquiry. and the due respect accorded to a co-equal branch of government which is sanctioned by a long-standing custom. The information does not cover Presidential conversations. They are not exempt by the mere fact that they are department heads. hence. This kind of information cannot be pried open by a co-equal branch of government. it cannot frustrate the power of Congress to legislate by refusing to comply with its demands for information. Ultimately. A frank exchange of exploratory ideas and assessments. the oversight function of Congress may be facilitated by compulsory process only to the extent that it is performed in pursuit of legislation. It is based on her being the highest official of the executive branch. By the same token. Only one executive official may be exempted from this power — the President on whom executive power is vested. Thus. The heads of departments may upon their own initiative with the consent of the President. the appearance is mandatory for the same reasons stated in Arnault. Executive Privilege While there is no Philippine case that directly addresses the issue of whether executive privilege may be invoked against Congress. each member thereof is exempt on the basis not only of separation of powers but also on the fiscal autonomy and the constitutional independence of the judiciary. When the security of the State or the public interest so requires and the President so states in writing. in keeping with the separation of powers. its right to such information is not as imperative as that of the President to whom. 169777. Ermita. while closely related and complementary to each other. free from the glare of publicity and pressure by interested parties. hence. judicial power is vested in a collegial body. When Congress merely seeks to be informed on how department heads are implementing the statutes which it has issued. correspondences. it is gathered from Chavez v. Nonetheless. Section 22. or discussions during closed-door Cabinet meetings which. like internal-deliberations of the Supreme Court and other collegiate courts. VI. In such instances. X x x Sections 21 and 22. the power of Congress to compel the appearance of executive officials under Section 21 and the lack of it under Section 22 find their basis in the principle of separation of powers. such department heads must give a report of their performance as a matter of duty. One specifically relates to the power to conduct inquiries in aid of legislation. April 20. While attendance was meant to be discretionary in the question hour. GR No. Sec. when the inquiry in which Congress requires their appearance is “in aid of legislation” under Section 21. members of the Supreme Court are also exempt from this power of inquiry. therefore. beyond the reach of Congress except through the power of impeachment. while the other pertains to the power to conduct a question hour. Unlike the Presidency. or executive sessions of either house of Congress. the objective of which is to obtain information in pursuit of Congress’ oversight function. as Chief Executive. 22. as the rules of each House shall provide. are recognized as confidential. the appearance shall be conducted in executive session. the aim of which is to elicit information that may be used for legislation. Senate of the Philippines v. the case holds: There is no claim by PEA that the information demanded by petitioner is privileged information rooted in the separation of powers. the only way for department heads to exempt themselves therefrom is by a valid claim of privilege.

464 in relation to Section 2(b) is thus invalid per se. there is. by definition.O. In light of this highly exceptional nature of the privilege. it should be respected. or in those instances where exemption from disclosure is necessary to the discharge of highly important executive responsibilities. Congress is left to speculate as to which among them is being referred to by the executive. Congress must not require the executive to state the reasons for the claim with such particularity as to compel disclosure of the information which the privilege is meant to protect. That the message is couched in terms that. X x x The claim of privilege under Section 3 of E. It threatens to make Congress doubly blind to the question of why the executive branch is not providing it with the information that it has requested. Congress has the right to know why the executive considers the requested information privileged. While Section 2(a) enumerates the types of information that are covered by the privilege under the challenged order. as a matter of necessity. given the circumstances in which it is made. The enumeration is not even intended to be comprehensive. While the validity of claims of privilege must be assessed on a case to case basis. be kept confidential in pursuit of the public interest. It does not suffice to merely declare that the President. cannot be dismissed outright as invalid by the mere fact that it sanctions claims of executive privilege. but a mere statement of what is included in the phrase “confidential or classified information between the President and the public officers covered by this executive order. There is even less reason to 44 . etc. there is no way of determining whether it falls under one of the traditional privileges. the necessity must be of such high degree as to outweigh the public interest in enforcing that obligation in a particular case. 464 is not accompanied by any specific allegation of the basis thereof (e. has determined that it is so. A claim of privilege. and as demonstrated by the letter of respondent Executive Secretary quoted above.decision-making of those tasked to exercise Presidential. it merely invokes E. In other words. She may of course authorize the Executive Secretary to invoke the privilege on her behalf. therefore. and that the President has not overturned that determination. Legislative and Judicial power. This is not the situation in the instant case. in which case the Executive Secretary must state that the authority is “By order of the President.. demands no less than a claim of privilege clearly stating the grounds therefor. moreover. The privilege being an extraordinary power. X x x x x x x x x X x x Executive privilege. It is woefully insufficient for Congress to determine whether the withholding of information is justified under the circumstances of each case. therefore. A useful analogy in determining the requisite degree of particularity would be the privilege against self-incrimination.). be clearly asserted. as already discussed.O. It is not asserted.” Certainly. it must be wielded only by the highest official in the executive hierarchy. being a claim of exemption from an obligation to disclose information. the Court finds it essential to limit to the President the power to invoke the privilege.O. or whether.” which means that he personally consulted with her. 464. the implied claim authorized by Section 3 of E.O. a defect that renders it invalid per se. 464. Upon the other hand.O. Section 3 of E. It is merely implied. In fine. X x x Due respect for a coequal branch of government. Such declaration leaves Congress in the dark on how the requested information could be classified as privileged. The doctrine of executive privilege is thus premised on the fact that certain informations must. an exemption from the obligation to disclose information. Instead of providing precise and certain reasons for the claim. in this case to Congress. coupled with an announcement that the President has not given her consent. is recognized with respect to information the confidential nature of which is crucial to the fulfillment of the unique role and responsibilities of the executive branch. whether the information demanded involves military or diplomatic secrets. or an authorized head of office. examining the ground invoked therefor and the particular circumstances surrounding it. closed-door Cabinet meetings. must. Section 3 and Section 2(b) of E. the President may not authorize her subordinates to exercise such power. 464 must be invalidated. By its very nature. It severely frustrates the power of inquiry of Congress. This Court must look further and assess the claim of privilege authorized by the Order to determine whether it is valid. The privilege being. X x x Absent then a statement of the specific basis of a claim of executive privilege. in an implied claim of privilege. on first impression. do not seem like a claim of privilege only makes it more pernicious.g.

uphold such authorization in the instant case where the authorization is not explicit but by mere silence. 464. it does not follow. the power of Congress to conduct inquiries in aid of legislation is frustrated. just as direct as its violation of the legislature’s power of inquiry. that when an official is being summoned by Congress on a matter which. based on the doctrine of popular sovereignty. For one. Neither does the right to information grant a citizen the power to exact testimony from government officials. it must so assert it and state the reason therefor and why it must be respected. he must be afforded reasonable time to inform the President or the Executive Secretary of the possible need for invoking the privilege. There are. it bears noting. that in every exercise of its power of inquiry. 464 is. therefore. The citizens are thereby denied access to information which they can use in formulating their own opinions on the matter before Congress — opinions which they can then communicate to their representatives and other government officials through the various legal means allowed by their freedom of expression. in the sense explained above. Section 3. based on the divine right of kings and nobles. therefore. That is impermissible. and replace it with a presumption in favor of publicity. after the lapse of that reasonable time. except in a highly qualified sense. while Congress is composed of representatives elected by the people. By the mere expedient of invoking said provisions. and not with the demands of citizens for information pursuant to their right to information on matters of public concern. These powers belong only to Congress and not to an individual citizen. however. The infirm provisions of E. any executive issuance tending to unduly limit disclosures of information in such investigations necessarily deprives the people of information which. Only when the participants in the discussion are aware of the issues and have access to information relating thereto can such bear fruit. allow the executive branch to evade congressional requests for information without need of clearly asserting a right to do so and/or proffering its reasons therefor. Congress is no longer bound to respect the failure of the official to appear before Congress and may then opt to avail of the necessary legal means to compel his appearance. but the right of the people to information. For [w]hat republican theory did accomplish…was to reverse the old presumption in favor of secrecy. is further invalid on this score. in relation to Section 2(b). Yet. This is necessary in order to provide the President or the Executive Secretary with fair opportunity to consider whether the matter indeed calls for a claim of executive privilege.O. X x x Right to Information E. Thus holds Valmonte v. Conclusion Congress undoubtedly has a right to information from the executive branch whenever it is sought in aid of legislation. however. however. Thus. in his own judgment. that what is involved in the present controversy is not merely the legislative power of inquiry. this open dialogue can be effective only to the extent that the citizenry is informed and thus able to formulate its will intelligently.O 464 is concerned only with the demands of Congress for the appearance of executive officials in the hearings conducted by it. If.O. being presumed to be in aid of legislation. clear distinctions between the right of Congress to information which underlies the power of inquiry and the right of the people to information on matters of public concern. The impairment of the right of the people to information as a consequence of E. 45 . To the extent that investigations in aid of legislation are generally conducted in public. the demand of a citizen for the production of documents pursuant to his right to information does not have the same obligatory force as a subpoena duces tecum issued by Congress. is presumed to be a matter of public concern. the people are exercising their right to information. neither the President nor the Executive Secretary invokes the privilege. Petitioners are not amiss in claiming. It follows. might be covered by executive privilege. If the executive branch withholds such information on the ground that it is privileged. Belmonte: It is in the interest of the State that the channels for free political discussion be maintained to the end that the government may perceive and be responsive to the people’s will.

As to who conducts the investigation 22: Entire body 21: Committees c. Sec. shall be transmitted to the Congress. 3(5)] Forum: The House of Representatives shall have the exclusive power to initiate all cases of impeachment. Sec.. Vice-President c. xxx The returns of every election for President and Vice. duly certified by the board of canvassers of each provinces or city. Sec. Sec. ACT AS BOARD OF CANVASSERS FOR PRESIDENTIAL AND VICE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS Art. but we shall have given up something of much greater value – our right as a people to take part in government. the President of the Senate shall. upon determination of the authenticity and due execution thereof in the manner provided by law. Sec. (Art.Resort to any means then by which officials of the executive branch could refuse to divulge information cannot be presumed valid. directed to the President of the Senate. 22) and Legislative Investigation (id. Upon receipt of the certificates of canvass.) a) Culpable violation of the Constitution b) Treason (RPC) c) Bribery (RA 3019) d) Graft and corruption (RA 3019) e) Other high crimes f) Betrayal of public trust Limitation: No impeachment proceedings shall be initiated against the same official more than once within a period of one year. and the Congress. Members of the Constitutional Commissions e. Justices of the Supreme Court d.. 2. As to persons who may appear: 22: Only a department head 21: Any person b. 3(1)] • • • PROCEDURE FOR IMPEACHMENT (Art. 2. XI. we shall not have merely nullified the power of our legislature to inquire into the operations of government. POWER OF IMPEACHMENT • The following are subject to impeachment. XI. 4.) 46 . VII. Question Hour (Art. [Art.e. but in case two or more shall have an equal and highest number of votes (tie). one of them shall forthwith be chosen by the vote of a majority of all the members of Congress. XI. The Congress shall promulgate its rules for the canvassing of the certificates. XI. Sec. XI. Otherwise. Ombudsman Grounds for impeachment (Art. Sec. 21) a.President. As to subject-matter 22: Matters related to the department only 21: Any matter for the purpose of legislation. voting separately. VI. [Art. not later than thirty days after the day of election (w/c is the 2nd Tuesday of June). tally the certificates of canvass) the votes. 3. canvass (i. President b.) a. open all the certificates in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives in joint public session. The persons having the highest number of votes shall be proclaimed elected. Sec.

In other words. There is no need for a Committee report and discussion anymore. This means that the entire process is cut short. the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court shall be the presiding officer.A) Initiation stage 1) If initiated by less than 1/3 [Secs. or to override its contrary resolution. that it should not be sent to lower house votes to proceed with the trial.. and (which. and trial by the Senate shall forthwith proceed. • • • The reason is that the initiation stage does not determine the guilt or innocence of the officer being impeached. with the vote of each member recorded. A vote of at least 1/3 of all the members of the House is needed to "affirm a favorable resolution with the Articles of Impeachment of the Committee. But when it is the President of the Philippines who is on trial. the President of the Senate presides over an impeachment trial. it recommended the dismissal of the complaint). regardless of the number who vote House). b) When sitting for the purpose of trying an impeachment case. it must be referred (by the Speaker) to the proper committee (usually." • If the Committee made a favorable recommendation (i. • B) Trial Stage a) The Articles of Impeachment of the Committee is forwarded to the Senate. 3(4)] • If the verified complaint or resolution of impeachment is filed by at least 1/3 of all the members of the House. including the complaint in the Order of Business. 1/3 of all the members are needed to approve such recommendation. could even be as high as 66% of the entire the Senate for trial. (b) The complaint must be included in the Order of Business within 10 session days upon receipt thereof.. since the end result is that 1/3 of the members of the House have decided to send the case for trial. or (ii) any citizen upon a resolution of endorsement by any member of the House. If the Committee made a contrary recommendation (i.e. but he shall not vote. 1/3 of all the members are needed to disapprove or override this report. the Senators shall be on oath or affirmation. a vote is taken. which has the sole power to try and decide all cases of impeachment. 3(2)-(4)] (a) A verified complaint for impeachment is filed with the House of Representative by: (i) a member of the House of Representatives. and to submit report and its resolution to the House. Sec. 2) If initiated by 1/3 [Art. 47 .e. c) As a general rule. (e) The resolution shall be calendared for consideration and general discussion by the House within 10 session days from receipt thereof. the Committee on Justice and Order). XI. then the regardless of the committee recommendation. so long as 1/3 of the case would be sent to the Senate. (the purpose is to prohibit any delay) (c) Not later than 3 session days after. (f) After the discussion. It merely determines whether there is a prima facie case against the officer that merits a full blown trial in the Senate. (d) The Committee has 60 session days from receipt of the referral to conduct hearings (to see if there is probable cause). to vote by an absolute majority. the same shall constitute the Articles of Impeachment. it recommended that the complaint be sent over to the Senate). for trial.

Must impeachment precede filing of criminal case? In Lecaroz v. Therefore a fiscal or prosecuting officer should forthwith and motu proprio dismiss any charges brought against constitutional officers.) CONSEQUENCES OF IMPEACHMENT [Art. The effect of impeachment is limited to the loss of position and disqualification to hold any office of honor. XI. But a person convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to prosecution. Sec. Sec. trial. (Unlike a law that can be reviewed by the courts because of the existence of constitutional standards. because these are political questions. But there is a fundamental procedural requirement that must be observed before such liability may be determined and enforced. and other penal laws). for the Constitution itself has granted the discretion to this co-equal branch to appreciate the case as presented. trust or profit under the Republic of the Philippines. Acquittal does not only mean the dismissal of the impeachment case. There are exceptions. trial and punishment according to law. In their case. but also a bar from any criminal action on the same offense that may be filed later on. Constitutional officers are not entitled to immunity from liability for possible criminal acts. The remedy of a person with a legitimate grievance is to file impeachment proceedings. the vote of 2/3 of all the members of the Senate (16 Senators) is required. the Constitution proscribes removal from office by any other method. and that if the same does not result in conviction and the official is not thereby removed. XI. particularly those declared to be removable by impeachment. trial. however. the filing of a criminal action in accordance with law may not prosper. The clear implication is. Secs. he remains in office. this judgment cannot be reviewed. to allow a public officer who may be removed solely by impeachment to be charged criminally while holding his office with an offense that carries the penalty of removal from office. In case of conviction • • Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than (i) removal from office and (ii) disqualification to hold any office under RP. If less than 2/3 vote that the officer is guilty. and punishment according to law (RPC. The courts cannot review the judgment on the impeachment case. But it can review the judgment in the criminal case. The party thus convicted may be proceeded against. they may then be held to answer either criminally or administratively for any wrong or misbehavior that may be proven against them in appropriate proceedings. would be violative of the clear mandate of the fundamental law. the effect is acquittal. 3 (7)] Art. but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to prosecution trial. the SC said that the broad power of the Constitution vests the respondent court with jurisdiction over public officers and employees. Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act. because pending the impeachment trial. tried and thereafter punished in accordance with law. 128 SCRA 324. XI. the party convicted in the impeachment proceeding shall nevertheless be liable and subject to prosecution. and punishment. • • • 48 . In case of acquittal • • The President continues in office. like the constitutional officers. They must first be removed from office via the constitutional route of impeachment (Art. 2 and 3). Sandiganbayan. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall be limited to removal from office and disqualification to hold any office of honor. 3 (7) Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than removal from office and disqualification to hold any office under the Republic of the Philippines.d) To carry out a conviction. in accordance with law. trust or profit under the Republic of the Philippines. otherwise. e) The judgment of the Senate (like the judgment of the House on whether to initiate) is a political question that cannot be reviewed by the court (Romulo v Yniguez). and punishment according to law. and ultimately the removal from office and the disqualification. Should they be impeached. but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to prosecution. including those in GOCCs.

VI. To insist that a revenue statute — and not only the bill which initiated the legislative process culminating in the enactment of the law — must substantially be the same as the House bill would be to deny the Senate's power not only to "concur with amendments" but also to " propose amendments. it is not the law — but the revenue bill — which is required by the Constitution to "originate exclusively" in the House of Representatives. the senators. elected as they are from the districts. Sec. because a bill originating in the House may undergo such extensive changes in the Senate that the result may be a rewriting of the whole. A bill increasing the public debt is illustrated by one floating bonds for public subscription redeemable after a certain period. 26[1]. as a result of the Senate action. what the Constitution simply means is that the initiative for filing revenue. De Guzman v. who are elected at large. but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments. Moreover. Art. are expected to approach the same problems from the national perspective. bills of local application. the members of the House can be expected to be more sensitive to the local needs and problems. • • • • • Tolentino v. July 19. All appropriations. En Banc [Purisima] The objectives of Section 26(1). A bill of local application is one involving purely local or municipal matters. No. At this point. tariff. bills authorizing an increase of the public debt. Private bills are illustrated by a bill granting honorary citizenship to a distinguished foreigner. G. ONE-TITLE RULE  Sec. To prevent hodge-podge or log-rolling legislation. that "[e]very bill passed by the Congress shall embrace only one subject which shall be expressed in the title thereof". private bills and bills of local application must come from the House of Representatives on the theory that. 2000. are: 1. • The above-mentioned bills are supposed to be initiated by the House or Representatives because it is more numerous in membership and therefore also more representative of the people. 49 . 1987 Constitution SECTION 26. A revenue bill is one that levies taxes and raises funds for the government. a distinct bill may be produced. The possibility of a third version by the conference committee will be discussed later. revenue or tariff bills. To begin with.THE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS BILLS THAT SHALL ORIGINATE EXCLUSIVELY IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Art. 24. what is important to note is that. (Cruz ) An appropriation bill is one the primary and specific purpose of which is to authorize the release of funds from the public treasury. It is important to emphasize this. bills authorizing increase of the public debt. COMELEC. its members are presumed to be more familiar with the needs of the country in regard to the enactment of the legislation involved. Secretary of Finance. like a charter of a city.R. 129118. Article VI of the 1987 Constitution. while a tariff bill specifies the rates or duties to be imposed on imported articles. or tax bills. and private bills shall originate exclusively in the House of Representatives. VI. Both views are thereby made to bear on the enactment of such laws." It would be to violate the coequality of legislative power of the two houses of Congress and in fact make the House superior to the Senate. 235 SCRA 632 (1994) HELD: Indeed. On the other hand. (1) Every bill passed by the Congress shall embrace only one subject which shall be expressed in the title thereof. THE ONE-SUBJECT.

x x x x The ballot must give the electorate fair notice of the proposed amendment being voted on. Section 26(1) of Article VI of the 1987 Constitution is sufficiently complied with where. In Yute Air Alaska v. Comelec (73 Phil. so long as they are not inconsistent with or foreign to the general subject. (PJA v. and reasonably covers all the provisions of the act. 151 SCRA 208 (1987) • • • Lambino vs." The Constitutional requirement that "every bill shall embrace only one subject which shall be expressed in the title thereof" is sufficiently complied with if the title be comprehensive enough to include the general purpose which a statute seeks to achieve. we cannot permit. To prevent surprise or fraud upon the legislature by means of provisions in bills of which the titles gave no information. Thus. October 25. there is sufficient compliance with the constitutional requirement. Firestone (448 So. in order that they may have opportunity of being heard thereon by petition or otherwise if they shall so desire." (Tobias v.). GR No. Tio v. Prado.2d 1173. either in referring to or indicating one subject where another or different one is really embraced in the act. 2006 HELD: Under American jurisprudence. and may be considered in furtherance of such subject by providing for the method and means of carrying out the general object. may contain any number of provisions. An act having a single general subject. as in this case. x x x x The ballot language in the instant case fails to do that. no matter how diverse they may be.2. The very broadness of the proposal makes it impossible to state what it will affect and effect and violates the requirement that proposed amendments embrace only one subject. the effect of logrolling is to nullify the entire proposition and not only the unrelated subject matter. or in omitting any expression or indication of the real subject or scope of the act. if our judicial responsibility is to mean anything. in Fine v. VRB. 994 (1984). stealth and fraud” in logrolling: 50 . 227 SCRA 703) Moreover. Abalos. or which is misleading. Thus. 1184 ). through such publication of legislative proceedings as is usually made. and is not calculated to mislead the legislature or the people. the title is comprehensive enough to embrace the general objective it seeks to achieve. The requirement is satisfied if all the parts of the statute are related. 174153. It has been held that if the title fairly indicates the general subject.the amendment’s proponents’ simplistic explanation reveals only the tip of the iceberg. To fairly apprise the people. or to be as comprehensive as to cover every single detail of the measure. 288 [1941]). 239 SCRA 106) In any case. the Supreme Court of Alaska warned against “inadvertence.2d 984. the Supreme Court of Florida declared: Combining multiple propositions into one proposal constitutes “logrolling. we ruled that the constitutional requirement as now expressed in Article VI. and if all the parts of the statute are related and germane to the subject matter embodied in the title or so long as the same are not inconsistent with or foreign to the general subject and title. The very broadness of the proposed amendment amounts to logrolling because the electorate cannot know what it is voting on . a liberal construction of the "one title-one subject" rule has been invariably adopted by this court so as not to cripple or impede legislation. • The title of the bill is not required to be an index to the body of the act. and are germane to the subject matter expressed in the title. (Emphasis supplied) Logrolling confuses and even deceives the people. and 3.” which. Comelec." The rule also is that the constitutional requirement as to the title of a bill should not be so narrowly construed as to cripple or impede the power of legislation. It is not necessary that the title express each and every end that the statute wishes to accomplish. It should be given a practical rather than technical construction. It should be sufficient compliance with such requirement if the title expresses the general subject and all the provisions are germane to that general subject. and which might therefore be overlooked and carelessly and unintentionally adopted. in Sumulong v. of the subjects of legislation that are being considered. a title must not be "so uncertain that the average person reading it would not be informed of the purpose of the enactment or put on inquiry as to its contents. indicated in the title. or as long as they are not inconsistent with or foreign to the general subject and title. McAlpine (698 P. Section 26(1) "should be given a practical rather than a technical construction.

Sec. (Emphasis supplied) HOW A BILL BECOMES A LAW Three Readings on separate days: No bill passed by either House shall become a law unless it has passed three readings. while remaining silent on other (more complex or less appealing) provisions. there is no process for amending or splitting the several provisions in an initiative proposal.] As a general rule. when communicating to the public. Then. If the report is unfavorable. or the deliberate intermingling of issues to increase the likelihood of an initiative’s passage. the "unless" clause must be read in relation to the "except" clause. Secretary of Finance. 26(2). discussion and amendments.] The exception is found in Art. Sec. Sec. the Committee returns the same to the body together with its amendments. then a vote is taken right away. all of the problems that the single-subject rule was enacted to prevent are exacerbated. "To the Committee on Local Governments".Whenever a bill becomes law through the initiative process. initiative promoters typically use simplistic advertising to present their initiative to potential petition-signers and eventual voters. [Sec. the Constitution allows the 3-day and printed copy requirement to be dispensed with when the President certifies to the necessity of the immediate enactment of the bill to meet a public calamity or emergency. There is a greater danger of logrolling. Many voters will never read the full text of the initiative before the election. The bill as amended and approved is the "printed in final form" and its copies are. VI. Art. No more amendment is allowed. VI. [Art.] As an exception. When this is through.) After consideration of the bill or resolution.] In this case. the three readings can be done on the same day. 10: When Congress convenes to call a special election to elect the President and Vice-President. the bill is called by its name or title. it is subjected to debate. 235 SCRA 632 (1994) HELD: The presidential certification dispensed with the requirement not only of printing but also that of reading the bill on separate days. The drafters of an initiative operate independently of any structured or supervised process. is read before the body. a motion to close the general debate is made. [Sec. with such amendments as the committee may have proposed. 26(2).. the bill or resolution is read in full before the floor. On "second reading". however. VI". 26(2). unless the body on the whole decides otherwise. etc. These difficulties clearly distinguish the initiative from the legislative process." the title of the bill. x x x Indeed. as a general rule. [Sec. They often emphasize particular provisions of their proposition. (Congress generally works through its committees. and to see if riders have been introduced. Where the report is favorable. § 26(2) qualified the two stated conditions before a bill can become a law: (i) the bill has passed three readings on separate days and (ii) it has been printed in its final form and distributed three days before it is finally approved. distributed to the members at least 3 days before its passage. VII. On the "third and final reading". The phrase "except when the President certifies to the necessity of its immediate enactment. and there is a greater opportunity for “inadvertence. More importantly. then a vote is taken by the membership on whether to pass the bill or not on the basis of the amendments or discussions. the matter shall be laid on the table. In other words. the three readings must be conducted on separate days.] On "first reading. the three readings may be made in less than 3 days without the bill being printed. meaning. Tolentino v. objections or recommendations. the bill is placed on the proper calendar. 2." in Art. The presiding officer then refers the bill to the proper committee e.. "the bill calling such special election shall be deemed certified under par. 26. 26(2). 26(2)] [The purpose of the 3-day requirement is to enable the members to check if the bill reflects the text and amendments approved on second reading. with the "yeas" and "nays" entered in the Journal. without the provisions. because the two are really coordinate clauses of the same sentence.g. To construe the "except" clause 51 . not as one body. therefore. [Sec.. stealth and fraud” in the enactment-by-initiative process.

which is then submitted to the respective chambers for approval. X x X Nor is there any reason for requiring that the Committee's Report in these cases must have undergone three readings in each of the two houses. Tolentino v." the only requirement for which being that the third version be germane to the subject of the House and Senate bills. supra). another conference committee must be appointed. 235 SCRA 632 (1994) HELD: As to the possibility of an entirely new bill emergency out of a Conference Committee. The versions are now altogether different. Note the problem when one house amends a proposal originating in either house by striking out everything following the enacting clause and substituting provisions which make it an entirely new bill. But if it is passed separately. The result is a third version. If that be the case. 17 If the committee can propose an amendment consisting of one or two provisions. the committee comes up with a "Conference Committee Report". this Court recently held that it is within the power of a conference committee to include in its report an entirely new provision that is not found either in the House bill or in the Senate bill. this is called the other house's version of the bill. printing and distribution three days before final approval) would not only violate the rules of grammar. which can amend such bill. requires that it be acted upon by each house on a "take it or leave it" basis. But then again the result would still be a compromise measure that may not be wholly satisfying to both houses. The respective members are usually granted blanket authority to negotiate and reconcile the bills. therefore. collectively considered as an "amendment in the nature of a substitute. composed of equal number of members from the Senate and the House. permitting a conference committee to draft essentially a new bill . There is no problem if the bill is passed jointly. with the only alternative that if it is not approved by both houses. Once the other house approves the bill.as simply dispensing with the second requirement in the "unless" clause (i. Under the Constitution such a law is required to be made within seven days of the convening of Congress in emergency session. which is considered an "amendment in the nature of a substitute. there would be no end to negotiation since each house may seek modifications of the compromise bill. It would also negate the very premise of the "except" clause: the necessity of securing the immediate enactment of a bill which is certified in order to meet a public calamity or emergency. . it has been explained: Under congressional rules of procedure. the time saved would be so negligible as to be of any use in insuring immediate enactment. After all. the bill approved by one house goes to the other house.e. The nature of the bill. A Bicameral Conference Committee is then organized. conference committees are not expected to make any material change in the measure at issue. . Sec. In the latter case. to make recommendations to the respective chambers on how to reconcile the two versions of the bill. of Finance. THE BICAMERAL CONFERENCE COMMITTEE A bill can be passed jointly (when it is a joint session. Indeed. But this is a difficult provision to enforce. either by deleting provisions to which both houses have already agreed or by inserting new provisions. there is no reason why it cannot propose several provisions. its report was not final but needed the approval of both houses of Congress to become valid as an act of the legislative department. At the end of the process. It may well be doubted whether doing away with the necessity of printing and distributing copies of the bill three days before the third reading would insure speedy enactment of a law in the face of an emergency requiring the calling of a special election for President and Vice-President. For if it is only the printing that is dispensed with by presidential certification. it can be passed simultaneously (when a bill is taken up by both houses separately but at the same time. The charge that in this case the Conference Committee acted as a third legislative chamber is thus without any basis.." so long as such amendment is germane to the subject of the bills before the committee. That upon the certification of a bill by the President the requirement of three readings on separate days and of printing and distribution can be dispensed with is supported by the weight of legislative practice. or separately. or sequentially (when a bill originates form one house and goes to the other house). 52 .

56 SCRA 714 [1974]) we “went behind” an enrolled bill and consulted the Journal to determine whether certain provisions of a statute had been approved by the Senate. 1993. and of the President of the United States. § 26(2) must. VI. in our view. therefore. No. carries. it submitted a version (S. En Banc [Cruz] HELD: A conference committee may deal generally with the subject matter or it may be limited to resolving the precise differences between the two houses. and having the official attestations of the Speaker of the House of Representatives. Prado. PJA v. 26(2) of the Constitution that “upon the last reading of a bill. this Court has denied claims that the tenor of a bill was otherwise than as certified by the presiding officers of both Houses of Congress. 277 SCRA 268. It is cited with approval by text writers here and abroad. is well-established. This is symptomatic of the authoritarian power of conference committee. where as here there is no evidence to the contrary. Villegas. (Tolentino v. Under this rule.Art. But occasionally a conference committee produces unexpected results. 710 [1993]) In other cases. Nov. The enrolled bill rule rests on the following considerations: X x x. 11197 was passed in the House after three reading. 14. with the duty of enacting and 53 . respectively. as a matter of fact. Bill No. this Court has refused to determine claims that the three-fourths vote needed to pass a proposed amendment to the Constitution had not been obtained. of the President of the Senate. We cannot say that. Secretary of Finance) It has refused to look into charges that an amendment was made upon the last reading of a bill in violation of Art. 1630) which it had prepared by "taking into consideration" the House bill. x x x To be sure. 1997 [Mendoza] HELD: Under the enrolled bill doctrine. Secretary of Finance) that the enrolled bill embodies a conclusive presumption. The allegation that the Conference Committee usurped the legislative power of Congress is. VI. be construed as referring only to bills introduced for the first time in either house of Congress. Even where the conference committee is not by rule limited in its jurisdiction. Aug. presumably after appropriate study by their members. 1996 are conclusive of its due enactment. no amendment shall be allowed. a solemn assurance by the legislative and executive departments of the government. 7189 by the Speaker of the House and the President of the Senate and the certification by the secretaries of both Houses of Congress that it was passed on November 21. The enrolled bill doctrine. As the President has no authority to approve a bill not passed by Congress. 227 SCRA 703. as a rule of evidence. results beyond its mandate. These excursions occur even where the rules impose strict limitations on conference committee jurisdiction. because “a duly authenticated bill or resolution imports absolute verity and is binding on the courts. legislative custom severely limits the freedom with which new subject matter can be inserted into the conference bill. Arroyo v. that the Conference Committee Report was thereafter approved by the House and the Senate. the signing of H. that for its part the Conference Committee consolidated the two bills and prepared a compromise version.” x x x This Court has refused to even look into allegations that the enrolled bill sent to the President contained provisions which had been “surreptitiously” inserted in the conference committee x x x. 11. In one case (Astorga v. that although the Senate committee did not report out the House bill. THE ENROLLED BILL DOCTRINE Engrossment or Enrollment of the Bill Once the bill is approved by both houses. 227 SCRA 703. this Court will respect the certification of the presiding officers of both Houses that a bill has been duly passed. But. without warrant in fact and in law.” (Philippine Judges Ass’n v. No. it cannot be gainsaid that H. not to the conference committee report. Sec. on its face. charged. De Venecia. The Enrolled copy of the Bill bears the certification by the presiding officers (Senate President and Speaker of the House) that this enrolled copy is the version passed by each house. the bill is engrossed or enrolled. the members of Congress were not fully informed of the provisions of the bill. Prado. For if the purpose of requiring three readings is to give members of Congress time to study bills. that in the Senate it was considered on first reading and then referred to a committee of that body. there is no claim either here or in the decision in the EVAT cases (Tolentino v. an enrolled Act in the custody of the Secretary of State.

if the US Congress is in session. there is no such provision. so authenticated. Thus. Generally. 27. What is a pocket veto? Compare with Art. failure by the President to act will not result in the veto of the bill. he shall veto it and return the same with his objections to the House where it originated. 2) When the vote of the President is overridden by 2/3 vote of all the members of both houses. 7 of US Constitution: Art. for he may have an interest in the question.S. Only he needs to communicate the veto to Congress without need of returning the vetoed bill with his veto message. to the other House by which it shall likewise be reconsidered. v. 303 [1891]) THE APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND PRESIDENTIAL VETO • The bill as approved by Congress and certified by its presiding officers is then presented to the President. 294. (Marshall Field & Co. Sec. Art. In the Philippines. before it becomes a law. it shall become a law. to the House where it originated. 7.] But there are 2 cases when a bill becomes a law without the signature of the President: 1) When the veto of the President is overridden by 2/3 vote of all the members of both houses. together with the objections. he shall sign it. unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return in which case it shall not be a law. I. which message shall be entered in the Journal within 30 days after receipt [Sec. leaving the court to determine. there is no "pocket veto" in the • • • A pocket veto. (1) Every bill passed by the Congress shall. and 2) When the bill is one calling a special election for President and Vice-President under Art. which shall enter the objections at large in its Journal and proceed to reconsider it.-Philippines.  Sec. otherwise. within 30 days after the date of receipt. The respect due to coequal and independent departments requires the judicial department to act upon that assurance. two-thirds of all the Members of such House shall agree to pass the bill. VI. Clark. (The United States Constitution. 1987 Constitution SECTION 27. be presented to the President. together with his "veto message" (explaining his objections to the bill. is in conformity with the Constitution. If Congress is not in session. VII. as having passed Congress. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him. and to accept.) In this regard. Here the bill becomes law upon 3rd and final reading.There is only one way for the President to veto a bill: By disapproving it. in like manner as if he had signed it. (1) failure to act on the bill and (2) the reason he does not return the bill to Congress is that Congress is not in session. all bills authenticated in the manner stated. If he approves the same. In all such cases. Ed. 672. there are 3 ways for the bill to become a law: 1) When it is approved by the President. 10. 3) Upon failure of the President to veto the bill and to return it with his objections. and if approved by two-thirds of all the Members of that House. If. as in the US requires two concurring elements. whether the Act. after such reconsideration. Sec. [Sec. I. Inaction by the President for 30 days never produced a veto. Sec. • • Veto Power of the President • Message Veto versus Pocket Veto. 143 U. 649. and returning it to the house where the bill originated. The Acting President is not required to sign. when the question properly arises. 36 L. the same shall be a law. the votes of each House • 54 .-.executing the laws. 27(1). the President must still act in order to veto the bill. 27(1)] No "pocket veto" in the Philippines. it shall be sent. that it was passed by Congress.

the Administration needs the money to run the machinery of govt. revenue and tariff bills. any particular item or items of which may be disapproved without affecting the item or items to which he does not object. The exception applies to appropriation. Drilon. Macaraig [G. revenue. There is no specific appropriation of money involved. The augmentation of specific appropriations found inadequate to pay retirement payments. It is an indivisible sum of money dedicated to a stated purpose. Secondly. as a general rule. No. the distinct and severable parts of the bill. The President shall communicate his veto of any bill to the House where it originated within thirty days after the date of receipt thereof.] HELD: Paragraph (1) refers to the general veto power of the President and if exercised would result in the veto of the entire bill. It gives the SC Chief Justice the power to transfer funds from one item to another. which happens to be put into an appropriation bill. An item in a bill refers to the particulars. In this case. 1992. As specified. Consequently. Secretary of Justice declared "that an 'item' of an appropriation bill obviously means an item which in itself is a specific appropriation of money." are actually inappropriate provisions that should be treated as items for the purpose of the President's veto power. April 15. Paragraph (2) is what is referred to as the item-veto power or the line-veto power.R. Explicit is the requirement that a provision in the Appropriations Bill should relate specifically to some " particular appropriation" therein. by transferring savings from other items of appropriations is a provision and not an item. An item obviously means an item which in itself is a specific appropriation of money. the President may not veto less than all of an item of an Appropriations Bill. The Executive must veto a bill in its entirety or not at all. the details. 1990. En Banc [Gutierrez] HELD: The veto power of the President is not absolute. the details. and the names of the Members voting for or against shall be entered in its Journal. the vetoed "provisions" do not relate to any particular or distinctive appropriation. November 19. The power to disapprove any item or items in an appropriate bill does not grant the authority to veto a part of an item and to approve the remaining portion of the same item. This is the reason for the item veto power. (2) The President shall have the power to veto any particular item or items in an appropriation. The terms "item" and "provision" are different. otherwise. the vetoed portions are not items but are provisions. The Constitution provides that only a particular item or items may be vetoed.shall be determined by yeas or nays. revenue or tariff bills." Bengzon v. 87636. 55 . or tariff bill. revenue. it shall become a law as if he had signed it. They apply generally to all items disapproved or reduced by Congress in the Appropriations Bill. the power given the executive to disapprove any item or items in an Appropriations Bill does not grant the authority to veto a part of an item and to approve the remaining portion of the same item. and not some general provision of law. indicating his objections thereto in what is commonly known as a "veto message" so that the same can be studied by the members for possible overriding of his veto. In other words. The challenged "provisions" fall short of this requirement. 208 SCRA 133. Is partial veto allowed under the Constitution? The general rule is that the President must approve entirely or disapprove in toto. In this case. the distinct and severable parts of the bill. the President did not veto an item. Firstly. and it can not veto the entire bill even if it may contain objectionable features. the disapproved or reduced items are nowhere to be found on the face of the Bill. She vetoed the methods or systems placed by Congress to insure that permanent and continuing obligations to certain officials will be paid when they fall due. he should return the measure to the House of origin. Section 55 (FY '89) and Section 16 (FY '90) although labelled as "provisions. It is an indivisible sum of money dedicated to a stated purpose The United States Supreme Court. An item refers to the particulars. • Gonzales v. not some general provision of law. However when it comes to appropriation. in the case of Bengzon v. or tariff bill. but the veto shall not affect the item or items to which he does not object. It allows the exercise of the veto over a particular item or items in an appropriation. • Veto Message: When the President vetoes a measure.

to the other house by which it shall likewise be reconsidered." Overriding the Veto • Upon consideration of the objections raised by the President in his veto message. The legislature cannot by location of a bill give it immunity from executive veto. such provisions must be treated as 'items' for purposes of the Governor's item veto power over general appropriation bills. . 161. cannot be abridged by the careful placement of such measures in a general appropriation bill. when the legislature inserts inappropriate provisions in a general appropriation bill. . commented that Congress cannot by law establish conditions for and regulate the exercise of powers of the President given by the Constitution for that would be an unconstitutional intrusion into executive prerogative. or which extends in its operation beyond an item of appropriation. To construe the word "item" as referring to the whole section would tie the President's hand in choosing either to approve the whole section at the expense of also approving a provision therein which he deems unacceptable or veto the entire section at the expense of foregoing the collection of the kind of tax altogether. is considered "an inappropriate provision" which can be vetoed separately from an item. Elkin v. it shall be sent together with the objections of the President. Also to be included in the category of "inappropriate provisions" are unconstitutional provisions and provisions which are intended to amend other laws. Enriquez. Nor can it circumvent the Governor's veto power over substantive legislation by artfully drafting general law measures so that they appear to be true conditions or limitations on an item of appropriation. These are matters of general legislation more appropriately dealt with in separate enactments. Legislative control cannot be exercised in such a manner as to encumber the general appropriation bill with veto-proof 'logrolling measures. We are no more willing to allow the legislature to use its appropriation power to infringe on the Governor's constitutional right to veto matters of substantive legislation than we are to allow the Governor to encroach on the constitutional powers of the legislature.Neither may the veto power be exercised as a means of repealing existing laws. CTA. PHILCONSA v. neither can the legislature deprive the Governor of the constitutional powers conferred on him as chief executive officer of the state by including in a general appropriation bill matters more properly enacted in separate legislation. supra. CIR v. thereby forcing the Governor to choose between approving unacceptable substantive legislation or vetoing `items' of expenditures essential to the operation of government. The Governor's constitutional power to veto bills of general legislation . In order to avoid this result. In the portion of a revenue bill which actually imposes a tax. but rather to the subject of the tax and the tax rate. because clearly these kind of laws have no place in an appropriations bill. the House from which the bill originated shall reconsider the bill. 2/3 of all the members of such house shall agree to pass the bill. 199 Pa. we hold that. . . thus: "Just as the President may not use his item-veto to usurp constitutional powers conferred on the legislature. The doctrine of "inappropriate provision" was well elucidated in Henry v. 235 SCRA 506 (1994) HELD: As the Constitution is explicit that the provision which Congress can include in an appropriations bill must "relate specifically to some particular appropriation therein" and "be limited in its operation to the appropriation to which it relates. a section identifies the tax and enumerates the persons liable therefor with the corresponding tax rate.' special interest provisions which could not succeed if separately enacted. Barnett. the legislature would be permitted to impair the constitutional responsibilities and functions of a co-equal responsibilities and functions of a co-equal branch of government in contravention of the separation of powers doctrine . . 185 SCRA 329 (1990) HELD: An "item" in a revenue bill does not refer to an entire section imposing a particular kind of tax. as Amicus Curiae. Otherwise. If after such reconsideration. This is arrogating unto the Presidency legislative powers which are beyond its authority. or 'riders. . Edwards.' substantive pieces of legislation incorporated in a bill to insure passage without veto. The evil which was sought to be prevented in giving the President the power to disapprove items in a revenue bill would be perpetrated rendering that power inutile (See Commonwealth ex rel. Former Justice Irene Cortes." it follows that any provision which does not relate to any particular item. If approved by 2/3 of all the members of that house. xxx xxx xxx ". . . . it shall 56 . 55 LRA 882 [1901])..

Where the veto is claimed to have been made without or in excess of the authority vested on the President by the Constitution. 27(1)] Judicial review of a Presidential veto PHILCONSA v. unless it is otherwise provided. Any intrusion into the domain appertaining to the Senate is to be resisted. which can be questioned by a member of Congress (Kennedy v. is available only when the presidential veto is based on policy or political considerations but not when the veto is claimed to be ultra vires. 412 F. unless a joint session is provided for. Similarly. What cannot be denied is that a Senator has standing to maintain inviolate the prerogatives. 2 SCRA 298 (1961). and the names of the members voting for or against shall be entered in the Journal. VI.become a law. 2. An act of the Executive which injures the institution of Congress causes a derivative but nonetheless substantial injury. In Miller v Mardo. Said remedy. The Constitution requires the two houses to hold separate session for deliberation. which provided that the reorganization plan drafted by the Department of Labor and submitted to President for approval shall be deemed as approved by Congress after its adjournment. Enriquez. 353 [1976]). and of the House of Representatives for that matter. it becomes the duty of the Court to draw the dividing line where the exercise of executive power ends and the bounds of legislative jurisdiction begin. the clearest case of the Senate as a whole or individual Senators as such having substantial interest in the question at issue. the votes of each house shall be determined by "yeas" or "nays". if the situation were reversed. p. noted. In the latter case. To the extent the powers of Congress are impaired. Sec. [Art. According to the ruling upon reconsideration in Tanada 57 . the law does not become effective at once. It struck down as well the Reorganization Plan drafted pursuant to this law. Fernando. as required by the Constitution. the SC struck down as unconstitutional Sec. Former Chief Justice Enrique M. In so holding. It could likewise be said that there was requisite injury to their rights as Senators. Supp. 6 of RA 997. In such a case. 122 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1366 [1974]). any member of Congress can have a resort to the courts. since his office confers a right to participate in the exercise of the powers of that institution (Coleman v. and to submit the determination of one to the separate determination of the other. 235 SCRA 506 (1994) HELD: We rule that a member of the Senate. Schlesinger. 484 F. 307 U. as Amicus Curiae. 27 [1]). the issue of an impermissible intrusion of the Executive into the domain of the Legislature arises (Notes: Congressional Standing To Challenge Executive Action. 433 [1939]. Jones. Laws shall take effect after fifteen days following the completion of their publication in the Official Gazette. the Court ruled that the approval of a bill cannot be made by Congress by mere silence. "This is. Holtzman v. has the legal standing to question the validity of a presidential veto or a condition imposed on an item in an appropriation bill. and it is the Executive Branch that could allege a transgression. xxx (Civil Code) • When a bill becomes a law through any of the 3 means mentioned above. EFFECTIVITY OF LAWS Art. It is true that the Constitution provides a mechanism for overriding a veto (Art. This method of passing a law amounts to an abdication by Congress of its legislative prerogatives to the Executive. It would then be futile to raise any locus standi issue. 2d 1307 [1973]). Miller. sec.S. so is the power of each member thereof. powers and privileges vested by the Constitution in his office" (Memorandum. In all such cases. however. It must go through the 3 readings and the submission of the bill to the President. VI. LEGISLATIVE VETOES The Congress cannot deem a draft submitted by an executive agency passed as law by it mere inaction within a certain period. its officials could likewise file the corresponding action. then. adjournment or concurrent resolution. 14). Congress by resolution disapproved the plan. unless in the meantime.

and (b) sources of financing. a budget of (a) expenditures. or to be raised by a corresponding revenue proposal therein. • This requirement for publication applies to any kind of law. VI. shall originate exclusively in the House. But may decrease said budget No provision or enactment shall be embrace in the general appropriations bill unless it relates specifically to some particular appropriation therein. like a special election. as the basis of the general appropriations bill. It is a method of submitting an important legislative measure to a direct vote of the whole people. the Congress shall have failed to pass the general appropriations bill for the ensuing fiscal year. APPROPRIATIONS LAW General Principle • • No money shall be paid out of the Treasury except in pursuance of an appropriation made by law. and private bills. 25(4)] A special appropriations bill may be proposed to supply a lack or meet a new need. The Congress may not increase the appropriations recommended by the President for the operation of the Government as specified in the budget. 24). VI. Initiative is the power of the people to propose bills and laws. VI. If. Sec. there must first be a publication of the law either in the Official Gazette or in a newspaper of general circulation [EO 200]. actually available as certified by the National Treasurer.v. including receipts from existing and proposed revenue measures. 2nd sentence]. 25(7)] • • • • • Special Appropriation • A special appropriations bill shall (a) specify the purpose for which it is intended. by the end of the fiscal year. and (b) supported by funds. [Art. there is a violation of due process. 136 SCRA 27 (1985). The form. INITIATIVE AND REFERENDUM. laws of local application. In the case of a special law to elect the President and Vice-President. in addition to the date fixed either by the effectivity clause of the statute. by Art. Sec. Otherwise. independent of the legislative assembly. and shall remain in force and effect until the general appropriations bill is passed by the Congress. [Art. Referendum is the right reserved to the people to adopt or reject any act or measure which has been passed by a legislative body and which in most cases would without action on the part of the electors become a law. but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments (Sec. and manner of preparation of the budget shall be prescribed by law. 25(1). 29(1)].g. 22). [Art. Any such provision or enactment shall be limited in its operation to the appropriation to which it relates. bills of local application. It is the right of a group of citizens to introduce a matter for legislation either to the legislature or directly to the voters. Sec. • 58 . VI. Sec. 25(2)] The procedure in approving appropriations for the Congress shall strictly follow the procedure for approving appropriations for other departments and agencies. All appropriation. (The reason is that the House is the more popular chamber of Congress. 2 of the Civil (15 days after its publication). bills authorizing increase of the public debt. or. VII.) General Appropriation • The President shall submit to Congress. law granting citizenship to X). VI. in its absence. revenue or tariff bills. and to enact or reject them at the polls. [Art. content. within 30 days from the opening of its regular session. Tuvera. the submission of a law passed by the legislature for their approval or rejection. the general appropriations law for the preceding fiscal year shall be deemed reenacted. private laws (e. Sec. [Art. and rules and regulations of substantive character. Sec. (Art. even laws which are not of general application.

et. is unconstitutional. Sec. or any system of religion) or of any priest (preacher. 1 & 3). paid. • • THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT Qualifications of President (Art. VII. • • • Prohibited appropriation to enforce the Separation of Church and State • No public money or property shall be appropriated (applied. VI. • 59 . (b) any penal institution. and the heads of the Constitutional Commission may. the requirements of the sections are specifically exempted by the Constitution in Art. to be supported by appropriate vouchers. with or without savings. 28)). the President. by law. 4 pars. VII. minister. 10. The regular election for President and Vice-President shall be held on the 2nd Monday of May. 29(1)). he is ineligible for re-election as President.. 25(6)] In Demetria v Alba. or (ii) one who was elected President in a special election. [Art. directly or indirectly. 4. for the use. VI. or support of any religion (sect. Sec. [Art. the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 1) The person who succeeds as President and not just in an acting capacity. In both cases. Sec. Sec. denomination. Sec. benefit. 29(2)] Appropriations laws (the spending powers of Congress (id. Re-election • The President shall not be eligible for any re-election. from "savings" in other items of their respective appropriations. (c) any government orphanage. and subject to such guidelines as may be prescribed by law. other religious teacher. it was held that Sec. shall be qualified for any election to the same office (the Presidency) at any time.however. However. [Art. President of the Senate. (Art. church. supra. par. Furthermore. Sec. Sec. EXCEPTION: When such priest. or (d) any leprosarium. be authorized to "augment" any item in the general appropriations law for their respective offices. Sec. Sec. They are tied up by the principle that no money shall be paid out of the Treasury except in pursuance of an appropriation made by law (id. or employed). which shall begin on the noon of June 30 next following the day of election. 25(5)] Discretionary funds appropriated for particular officials shall be disbursed only for public purposes. Speaker of the House. could either be (i) the Vice-President. VII. 25)) are tied up with Tax laws (the power to raise revenues (id. They are two indispensable sides of a coin. Transfer of funds already appropriated • No law shall be passed authorizing any transfer of appropriations. al. VI.) 1) Natural-born citizen of the Philippines 2) Registered voter 3) Able to read and write 4) 40 years of age on the day of election 5) Resident of the Philippines for at least 10 years immediately preceding the election Regular Election and Term • The President and Vice-President (who shall be elected with and in the same manner as the President) shall be elected by direct vote of the people for a term of 6 years.. no person who has "succeeded" as President and has served as such for more than 4 years. 2. VII. (Art. or religious dignitary). sectarian institution. Sec.. 44 of the Budget Act of 1977 (BP 1177) granting the President the blanket authority to transfer funds from one department to another. if he has served for more than 4 years.. is assigned to (a) the AFP.

he can run for re. IX. Sec. 4. (d) They shall not be financially interested in any contract with.) PROHIBITIONS (Art. 7. 13 talks of "unless otherwise provided by the Constitution. 2. offices or employment.President • The Supreme Court. Exceptions positions: a. Such appointment requires no confirmation. VIII. 194 SCRA 317 (1991) HELD: By ostensibly restricting the no. EO 284 actually allows them to hold multiple offices or employment in direct contravention of the express mandate of Art. 9) b. Vice-President. unless otherwise provided by this Constitution (b) They shall not practice any other profession. and qualifications of the President or Vice-President. VII. 2). appointive officials shall not hold any other office or employment in the Government or any subdivision. members of the Cabinet. B. Executive Secretary. and their deputies or assistants (a) They shall not hold any other office or employment during their tenure. VII. par. Civil Liberties Union (CLU) v.g. Sec. 7. shall not be considered an interruption in the continuity of the service for the full terms for which he was elected.owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. a voluntary (but not involuntary) renunciation of office for any length of time. c. (Art. 13. 7. VIII.election. and may promulgate its rules for that purpose. B. shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election. VII. Secretary of Trade and Industry as Chairman of NDC. Sec. (Art. so no objection can be validly raised based on Art. IX. Thus. Sec. par. par. or (2) is allowed by law. • Electoral Tribunal for the Election of the President and Vice. returns. (c) They shall not participate in any business.) (2) The President is the Chairman of NEDA. The Vice-President on the other hand. And for this purpose. Cabinet (1) The Secretary of Justice shall be an ex-officio member of the Judicial and Bar Council. 60 . sitting en banc. Sec. he should be allowed to attend to his duties and responsibilities without the distraction of other govt. par. Sec. 2) to rule prohibiting executive officials from holding additional • Art. Sec. Sec. head's ability and expertise. and GOOCs. XII." In the case of Cabinet members. the Constitution allows a Cabinet member to hold another office provided either (1) such is necessitated by the primary functions of his position (e. of positions that Cabinet members. including government. Vice-President Art. VII. 13 prohibiting them from doing so. agency or instrumentality thereof. (Art. according to the Doctrine of Qualified Political Agency. VII. shall not serve for more than 2 successive terms. 8[1]) (2) Unless otherwise allowed by law or by the primary functions of his position.) Prohibition against the President.• If he served for 4 years or less. VII. (Art. xxx The Vice-President may be appointed as member of the Cabinet. secretaries may hold in addition to their primary position to not more than 2 positions in the govt. President (1) The President can assume a Cabinet post. Secretary of Agrarian Reform as Chairman of the Land Bank). If maximum benefits are to be derived from a dept. or in any franchise or special privilege granted. unless otherwise provided in the 1987 Constitution itself. this refers to Art. 3. (Art. 13. (because the departments are mere extensions of his personality. Sec. 4. undersecretaries or asst. since (a) the term "succeeded" encompasses election and (b) the general rule prohibiting the President to run for re-election refers to the President elected during the regular election.

ii) or a President has not been "chosen" and qualified as yet (e. 4) 3. then the Vice-President elect shall become the President. VII. it follows that the official concerned has no right to receive additional compensation for his services in the said position. or as a consequence of office. If the President-elect cannot assume his post at the beginning of his term because i) he has not qualified as yet ( e. Sec. "The ex-officio position being actually and in legal contemplation part of the principal office. and without any other appointment or authority than that conferred by the office.. then the Senate President or. 7. VII. (par. 8. or ii) becomes permanently disabled "at the beginning of the term of the President" (i. (Art. and qualified. or (iv) become permanently disabled. the Vice-President shall become President for the unexpired portion of the term. or in case of his inability. provide for the "manner of selecting" the one who will act as President until a President of Vice-President shall have (been either "chosen" or "elected" pursuant to the special election referred to in Art. while all other appointive officials in the civil service are allowed to hold other office or employment in the govt during their tenure when such is allowed by law or by the primary functions of their positions. by express provision of law. removal from office (by impeachment). not expressly conferred upon the individual character. 5) • In case both the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House are unable to act as President. then the Vice-President shall act as President until the President-elect shall have qualified. To illustrate. VII as compared to the prohibition applicable to appointive officials in general under Art. their deputies and assistants may do so only when expressly authorized by the Consti. 2. Sec.g. then the President of the Senate.g. 13. Ex-officio likewise denotes an act done in an official character. before the term).e.. Sec. or (iv) resignation. par. by virtue of office. Sec. then Congress shall by law. or (iii) die. the Speaker of the House.. members of the Cabinet. shall act as President until a President or a Vice-President shall have been "chosen" and qualified.The stricter prohibition applied to the President and his official family under Sec. In case of the President's (i) death (ii) permanent disability. as the case may be.) 1. IX. shall act as President until the President or VicePresident shall have been "elected" (pursuant to the special election in Art. VII. in case of his inability. he had an operation and so he could not take his oath of office on June 30). xxx However. VII. If both President and Vice-President (i) have not been "chosen" or (ii) have not qualified. the Speaker of the House. the Secretary of Transportation and Communications is the ex-officio Chairman of the Board of the Philippine Ports Authority. sec. 2 & 3). itself. par. In case of both the President's and Vice-President's death. 10. pars. (par. The reason is that these services are already paid for and covered by the compensation attached to his principal office. Sec. 10) and qualified. (Id. 1. or resignation. (Id. and without further warrant or appointment. 1) 2. par. and the Light Rail Transit Authority. permanent disability. but rather annexed to the official position. the prohibition against holding dual or multiple offices or employment under Art. or shall have been "chosen: and qualified. It refers to an authority derived from official character merely. If the President-elect i) dies. An ex-officio member of a board is one who is a member by virtue of his title to a certain office. Art. there is a tie and Congress has not yet broken the tie). The term ex-officio means 'from office. PRESIDENTIAL SUCCESSION Temporary or permanent vacancy in the Presidency before the term 1. (iii) removal from office (the only way is by impeachment).) 61 . VII. The reason is that these posts do not comprise "any other office" within the contemplation of the constitutional prohibition but are properly an imposition of additional duties and function on said officials. B. 7. 13 must not be construed as applying to posts occupied by the Executive officials specified therein without additional compensation in an ex-officio capacity as provided by law and as required by the primary functions of said official's office. Permanent Vacancy in the Presidency during the term (Art. Thus. 2 are proof of the intent of the 1987 Constitution to treat them as a class by itself and to impose upon said class stricter prohibitions.

The press release was petitioner’s valedictory. March 2. Sec. he was referring to the past opportunity given him to serve the people as President. Temporary Vacancy in the Presidency during the term (Art. (par. it must meet right away. c. It can be oral. G. Should the majority of the Cabinet insist on their original stand by transmitting a second written declaration of the President's inability within 5 days from resumption of office of the President. Congress shall convene. Certainly. then Congress shall step in. Finding by Congress by 2/3 vote that the President is disabled. 2) Estrada v. the President shall automatically assume his office. contemporaneous and posterior facts and circumstantial evidence bearing a material relevance on the issue. the Senate President. then the Vice-President shall immediately assume the Presidency in an acting capacity. becomes permanently disabled. In sum. within 48 hours. 2001 or by the totality of prior. Desierto. whether or not petitioner resigned has to be determined from his acts and omissions before. for the sake of peace and in order to begin the healing process of our nation. the national spirit of reconciliation and solidarity could not be attained if he did not give up the presidency. the Vice-President temporarily acts as the President. Contested inability of the President a. 11. because there is no need to impeach him. The Vice-President shall so act until the President transmits to the Senate President and the Speaker a written declaration that he is no longer unable to discharge his office. or Speaker of the House) dies. b. The validity of a resignation is not governed by any formal requirement as to form. Using this totality test. It can be express. The President can contest this by sending his own written declaration to the Senate President and Speaker. we hold that the resignation of the petitioner cannot be doubted. b.. Upon such transmittal. if it is not in session. Sec. his stay being temporary). Consequently. Without doubt. He did not say he was leaving the Palace due to any kind of inability and that he was going to re-assume the presidency as soon as the disability disappears. (If it is already in session. VI. provide "who" shall be Acting President until the President or Vice-President shall have been "elected" (pursuant to the special election in Art. 2001. the seat of the presidency. and (5) he called on his supporters to join him in the promotion of a constructive national spirit of reconciliation and solidarity. (2) he emphasized he was leaving the Palace. 10) and qualified. that no inability exists. d.R. during and after January 20. Voluntary declaration of inability by President a. in accordance with its rules. It was confirmed by his leaving Malacanang. such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice-President as Acting President.• When the Acting President (i. without need of call. VII. As long as the resignation is clear. as glimpsed from the fact that they only 62 . Petitioner’s reference is to a future challenge after occupying the office of the president which he has given up. 146710-15. Upon receipt of this second declaration by the Cabinet. In all these cases.e. His presidency is now in the past tense. supra) • A vacancy in the Presidency arising from his disability can occur in any of the following ways: 1. (4) he assured that he will not shirk from any future challenge that may come ahead on the same service of our country. When the President transmits to the Senate President and the Speaker his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. it must be given legal effect. we hold that petitioner resigned as President. then the Congress shall by law. It can be written. Written declaration by the Cabinet 3. It can be implied. In the press release containing his final statement. This Acting President shall be subject to the same restrictions of powers and disqualifications. or resigns (but is not removed. (3) he expressed his gratitude to the people for the opportunity to serve them. When majority of all the members of the Cabinet transmit to the Senate President and Speaker their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge his office. Nos. En Banc [Puno] HELD: Resignation x x x is a factual question and its elements are beyond quibble: there must be an intent to resign and the intent must be coupled by acts of relinquishment. A written declaration by the President 2. his final act of farewell. (1) he acknowledged the oath-taking of the respondent as President of the Republic albeit with reservation about its legality.

canvassing by Congress. Sec.Congress convenes without need of call Day 10 . The convening of Congress cannot be suspended. Serious Illness of the President Art. 2001. VI. or revenue raising measure under Art. The consequence that the President might hesitate at the moment of greatest peril to the nation if he knows that he would be held liable later on. or within 12 days after it is required to assemble by its respective presiding officer if it is not in session. the public shall be informed of the state of his health. • • • Thus. a talks of every election for President and Vice-President. sec. If less than 2/3 find him unable. since Art.) • When a vacancy occurs in the offices of the President and Vice-President. f. 146710-15.as the case may be ." Three(3) reasons for such immunity: 1.) e. March 2. by a 2/3 vote of both houses voting separately. The holding of the special election cannot be postponed. upon its approval on 3rd and final reading. without need of call. 2. 25(4). 10. in accordance with its rules. Nos. the three readings can be done all on the same day. Sec. then the President shall continue exercising the powers and duties of his office. Sec. • Estrada v. it shall enact a law calling for a special election to elect a President and Vice. Appropriations for the special election shall be charged against any current appropriations. Marcos. the Court said that it is "elementary that incumbent Presidents are immune from suit or from being brought to court during the period of their incumbency and tenure. Thus. 2. (April 1981) and in the later case of In re Bermudez (October 1986). IMMUNITY FROM SUIT OF THE PRESIDENT • The SC has affirmed time and again the doctrine of the President's immunity from suit. En Banc [Puno] 63 . Within 7 days after it convenes. the timetable is: Day 0 . The distraction that suits would bring to such an important official laden with enormous responsibility. par.have 10 days to decide.Congress passes the special election law. Congress shall again act as Board of Canvassers (see infra). CALL A SPECIAL ELECTION IN CASE OF VACANCY IN THE OFFICES OF PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT (Art. more than 18 months before the date of the next regular presidential election. The members of the Cabinet in charge of national security and foreign relations and the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. shall not be denied access to the President during such illness.vacancy occurs Day 3 . If the President. VII. the Congress shall convene at 10 AM of the 3rd day after the vacancy. if it has not passed before this date Day 55 to 70 . The singular importance of the Presidency and his high visibility. 26. to be held between 45 to 60 days from the day of such call. Congress shall determine the President's inability within 10 days after receipt of the second written declaration by the Cabinet if it is in session.R. The law so passed is exempted from the following: 1Certification under Art.President. whereas if it is not in session. 2Approval by the President (for obvious reasons).election is held Day 85 to 100 . Not later than 30 days after the election. VI. The bill automatically becomes a law. In case of serious illness of the President. 3. determined to be "unable" to discharge his office. Sec. then the Vice-President shall act as President. VII. it must convene in 2 days and decide before the 12th day. 12. 4 par. if it has not done so earlier. In a resolution in Carillo v. G. VII. Desierto. • • Under the Constitution then a vacancy is filled by the 100th day from the vacancy at the latest. then. 3Certification by the National Treasurer of the availability of funds.

Q: Does the President's immunity from suit extend even beyond his term? A: Yes. 167 SCRA 393 (1988) HELD: The rationale for the grant to the President of the privilege of immunity from suit is to assure the exercise of Presidential duties and functions free from any hindrance or distraction. Makasiar. 2006 HELD: Incidentally. 83 “Recognizing that the Impeachment Court is Functus Officio. Estrada v. Nos. It will be anomalous to hold that immunity is an inoculation from liability for unlawful acts and omissions. and there is no need to provide for it in the Constitution or law. it is important that he be freed from any form of harassment. The choice of whether to exercise the privilege or to waive it is solely the President's prerogative. during his tenure of office or actual incumbency. David v. there is nothing in our laws that would prevent the President from waiving the privilege. considering that being the Chief Executive is a job that. May 3. not by any other person in the President's behalf. Beltran v. 171396. if he can be dragged into court litigations while serving as such. But this privilege of immunity from suit. So long as the act was done during his term. this does not mean that the President is not accountable to anyone. it is untenable for petitioner to demand that he should first be impeached and then convicted before he can be prosecuted. especially plunder which carries the death penalty. aside from requiring all of the office-holder's time. They involve plunder. Soliven v. Settled is the doctrine that the President. The rule is that unlawful acts of public officials are not acts of the State and the officer who acts illegally is not acting as such but stands in the same footing as any other trespasser. be covered by the alleged mantle of immunity of a non-sitting president. hindrance or distraction to enable him to fully attend to the performance of his official duties and functions.HELD: The cases filed against petitioner Estrada are criminal in character. It is a decision that cannot be assumed and imposed by another person.R. the Head of State. Makasiar. Desierto. GR No. the Senate passed Senate Resolution No. However. 64 . 2001. Macapagal-Arroyo. on February 7. only one constitutes the executive branch and anything which impairs his usefulness in the discharge of the many great and important duties imposed upon him by the Constitution necessarily impairs the operation of the Government. Indeed. En Banc [Puno] Can former President Estrada still be prosecuted criminally considering that he was not convicted in the impeachment proceedings against him? HELD: We reject his argument that he cannot be prosecuted for the reason that he must first be convicted in the impeachment proceedings. Petitioner cannot cite any decision of this Court licensing the President to commit criminal acts and wrapping him with post-tenure immunity from liability. The impeachment trial of petitioner Estrada was aborted by the walkout of the prosecutors and by the events that led to his loss of the presidency. By no stretch of the imagination can these crimes. Indeed. it is not proper to implead President Arroyo as respondent. The plea if granted. bribery and graft and corruption. Moreover. Mar. a critical reading of current literature on executive immunity will reveal a judicial disinclination to expand the privilege especially when it impedes the search for truth or impairs the vindication of a right. Thus.” Since the Impeachment Court is now functus officio. 146710-15. Unlike the legislative and judicial branch. Furthermore. Q: Does the President's immunity from suit extend to his alter egos? A: No. may not be sued in any civil or criminal case. pertains to the President by virtue of the office and may be invoked only by the holder of the office. It will degrade the dignity of the high office of the President. he remains accountable to the people but he may be removed from office only in the mode provided by law and that is by impeachment. Such a submission has nothing to commend itself for it will place him in a better situation than a non-sitting President who has not been subjected to impeachment proceedings and yet can be the object of a criminal prosecution. 2. 2001. would put a perpetual bar against his prosecution. G. an accused in a criminal case where the President is a complainant cannot raise the presidential privilege as a defense to prevent the case from proceeding against the accused. The President may shed the protection afforded by the privilege and submit to the court's jurisdiction. also demands undivided attention. Like any other official.

Sec. in the exercise of executive power. She has the obligation to protect the people. 1). the proper criminal and civil cases may already be filed against him x x x. "should be of the President's bosom confidence" and. the debates in the Constitutional Commission make it clear that when impeachment proceedings have become moot due to the resignation of the President. Marcos and his immediate family and to enjoin the implementation of the President's decision to bar their return to the Philippines. of Interior. POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE PRESIDENT EXECUTIVE POWER Art. Villena v. 17. bureaus and offices. it does not define what is meant by "executive power" although in the same article it touches on the exercise of certain powers by the President. Sec. Sec. 67 Phil. the power to submit the budget to congress and the power to address Congress. i. commutations. 14-23) The inevitable question is whether by enumerating certain powers of the President. The President shall have control of all the executive departments. the appointing power. (VII. 178 SCRA 760 FACTS: This is a petition for mandamus asking the Court to order the respondents to issue travel documents to Mr. Manglapus. did the framers of the Constitution intend that the President shall exercise those specific powers and no other? According to the SC. The executive power shall be vested in the President of the Philippines. that although the 1987 Constitution imposes limitations on the exercise of specific powers of the President. In this case.To be sure. In other words. VII. Considering the peculiar circumstance that the impeachment process against the petitioner has been aborted and thereafter he lost the presidency. 65 ." This means that the President of the Philippines is the Executive of the Government of the Philippines. they are acting under the control of the President. The power involved is the President's residual power to protect the general welfare of the people. Sec. as steward of the people. He shall ensure that the laws be faithfully executed. the power to contract or guarantee foreign loans. The first section of Article VII of the Constitution. promote their welfare and advance the national interest. the power to execute the laws. begins with the enunciation of the principle that "The executive power shall be vested in a President of the Philippines. "are subject to the direction of the President". 1.e.. VII. the powers of the President cannot be said to be limited only to the specific power enumerated in the Constitution. executive power is more than the sum of specific powers so enumerated. the power to grant amnesty with the concurrence of Congress. in the language of Attorney-General Cushing. The issue is whether or not. the powers under the commander in chief clause. 451 (1939) • Marcos v. It is founded on the duty of the President. dealing with the Executive Department. bureaus. and. • The executive function is essentially the duty to implement the laws within the standards imposed by the legislature.. 177 SCRA 668. She has to balance the general welfare and the common good against the exercise of rights of certain individuals. when the Cabinet and other branches of the Executive Department implement the law. HELD: The Constitution provides that the executive power shall be vested in the President (Art. and no other. This is in accord with our ruling in In Re: Saturnino Bermudez that “incumbent Presidents are immune from suit or from being brought to court during the period of their incumbency and tenure” but not beyond. the President has the power to bar the Marcoses from returning to the Philippines. and offices. Sec. it maintains intact what is traditionally considered as within the scope of executive power. the power to grant reprieves. the power to enter into treaties or international agreements. Thus. in the language of Thomas Jefferson. Id. Under the Constitution. Corollarily. The heads of the executive departments occupy political positions and hold office in an advisory capacity. the President may prohibit the Marcoses from returning to the Philippines. petitioner Estrada cannot demand as a condition sine qua non to his criminal prosecution before the Ombudsman that he be convicted in the impeachment proceedings. the power of control over all executive depts. pardons. However. this power is exercised by the President.

VII. The President can substitute his will over those of the secretaries. VII) • The President shall ensure that laws are faithfully executed. until and unless a law is declared unconstitutional. 1998 [Puno] HELD: Control is said to be the very heart of the power of the presidency. bureaus and offices. unless disapproved or reprobated by the Chief Executive. 1987 Constitution SECTION 17. THE PRESIDENT’S POWER OF GENERAL SUPERVISION OVER LOCAL GOVERNMENTS  Sec. and cities and municipalities with respect to component barangays shall ensure that the acts of their component units are within the scope of their prescribed powers and functions. 290 SCRA 279. and except in cases where the Chief Executive is required by the Constitution or law to act in person or the exigencies of the situation demand that he act personally. the multifarious executive and administrative functions of the Chief Executive are performed by and through the executive departments. 17. May 20. Torres. The secretaries are the alter ego of the President. and must be. 4. Art. Art. A contrary opinion would allow him to negate the will of the legislature and to encroach upon the prerogative of the judiciary. Furthermore. who can replace them anytime once he loses his confidence in them. As head of the Executive Department. the heads of the various executive departments are assistants and agents of the Chief Executive. X. however. presumptively the acts of the Chief Executive. The Doctrine of Qualified Political Agency: All executive and administrative organizations are adjuncts of the Executive Department. The powers of the President are not limited to what are expressly enumerated in the article on the Executive Department and in scattered provisions of the Constitution. has unstated residual powers which are implied from the grant of executive power and which are necessary for her to comply with her duties under the Constitution.Resolution on Motion for Reconsideration : It cannot be denied that the President. they hold their office subject to the discretion of the President. upon whom executive power is vested. The members of Cabinet may act for and in behalf of the President in certain matters because the President cannot be expected to exercise his control (and supervisory) powers personally all the time. 1987 Constitution SECTION 4. • • • Joson v. pp 224-225) "Control" is the power to substitute one's own judgment in that of a subordinate. the President's alter ego in the matters of that department where the President is required by law to exercise authority. 66 . men of his bosom confidence whom he designated to assist him in his otherwise physically impossible multifarious functions. “Faithful Execution clause” or “Take Care Clause” (Sec 17. the different executive departments are mere adjuncts of the President. and they cannot complain. are. performed and promulgated in the regular course of business. He shall ensure that the laws be faithfully executed. Their acts are presumptively acts of the "President. the President has the duty to execute it regardless of his doubts on its validity. THE CONTROL POWER OF THE PRESIDENT  Sec. The President of the Philippines shall exercise general supervision over local governments. Provinces with respect to component cities and municipalities. (Nachura. until countermanded or reprobated by him". the President. Under the qualified political agency doctrine. the extension of the President in the particular field in which they act. and the acts of the secretaries of such departments. The President shall control of all the executive departments. It is not for him to determine the validity of a law since this is a question exclusively addressed to the judiciary. may delegate some of his powers to the Cabinet members except when he is required by the Constitution to act in person or the exigencies of the situation demand that he acts personally. Art. Each head of a department is. Thus.

• The grant of mere supervisory power over local governments and autonomous regions is in line with the policy of the State to promote the autonomy of local governments and autonomous regions. There can be no real local autonomy while the National Government controls the local governments. This is a mistaken impression because legally "supervision" is not incompatible with disciplinary authority. The Constitution did not. which allegedly embraces disciplinary authority.or the President of her prerogative as conferred by existing legislation to provide administrative sanctions against local officials. is the power of mere oversight over an inferior body. acting through the Secretary of Local Government. Ganzon v. it does not include any restraining authority over such body. X. If the rules are not observed. 235 SCRA 135. they may order the work done or redone. If they are not followed. En Banc [Cruz] HELD: The difference between control and supervision was further delineated. 31. but 67 . 2001. nor do they have the discretion to modify or replace them. "Control" has been defined as the power of an officer to alter. 200 SCRA 271 (1991) The petitioners question the power of the President.• "General supervision" means the mere overseeing of a subordinate to make sure that they do their duties under the law. concerning discipline. order the act undone or redone by their subordinates or even decide to do it themselves. Supervision does not cover such authority. He cannot interfere with local governments provided that the same or its officers act within the scope of their authority. Aug. it is discretionary on his part to order the act undone or re-done by his subordinate or he may even decide to do it himself. intend for the sake of local autonomy. Supervisory power. Fernandez. 3rd Div. Petitioners are under the impression that the Constitution has left the President mere supervisory powers. Santos. Lim. But this does not include the power to overrule their acts. this court has had the opportunity to distinguish the power of supervision from the power of control." On many occasions in the past. "Supervision" on the other hand means overseeing or the power or authority of an officer to see that subordinate officers perform their duties." This is distinguished from the power of control or "the power of an officer to alter or modify or set aside what a subordinate officer had done in the performance of his duties and to substitute the judgment of the former for the latter. Sec. Art. X) signifies nothing more than to underscore local governments' autonomy from Congress and to break Congress' "control" over local government affairs. 1994. The President shall exercise general supervision over autonomous regions to ensure that laws are faithfully executed. Officers in control lay down the rules in the performance or accomplishment of an act. He cannot prescribe his own manner for the doing of the act. however. he may order the work done or re-done to conform to the prescribed rules. 4. Drilon v. nor does he have the discretion to modify or replace them. Officers in control lay down the rules in the doing of an act. The omission of "as may be provided by law" (Sec. we held that the Chief Executive wielded no more authority than that of checking whether a local government or the officers thereof perform their duties as provided by statutory enactments. On the other hand. Jan. Supervising officials merely see to it that the rules are followed. 16. the charter did not intend to divest the legislature of its right -. CA. but they themselves do not lay down such rules. Art. If the rules are not observed. In Taule vs. in their discretion. HELD: It is the considered opinion of the Court that notwithstanding the change in the constitution. If these rules are not followed. modify or nullify or set aside what a subordinate officer had done in the performance of his duties and to substitute the judgment of the former for that of the latter. if these acts are within their discretion. 350 SCRA 732. which supposedly excludes the power of investigation. supervision does not cover such authority. to suspend and/or remove local officials. 4. but he himself does not lay down such rules. in particular. Bito-Onon v. when contrasted with control. [Gonzaga-Reyes] HELD: The power of supervision is defined as "the power of a superior officer to see to it that lower officers perform their functions in accordance with law. Supervising officers merely sees to it that the rules are followed. to deprive the legislature of all authority over municipal corporations. and denied her control. they may.

Supervision is not incompatible with discipline. takes effect immediately.) An ad interim appointment is a permanent appointment [Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila v. and once approved. Peralta. will not make the incumbent a permanent appointee [Valencia v. takes effect only after confirmation by the Commission on Appointments. Intermediate Appellate Court. iia. but ceases to be valid if disapproved by the Commission on Appointments or upon the next adjournment of Congress. because it is through his appointees that the President can execute laws. Such confirmation. Temporary appointments are given to persons without such eligibility. 68 . on a person already in the public service.only to conform to such rules. the most eminently executive power. 2) Confirmation by the Commission on Appointments. The power of appointment by the President under the 1987 Constitution has been significantly curbed. if given erroneously. 290 SCRA 279. continues until the end of the term of the appointee. The President's power of general supervision means no more than the power of ensuring that laws are faithfully executed. 140 SCRA 22]. In this sense. It is distinguished from designation in that the latter simply means the imposition of additional duties. revocable at will and without the necessity of just cause or a valid investigation. In the latter case. And the power to discipline and ensure that the laws be faithfully executed must be construed to authorize the President to order an investigation of the act or conduct of local officials when in his opinion the good of the public service so requires. Garrucho. of an individual who is to exercise the functions of a given office. Permanent appointments are those extended to persons possessing the requisite eligibility and are thus protected by the constitutional guarantee of security of tenure. the ad interim appointment is deemed “by-passed” through inaction and deemed disapproved by the Commission on Appointments. 4) Acceptance by the appointee. 188 SCRA 154. It is also different from the commission in that the latter is the written evidence of the appointment. ii. 1998 [Puno] HELD: The power of supervision means "overseeing or the authority of an officer to see that the subordinate officers perform their duties. They have no discretion on this matter except to see to it that the rules are followed.) Permanent or temporary. May 20. Torres. of an individual who is to exercise the functions of a given office. It can be classified as follows: • • i. by the authority vested with the power. 8 SCRA 692] ib.) Regular or ad interim. ia. (Cruz) Appointment is the selection. (Nachura) The power of appointment is. 3) Issuance of the commission. They may not prescribe their own manner of execution of the act. the implication is that he shall hold the office only in a temporary capacity and may be replaced at will by the appointing authority. An ad interim appointment is one made by the President while Congress is not in session. usually by law. If the subordinate officers fail or neglect to fulfill their duties. Joson v. a designation is considered only an acting or temporary appointment which does not confer security of tenure on the person named. The ad interim appointment is intended to prevent a hiatus in the discharge of official duties.) In Binamira v. according to the SC in Concepcion v. Paredes. the official may take such action or step as prescribed by law to make them perform their duties. THE APPOINTING POWER OF THE PRESIDENT • • Appointment may be defined as the selection. by the authority vested with the power. made on the understanding that the appointing power has not yet decided on a permanent appointee and that the temporary appointee may be replaced at any time a permanent choice is made. it was held that where a person is merely designated and not appointed.) A temporary appointment and a designation are not subject to confirmation by the Commission on Appointments. • Steps in the appointing process: 1) Nomination by the President. or that subordinate officers act within the law. A regular appointment is one made by the President while Congress is in session.

Mindanao. with the consent of the Commission on Appointments. Romero. VII. II. Civil Service Commission. other public ministers and consuls (Id. • Appointment is essentially a discretionary power and must be performed by the officer in which it is vested according to his best lights. the Supreme Court declared that an appointment is deemed complete only upon its acceptance. ambassadors. Art. and representative of the private sector. 16. Mendieta. The President shall have the power to make appointments during the recess of the Congress. and other officers whose appointments are vested in him in this Constitution. which is optional to the appointee. 1987 Constitution SECTION 16.) (d) Other officers whose appointments are vested in the President in the Constitution: (i) Chairman and Commissioners of the Constitutional Commissions (ii) Regular members of the Judicial and Bar Council (composed of the IBP representative. there are four groups of officers of the government to be appointed by the President: 1) The heads of the executive departments. Appointment to a public office cannot be forced upon any citizen except for the purposes of defense of the State under Sec.  Sec. He shall also appoint all other officers of the Government whose appointments are not otherwise provided for by law.) (c) Officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines with the rank of colonel or naval captain (because these are officers of a sizeable command enough to stage a coup) (Id. The Congress may. 84 Phil 740. ambassadors. Pobre v. 3. Pending such acceptance. 3(2)] 2.) (b) Ambassadors. appointment of VicePresident to the Cabinet) [Art. Sec. the only condition being that the appointee should possess the minimum qualification requirements prescribed by law for the position. 143 SCRA 327. 4. Sec. as an exception to the rule of voluntary servitude. Note the ex-officio members: Chief Justice. Those other officers lower in rank whose appointment is vested by law in the President (alone).• In Lacson v. VII. Article VII.g. Civil Service Commission. Lapinid v. 16. PRESIDENTIAL APPOINTEES UNDER THE CONSTITUTION (a) Heads of the executive departments (Art. in the courts. 224 SCRA 738. VII. and representative of Congress) (iii) Sectoral representatives (Now an obsolete provision) (iv) Regional Consultative Commission Upon recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council (a) Members of the Supreme Court and all other courts (b) Ombudsman and his 5 deputies (for Luzon. professor of law. Discretion of Appointing Authority. or boards. general and military) Appointment of Vice-President as Member of the Cabinet Appointments solely by the President 1. of the Constitution. Those vested by the Constitution on the President alone (e. retired SC justice. but such appointments shall be effective only until after disapproval by the Commission on Appointments or until the next adjournment of the Congress. See Luego v. and those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint. Those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint. 197 SCRA 106. appoint the heads of the executive departments. whether voluntary or involuntary. Secretary of Justice. commissions. or officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain. the appointment may still be validly withdrawn. or in the heads of departments. Sarmiento v. Art. The President shall nominate and. officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval 69 . 156 SCRA 549 HELD: Under Section 16. by law. Mison. other public ministers and consuls. Those whose appointments are not otherwise provided by law. 4. other public ministers and consuls. agencies. vest the appointment of other officers lower in rank in the President alone. Visayas.

2.” CONTROL means the authority of an empowered officer to alter or modify. Book IV. directors and chief superintendents of the PNP x x x do not fall under the first category of presidential appointees requiring confirmation by the Commission on Appointments. et al. It can accordingly be inferred therefrom that the President can interfere in the exercise of discretion of officials under him or altogether ignore their recommendations. Salonga (172 SCRA 160). Expressed in another way. 3rd Div. Chapter II. Calderon v. 1992. as and when the former deems it to be appropriate. It should be here pertinent to state that the President is the head of government whose authority includes the power of control over all “executive departments. et al (177 SCRA 259). and other officers whose appointments are vested in him in this Constitution. Mison (156 SCRA 549). No. Bermudez v. when Congress creates inferior offices but omits to provide for appointment thereto. and Teresita Quintos Deles. Manalo v. The 70 . [Vitug]) HELD: This question would x x x pivot on the proper understanding of the provision of the Revised Administrative Code of 1987 (Book IV.” Petitioners contend that an appointment of a provincial prosecutor mandatorily requires a prior recommendation of the Secretary of Justice endorsing the intended appointment x x x. En Banc [Padilla] HELD: From the cases of Sarmiento III vs. 2) All other officers of the Government whose appointments are not otherwise provided for by law. what a subordinate officer has done in the performance of his duties. such conferment must be understood as necessarily carrying with it an ample discretion of whom to appoint. the officers are considered as among those whose appointments are not otherwise provided for by law. April 22. When the Constitution or the law clothes the President with the power to appoint a subordinate officer. Article VII. these doctrines are deducible: 1.” found in Section 9. as well as to substitute the judgment of the latter. or even nullify or set aside. 1999. 208 SCRA 254. of the Revised Administrative Code. 131429. Confirmation is not required when the President appoints other government officers whose appointments are not otherwise provided for by law or those officers whom he may be authorized by law to appoint (like the Chairman and Members of the Commission on Human Rights). 312 SCRA 239. Chapter II. Executive Secretary. Confirmation by the Commission on Appointments is required only for presidential appointees mentioned in the first sentence of Section 16. the President has the power to assume directly the functions of an executive department.R. Sistoza. Aug. G. bureaus and offices. Title III. including. bureau and office. 1999. Also. Mary Concepcion Bautista v. The recommendation is here nothing really more than advisory in nature. should be interpreted x x x to be a mere advise. Thus. 4. those officers whose appointments are expressly vested by the Constitution itself in the president (like sectoral representatives to Congress and members of the constitutional commissions of Audit. exhortation or indorsement. Title III. or provides in an unconstitutional manner for such appointments. as observed in Mison. 3) Those whom the President may be authorized by law to appoint. Civil Service and Election). v. Section 9) to the effect that – “All provincial and city prosecutors and their assistants shall be appointed by the President upon the recommendation of the Secretary. 4) Officers lower in rank whose appointments the Congress may by law vest in the President alone. Carale. It is the considered view of the Court x x x that the phrase “upon recommendation of the Secretary. 11.captain. En Banc [Purisima] HELD: Unconstitutional are Sections 26 and 31 of Republic Act 6975 (DILG ACT) which empower the Commission on Appointments to confirm the appointments of public officials whose appointments are not required by the Constitution to be confirmed…xxx The police force is different from and independent of the armed forces and the ranks in the military are not similar to those in the Philippine National Police. It is well-settled that only presidential appointees belonging to the first group require the confirmation by the Commission on Appointments. Aug. which is essentially persuasive in character and not binding or obligatory upon the party to whom it is made. The Commission on Constitutional Commission.

REGULAR AND RECESS (AD-INTERIM) APPOINTMENTS Art. and in so opting. there is no law that prohibits local elective officials from making appointments during the last days of his or her tenure. or as Secretaries. and correctly so. Art.” The CSC correctly ruled. En Banc [Ynares-Santiago] (Sec. En Banc [Narvasa] HELD: Section 15. while the second consists of the so-called “midnight” appointments. Mateo A.g. 15. VII. Article VII is directed against two types of appointments: (1) those made for buying votes and (2) those made for partisan considerations. There is no law that prohibits a Local Chief Executive from making appointments before his/her term ends) HELD: “The records reveal that when the petitioner brought the matter of recalling the appointments of the fourteen (14) private respondents before the CSC. His solitary reason for recalling these appointments was that they were. CA. that the constitutional prohibition on so-called "midnight appointments. to executive positions. or the Office of the Ombudsman. 13." specifically those made within two (2) months immediately prior to the next presidential elections. 353 SCRA 94. Placido B. VII. 15. a President or Acting President shall not make appointments. Chief of Staff). Section 15 of the Constitution. 1998.  Sec. 298 SCRA 408. but such appointment shall be 71 . Valenzuela and Hon. 2nd par. Neither did he allege that the said appointments were tainted by irregularities or anomalies that breached laws and regulations governing appointments. except temporary appointments to executive positions when continued vacancies therein will prejudice public service or endanger public safety. bureaus or offices even in the exercise of discretionary authority. The SC in clarified this when it held: “Section 15. 16. xxx The President shall have the power to make appointments during the recess of Congress. 1987 Constitution SECTION 15. 1987 Constitution The spouse and relatives by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth civil degree of the President shall not during his tenure be appointed as members of the Constitutional Commissions.g. Art. being the head of the Executive Department. 2001. “midnight appointments” which the outgoing mayor had no authority to make. Petitioner certainly did not raise the issue of fraud on the part of the outgoing mayor who made the appointments. whether voluntary or compulsory. chairmen or heads of bureaus or offices. Postmaster) or (2) endanger public safety (e. when continued vacancies therein will (1) prejudice public service (e.President. the CSC ruled. It may not unreasonably be deemed to contemplate not only “midnight” appointments – those made obviously for partisan reasons as shown by their number and the time of their making – but also appointments presumed made for the purpose of influencing the outcome of the Presidential election. could very well disregard or do away with the action of the departments. LIMITATIONS ON THE APPOINTING POWER OF THE PRESIDENT  Sec. the only reason he cited to justify his action was that these were “midnight appointments” that are forbidden under Article VII. that the said prohibition applies only to presidential appointments. Undersecretaries. Article VII has a broader scope than the Aytona ruling. VII. Vallarta. However. In truth and in fact.” De Rama v. Two months immediately before the next presidential elections and up to the end of his term. 9. applies only to the President or Acting President. Feb. The first refers to those appointments made within two months preceding the Presidential election and are similar to those which are declared election offenses in the Omnibus Election Code. • Exception: Temporary appointments. 28. Sec. however. 1987 Constitution applies only to Presidential appointments. In Re: Hon. Art. Nov. he cannot be said as having acted beyond the scope of his authority. including government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries. to his personal belief. VII.

he may call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence. it is confirmed by the Commission) (Art. Congress receives the nomination and forwards this to the CA for confirmation. in effect. or until the next adjournment of Congress (unless meantime. April 2. 14. 2002. albeit temporarily. VI. then the Office of the President issues a Commission. Q. (i) regular. at which point the appointee can assume his office. VII. The fact that it is subject to confirmation by the Commission on Appointments does not alter its permanent character. A temporary or acting appointee does not enjoy any security of tenure. • Appointments requiring confirmation are of two kinds. En Banc [Carpio]) Limitations on the appointing power of the Acting President Art. Is it temporary and. an appointment or designation in a temporary or acting capacity can be withdrawn or revoked at the pleasure of the appointing power. 19]).effective only until disapproval by the Commission on Appointments or until the next adjournment of the Congress. for a period not exceeding sixty days. suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or place the Philippines or any part thereof under martial law. the President shall submit a report in person or in writing to the Congress. a Sword of Damocles over the heads of ad interim appointees. can complain because it is the Constitution itself that places the Sword of Damocles over the heads of the ad interim appointees. April 2. How is an ad interim appointment distinguished from an appointment or designation in an acting or temporary capacity? HELD: While an ad interim appointment is permanent and irrevocable except as provided by law. Appointments extended by an Acting President shall remain effective unless revoked by the elected President within ninety days from his assumption or reassumption of office. Benipayo (380 SCRA 49) the SC stated that an AD INTERIM APPOINTMENT is a permanent appointment because it takes effect immediately and can no longer be withdrawn by the President once the appointee has qualified into office. 380 SCRA 49. The President shall be the Commander-in-Chief of all armed forces of the Philippines and whenever it becomes necessary. invasion or rebellion. THE MILITARY POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT  Sec. The second cause is the adjournment of Congress without the Commission on Appointments acting on his appointment. VII. no matter how briefly. In the case of Matibag v. How is an ad interim appointment terminated? HELD: An ad interim appointment can be terminated for two causes specified in the Constitution. The first cause is the disapproval of his ad interim appointment by the Commission on Appointments. voting 72 . Congress. 16. 2002. Sec. No one. (Matibag v. Discuss the nature of an ad-interim appointment. Recess appointments. Sec. Benipayo. when the public safety requires it. Regular appointments require confirmation before the appointee can take his post. VII. need no confirmation to be effective. 380 SCRA 49. 18. These resolutory conditions constitute. (Matibag v. In case of invasion or rebellion. Benipayo. however. is in session. on the other hand. The appointment is effective until it is disapproved by the Commission on Appointments. These two causes are resolutory conditions expressly imposed by the Constitution on all ad interim appointments. 1987 Constitution SECTION 18. or (ii) during the recess of Congress (because the Commission shall meet only while Congress is in session [Art. par. The Constitution itself makes an ad interim appointment permanent in character by making it effective until disapproved by the Commission on Appointments or until the next adjournment of Congress. he may. if the CA. Sec. Art. The Congress. that is. therefore. The President nominates. Within forty-eight hours from the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. can be withdrawn or revoked by the President at her pleasure? • • A. 2) Q. En Banc [Carpio]) Q.

From the most to the least benign. For this reason. shall. Citing Integrated Bar of the Philippines v. and the power to declare Martial Law. 2006 ISSUE: W/N PP No. the Court ruled that the only criterion for the exercise of the calling-out power is that “whenever it becomes necessary”. any person thus arrested or detained shall be judicially charged within three days. within twenty-four hours following such proclamation or suspension. if not in session. Sec. the power to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. 171396. Article VII grants the President. convene in accordance with its rules without any need of a call. • CALL OUT THE AFP TO PREVENT LAWLESS VIOLENCE (CALLING OUT POWERS) • This is merely a police measure meant to quell disorder.jointly. Judicial power includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable. extend such proclamation or suspension for a period to be determined by the Congress. b. nor automatically suspend the privilege of the writ. in the same manner. the President may summon the armed forces to aid him in suppressing lawless violence. Upon the initiative of the President. The Congress. which revocation shall not be set aside by the President. VIII. if the invasion or rebellion shall persist and public safety requires it. He may suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the Govt. nor authorize the conferment of jurisdiction on military courts and agencies over civilians where civil courts are able to function. 2. invasion and rebellion. the President may call the armed forces “to prevent or suppress lawless violence. Owing to her Office’s vast intelligence network.” Are these conditions present in the instant cases? As stated earlier. This involves ordinary police action. the Congress may. During the suspension of the privilege of the writ. as Commander-in-Chief. these are: the calling-out power. The Supreme Court may review. invasion or rebellion. otherwise he shall be released. He may proclaim martial law over the entire Philippines or any part thereof. considering the circumstances then prevailing. But every act that goes beyond the President’s calling-out power is considered illegal or ultra vires. As such. a “sequence” of graduated powers. the Constitution does not regulate its exercise radically David v. the President has the following powers: a. Subject to: Art. 1 par. May 3. Under the calling-out power. or c. a President must be careful in the exercise of his powers. Macapagal-Arroyo. A state of martial law does not suspend the operation of the Constitution. may revoke such proclamation or suspension. she is in the best position to determine the actual condition of the country. nor supplant the functioning of the civil courts or the legislative assemblies. Zamora. in an appropriate proceeding filed by any citizen. He may call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence. GR No. 1017 is a declaration of martial law or the exercise of the President of her “calling out” powers? HELD: Section 18. He cannot invoke a greater power when he wishes to act under a lesser 73 . the sufficiency of the factual basis of the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ or the extension thereof. by a vote of at least a majority of all its Members in regular or special session. and must promulgate its decision thereon within thirty days from its filing. President Arroyo found it necessary to issue PP 1017. The suspension of the privilege of the writ shall apply only to persons judicially charged for rebellion or offenses inherent in or directly connected with the invasion. • As Commander-in-Chief of all armed forces of the Philippines. invasion or rebellion.

from his power to proclaim martial and suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. In fact. The declaration of Martial Law is a “warn[ing] to citizens that the military power has been called upon by the executive to assist in the maintenance of law and order. Article VII of the Constitution and the relevant jurisprudence discussed earlier. Justice Mendoza also stated that PP 1017 is not a declaration of Martial Law. Indeed. The proclamation is sustained by Section 18. PP 1017 calls for the exercise of an awesome power. (2) to direct the AFP to enforce obedience to all laws even those not related to lawless violence as well as decrees promulgated by the President. 5.power. provides: A state of martial law does not suspend the operation of the Constitution. Some of the petitioners vehemently maintain that PP 1017 is actually a declaration of Martial Law. invasion or rebellion. (a) arrests and seizures without judicial warrants. Q. upon pain of arrest and punishment. Section 18. (2) the dispersal of the rallies and warrantless arrest of the KMU and NAFLU-KMU members. the power to declare Martial Law poses the most severe threat to civil liberties. the law and jurisprudence. a provision calling on the AFP to prevent or suppress lawless violence. a provision on the State’s extraordinary power to take over privately-owned public utility and business affected with public interest. (b) ban on public assemblies. However. (3) the imposition of standards on media or any prior restraint on the press. There lies the wisdom of our Constitution. they must. (c) take-over of news media and agencies and press censorship. it cannot be used to justify acts that only under a valid declaration of Martial Law can be done. and (d) issuance of Presidential Decrees. the greater are the limitations. It cannot be used to stifle or persecute critics of the government. and (4) the warrantless search of the Tribune offices and the whimsical seizures of some articles for publication and other materials. It is not so. It is merely an exercise of President Arroyo’s calling-out power for the armed forces to assist her in preventing or suppressing lawless violence. Explain why the former is not subject to judicial review while the latter two are. Based on the above disquisition. and that. are ultra vires and unconstitutional. Mendoza. said that of the three powers of the President as Commander-in-Chief. The Court finds and so holds that PP 1017 is constitutional insofar as it constitutes a call by the President for the AFP to prevent or suppress lawless violence. In declaring a state of national emergency. PP 1017’s extraneous provisions giving the President express or implied power (1) to issue decrees. It is no more than a call by the President to the armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence. On the basis of the relevant and uncontested facts narrated earlier. it is also pristine clear that (1) the warrantless arrest of petitioners Randolf S. Article XII. 74 . Article VII of the Constitution. 2006.” In his Statement before the Senate Committee on Justice on March 13. while the emergency lasts. It is plain therein that what the President invoked was her calling-out power. and (3) to impose standards on media or any form of prior restraint on the press. Its use for any other purpose is a perversion of its nature and scope. No. President Arroyo did not only rely on Section 18. What defines the character of PP 1017 are its wordings. She also relied on Section 17. it is clear that PP 1017 is not a declaration of Martial Law. nor supplant the functioning of the civil courts or legislative assemblies. are not authorized by the Constitution. invasion or rebellion. It is a strong medicine which should not be resorted to lightly. are powers which can be exercised by the President as Commander-in-Chief only where there is a valid declaration of Martial Law or suspension of the writ of habeas corpus. Justice Vicente V. Distinguish the President’s power to call out the armed forces as their Commanderin-Chief in order to prevent or suppress lawless violence. As such. Justice Mendoza further stated that specifically. not commit any acts which will in any way render more difficult the restoration of order and the enforcement of law. Mr. nor authorize the conferment of jurisdiction on military courts and agencies over civilians where civil courts are able to function. the greater the power. Art. It is placed in the keeping of the President for the purpose of enabling him to secure the people from harm and to restore order so that they can enjoy their individual freedoms. an authority in constitutional law. and any act done contrary to its command is ultra vires.O. nor automatically suspend the privilege of the writ. VII. David and Ronald Llamas. Not even by the valid provisions of PP 1017 and G.

information necessary to arrive at such judgment might also prove unmanageable for the courts. Article VII x x x. is extant in the deliberation of the Constitutional Commission x x x. Moreover. On the other hand. Indeed. the decision to call out the military to prevent or suppress lawless violence must be done swiftly and decisively if it were to have any effect at all. in the exercise of the power to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or to impose martial law. X x x That the intent of the Constitution is exactly what its letter says. The reason for the difference in the treatment of the aforementioned powers highlights the intent to grant the President the widest leeway and broadest discretion in using the power to call out because it is considered as the lesser and more benign power compared to the power to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus and the power to impose martial law.e. Congress may revoke such proclamations (of martial law) or suspension (of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus) and the Court may review the sufficiency of the factual basis thereof. Certain pertinent information might be difficult to verify. The determination of the necessity for the calling out power if subjected to unfettered judicial scrutiny could be a veritable prescription for disaster as such power may be unduly straitjacketed by an injunction or a temporary restraining order every time it is exercised. The distinction places the calling out power in a different category from the power to declare martial law and the power to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. the framers of the Constitution would have simply lumped together the three powers and provided for their revocation and review without any qualification. some of which may be classified as highly confidential or affecting the security of the state. The factual necessity of calling out the armed forces is not easily quantifiable and cannot be objectively established since matters considered for satisfying the same is a combination of several factors which are not always accessible to the courts. for a period not exceeding sixty days. These conditions are not required in the case of the power to call out the armed forces. under Section 18. Such a scenario is not farfetched when we consider the present situation in Mindanao. he may. it is the unclouded intent of the Constitution to vest upon the President. Besides the absence of textual standards that the court may use to judge necessity. invasion or rebellion. Thus. he may call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence. there is no such equivalent provision dealing with the revocation or review of the President's action to call out the armed forces.HELD: There is a clear textual commitment under the Constitution to bestow on the President full discretionary power to call out the armed forces and to determine the necessity for the exercise of such power. both of which involve the curtailment and suppression of certain basic civil rights and individual freedoms. full discretion to call forth the military when in his judgment it is necessary to do so in order to prevent or suppress lawless violence. In case of invasion or rebellion. the evidence upon which the President might decide that there is a need to call out the armed forces may be of a nature not constituting technical proof. or wholly unavailable to the courts. The full discretionary power of the President to determine the factual basis for the exercise of the calling out power is also implied and further reinforced in the rest of Section 18. to support the assertion that the President acted without factual basis. on-the-spot decisions may be imperatively necessary in emergency situations to avert great loss of human lives and mass destruction of property. when the public safety requires it. provides in part: The President shall be the Commander-in-Chief of all armed forces of the Philippines and whenever it becomes necessary. Article VII of the Constitution. If the petitioner fails. two conditions must concur: (1) there must be an actual invasion or rebellion and. The only criterion is that “whenever it becomes necessary. Article VII of the Constitution. In the exercise of the power to call. which embodies the powers of the President as Commander-in-Chief. where the insurgency problem could spill over the other parts of the country. then this Court cannot undertake an independent investigation beyond the pleadings. (2) public safety must require it. Expressio unios est exclusio alterius. In many instances. However. the President as Commander-in-Chief has a vast intelligence network to gather information. and thus necessitating safeguards by Congress and review by this Court. that the power to call is fully discretionary to the President. invasion 75 . suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. i. Section 18.” The implication is that the President is given full discretion and wide latitude in the exercise of the power to call as compared to the two other powers. by way of proof. invasion or rebellion. otherwise. Under the foregoing provisions. as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. or place the Philippines or any part thereof under martial law.” the President may call the armed forces “to prevent or suppress lawless violence..

125. the public officer can only detain him for 12. 141284. When the privilege is suspended. Hon. Sec. 2000. Ronaldo B. For if one were already judicially charged. 124 of the RPC. En Banc [Kapunan]) SUSPEND THE PRIVILEGE OF THE WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS • A "writ of habeas corpus" is an order from the court commanding a detaining officer to inform the court (i) if he has the person in custody. is only to extend the periods during which he can be detained without a warrant. The suspension of the privilege does not make the arrest without warrant legal. otherwise. VII. as amended by EO 272. (Art. enabled to make the arrest. the officer becomes liable for "arbitrary detention" under Art. But the military is. his detention would be legal and so he could no longer petition for habeas corpus. and (ii) what his basis in detaining that person. par. there is no remedy available against such unlawful arrest (arbitrary detention). Thus. 18. or (ii) the privilege of the writ was suspended. During the suspension of the privilege of the writ. • 76 . 2). Habeas corpus precisely contemplates a situation in which a person is being detained without being charged in court. the President's exercise of judgment deserves to be accorded respect from this Court. 5). within this time. (Integrated Bar of the Philippines v. Note that it is the privilege that is suspended. any person thus arrested or detained shall be judicially charged within 3 days. • • Effects of the suspension of the privilege 1. if the detainee wants a preliminary investigation to be first conducted by the fiscal. the period is extended to 72 hours. The suspension of the privilege of the writ applies only to persons "judicially charged" for rebellion or offenses inherent in or directly connected with invasion (Art. not the writ itself. As a general rule.or rebellion. Requisites: 1. Zamora. the suspension of the privilege does not apply. (cf. with the suspension of the privilege. Before the lapse of 72 hours. (delay in the delivery of detained persons) The effect of the suspension of the privilege.R. If the public officer arrests him without a warrant. therefore. VII. • In other words. As to other crimes. The public safety requires the suspension. he must be released. the public officer can detain a person without warrant of arrest. 18. Under the Rules of Criminal Procedure. 15. par. anyway since. • • • 2. The "privilege of the writ" is that portion of the writ requiring the detaining officer to show cause why he should not be tested. Art. unless (i) the arrest was made in connection with a crime committed in the presence of the detaining officer. and 2. 18 or 36 hours depending on the gravity of the offense of which he is charged. • "Judicially charged" as used in the Constitution is imprecise. G. Such persons suspected of the above crimes can be arrested and detained without a warrant of arrest. Sec. But the crime for which he is arrested must be one related to rebellion or the invasion. he must sign a waiver of the effects of Art. Under Art. he must be judicially charged. 6). There must be an invasion or rebellion. but he can only do so for 72 hours. Unless the petitioner can show that the exercise of such discretion was gravely abused. an information must have been filed in the proper court charging him of the offense for which he was arrested. or otherwise he shall be released. III. No. and a petition for habeas corpus can be filed to seek his release. 125. the provision should read "one who is suspected of complicity in" the two crimes above. Aug. Sec. in effect. The arrest without warrant is justified by the emergency situation and the difficulty in applying for a warrant considering the time and the number of persons to be arrested. no person could be arrested without a warrant of arrest (validly issued upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses.

for how do one extend something that has already lapsed? 77 . 125 for "delay in the delivery of detained persons. Sec. as to that person. For even if the suspension has a lifetime of 60 days in general. III. It should not happen that martial law is declared in order to shut down the civil institutions. court" doctrine which holds that civilians cannot be tried by military courts if the civil courts are open and functioning. unless sooner revoked by the Congress." If the courts are still open. 2. the measure will expire anyway in 60 days. then civilians can be tried by the military courts. The right to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. Order the arrest of people who obstruct the war effort. So the revocation must be made before the lapse of 60 days from the date the measure was taken.  When it so revokes. If Congress fails to act before the measure expires. it is submitted that he or someone else in his behalf can file a petition for habeas corpus. If Congress does not do anything. so that after this time. 4. VII. 13) PROCLAIM MARTIAL LAW Requisites: 1. 3." As to the detainee. d. it could be more. as Congress would determine. the President cannot set aside (or veto) the revocation as he normally would do in the case of bills. The Congress shall then vote jointly. (ii) To extend it beyond the 60-day period of its validity. b. Confer jurisdiction upon military courts and agencies over civilians. Sec. by an absolute majority. to the Congress (meeting in joint session of the action he has taken). • But the following cannot be done (Art. the suspension only has an effectivity of 72 hours. Martial laws usually contemplates a case where the courts are already closed and the civil institutions have already crumbled.  Congress can only so extend the proclamation or suspension upon the initiative of the President. Within 48 hours from the proclamation or the suspension. The period need not be 60 days. But if the civil courts are not functioning. where civil courts are unable to function. If it is not in session. Upon such proclamation or suspension. 18. principle is that martial law is proclaimed only because the courts and other civil institutions like Congress have been shut down. Suspend the operation of the Constitution. Public safety requires the proclamation of martial law all over the Philippines or any part thereof.• What happens if he is not judicially charged nor released after 72 hours? The public officer becomes liable under Art. It has two options: (i) To revoke such proclamation or suspension. 4) 1. it can no longer extend it until the President again redeclares the measure. the suspension is lifted as to him. 3. Automatically suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus.  The  This is the "open • The Role of Congress a. in person or in writing. it shall convene in accordance with its rules without need of a call within 24 hours following the proclamation or suspension. the President can just suspend the privilege and achieve the same effect. and 2. based on the persistence of the emergency. that is a "theater of war. There must be an invasion or rebellion. par. the President shall submit a report. c. (Art. Congress shall convene at once. such proclamation or suspension shall be effective for a period of 60 days. Supplant the functioning of the civil courts and the legislative assemblies. When the President proclaims martial law or suspends the privilege of the writ. Legislate 2. Effects of the proclamation of martial law • The President can: 1.

Sec. This test was taken from the case of Lansang v. or (b) the extension thereof. But before the SC can decide on the legality of his detention. A petition for habeas corpus is one such case. 3) This is because judicial power includes the duty to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the Government. Congress can lift the extension.). According to the SC. VIII. 2 decision was reversed. 2. In the case of Olaguer vs Military Commission No. 1. par. Sec. the requirements for the proclamation or suspension no longer exist. This curbs radically the application of the political question doctrine. this can be reviewed by the Supreme Court pursuant to the next section. the sufficiency of the factual basis of (a) the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ. or the act of Congress in extending. Garcia. (Art. • • • • • • • • • • 78 . Garcia. par. As long as civil courts remain open and are regularly functioning. since the power to confer implies the power to take back. in an appropriate proceeding filled by any citizen. he or someone else in his behalf has the standing to question the validity of the proclamation or suspension. Sec. 18. it must first pass upon the validity of the proclamation or suspension. 5. Deciding on whether the act was arbitrary amounts to a determination of whether or not there was grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction. 150 SCRA 144. 3. VIII. 42 SCRA 446 (1971). but before the period of extension lapses. The issue there raised was whether in suspending the privilege of the writ in 1971. the Aquino vs. 34. The SC. and even on the premise that martial law continues in force. The Role of the Supreme Court: The Supreme Court may review. VII. then. It must promulgate its decision thereon within 30 days from its filing. If Congress does not review or lift the order. 18 par. civilians who are placed on trial for civil offenses under general law are entitled to trial by judicial process. but whether he acted arbitrarily in that the action had no basis in fact. In this case of Lansang vs. VII. One may disagree with his appreciation of the facts. The question is not whether the President or Congress acted correctly. concluded that the President did not act arbitrarily. VII. If Congress extends the measure. in considering the fact that the President based his decision on (a) the Senate report on the condition in Central Luzon and (b) a closed door briefing by the military showing the extent of subversion. The assertion of military authority over civilians cannot rest on the President's power as Commander in Chief or on any theory of martial law. which is now made part of judicial power by Art. The test to be used by the Supreme Court in so reviewing the act of the President in proclaiming or suspending. If Civil Courts Are Open. When a person is arrested without a warrant for complicity in the rebellion or invasion. because it is already valid. par. Sec. It is thus restricted to the 2 measures above. 18. Since we are not enemy-occupied territory nor are we under a military govt. the SC held unanimously that it has the authority to inquire into the existence of the factual basis in order to determine the constitutional sufficiency thereof. is the test of arbitrariness which seeks to determine the sufficiency of the factual basis of the measure. To hold otherwise is a violation of the right to due process. for the proclamation or suspension to be lifted: 1) Lifting by the President himself 2) Revocation by Congress 3) Nullification by the Supreme Court 4) Operation of law after 60 days Military Trial of Civilians Void Even Under Martial Law. Military Commission No. (Art. military tribunals cannot try and exercise jurisdiction over civilians for offenses committed by them and which are properly cognizable by civil courts. This holding of the SC is now found in Art.• • Note that Congress cannot "validate" the proclamation or suspension. 1. Sec. par. Marcos had a basis for doing so. There are 4 ways. (Art. 2) The jurisdiction of the SC may be invoked in a proper case. the military tribunals cannot try and exercise jurisdiction over civilians for civil offenses committed by them which are properly cognizable by the civil courts that have remained open and have been regularly functioning. but one cannot say that it is without basis.

without any authority or delegation from Congress. • • • David v. and as provided in Section 17. But to the second. or. manifold constitutional issues arise. can call the military not only to enforce obedience “to all the laws and to all decrees x x x” but also to act pursuant to the provision of Section 17. X x x x x x x x x Petitioners. (b) upon the next (voluntary) adjournment of Congress. to exercise powers necessary and proper to carry out a declared national policy. 171396. When the President acts under the Commander-in-Chief clause. This is an area that needs delineation. [Art. Macapagal-Arroyo. and (2) subject to such restrictions as Congress may provide. A distinction must be drawn between the President’s authority to declare “a state of national emergency” and to exercise emergency powers. Sec. by a vote of 2/3 of both houses in joint session assembled but voting separately shall have the sole power to declare the existence of a state of war. The scope of the grant is such "powers necessary and proper to carry out a declared national policy. Sec. The import of this provision is that President Arroyo. To the first. he acts under a Congressional delegation of law-making power. Article VII grants the President such power. But when the President acts under the emergency power." This power is (1) for a limited period. The power ceases (a) upon being withdrawn by resolution of the Congress. 23(2). 23. which may include the law-making power. during the emergency and under reasonable terms prescribed by it. and regulations promulgated by me personally or upon my direction. for a limited period and subject such restrictions as the law may prescribe. During the existence of the state of national emergency. hence. Article VI of the Constitution reads: SEC. 79 . during the state of national emergency under PP 1017. PP 1017 purports to grant the President. claim that President Arroyo’s inclusion of Section 17. unless sooner withdrawn by its resolution. For the fact that Congress is able to meet in session uninterruptedly and adjourn of its own will proves that the emergency no longer exists is to justify the delegation. Section 23. particularly the members of the House of Representatives.DECLARATION OF WAR AND DELEGATION OF EMERGENCY POWERS • The Congress. [Art. Article XII in PP 1017 is an encroachment on the legislature’s emergency powers. when the public interest so requires. if Congress fails to adopt such resolution. to take over or direct the operation of any privately-owned public utility or business affected with public interest. VI. 17. VI. as elucidated by the Court. May 3. shall have the sole power to declare the existence of a state of war. the State may. the Congress may authorize the President. GR No. no legitimate constitutional objection can be raised. In times of national emergency. Article XII of the Constitution do hereby declare a state of national emergency. orders. Section 18.] This grant of emergency power to the President is different from the Commander-inChief clause. (1) The Congress. 23(1)] In times of war or other national emergency. voting separately. temporarily take over or direct the operation of any privately-owned public utility or business affected with public interest. by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses in joint session assembled. Such powers shall cease upon the next adjournment of Congress. 2006 HELD: The pertinent provision of PP 1017 states: x x x and to enforce obedience to all the laws and to all decrees. he acts under a constitutional grant of military power. What could be the reason of President Arroyo in invoking the above provision when she issued PP 1017? The answer is simple. Article XII which reads: Sec.

sections. Article VII (calling-out power) and grant it to Congress (like the declaration of the existence of a state of war). Congress is the repository of emergency powers. Considering that Section 17 of Article XII and Section 23 of Article VI. it may not be possible or practicable for Congress to meet and exercise its powers. is a different matter. Emergencies.” If the intention of the Framers of our Constitution was to withhold from the President the authority to declare a “state of national emergency” pursuant to Section 18. variety. (4) The emergency powers must be exercised to carry out a national policy declared by Congress. during the emergency and under reasonable terms prescribed by it. not the President. thus: MR. Otherwise stated.” “hurricane” and “similar occurrences. Unless sooner withdrawn by resolution of the Congress. have been occasioned by a wide range of situations.” “typhoon. Clearly. relate to national emergencies. and perception. then the Framers could have provided so. a body cannot delegate a power not reposed upon it. subject to certain conditions. pestilence or epidemic. for a limited period and subject to such restrictions as it may prescribe. the Congress may. flood. What is the Committee’s definition of “national emergency” which appears in Section 13. knowing that during grave emergencies.” This is a limited view of “emergency. such powers shall cease upon the next adjournment thereof. thus: (1) There must be a war or other emergency.” as contemplated in our Constitution. when Section 17 states that the “the State may. Section 17. authorize the President. by law. temporarily take over or direct the operation of any privately owned public utility or business affected with public interest. Implicit in this definitions are the elements of intensity. GASCON. This requires a delegation from Congress. X x x Petitioner Cacho-Olivares. the Framers of our Constitution deemed it wise to allow Congress to grant emergency powers to the President. contends that the term “emergency” under Section 17. Yes. Article XII must be understood as an aspect of the emergency powers clause. such as the taking over of privately owned public utility or business affected with public interest. and provisions of a constitution which relate to the same subject matter will be construed together and considered in the light of each other. (3) The delegation must be subject to such restrictions as the Congress may prescribe. It may include rebellion. X x x This is evident in the Records of the Constitutional Commission. they did not intend that Congress should first authorize the President before he can declare a “state of national emergency. classifiable under three (3) principal heads: a) economic. and c) national security. economic crisis. to exercise powers necessary and proper to carry out a declared national policy. et al. b) natural disaster. This is evident in the tenor of Section 23 (2). Thus. Certainly. Generally. However. as a generic term. is of the same breadth. Article XII refers to “tsunami. “Emergency. But the exercise of emergency powers. they must be read together to determine the limitation of the exercise of emergency powers. or other similar catastrophe of nationwide proportions or effect. different clauses. The taking over of private business affected with public interest is just another facet of the emergency powers generally reposed upon Congress.” it refers to Congress. Now. as perceived by legislature or executive in the United Sates since 1933.(2) In times of war or other national emergency. connotes the existence of conditions suddenly intensifying the degree of existing danger to life or well-being beyond that which is accepted as normal.” Emergency. page 5? It reads: 80 .” The logical conclusion then is that President Arroyo could validly declare the existence of a state of national emergency even in the absence of a Congressional enactment. Courts have often said that constitutional provisions in pari materia are to be construed together. typhoon. whether or not the President may exercise such power is dependent on whether Congress may delegate it to him pursuant to a law prescribing the reasonable terms thereof. It may be pointed out that the second paragraph of the above provision refers not only to war but also to “other national emergency. previously quoted. (2) The delegation must be for a limited period only. Article VI authorizing it to delegate such powers to the President.

The President cannot decide whether exceptional circumstances exist warranting the take over of privately-owned public utility or business affected with public interest. about strikes and riots? What MR. no. through which extraordinary measures are exercised. There is a question by Commissioner de los Reyes. The truth is that under our concept of constitutional government. not even when that Republic was fighting a total war. Dinglasan. VILLEGAS. legislation is preserved for Congress all the time. given the ability to act.When the common good so requires. Never in the history of the United States. under this framework of government. dislocations. VILLEGAS. or when it was engaged in a life-and-death struggle to preserve the Union. TINGSON. the fact remains that the Constitution has set up this form of government. In Araneta v. he has no power to take over privatelyowned public utility or business affected with public interest. in times of extreme perils more than in normal circumstances the various branches. Unless they are of such proportions such that they would paralyze government service. without legislation. Strikes. Thank you very much. in preference to the commingling of powers in one man or group of men. those would not be covered by the term “national emergency. Article VII in the absence of an emergency powers act passed by Congress. BENGZON. legislative. therefore. 81 . The Filipino people by adopting parliamentary government have given notice that they share the faith of other democracy-loving peoples in this system. no. as the ideal. MR. have specific functions of the legislative branch of enacting laws been surrendered to another department. it could refer to both military or economic MR. without legislation. the State may temporarily take over or direct the operation of any privately owned public utility or business affected with public interest. however. GASCON. Likewise. What I mean is threat from external aggression. Congress may not be able to convene and.” MR. calamities or natural disasters. Let it be emphasized that while the President alone can declare a state of national emergency. May I ask the committee if “national emergency” refers to military national emergency or could this be economic emergency? MR. TINGSON. with all its faults. remains in Congress even in times of crisis. and judicial. unless we regard as legislating the carrying out of a legislative policy according to prescribed standards. Nor can he determine when such exceptional circumstances have ceased. The point is. are called upon to perform the duties and discharge the responsibilities committed to them respectively. the President has no absolute authority to exercise all the powers of the State under Section 17. x x x x x x MR. It may be argued that when there is national emergency. invoked by President Arroyo in issuing PP 1017. unable to delegate to the President the power to take over privately-owned public utility or business affected with public interest. executive. Following our interpretation of Section 17. Yes. In short. VILLEGAS. for example. After all the criticisms that have been made against the efficiency of the system of the separation of powers. with all its defects and shortcomings. this Court rules that such Proclamation does not authorize her during the emergency to temporarily take over or direct the operation of any privately owned public utility or business affected with public interest without authority from Congress. the President has no power to point out the types of businesses affected with public interest that should be taken over. the basic features of whose Constitution have been copied in ours. Article XII. MR. not excepting periods of crisis no matter how serious. this Court emphasized that legislative power.

so to speak. [Sec. a temporary suspension of execution. or as otherwise provided in this Constitution.• Although the tour of duty of the Chief of Staff of the AFP should not exceed 3 years. he may be rearrested upon the non-fulfillment of the conditions of probation and. (People vs. and often conditioned upon their return to obedience and duty within a prescribed time. during the period of probation. Brown v Walker. commutations and pardons. prescribing the terms upon which the sentence shall be suspended. which exempts the individual on whom it is bestowed. nor are they the same. Vera) Commutation is a reduction of sentence. and who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted. the pardonee has no option at all and must accept it whether he likes it or not. A plenary pardon extinguishes all the penalties imposed upon the offender. without granting a pardon. a substitution of a less penalty for the one originally imposed. Art. It is a remission of guilt. (Black) It is a remission of a part of the punishment. VII. He is not exempt from the entire punishment which the law inflicts. Under the Probation Act. both in origin and nature.-.subject to the control of the probation officer and of the court. a postponement of execution. the probationer is in no true sense. and remit fines and forfeitures. when 82 . a forgiveness of the offense.Pardon may be classified into absolute or conditional and plenary or partial. (People vs. (Black) It is an act of grace proceeding from the power entrusted with the execution of the laws. • • • • Pardon distinguished from probation • Probation and Pardon are not coterminous. In this sense. He shall also have the power to grant amnesty with the concurrence of a majority of all the Members of the Congress. granted by government generally to a class of persons who have been guilty usually of political offenses (treason. But in the case of an absolute pardon. the offender has the right to reject the same since he may feel that the condition imposed is more onerous than the penalty sought to be remitted. whereas a conditional pardon is one under which the convict is required to comply with certain requirements. remains in legal custody-. • Reprieve is a temporary relief from or postponement of execution of criminal penalty or sentence or a stay of execution. Where the pardon is conditional. Except in cases of impeachment. (People v Vera) • • • Kinds of Pardon. (Black. rebellion). sedition. after conviction by final judgment. 5(7). 3 (a). 161 US 602). a free man. (Black) It is the withholding of a sentence for an interval of time. Vera) Pardon is a permanent cancellation of sentence. the probationer's case is not terminated by the mere fact that he is placed on probation.] EXECUTIVE CLEMENCIES  Sec. which is also not subject to acceptance by the offender. as in pardon. the President may extend such tour of duty in times of war or other national emergency declared by Congress. The probationer. including accessory disabilities. from the punishment the law inflicts for the crime he has committed. XVI. Amnesty is a sovereign act of oblivion for past acts. an absolute pardon is similar to commutation. 1987 Constitution SECTION 19. Sec. whereas partial pardon does not. It does not more than stay the execution of a sentence extended to a prisoner to afford him an opportunity to procure some amelioration of the sentence imposed. In probation. Probation is a disposition under which a defendant after conviction and sentence is released subject to conditions imposed by the court and to the supervision of a probation officer. [Art. He is not finally and completely exonerated. An absolute pardon is one extended without any strings attached. PD 968. 19. They are actually distinct and different from each other. the President may grant reprieves.] Parole is the suspension of the sentence of a convict granted by a Parole Board after serving the minimum term of the indeterminate sentence penalty.

But by no stretch of the imagination can the exercise by Congress of its plenary power to amend laws be considered as a violation of the President’s power to commute final sentences of conviction. 3. Monsanto v. to a group. that is. however.) 6. [170 SCRA 190] HELD: While a pardon has generally been regarded as blotting out the existence of guilt so that in the eyes of the law the offender is as innocent as though he never committed the offense. In truth. It does not erase the fact of the commission of the 83 . 2. amnesty is a public act of which the courts take judicial notice. at any time after final judgment of conviction. In absolute pardon. amnesty. and the convict must be exempted from service of sentence. Pardon looks forward and relieves the offender from the consequences of an offense of which he has been convicted. an accused who has been convicted by final judgment still possesses collateral rights and these rights can be claimed in the appropriate courts. including the accessory penalties. But pardon is granted by the Chief Executive for any crime. Jan. It is not usurpation of the presidential power of reprieve though its effect is the same – the temporary suspension of the execution of the death convict. Pardon is a private act of the President which must be pleaded and proved by the person because the courts do not take judicial notice of it. Vera. People v.) Echegaray v. amnesty requires such concurrence. he must submit to periodic examination by the Board of Parole. Secretary of Justice. there must be a final judgment of conviction. it cannot be denied that Congress can at any time amend R. while parole is granted by the Board of Pardons and Parole under the Indeterminate Sentence Law only after the convict has served the minimum term of his sentence. while probation is granted by the court after investigation by a probation officer only for cases where the penalty imposed does not exceed 6 years and 1 day (prision mayor). 19. in parole.A. (Barrioquinto v Fernandez) 5. (Secs. the restoration of the probationer to his civil rights takes places only after his final discharge after the period of his probation.rearrested. the convict becomes a free man. In the same vein. and pardons and remit fines and forfeitures after conviction by final judgment. 4. 65 Phil. may be committed to prison to serve the sentence originally imposed upon him. the Legislative and the Judiciary to save the life of a death convict do not exclude each other for the simple reason that there is no higher right than the right to life. The powers of the Executive. the sentence and its effects. cannot be interpreted as denying the power of courts to control the enforcement of their decisions after the finality. for political crimes. (Cruz. class. where the crime is not against the security of the State. 56 (1937) • Notes: In both cases. For instance. that is. The suspension of such a death sentence is undisputably an exercise of judicial power. In pardon. Article VII of the 1987 Constitution is simply the source of power of the President to grant reprieves. 7659 by reducing the penalty of death to life imprisonment. Pardon does not require the concurrence of the Congress. No. The very essence of a pardon is forgiveness or remission of guilt and not forgetfulness. commutations. In probation. Pardon can only be granted after conviction. where there was no previous conviction for an offense punished by arresto mayor. he is not really free because although he his released from the custody of the law. This provision. 301 SCRA 96. amnesty. or community generally. Philippine Political Law. 1999. • Pardon distinguished from Amnesty 1. Factoran. Pardon is granted to individuals. 14 & 16) • Pardon distinguished from Parole • Pardon may be granted by the Chief Executive under the Constitution and formerly the Administrative Code. 1991 ed. are abolished upon the grant of pardon. it abolishes or forgives the punishment. (id. it does not operate for all purposes. even before service. Pardon is usually granted for common crimes. and where there was no previous availment of probation. a death convict who becomes insane after his final conviction cannot be executed while in a state of insanity (See Article 79 of the Revised Penal Code). it overlooks and obliterates the offense with which the convict is charged that the person released stands precisely as though he had committed no offense. The effect of such an amendment is like that of commutation of sentence. En Banc [Puno] HELD: Section 19. amnesty may be granted even before trial. amnesty looks backward and abolishes and puts into oblivion the offense itself.

The bestowal of executive clemency on petitioner in effect completely obliterated the adverse effects of the administrative decision which found him guilty of dishonesty and ordered his separation from the service. after conviction by final judgment. By the pardonee’s consent to the terms stipulated in this contract. Art. he will be recommitted to prison to serve the unexpired portion of the sentence or an additional one (Alvarez v. he is restored to his office ipso facto upon the issuance of the clemency. the pardonee has thereby placed himself under the supervision of the Chief Executive or his delegate who is duty-bound to see to it that the pardonee complies with the terms and conditions of the pardon. he was later acquitted by the trial court of the charge of qualified theft based on the very same acts for which he was dismissed. After the expiration in 1991 of the Agreement between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America 84 ." In the case at bar. however erroneous the findings may be upon which his recommitment was ordered. good reputation and unstained character prior to the finding of guilt. Unless expressly grounded on the person's innocence. it affirms this innocence and makes him a new man and as innocent as if he had not been found guilty of the offense charged. 1995 [Hermosisima] HELD: A conditional pardon is in the nature of a contract between the sovereign power or the Chief Executive and the convicted criminal to the effect that the former will release the latter subject to the condition that if he does not comply with the terms of the pardon. or conditions of his pardon. 29. the President may grant reprieves. No treaty or international agreement shall be valid and effective unless concurred in by at least two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate. However. But since pardon does not generally result in automatic reinstatement because the offender has to apply for reappointment. 50). commutations. 251 SCRA 709. thereby restoring to him his clean name. THE TREATY-MAKING POWER OF THE PRESIDENT  Sec. Verily. Garcia v. stated otherwise. which is rendered automatic by the grant of the pardon.crime and the conviction thereof. The pardoned offender regains his eligibility for appointment to public office which was forfeited by reason of the conviction of the offense. But. cannot invoke the aid of the courts. The acquittal of petitioner by the trial court was founded not on lack of proof beyond reasonable doubt but on the fact that petitioner did not commit the offense imputed to him. having consented to place his liberty on conditional pardon upon the judgment of the power that has granted it. the pardon relieves the party from all punitive consequences of his criminal act. Chairman. 21. Art. in his judgment. 1987 Constitution SECTION 25. parole. and the pardonee. if the pardon is based on the innocence of the individual. shall fail to comply with the condition. Director of Prisons. or suspension of sentence. VII.  Sec. The determination of the violation of the conditional pardon rests exclusively in the sound judgment of the Chief Executive. he is not entitled to back wages. XVIII. integrity and fair dealing. Aside from finding him innocent of the charge. Under Section 64(i) of the Revised Administrative Code. "He shall also have the power to grant amnesty with the concurrence of a majority of all the Members of the Congress. and pardons. 1987 Constitution SECTION 21. bolstered by the favorable recommendations for his reinstatement by the Ministry of Transportation and Communications and the Civil Service Commission. the Chief Executive is authorized to order “the arrest and reincarceration of any such person who. the trial court commended petitioner for his concern and dedication as a public servant. Dec. it cannot bring back lost reputation for honesty. In Re: Wilfredo Sumulong Torres. Pardon frees the individual from all the penalties and legal disabilities and restores to him all his civil rights. and remit fines and forfeitures. This can be inferred from the executive clemency itself exculpating petitioner from the administrative charge and thereby directing his reinstatement. When a person is given pardon because he did not truly commit the offense. petitioner's innocence is the primary reason behind the grant of executive clemency to him. This signifies that petitioner need no longer apply to be reinstated to his former employment.” It is now a wellentrenched rule in this jurisdiction that this exercise of presidential judgment is beyond judicial scrutiny. 80 Phil. COA HELD: Our Constitution reposes in the President the power and the exclusive prerogative to extend executive clemency under the following circumstances: "Except in cases of impeachment or as otherwise provided in this Constitution. petitioner was found administratively liable for dishonesty and consequently dismissed from the service. 25.

Hernandez (101 Phil. The reason is that although executive agreements are a kind of international agreements. The foregoing premises leave no doubt that US forces are prohibited from engaging in an offensive war on Philippine territory. (Bayan v.concerning Military Bases. The Senate. 1155. G. Zamora. • Treaty distinguished from executive agreements • Executive agreements entered into by the President need no concurrence. G. Oct. final judgments and decrees of inferior courts in – (1) All cases in which the constitutionality or validity of any treaty.R. for that would be giving a strict construction to the phrase. 2. Gov’t. 105 Phil 1030) • • Bayan v. foreign military bases. Nature of Executive Agreements : There are 2 classes : (1) agreements made purely as executive acts affecting external relations and independent of or without legislative authorization. 5. “recognized as a treaty”.R. we ruled that provisions of a treaty are always subject to qualification or amendment by a subsequent law. 2000) By reason of the President's unique position as head of state. Lim and Ersando v. 138570. 242 [1963]). and recognized as a treaty by the other contracting State. as in Art. Art. while an executive agreement is an international agreement embodying adjustments of detail carrying out well-established national policies and traditions. Senate. an executive agreement is just as binding as a treaty. or executive order or regulation is in question. which may be termed as presidential agreements. ordinance. said that the difference between a treaty and an executive agreement is that a treaty is an international agreement involving political issues or changes of national policy and those involving international arrangements of a permanent character. v. 2002. the SC in Commissioner of Customs v.” In other words. and (2) agreements entered into in pursuance of acts of Congress. En Banc [Buena] HELD: The Phil. Treasurer. suffice it to say that the Constitution of the Philippines has clearly settled it in the affirmative. when the Congress so requires. or concurrence. 10. or affirm on appeal. but. Sec. has complied with the Constitution in that the VFA was concurred in by the Phil. when it runs counter to an act of Congress. VII.R. Hechanova (9 SCRA 230. also. to the ratification. In holding that treaties are formal documents which require ratification with approval of the Senate. G. In Gonzales v. revise. Zamora. ratified by a majority of the votes cast by the people in a national referendum held for that purpose. is granted the right to share in the treaty-making power of the President by concurring with him with the right to amend. modify. it says so specifically. it is inconsequential whether the US treats the VFA as merely an executive agreement because under international law. 85 . En Banc [De Leon] HELD: In Ichong v. and those involving arrangements of a more or less temporary nature. in Section 2 of Article VIII thereof. reverse. that the Supreme Court may not be deprived “of its jurisdiction to review. as commonly believed. 3 SCRA 351 (1961). thus complying with Sec. No. 21. Oct. 138570. No. Honorable Executive Secretary. or writ of error as the law or the rules of court may provide. • The power to ratify is vested in the President and not. is in question. The Republic of the Philippines cannot require the US to submit the agreement to the US Senate for concurrence. law. when it speaks of the power of the SC to review final judgments of lower courts in cases in which the constitutionality or validity of any treaty. not only when it conflicts with the fundamental law. by providing. or Congressional-Executive Agreements. international or executive agreement. while executive agreements become binding through executive action without need of a vote by the Senate. x x x as regards the question whether an international agreement may be invalidated by our courts. par. Moreover. 151445. in the legislature. Eastern Sea Trading. No. (USAFFE Veterans Assn. 10. or that it is subject to the police power of the State. when the Constitution intends to include executive agreements. certiorari. troops. on the other hand. 1191 [1957]). VIII. he is the logical choice as the nation's spokesman in foreign relations. April 11. or facilities shall not be allowed in the Philippines except under a treaty duly concurred in by the Senate and. our Constitution authorizes the nullification of a treaty. 2000. The role of the Senate is limited only to giving or withholding its consent.

and containing other matters provided by law. (Art. 21. Sec. and other mineral oils according to the general terms and conditions provided by law. 1994 [Quiason] HELD: Impoundment refers to the refusal of the President. Sec. petroleum. 2. Angara. Foreign loans may only be incurred in accordance with law and the regulation of the monetary authority. (Art. THE JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT • To maintain the independence of the Judiciary. 2. It is the failure to spend or obligate budget authority of any type. A state which has contracted valid international obligations is bound to make in its legislations such modifications as may be necessary to ensure the fulfillment of the obligations undertaken. development. the following safeguards have been embodied in the Constitution: (Cruz) (1) The SC is a constitutional body. CONTRACTING AND GUARANTEEING FOREIGN LOANS Art. or government-owned or controlled corporations. The proponents insist that a faithful execution of the laws requires that the President desist from implementing the law if doing so would prejudice public interest. [Art. it is sheer folly to expect the President to spend the entire amount budgeted in the law. It cannot be abolished nor may its membership or the manner of its meetings be changed by mere legislation. VIII. 4 (1)] (2) The members of the judiciary are not subject to confirmation by the CA. within 30 days from its execution. En Banc [Panganiban] HELD: One of the oldest and most fundamental rules in international law is pacta sunt servanda — international agreements must be performed in good faith. 2. The President shall notify the Congress of every contract entered into in accordance with this provision. VII. 9. submit to Congress a complete report of its decisions on applications for loans to be contracted or guaranteed by the Government. and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law. Sec.. substantial savings are made. "A treaty engagement is not a mere moral obligation but creates a legally binding obligation on the parties . The Monetary Board shall. (Art. In such a case.. to spend funds made available by Congress. An example given is when through efficient and prudent management of a project. 235 SCRA 506. 20.) 86 . POWER WITH REGARD TO THE UTILIZATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES • The President may enter into agreements with foreign-owned corporations involving either technical or financial assistance for large-scale exploration. (3) The members of the SC may not be removed except by impeachment. pars.) (4) The SC may not be deprived of its minimum original and appellate jurisdiction as prescribed in Art. Sec. XII. X. and utilization of minerals. Aug. VIII. Sec. IX. Proponents of impoundment have invoked at least three principal sources of the authority of the President: 1) The authority to impound given to him either expressly or impliedly by Congress. Sec. 5 of the Constitution. which would have the effect of increasing the foreign debt. 4 & 5). . 2) The executive power drawn from the President’s role as Commander-in-Chief.Tanada v. for whatever reason. Enriquez. Art." POWER OF IMPOUNDMENT PHILCONSA v. Sec. within thirty days from the end of every quarter of the calendar year. 272 SCRA 18 [1997]. XII. . Information on foreign loans obtained or guaranteed by the Government shall be made available to the public. 3) The Faithful Execution Clause. The President may contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines with the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board.

A.) • The Supreme Court is a constitutional body. or in its discretion. 30. Sec. COMPOSITION: The Supreme Court shall be composed of a Chief Justice and 14 Associate Justices. 1. VIII. VIII. VIII. VIII. VIII. [Art.] (13) Only the SC may order the temporary detail of judges. 5 (6)] CREATION: The judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law. the salaries of members of the Judiciary are not exempt from taxes. [Art. 3. (Art. As such it cannot be abolished by the Congress for the power to destroy only resides in the one who has the power to create. (Id. or betrayal of public trust. on the legislative history of the present Art.(5) The appellate jurisdiction of the SC may not be increased by law without its advice and concurrence. Nos. 2. (Art. 10. VIII. 4(1)] MODE OF SITTING: It may sit en banc. 3 or 2 divisions).) (3) At least 15 years of experience as a judge of lower court. The members of the Supreme Court and judges of lower courts shall hold office during good behavior until they reach the age of seventy years. 11. (Art. 11. are established by law. VI. Sec. the Court ruled that under the 1987 Constitution. bribery. The xxx Members of the Supreme Court xxx may be removed from office. VIII. In Re: Raul Gonzales. probity and independence [Art. All other public officers and employees may be removed from office as provided by law. Sec. Sec.) (12) The SC alone may initiate rules of court. Sec.) (9) They shall not be designated to any agency performing quasi-judicial or administrative functions. VIII. VIII. Sec. culpable violation of the Constitution. [Art. the SC sits either en banc or in 3 divisions with 5 members each. 88-4-5433. 7(1)] (2) At least 40 years of age (id. cannot be charged with disbarment during the incumbency of 87 . Sec. Sec. (Art. 12. VIII. Regional Trial Courts. VIII. (July 1987). VIII. 10. or order their dismissal by a vote of a majority of the Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted thereon. 7(3)] SALARY NOT EXEMPT FROM INCOME TAX: In Nitafan v. treason. QUALIFICATIONS (1) Natural-born citizen [Art. • SECURITY OF TENURE AND REMOVAL Art. April 15. Sec. but not by impeachment. Municipal Circuit Trial Courts). integrity. Sec. (Art. Sec. Commissioner of Internal Revenue. graft and corruption. 1988 HELD: A public officer who under the Constitution is required to be a Member of the Philippine Bar as a qualification for the office held by him and who may be removed from office only by impeachment. [Art. and conviction of. Art. or practice of law in the Philippines (4) Of proven competence. that is.) (6) The SC now has administrative supervision over all lower courts and their personnel. on the other hand. 5 or 7 members (or 5. It anchored its decision on the deliberation of the Constitutional Commission. 6. 1. 5 (5). 5 (3)] (14) The SC can appoint all officials and employees of the judiciary. VIII. VIII. (Art.) (7) The SC has exclusive power to discipline judges of lower courts. on impeachment for. XI. Municipal Trial Courts.) (11) The judiciary shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. other high crimes. 4(1)] • • At present. [Art. The Supreme Court en banc shall have the power to discipline judges of lower courts.M. and so could be abolished by law. Metropolitan Trial Courts. (Art. Sec.) (8) The members of the SC and all lower courts have security of tenure. in divisions of 3. Sec. par. Sec.) (10) The salaries of judges may not be reduced during their continuance in office. Sec. provided the security of tenure is not undermined. or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office. Sec. which cannot be undermined by a law reorganizing the judiciary. The lower courts (Court of Appeals. VIII. Sec.

fix rates of compensation not exceeding the highest rates authorized by law for compensation and pay plans of the government and allocate and disburse such sums as may be provided by law or prescribed by them in the course of the discharge of their functions. Drilon. 18. such public officer. the fiscal autonomy enjoyed by the Judiciary. Appropriations for the Judiciary may not be reduced by the legislature below the amount appropriated for the previous year and. the Commission on Audit. the Court had occasion to reiterate that it “also has the duty to formulate guiding and controlling constitutional principles. 28. FUNCTIONS OF THE COURTS ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation v. in Salonga v. the Constitutional Commissions.R No. the Commission on Elections. VIII. exit polling is tied up with elections. In any event. 88 . En Banc [Panganiban] HELD: While the assailed Resolution referred specifically to the May 11. It recognizes the power and authority to levy. for any number of reasons might seek to affect the exercise of judicial authority by the Court.such public officer. assess and collect fees. the Civil Service Commission. Bengzon v. after approval. 1. Art. G. By its very nature. he may then be held to answer either criminally or administratively (by disbarment proceedings) for any wrong or misbehaviour that may be proven against him in appropriate proceedings. The holding of periodic elections is a basic feature of our democratic government. A Member of the Supreme Court must first be removed from office via the constitutional route of impeachment under Sections 2 and 3 of Article XI of the 1987 Constitution. Members of the Supreme Court would be vulnerable to all manner of charges which might be brought against them by unsuccessful litigants or their lawyers or by other parties who. FISCAL AUTONOMY means freedom from outside control. or rules. 3. Sec. COMELEC. FISCAL AUTONOMY Art. 133486. VIII. JUDICIAL POWER  Sec. The Judiciary shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Cruz Pano (134 SCRA 438. To set aside the resolution of the issue now will only postpone a task that could well crop up again in future elections. The imposition of restrictions and constraints on the manner the independent constitutional offices allocate and utilize the funds appropriated for their operations is anathema to fiscal autonomy and violative not only of the express mandate of the Constitution but especially as regards the Supreme Court. 463. The rule is important because judicial independence is important. and the Ombudsman must have the independence and flexibility needed in the discharge of their constitutional duties. The above rule rests on the fundamental principles of judicial independence and separation of powers. The Judiciary. during his incumbency. 1998 election. whether they likewise protect the holding of exit polls and the dissemination of data derived therefrom. Without the protection of this rule. for the guidance of posterity.” Since the fundamental freedoms of speech and of the press are being invoked here. Feb. Further. its implications on the people’s fundamental freedom of expression transcend the past election. Jan. we have resolved to settle. doctrines. It has the symbolic function of educating bench and bar on the extent of protection given by constitutional guarantees. 1985). shall be automatically and regularly released. 208 SCRA 133 (1992) HELD: As envisioned in the Constitution. Should the tenure of the Supreme Court Justice be thus terminated by impeachment. and the Office of the Ombudsman contemplates a guarantee of full flexibility to allocate and utilize their resources with the wisdom and dispatch that their needs require. precepts. 2000. The judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law. cannot be charged criminally before the Sandiganbayan or any other court with any offense which carries with it the penalty of removal from office. or any penalty service of which would amount to removal from office. of the independence and separation of powers upon which the entire fabric of our constitutional system is based. 1987 Constitution SECTION 1.

Judicial power includes the duty of the courts of justice 1) to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable. CA. En Banc [Cruz] (Do lower courts have jurisdiction to consider the constitutionality of a law?) HELD: The lower court had jurisdiction to consider the constitutionality of Section 187. 338 SCRA 81 (2000) HELD: As a general proposition. In the classic formulation of Justice Brennan in Baker v.” Thus. international or executive agreement. “[p]rominent on the surface of any case held to involve a political question is found a textually demonstrable constitutional commitment of the issue to a coordinate political department. This is in truth all that is involved in what is termed "judicial supremacy" which properly is the power of judicial review under the Constitution. 19[1]). law. Electoral Tribunal. or in regard to which full discretionary authority has been delegated to the legislative or executive branch of government. Zamora. instruction. however. or a lack of judicially discoverable and manageable standards for resolving it. Aug. (Tocao v. has been limited by the political question doctrine. a controversy is justiciable if it refers to a matter which is appropriate for court review. especially when in its honest opinion it has committed an error or mistake in judgment. ordinance. Carr.B. 2001) • • Drilon v. or the impossibility of a court's undertaking independent resolution without expressing lack of the respect due coordinate branches of government. GR No. September 2o. POLITICAL QUESTIONS refer “to those questions which. if an issue is clearly identified by the text of the Constitution as matters for discretionary action by a particular branch of government or to the people themselves then it is held to be a political question." The extent to which it exercises this function. When the court allocated constitutional boundaries. it neither asserts supremacy. of a particular act or measure being assailed. One class of cases wherein the Court hesitates to rule on are “political questions. even as the accused in a criminal action has the right to question in his defense the constitutionality of a law he is charged with violating and of the proceedings taken against him. not the legality. proclamation.P. under the Constitution. 1994. the courts will not normally interfere with the workings of another co-equal branch unless the case shows a clear need for the courts to step in to uphold the law and the Constitution. particularly as they contravene the Bill of Rights. or the impossibility of deciding without an initial policy determination of a kind clearly for nonjudicial discretion. this authority being embraced in the general definition of the judicial power to determine what are the valid and binding laws by the criterion of their conformity to the fundamental law. 235 SCRA 135. the political question being a function of the separation of powers. the Court does not automatically assume jurisdiction over actual constitutional cases brought before it even in instances that are ripe for resolution. nor annuls the acts of the legislature. that it acts as the mechanism that implements the "supremacy of the Constitution. or an unusual need for unquestioning adherence to a political 89 . Electoral Commission. [Angara v. it is merely performing a duty imposed upon it by the Constitution.” The reason is that political questions are concerned with issues dependent upon the wisdom. • As early as Angara v. Section 5(2). the SC held that when it performs his checking function of the co-equal branches. Angara puts it. Nevertheless. It pertains to issues which are inherently susceptible of being decided on grounds recognized by law. As Tanada v. It simply carries out the solemn and sacred obligations imposed upon it by the constitution to determine conflicting claims and to establish for the parties the rights which the constitution grants to them. are to be decided by the people in their sovereign capacity. 127405. Moreover. 4. or regulation is in question. THE POLITICAL QUESTION DOCTRINE I. and that to adhere to its decision will cause injustice to a party litigant. Lim. of the Constitution vests in the Supreme Court appellate jurisdiction over final judgments and orders of lower courts in all cases in which the constitutionality or validity of any treaty. Moreover. BP 129 vests in the regional trial courts jurisdiction over all civil cases in which the subject of the litigation is incapable of pecuniary estimation (Sec. 63 Phil 139 (1936)] The inherent powers of a Court to amend and control its processes and orders so as to make them conformable to law and justice includes the right to reverse itself. and 2) to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the Government. Specifically. v. presidential decree. order. Article VIII.

EDSA II involves legal questions. the issue of whether the prescribed qualifications or conditions have been met or the limitations respected. it may look into the question of whether such exercise has been made in grave abuse of discretion. or to act at all in contemplation of law. Judicial power includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable. Under this definition. EDSA 2 EDSA 1 EDSA 2 a) Involves the exercise of a) An exercise of people the power people power of revolution of freedom of speech & Which overthrows the freedom of assembly to petition the government Whole government for redress of grievances which only affected the office of the president b) Is extra-constitutional b) Is intra-constitutional and and the the legitimacy of the new resignation of the sitting government that president that it caused resulted and from it cannot be the succession of the VP subject as of judicial review president are subject to judicial review c) Political question c) Involves legal questions REQUISITES FOR THE PROPER EXERCISE OF THE POWER OF JUDICIAL REVIEW • The time-tested standards for the exercise of judicial review are: (1) The existence of an appropriate case. Estrada v. and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the Government. 1 of the 1987 Constitution) Under this definition.” from multifarious The 1987 Constitution expands the concept of judicial review by providing that “[T]he Judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law. the Court cannot agree x x x that the issue involved is a political question beyond the jurisdiction of this Court to review. G. The principal issues for resolution require the proper interpretation of certain provisions in the 1987 Constitution. the cases at bar pose legal and not political questions. When the grant of power is qualified. But while this Court has no power to substitute its judgment for that of Congress or of the President. as where the power is exercised in an arbitrary and despotic manner by reason of passion or hostility. Sec. Nos. 90 . conditional or subject to limitations. En Banc [Puno] HELD: In fine. and Section 8 of Article VII.decision already made. Needless to state. not its wisdom. the legal distinction between EDSA People Power I and EDSA People Power II is clear…xxx EDSA I presented a political question.” (Article VIII. or the potentiality of embarrassment pronouncements by various departments on the one question. notably Section 1 of Article II. Moreover. 146710-15. is justiciable . March 2. a court is without power to directly decide matters over which full discretionary authority has been delegated. and the allocation of governmental powers under Section 11 of Article VII.R. the jurisdiction to delimit constitutional boundaries has been given to this Court. When political questions are involved. Desierto. EDSA 1 vs. By grave abuse of discretion is meant simply capricious or whimsical exercise of judgment that is patent and gross as to amount to an evasion of positive duty or a virtual refusal to perform a duty enjoined by law. the Constitution limits the determination as to whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of the official whose action is being questioned. 2001. A showing that plenary power is granted either department of government may not be an obstacle to judicial inquiry.the problem being one of legality or validity. for the improvident exercise or abuse thereof may give rise to justiciable controversy.

Macapagal-Arroyo.” unless it alleges a legal right or power. 91 . the Court will be forced to resolve issues which remain unfocused because they lack such concreteness provided when a question emerges precisely framed from a clash of adversary arguments exploring every aspect of a multi-faceted situation embracing conflicting and demanding interests. DENR. [Puno and Kapunan.R. and 4) The constitutional question is the lis mota of the case. G. on its face. 2006) A JUSTICIABLE CONTROVERSY has been defined as. Otherwise. 6. touching the legal relations of parties having adverse legal interest. 3) The exercise of judicial review is pleaded at the earliest opportunity. it must be susceptible of judicial determination. there exists a live controversy involving a clash of legal rights. namely: 1) The existence of an actual and appropriate case. May 3. GR No. 135385. the Court can exercise its power of judicial review only if the following requisites are complied with. Dec. A law has been enacted. Advisory Opinion GENERAL RULE: A request for advisory opinion cannot come in the category of an actual case or controversy since the issue raised does not involve any conflict in law that has assumed the proportions of a full-blown dispute. It is “definite and concrete. will desist from taking cognizance of speculative or hypothetical cases. Sec. for inherent in the term “controversy” is the presence of opposing views or contentions. It cannot be successfully maintained that we should await the adverse consequences of the law in order to consider the controversy actual and ripe for judicial resolution. En Banc. Moreover. No. EXCEPTION: When the purpose is to solicit from the court a declaratory judgment involving the interpretation of the rights and duties of a person under the provisions of a deed. this Court possesses sufficient authority to resolve and prevent imminent injury and violation of the constitutional process. constitutes an unconstitutional abdication of State ownership over lands of the public domain and other natural resources. Moreover. and (4) The necessity that the constitutional question be passed upon in order to decide the case • When questions of constitutional significance are raised. will. or that which seeks to resolve hypothetical or feigned constitutional problems. it must show that a conflict of rights exists. and that which is not conjectural or anticipatory. and the Implementing Rules and Regulations approved. Money has been appropriated and the government agencies concerned have been directed to implement the statute. Subject to certain well-defined exceptions courts will not touch an issue involving the validity of a law unless there has been a governmental act accomplished or performed that has a direct adverse effect on the legal right of the person contesting its validity. advisory opinions and in cases that has become moot. X x x [IBP v. “a definite and concrete dispute touching on the legal relations of parties having adverse legal interests” which may be resolved by a court of law through the application of a law. 2) A personal and substantial interest of the party raising the constitutional question.(2) An interest personal and substantial by the party raising the constitutional question.” a real and substantial controversy admitting of specific relief. 338 SCRA 81 (2000)] An actual case or controversy involves a conflict of legal right. 350 SCRA 697 (2001)] • • Isagani Cruz v. Actual Case or Controversy • An “ACTUAL CASE OR CONTROVERSY” means an existing case or controversy which is both ripe for resolution and susceptible of judicial determination. Courts have no judicial power to review cases involving political questions and as a rule. A petition raising a constitutional question does not present an “actual controversy. [Cutaran v. The court in this case is being asked only to counsel and not to decide. (David v. It is precisely the contention of the petitioners that the law. 2000. (3) The plea that the function be exercised at the earliest opportunity. 171396. when the State machinery is set into motion to implement an alleged unconstitutional statute. Zamora. that is. Separate Opinions] HELD: In the case at bar. The controversy must also be justiciable. an opposite legal claims susceptible of judicial resolution. of DENR.

Macapagal-Arroyo. No. En Banc [Kapunan] • "Legal standing" or locus standi has been defined as a personal and substantial interest in the case such that the party has sustained or will sustain direct injury as a result of the governmental act that is being challenged. 1998 election. whether they likewise protect the holding of exit polls and the dissemination of data derived therefrom. 15. precepts. or rules.contract.R No. 2006 HELD: Locus standi is defined as “a right of appearance in a court of justice on a given question. In any event. To set aside the resolution of the issue now will only postpone a task that could well crop up again in future elections. 2000. as amended. GR No. Aug. 5 violates the Constitution. involving as they do the people’s basic rights to freedom of expression.” In private suits. or a mere incidental interest. No. (Gonzales v. 141284. X x x The “moot and academic” principle is not a magical formula that can automatically dissuade the courts in resolving a case. doctrines or rules. exit polling is tied up with elections. It has the symbolic function of educating bench and bar on the extent of protection given by constitutional guarantees. and in the present petitions. It provides that “every action must be prosecuted or defended in the name of the real party in 92 . By its very nature. Jan. Certainly. courts decline jurisdiction over such case or dismiss it on ground of mootness. 2000. Narvasa. G. or other written instrument. 171396. Proper Party IBP v. when constitutional issue raised requires formulation of controlling principles to guide the bench. 28. standing is governed by the “real-parties-in interest” rule as contained in Section 2. respondents’ contested actions are capable of repetition. or a statute or ordinance. third. Moreover. May 3. 337 SCRA 733) David v. the case is deemed an actual controversy over which the courts may validly assume jurisdiction. Cruz Pano. the exceptional character of the situation and the paramount public interest is involved. Generally. the military and the police. 171396. The holding of periodic elections is a basic feature of our democratic government. Zamora. And lastly. so that a declaration thereon would be of no practical use or value. the bar. May 3. All the foregoing exceptions are present here and justify this Court’s assumption of jurisdiction over the instant petitions. Courts will decide cases. The term "interest" means a material interest. It has the symbolic function of educating the bench and the bar. 338 SCRA 81 (2000)] David v. En Banc [Panganiban] HELD: While the assailed Resolution referred specifically to the May 11. the Court has the duty to formulate guiding and controlling constitutional precepts. Zamora. doctrines.O. if: first. G. otherwise moot and academic. COMELEC. Petitioners alleged that the issuance of PP 1017 and G. There is no question that the issues being raised affect the public’s interest. the petitions are subject to judicial review. second. for the guidance of posterity. Rule 3 of the 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure. of assembly and of the press. ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation v. an interest in issue affected by the decree. GR No. there is a grave violation of the Constitution." [IBP v. and the public. the case is capable of repetition yet evading review. 133486." Since the fundamental freedoms of speech and of the press are being invoked here. the Court had occasion to reiterate that it "also has the duty to formulate guiding and controlling constitutional principles.R. 2006 HELD: A moot and academic case is one that ceases to present a justiciable controversy by virtue of supervening events. The gist of the question of standing is whether a party alleges "such personal stake in the outcome of the controversy as to assure that concrete adverseness which sharpens the presentation of issues upon which the court depends for illumination of difficult constitutional questions. we have resolved to settle. in Salonga v. on the extent of the protection given by constitutional guarantees. Macapagal-Arroyo. and fourth. as distinguished from mere interest in the question involved. its implications on the people’s fundamental freedom of expression transcend the past election. Moot and Academic Cases • An action is considered “moot” when it no longer presents a justiciable controversy because the issues involved have become academic or dead.

the “real-party-in interest” is “the party who stands to be benefited or injured by the judgment in the suit or the party entitled to the avails of the suit. or “taxpayer. Zamora.” However.” Accordingly. Ullman. the plaintiff who asserts a “public right” in assailing an allegedly illegal official action. or will sustain direct injury as a result.” Succinctly put. and that a public grievance be remedied. however.” With respect to taxpayer’s suits. David v. there is a chain of cases 93 . This Court adopted the “direct injury test” in our jurisdiction. he must show that he has sustained a direct injury as a result of that action. Collins: “In matter of mere public right. 338 SCRA 81 (2000) HELD: X x x. has a special and novel element. In not a few cases. In other words. being a mere procedural technicality. Vera. Comelec. however. Silk. Macapagal-Arroyo. In the former. if not the duty. the requirement of locus standi may be waived by the Court in the exercise of its discretion. In People v.” In either case. v. The distinction was first laid down in Beauchamp v.P. The difficulty of determining locus standi arises in public suits. the United State Supreme Court laid down the more stringent “direct injury test” in Ex Parte Levitt. for others of their generation and for the succeeding generations. Dinglasan. and thus hinders the activities of governmental agencies engaged in public service. Such liberality was neither a rarity nor accidental. the minors' assertion of their right to a sound environment constitutes. The same Court ruled that for a private individual to invoke the judicial power to determine the validity of an executive or legislative action.” Case law in most jurisdictions now allows both citizen and taxpayer standing in public actions. the plaintiff’s standing is based on his own right to the relief sought. the people are the real parties. Terr v. when the issues raised are of paramount importance to the public. the performance of their obligation to ensure the protection of that right for the generations to come. this Court resolved to pass upon the issues raised due to the “far-reaching implications” of the petition notwithstanding its categorical statement that petitioner therein had no personality to file the suit. and it is not sufficient that he has a general interest common to all members of the public.interest. 224 SCRA 792 (1993) HELD: This case. at the same time. he is but the mere instrument of the public concern. every generation has a responsibility to the next to preserve that rhythm and harmony for the full enjoyment of a balanced and healthful ecology. does so as a representative of the general public. it must be emphasized that this Court has the discretion to take cognizance of a suit which does not satisfy the requirement of legal standing when paramount interest is involved. 171396. to prevent just about any person from seeking judicial interference in any official policy or act with which he disagreed with. He may be a person who is affected no differently from any other person. Indeed. later reaffirmed in Tileston v. He could be suing as a “stranger. he has to adequately show that he is entitled to seek judicial protection. As held by the New York Supreme Court in People ex rel Case v. he has to make out a sufficient interest in the vindication of the public order and the securing of relief as a “citizen” or “taxpayer. the plaintiff is affected by the expenditure of public funds. Petitioners minors assert that they represent their generation as well as generations yet unborn. Put a little differently. X x x x Needless to say. it held that the person who impugns the validity of a statute must have “a personal and substantial interest in the case such that he has sustained. In Aquino v. May 3.B. We find no difficulty in ruling that they can. Thus. Liberal Attitude of the Supreme Court on Locus Standi I.” X x x Oposa v. Their personality to sue in behalf of the succeeding generations can only be based on the concept of intergenerational responsibility insofar as the right to a balanced and healthful ecology is concerned. while in the latter. file a class suit. the Court has adopted a liberal attitude on the locus standi of a petitioner where the petitioner is able to craft an issue of transcendental significance to the people. Araneta v. for themselves. where it was held that the plaintiff in a taxpayer’s suit is in a different category from the plaintiff in a citizen’s suit. where the “transcendental importance” of the cases prompted the Court to act liberally. Jordan held that “the right of a citizen and a taxpayer to maintain an action in courts to restrain the unlawful use of public funds to his injury cannot be denied. of every citizen to interfere and see that a public offence be properly pursued and punished. It is at least the right. Here. GR No. the Court may brush aside technicalities of procedure.” or in the category of a “citizen”. 2006 HELD: However. This was done in the 1949 Emergency Powers Cases. Factoran.

Executive Secretary. it cannot sue as a taxpayer absent any allegation that public funds are being misused. (2) Bagong Alyansang Makabayan v. Public Estates Authority. (2) For taxpayers. members of Congress. (4) For concerned citizens. In Sanlakas v. particularly David and Llamas. Perez. Executive Secretary. Now. the Court reiterated the “direct injury test” with respect to concerned citizens cases involving constitutional issues. there must be a showing that the issues raised are of transcendental importance which must be settled early. It held that “there must be a showing that the citizen personally suffered some actual or threatened injury arising from the alleged illegal official act. Partido Manggagawa. (3) For voters. v. Inc. No. as they claim that the President’s declaration of a state of rebellion is a usurpation of the emergency powers of Congress.” Pertinent are the following cases: (1) Chavez v. 171396. voters. the Court ruled that one of the petitioners. and civic organizations to prosecute actions involving the constitutionality or validity of laws. is not a real party-in-interest as it had not demonstrated any injury to itself or to its leaders. the Court may relax the standing requirements and allow the suit to prosper despite the lack of direct injury to the parties seeking judicial review” of the Visiting Forces Agreement. allowing ordinary citizens. Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (LDP). and legislators may be accorded standing to sue. is beyond doubt. there must be a showing of obvious interest in the validity of the election law in question. Cacho-Olivares and Tribune Publishing Co. In Telecommunications and Broadcast Attorneys of the Philippines. Comelec. provided that the following requirements are met: (1) The cases involve constitutional issues. wherein the Court held that “given the transcendental importance of the issues involved. and (5) For legislators. No. v. the following rules may be culled from the cases decided by this Court. the Court ruled that the status of Kilosbayan as a people’s organization does not give it the requisite personality to question the validity of the on-line lottery contract. In Kilosbayan. the cases must be settled promptly and definitely and standing requirements may be relaxed.where this liberal policy has been observed. the Court declared them to be devoid of standing. thus impairing their legislative powers. Nor can it sue as a concerned citizen as it does not allege any specific injury it has suffered. they have been allowed to sue under the principle of “transcendental importance. the application of the above principles to the present petitions. Inc. By way of summary. concerned citizens. there must be a claim that the official action complained of infringes upon their prerogatives as legislators. Taxpayers. members or supporters. and Social Justice Society. while the Court noted that the petitioners may not file suit in their capacity as taxpayers absent a showing that “Balikatan 02-01” involves the exercise of Congress’ taxing or spending powers. The same holds true with petitioners in G. equating them with the LDP in Lacson. Zamora. recent decisions show a certain toughening in the Court’s attitude toward legal standing. regulations and rulings. where the Court ruled that the enforcement of the constitutional right to information and the equitable diffusion of natural resources are matters of transcendental importance which clothe the petitioner with locus standi. the Court has adopted a rule that even where the petitioners have failed to show direct injury.” In Lacson v.R. the Court ruled that only the petitioners who are members of Congress have standing to sue. Zamora. Inc. Moreover. more so where it does not raise any issue of constitutionality. The locus standi of petitioners in G. Morato. They alleged “direct injury” resulting from “illegal arrest” 94 . (3) Lim v.R. Thus. that in cases of transcendental importance. it reiterated its ruling in Bagong Alyansang Makabayan v. there must be a claim of illegal disbursement of public funds or that the tax measure is unconstitutional. 171409. Significantly. As to petitioners Sanlakas.

KMU’s assertion that PP 1017 and G.. that when the issue concerns a public right. in view of the transcendental importance of the issue. No. She can no longer sue as a legislator on the allegation that her prerogatives as a lawmaker have been impaired by PP 1017 and G.R. cannot question the transaction validly executed by and between the Province and Ortigas for the simple reason that it is not privy to said contract. Association of Small Landowners in the Philippines. as a taxpayer. They also raised the issue of whether or not the concurrence of Congress is necessary whenever the alarming powers incident to Martial Law are used. 5. a relaxation of the standing requirements for the petitioners in the PP 1017 cases. 171424. while undoubtedly true.O. a law is violated or some irregularity is committed. Her submission that she has pending electoral protest before the Presidential Electoral Tribunal is likewise of no relevance. Aug. Taxpayer’s Suit The Anti-Graft League of the Philippines. In G. In Integrated Bar of the Philippines v. To paraphrase Justice Laurel. This is too general an interest which is shared by other groups and the whole citizenry. No. Tuvera. 95 . No. In G. it is sufficient that the petitioner is a citizen and has an interest in the execution of the laws. it is in the interest of justice that those affected by PP 1017 can be represented by their Congressmen in bringing to the attention of the Court the alleged violations of their basic rights. 1. v. However. Organizations may be granted standing to assert the rights of their members. Zamora. this Court declares that petitioner have locus standi. the Solicitor General does not question their legal standing. Inc. this Court may relax the standing rules.O. It must always be borne in mind that the question of locus standi is but corollary to the bigger question of proper exercise of judicial power. petitioner. even as a taxpayer. Her claim that she is a media personality will not likewise aid her because there was no showing that the enforcement of these issuances prevented her from pursuing her occupation. that public funds are disbursed by a political subdivision or instrumentality and in doing so. 260 SCRA 250. The petitions thus call for the application of the “transcendental importance doctrine”. In G. She has not sufficiently shown that PP 1017 will affect the proceedings or result of her case. We take judicial notice of the announcement by the Office of the President banning all rallies and canceling all permits for public assemblies following the issuance of PP 1017 and G.O. But considering once more the transcendental importance of the issue involved. In G. Undeniably. and Tanada v. who are national officers of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP) have no legal standing. No. This is the underlying legal tenet of the “liberality doctrine” on legal standing. v. 5. is not sufficient to clothe it with standing in this case. No. Loren Legarda has no personality as a taxpayer to file the instant petition as there are no allegations of illegal disbursement of public funds. No. 5.R.R. however. no such unlawful spending has been shown. This Court holds that all the petitioners herein have locus standi. Inc. Enriquez. this Court applied the liberality rule in Philconsa v. Kapatiran Ng Mga Naglilingkod sa Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas.R.R. San Juan. 1017 and G. the opposition Congressmen alleged there was usurpation of legislative powers. as in the case at bar. In G. Secretary of Agrarian Reform. To constitute a taxpayer's suit.O. Tan. No. Basco v. (ALGI). the Court held that the mere invocation by the IBP of its duty to preserve the rule of law and nothing more. petitioners. Rightly so. The fact that she is a former Senator is of no consequence. 5 violated its right to peaceful assembly may be deemed sufficient to give it legal standing. 171400. No. Cadiz et al. 171485. 1996. Moreover. 171483. No. 5 is a judicial question which is of paramount importance to the Filipino people. and that the petitioner is directly affected by the alleged ultra vires act. v. No. the whole of Philippine society now waits with bated breath the ruling of this Court on this very critical matter. It cannot be doubted that the validity of PP No.O. When. 171489. Inc. petitioner would somehow be adversely affected by an illegal use of public money. 1017 and G. two requisites must be met. Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation. having failed to allege any direct or potential injury which the IBP as an institution or its members may suffer as a consequence of the issuance of PP No. namely.and “unlawful search” committed by police operatives pursuant to PP 1017.

Shelby) 2. 2. Aug. 3. Co. The Congress shall have the power to define. 2. In civil cases – can be raised at any stage if it is necessary to the determination of the case itself. It simply refuses to recognize it and determines the rights of the parties just as if such statute has no existence. Necessity of Deciding Constitutional Question Laurel v. this Court will not pass upon a constitutional question unless it is the lis mota of the case or if the case can be disposed of on some other grounds. Thus. 276 SCRA 518 (1997) HELD: Thus. 2000. CONGRESSIONAL POWER OVER JURISDICTION OF THE SUPREME COURT Art. xxx • But while the jurisdiction of courts is a matter of legislative apportionment. In criminal cases – can be raised at any time in the discretion of the court.. Exceptions: 1. Lalican v.. Pullman Co. and if not considered at the trial. it confers no rights. 65 Phil.S. Garcia. prescribe and apportion the jurisdiction of various courts but may not deprive the Supreme Court of its jurisdiction over cases enumerated in Section 5 hereof. such as the application of the statute or general law. En Banc [Gonzaga-Reyes] A taxpayer is deemed to have the standing to raise a constitutional issue when it is established that public funds have been disbursed in alleged contravention of the law or the Constitution. it cannot be considered on appeal. The legislature is willing to retain the valid portions even if the rest of the statute is declared illegal. Louisville and Nashville R. 312 U. Orthodox View – “An unconstitutional act is not a law. 337 SCRA 733.” (Norton vs. a taxpayer’s action is properly brought only when there is an exercise by Congress of its taxing or spending power Earliest Opportunity: GR: If not raised in the pleadings. Narvasa. It is inoperative as if it has not been passed. 2. Modern View – The court in passing upon the question of constitutionality does not annul or repeal the statute if it finds it in conflict with the Constitution. 56 [1937]). Effects of Declaration of Unconstitutionality 1. [1909]. except where there is estoppel – can be raised at any stage if it involves the jurisdiction of the court. even if all the requisites for judicial review of a constitutional matter are present in a case. VIII.Gonzales v. it cannot be considered at the trial. Vergara. 187 SCRA 797 (1990) HELD: The Court does not ordinarily pass upon constitutional questions unless these questions are properly raised in appropriate cases and their resolution is necessary for the determination of the case (People v. Railroad Commission v. Vera. the Constitution sets certain limitations on this prerogative: 96 . Sec. 175. 14. it creates no office. it imposes no duties. In every case. The valid portions can stand independently as a separate statute. 213 U. it affords no protection. 496 [1941]). Partial Unconstitutionality Requisites for declaration of partial unconstitutionality of a statute: 1. The Court will not pass upon a constitutional question although properly presented by the record if the case can be disposed of on some other ground such as the application of a statute or general law (Siler v.S.

the SC can pass on both questions of fact and law. or (ii) petition for review on certiorari.) 2. 2. as the law or the Rules of Court may provide.1. B) Appellate Jurisdiction • The Supreme Court shall have the power to review. final judgment and orders of lower courts in the following cases: (1) Cases questioning the constitutionality or validity of any (a) treaty. (f) order. reverse. with the CA. so the appellant possesses this "as a matter of right". (b) international and executive agreement. (Art. (b) impost. VIII. Appellate jurisdiction may be exercised in two ways: 1. (2) Petitions for certiorari. including those involving other offenses which. Judiciary Act of 1948). modify. Sec. 30. which must be filed with the RTC (In Re Bermudez said so too. The second case (special civil actions) is concurrent with the CA and the RTC. (d) presidential decree. (c) assessment. Sec. Art. (It may not deprive the Supreme Court of its jurisdiction over cases enumerated in Section 5 hereof. arose out of the same occurrence or which may have been committed by the accused on the same occasion (to ensure uniformity of decision). It can make the jurisdiction of the SC concurrent with lower courts (pursuant to its general power). (g) instruction. Thus. prohibition. 2) The Supreme Court's Jurisdiction A) Original jurisdiction [Art. No law shall be passed increasing the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court as provided in this Constitution without its advice and concurrence. or (e) any penalty imposed in relation thereto. (2) Cases questioning the legality of an (a) tax. etc. although not so punished. 5(1)] (1) Cases affecting ambassadors. This is unlike the ordinary appeal taken where the penalty is reclusion perpetua or higher. and yet gave due course to the petition. (5) Cases in which only an error or question of law is involved. The reason why it is not automatic in the first case (reclusion perpetua) is that on appeal. It can increase the original jurisdiction of the SC (pursuant to its general power). (3) Sufficiency of factual basis of proclamation of martial law and suspension of privilege of writ of Habeas Corpus • • Note that the SC does not have jurisdiction over declaratory relief cases. under the Rules of Court. the original jurisdiction of the SC is concurrent with the RTC and in the case of the special civil actions. other public ministers and consuls. The other case is the automatic review by the SC of criminal cases where the death penalty is imposed. (h) ordinance.) is made concurrent with RTCs by law (Judiciary Act of 1948). precisely by voluntarily making the • • 97 . 4. par. Ordinary appeal to the SC is allowed by law in criminal cases where the penalty imposed is reclusion perpetua or higher. 17. It cannot increase the constitutionally set appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. quo warranto and habeas corpus. (e) proclamation. Ordinary appeal • This is obligatory on the courts. Sec. mandamus. Under this mode. (3) Cases in which the jurisdiction of lower courts is in issue. It cannot decrease the constitutionally set jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. revise. or (i) regulation. or affirm on (i) ordinary appeal. (Sec. 5. VI. (c) law or statute. or (d) toll. the appellate court may increase the penalty imposed by the trial court (to death) so that the convict must first waive his right against double jeopardy. the review is automatic. 3.) The first case (ambassadors. (4) Criminal cases in which the penalty imposed is reclusion perpetua or higher. (6) Orders of the Constitutional Commissions. It cannot pass a law reorganizing the judiciary when it undermines the security of tenure of its members. with respect to inferior bodies. VI. for in this case.

CA. 7) Cases where a doctrine or principle laid down by the court en banc or in division may be modified or reversed. executive order. where the issue raised is "error of judgment" or error of law. • SESSIONS OF THE SUPREME COURT Cases to be Heard by the SC En Banc Firestone Ceramics. mode provided for in Rule 45. when the resolution of the main issue depends on a controverted question of fact. and the decision of the CA is then raised to the SC by petition for review on certiorari on pure questions of law. VIII. 4) Cases affecting ambassadors. Thus.00 or both. except those made directly appealable to the SC by (i) the Constitution. dated February 7. (b) excess of jurisdiction. in Sec. Inc. However. in cases involving constitutionality. 17) used to be directly appealable to the SC. 5(3). But the case is different when death is imposed because the worst that could happen on automatic appeal is that the judgment is affirmed. order. appealable to the CA. officer or employee of the judiciary. constitutionality. It has the authority not to give due course to the petition. 1993: 1) Cases in which the constitutionality or validity of any treaty. jurisdiction and pure questions of law). 5) Cases involving decisions. • Naturalization and denaturalization cases under the Judiciary Act of 1948 (Sec. or presidential decree. The certiorari referred to in 5(2) (when the SC exercises appellate jurisdiction) is certiorari as an ordinary mode of appeal. the case must be appealed to the CA on both. 17 [3(i)] and Sec. are appealable to the SC by petition for review on certiorari. 8) Cases assigned to a division which in the opinion of at least three (3) members thereof merit the attention of the court en banc and are acceptable to a majority of the actual membership of the court en banc. is limited to pure questions of law. resolutions or orders of the Civil Service Commission." (Art. if the petition shows no merit on its face. tax. 334 SCRA 465. (a) lack of jurisdiction. 1989. international or executive agreement. But this is deemed to have been amended by the Judiciary Reorganization Act of 1980 (BP 129) which. ordinance. or regulation is in question.000. Petition for review on certiorari • This is discretionary on the SC. Commission on Elections. 2) Criminal cases in which the appealed decision imposes the death penalty. 3) Cases raising novel questions of law. 6) Cases where the penalty to be imposed is the dismissal of a judge. or jurisdiction. v. and Commission on Audit. law. par. Sec. 2-89.appeal. proclamation. All other cases can be appealed to the SC using this mode. 17 of the Judiciary Act of 1948) • • Certiorari • The certiorari referred to in 5(1) (when the SC exercises original jurisdiction) is the special civil action of certiorari under Rule 65. before the SC can reopen the case on appeal. or (c) grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack of jurisdiction. (ii) BP 129 and (iii) Sec. instruction. 17 [4(4)]of the Judiciary Act of 1948. 14. and 98 . where the question raised is a "jurisdictional question. Naturalization and denaturalization cases do not fall under any of the exceptions. 2000. or either the suspension of any of them for a period of more than one (1) year or a fine exceeding P10. 2) The four other cases falling under the appellate jurisdiction of the SC (viz. as amended by the Resolution of November 18. questions of fact and law. disbarment of a lawyer. The Constitution now provides that "no petition for review or motion for reconsideration of a decision of the court shall be refused due course or denied without stating the legal basis therefor. En Banc [Purisima] HELD: Under Supreme Court Circular No. June 28." that is. other public ministers and consuls. makes all cases decided by the RTC. (Sec. tax. 2.

then there is no decision rendered. 158 SCRA 646 (1988) HELD: The certification requirement refers to decisions in judicial.e. 4(2) and Sec. Castro. d.. not administrative cases. f. Prudential Bank v. DECISION-MAKING DELIBERATIONS Art. The writer of the opinion is merely the spokesman of the body. 11. b. VIII.e. the consultation) on the issues in the case. The lack of certification serves as an evidence of failure to observe the certification requirement but it would not have the effect of invalidating the decision. HELD: NO. since quorum of 15 is 8. The absence would not necessarily mean that the case submitted for decision had not been reached in consultation before being assigned to one member for the writing of the opinion of the court since the regular performance of official duty is presumed. are reached after consultation with the members of the court sitting en banc or in a division before the case is assigned to a member thereof for decision writing. have to be deliberated upon considering the collegiate composition of this Court. VIII. or dissented. There must be a quorum before a valid decision can be made. [Art. 177 SCRA 14 (1989) ISSUE: W/N absence of certification by the Court of Appeals renders that decision invalid. such as the CA. A certification to this effect signed by the Chief Justice shall be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case and served upon the parties. after deliberations by the group) is to emphasize that the SC is one body. In fact. or abstained from a decision or resolution must state the reason therefor. and majority of 8 is 5.9) All other cases as the court en banc by a majority of its actual membership may deem of sufficient importance to merit its attention. albeit collegiate. e. which by their very nature. But one who expressly inhibited or is disqualified from taking part (for instance because of conflict of interest) is not included. Sec. One who was present but kept silent during the deliberations and did not vote is still included in the counting for the purpose of determining the majority.. 13. Sandiganbayan and CTA. One who abstained is deemed to have voted for the purpose of computing the majority vote needed. The certification requirement imposed by the 1987 constitution was meant to ensure the implementation of the constitutional requirement that decisions of the Supreme Court and lower collegiate courts. c. and (ii) voted thereon. This number may increase as the number of justices present increase. In case. CA. The conclusions of the Supreme Court in any case submitted to it for decision en banc or in division shall be reached in consultation before the case is assigned to a member for the writing of the opinion of the Court. VOTING Votes required to "render a decision or resolution" A) En banc • Concurrence of a majority of the members who (i) actually took part in the deliberations (i. • The reason for the requirement that the decision must be reached "in consulta" (i. (See effect of failure to reach a majority below. Without a quorum. For an abstention is really a form of casting a vote with its own repercussions on the outcome of the case. the necessary majority cannot be mustered. there can be no valid business to begin with. resolutions/decisions of the Court in administrative cases have not been accompanied by any formal certification.] a. Consing v.) 99 . Any Member who took no part. Sec. such a certification would be a superfluity in administrative cases. From the very beginning. For it may happen that he has already made up his mind on how to decide and influence the outcome of the case. so that the decision of the case is by the court itself and not the ponente. The same requirements shall be observed by all lower collegiate courts. The lowest possible votes needed to render a decision is 5.

he must state his reason therefor. 13. and the accused is acquitted. CA. If the case is an original petition. and (b) in no case without the concurrence of at least 3 of such members. No decision shall be rendered by any court without expressing therein clearly and distinctly the facts and the law on which it is based. this judgment is deemed affirmed pursuant to the general rule above. Writing of the decision  Sec. the majority if all are present is 4. No petition for review or motion for reconsideration of a decision of the court shall be refused due course or denied without stating the legal basis therefor. where the decision appealed from is supported by substantial evidence and is in accord w/ the facts of the case and the applicable laws. the following are the effects: a. 4 voted for its validity. In division of 3 members. VIII. or (c) abstained from a decision or resolution. If a case is on appeal. no quorum. [Art.B) In divisions • Cases or matters heard by a division shall be decided or resolved (a) with the concurrence of a majority of the members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted thereon. 3 votes are needed.) * (Thus. the case must be raised to the court en banc. 100 . • In the case of the SC and lower collegiate court. (Art. 186 SCRA 1: "The SC disposes of the bulk of its cases by minute resolutions and decrees them as final and executory. no majority is still had. 3. If only 3. Effect of failure to muster the necessary majority: • If the necessary majority cannot be had. the case is again reheard. 4. Dissenters and Abstainers • In the case of a decision on the merits. No doctrine or principle of law laid by the court in a decision rendered en banc or in division may be modified or reversed except by the court sitting en banc. Art. 1987 Constitution SECTION 14. when the votes cannot be mustered. Sec. (ii) Cases where the lower court declared a law. and the validity of the law is deemed sustained. that is. In a division of 5 members. The resolution denying due course or dismissing a petition always gives the legal basis. where it is clear from the records that the petitions were filed merely to forsetall the early execution of judgment and for noncompliance with the rules. where the issues raised are factual in nature. In a division of 7 members. Sec. VIII. then the case is deemed dismissed. if 12 are present. the ponente. If upon rehearing. d. the judgment appealed from is deemed affirmed except: (i) Criminal cases where the judgment is that of conviction: the conviction is reversed. 4. 14. the SC said in Borromeo v. In any of these cases.) b. In the case by other courts. 3 votes are needed regardless of whether 5. etc. VIII. and 3 abstained. this rule is addressed to the judge. as where a case is patently without merit.) Minute Resolution • In justifying the so-called minute resolution. the case shall be decided en banc. or (b) dissented. if a member (a) took no part. If only 6 are present. (If the lower court declared the law as not unconstitutional. pursuant to the presumption of constitutionality under Sec. unconstitutional: the judgment is reversed. 5 voted the law unconstitutional. 4(3)] a. there is no decision and so the law remains valid. If only 5 or 4. this rule is addressed to the one to whom the writing of the opinion was assigned after consultation. b. 9 of the Judiciary Act of 1948. When the required number is not obtained. or 3 are present. c.

it is rendered by an appellate court. At any rate. to be valid. it must provide for direct access to the facts and the law being adopted. depending on its evaluation of a case. [Davide] HELD: The memorandum decision should be sparingly used lest it become an additive excuse for judicial sloth. although it is not impossible that the approval of the findings of facts by the lower court may lead to a different conclusion of law by the higher court. second. and. therefore. The memorandum decision may be employed in simple litigations only. For the incorporation by reference to be allowed. 1987 Constitution SECTION 15. unless reduced by 101 . CA. 293 SCRA 26. cannot incorporate the findings of fact and the conclusions of law of the lower court only by remote reference. (Francisco v. 24. • Oil and Natural Gas Commission v. The idea is to avoid having to repeat in the body of the latter decision the findings or conclusions of the lower court since they are being approved or adopted anyway. Section 14 of the Constitution and strike down the flawed judgment as a lawless disobedience. CA. And even if it were. it incorporates by reference the findings of fact or the conclusions of law contained in the decision. the constitutional mandate that 'no *** motion for reconsideration of a decision of the court shall be *** denied without stating the legal basis therefor is inapplicable. Period for Decision-Making  Sec. or portions thereof.The Court is not duty bound to render signed decisions all the time. Most likely. 158 SCRA 646.' as a ground for denial is legal basis. (1) All cases or matters filed after the effectivity of this Constitution must be decided or resolved within twenty-four months from date of submission for the Supreme Court. said resolution stated the legal basis for the denial. In other words. Permskul. 344 SCRA 202. 2000. It is an additional condition for the validity of this kind of decision may be resorted to only in cases where the facts are in the main accepted by both parties and easily determinable by the judge and there are no doctrinal complications involved that will require an extended discussion of the laws involved. provided a legal basis is given. It has ample discretion to formulate decisions and/ or minute resolutions. 15. the reason for allowing the incorporation by reference is evidently to avoid the cumbersome reproduction of the decision of the lower court. Oct. 173 SCRA 324) The memorandum decision. and. 'Lack of merit. 129 should actually embody the findings of fact and conclusions of law of the lower court in an annex attached to and made an indispensable part of the decision. the memorandum decision authorized under Section 40 of B. Any deviation will summon the strict enforcement of Article VIII. thus: "No constitutional provision is disregarded in the SC's Minute Resolution denying a motion for reconsideration 'for lack of merit. order. 1st Div. Memorandum Decisions: • The distinctive features of a memorandum decision are. VIII. in the decision of the higher court. the purpose is to affirm the decision. In an administrative case." • And neither does the rule apply to administrative cases decided by the SC itself. 1998 [Martinez] HELD: The constitutional mandate that no decision shall be rendered by any court without expressing therein clearly and distinctly the facts and the law on which it is based does not preclude the validity of "memorandum decisions" which adopt by reference the findings of fact and conclusions of law contained in the decisions of inferior tribunals Yao v. such as ordinary collection cases. Art. the issues raised therein having been previously duly considered and passed upon. where the appeal is obviously groundless and deserves no more than the time needed to dismiss it. or ruling under review. adhered faithfully to the constitutional requirement. as it held in Prudential Bank v. Henceforth. all memorandum decisions shall comply with the requirements herein set forth as to the form prescribed and the occasions when they may be rendered. Blg. first. which must be contained in a statement attached to the said decision. July 23.P. which is to say that the challenged decision is not easily and immediately available to the person reading the memorandum decision. Castro.

1984. functions as a trial court. 3. the Sandiganbayan promulgated its own rules. and (iii) not diminish. and procedure in all courts. (3) Upon the expiration of the corresponding period. increase.D. in original cases within its jurisdiction. not the twelve [12] month period. brief. the admission to the practice of law. It provides: “Sec. thus: “Sec. or modify substantive rights. a certification to this effect signed by the Chief Justice or the presiding judge shall forthwith be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case or matter. 102 . the Sandiganbayan presently sitting in five [5] divisions. to decide cases applies to the Sandiganbayan. 1606 is clear on this issue. No. 6. The certification shall state why a decision or resolution has not been rendered or issued within said period. or memorandum required by the Rules of Court or by the court itself. twelve months for all lower collegiate courts. Re: Problem of Delays in Cases Before the Sandiganbayan. 00-8-05-SC. THE RULE-MAKING POWER OF THE SUPREME COURT  Sec. No quasi.the Supreme Court. Such rules shall provide a simplified and inexpensive procedure for the speedy disposition of cases. 28. has the discretion to weigh the evidence of the parties. (ii) be uniform for all courts of the same grade. shall be uniform for all courts of the same grade. Rules of procedure of special courts and quasi-judicial bodies shall remain effective unless disapproved by the Supreme Court.judicial and administrative work for judges. • Limitations to this power: Such rules shall (i) provide simplified and inexpensive procedure. Maximum Period to Decide Cases – The judgment or final order of a division of the Sandiganbayan shall be rendered within three [3] months from the date the case was submitted for decision.M. Nov. practice. and shall not diminish. for the speedy disposition of cases. 1987 Constitution (5) Promulgate rules concerning the protection and enforcement of constitutional rights. increase or modify substantive rights. the trial of cases before the Sandiganbayan once commenced shall be continuous until terminated and the judgment shall be rendered within three [3] months from the date the case was submitted for decision. admit the evidence it regards as credible and reject that which they consider perjurious or fabricated. the Integrated Bar. [Art. A. we hold that the three [3] month period. conducts trials. The term “trial” is used in its broad sense. shall decide or resolve the case or matter submitted thereto for determination. pleading. VIII. it allows introduction of evidence by the parties in the cases before it. Sec. 5(5)] • NO QUASI-JUDICIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE WORK OF JUDGES • Generally: No non-judicial work for judges. P. En Banc [Pardo] HELD: The law creating the Sandiganbayan. the court.” Given the clarity of the rule that does not distinguish. Furthermore. without prejudice to such responsibility as may have been incurred in consequence thereof. Maximum period for termination of cases – As far as practicable.” On September 18. 5[5]. (2) A case or matter shall be deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pending. No. and legal assistance to the underprivileged. The Sandiganbayan. VIII. (4) Despite the expiration of the applicable mandatory period. and three months for all other lower courts. and served upon the parties. Rules of procedure of special courts and quasi-judicial bodies shall remain effective unless disapproved by the SC. Art. meaning. without further delay. 2001.

— In the Matter of the Amendment and/or Clarification of various Supreme Courts Rules and Resolutions. Sec. 1993 a Court En Banc resolution was adopted. although as thus demonstrated. that the administrative matter may be decided in division.• • As a general rule. entitled "Bar Matter No. 1993. Pursuant to the first clause which confers administrative disciplinary power to the Court en banc. and the determination of the procedure in the exercise thereof by. disbarment of a lawyer. Sec." and providing inter alia: For said purpose. 246 SCRA 52 (1995) HELD: The very text of the present Section 11 of Article VIII clearly shows that there are actually two situations envisaged therein." is a declaration of the grant of that disciplinary power to. in line with the separation of powers principle of the Constitution. 3(6)] c. in cognizance of the need for a thorough and judicious evaluation of serious charges against members of the judiciary. 5. Chief Justice as Chairman of the Judicial and Bar Council. Vasquez. Cases where the penalty to be imposed is the dismissal of a judge. 6. Exceptions: Constitutionally appointed non-judicial functions of the Supreme Court a. [Art. the Court en banc. Yet. [ Art. 5 (4)] (4) Discipline of lower court judges.] (2) Temporarily assign judges to other stations in the public interest. Sec. Sec. on February 9.000. ADMINISTRATIVE POWERS (1) Supervision of lower courts [Art. five or seven members. only cases involving dismissal of judges of lower courts are specifically required to be decided by the Court en banc.000. 11. 221 SCRA 464 [1993] 103 . Act as Presidential Electoral Tribunal b. The second clause. This would subvert the constitutional injunction for the Court to adopt a systematic plan to expedite the decision or resolution of cases or matters pending in the Supreme Court of the lower courts. and the very purpose of authorizing the Court to sit en banc or in divisions of three. imposable or imposed. officer or employee of the Judiciary. 5(6)] Power of the SC to Discipline Judges and Order their Dismissal People v.00. XI. VIII. VIII. since even cases involving the penalty of reprimand would require action by the Court en banc. 1993 and November 23. declares on the other hand that the Court en banc can "order their dismissal by a vote of a majority of the Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted therein." Evidently. VIII. 209. but the aforequoted provision was maintained. it was not therein intended that all administrative disciplinary cases should be heard and decided by the whole Court since it would result in an absurdity. would result in a congested docket and undue delay in the adjudication of cases in the Court. The first clause which states that "the Supreme Court en banc shall have the power to discipline judges of lower courts. as will hereafter be explained.00. to require the entire Court to deliberate upon and participate in all administrative matters or cases regardless of the sanctions. especially in administrative matters.(3)] (3) Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid miscarriage of justice [Art. Maceda v. Gacott. or either the suspension of any of them for a period of more than one (1) year or a fine exceeding P10. xxx xxx xxx This resolution was amended on March 16. which refers to the second situation contemplated therein and is intentionally separated from the first by a comma. it is only when the penalty imposed does not exceed suspension of more than one year or a fine of P10. or both. VIII. in this instance. [Art. the administrative case must be deliberated upon decided by the full Court itself. VIII. Sec. [Art. Chief Justice as presiding officer in impeachment trial of the President. Sec. the following are considered en banc cases: xxx xxx xxx 6. Indeed. or both.] (5) Appointment of officials and employees of entire judiciary. members of the judiciary shall only have judicial functions.

probity. Sec. Dolalas v. LOWER COURTS Composition: The composition of lower courts shall be provided by law. Thus. 265 SCRA 818 [1996] HELD: The complaint against petitioner-judge before the Office of the Ombudsman is basically administrative in nature. De Vera v. It must be borne in mind that the resolution of the administrative charge of unduly delaying the disposition of the said criminal case involves the determination of whether. [Art. the Ombudsman must defer action on said complaint and refer the same to this Court for determination whether said judge or court employee had acted within the scope of their administrative duties. within thirty days from the opening of each regular session of the Congress. or (b) An administrative proceeding in the Supreme Court against the judge precisely for promulgating an unjust judgment or order.HELD: A judge who falsifies his certificate of service is administratively liable to the Supreme Court for serious misconduct and inefficiency under Section 1. 2000. VIII. submit to the President and the Congress an annual report on the operations and activities of the Judiciary. petitioner-judge is being charged with having violated Rule 1. Rule 140 of the Rules of Court. In essence. REPORT ON THE JUDICIARY Art. this Court is mandated under section 6. VIII. there must first be “a final and authoritative judicial declaration” that the decision or order in question is indeed “unjust. at 461). Article VIII of the 1987 Constitution to assume administrative supervision over all courts and the personnel thereof. and criminally liable to the State under the Revised Penal Code for his felonious act. [Art. Sec. Pelayo. 335 SCRA 281. Sec. Canon 3 of the Code of Judicial Conduct. Unquestionably. where a criminal complaint against a judge or other court employee arises from their administrative duties. (2) The Congress shall prescribe qualifications of judges of lower courts. Qualifications Lower Collegiate Court (Court of Appeals) (1) No person shall be appointed member of any lower collegiate court unless he is a natural-born citizen. and independence. [Art. 16. integrity. VIII.” The pronouncement may result from either: (a) An action of certiorari or prohibition in a higher court impugning the validity of the judgment. We agree with petitioner that in the absence of any administrative action taken against him by this Court with regard to his certificates of service. supra. 7(1)] and a member of Philippine Bar. However.02. in resolving the alarms and scandals case. Office of the Ombudsman-Mindanao. Sec. Likewise. 1st Div. July 6. in violation of the doctrine of separation of powers. 7(3)] Lower Courts 104 . Canon 1 and Rule 3.05. 7(2)] (3) A member of the judiciary must be a person of proven competence. the investigation being conducted by the Ombudsman encroaches into the Court's power of administrative supervision over all courts and its personnel. The Supreme Court shall. VIII. as the Court has the necessary records to make such a determination. the determination of whether a judge has maliciously delayed the disposition of the case is also an exclusive judicial function (In Re: Borromeo. the Ombudsman should first refer the matter of petitioner's certificates of service to this Court for determination of whether said certificates reflected the true status of his pending case load. 204 and 205 (knowingly rendering an unjust judgment or order) can be entertained. [Pardo] HELD: Before a civil or criminal action against a judge for a violation of Arts. The laws are the Judiciary Act of 1948 and BP 129. In fine. petitioner-judge acted in accordance with the guidelines provided in the Rules of Court and in the Administrative Circulars in pursuance of the ideals embodied in the Code of Judicial Conduct. Such is clearly an administrative matter.

probity and independence. Sec. [Art. Such appointments need no confirmation. The Constitutional Commissions. Of the Members first appointed. and the representative of the private sector for one year. a representative of the Integrated Bar. . [Art. integrity. The Supreme Court shall provide in its annual budget the appropriations for the Council. 3 For at least 5 years has been engaged in the practice of law in the Phil. requiring admission to the practice of law as an indispensable requisite. Sec. It may exercise such other functions and duties as the Supreme Court may assign to it. a professor of law. (4) The regular Members of the Council shall receive such emoluments as may be determined by the Supreme Court. held public office in the Phil. during his tenure. SECTION 9. which shall be independent. 2 At least 30 years of age. nor shall he be financially interested. requiring admission to the practice of law as an indispensable requisite. VIII. No Member of a Constitutional Commission shall. the Commission on Elections. and a representative of the private sector. Neither shall he engage in the practice of any profession or in the active management or control of any business which in any way be affected by the functions of his office. COMMON PROVISIONS SECTION 1. THE CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSIONS A. the representative of the Integrated Bar shall serve for four years. . VIII. the professor of law for three years. For the lower courts. or has . hold any other office or employment. QUALIFICATIONS OF MTC JUDGES 1 Natural-born citizen of the Philippines. are the Civil Service Commission. 7(2)] (2) He must be a person of proven competence. The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of lower courts shall be appointed by the President from a list of at least three nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council for every vacancy. the Secretary of Justice.(1) The Congress shall prescribe qualifications of judges of lower courts. SECTION 2. 2 At least 35 years of age. . the retired Justice for two years. and a representative of the Congress as ex officio Members. 3 For at least 10 years has been engaged in the practice of law in the Phil. 7(3)] QUALIFICATIONS OF RTC JUDGES 1 Natural-born citizen of the Philippines. (2) The regular Members of the Council shall be appointed by the President for a term of four years with the consent of the Commission on Appointments. . THE JUDICIAL AND BAR COUNCIL SECTION 8. but no person may be appointed judge thereof unless he is a citizen of the Philippines and a member of the Philippine bar. (3) The Clerk of the Supreme Court shall be the Secretary ex officio of the Council and shall keep a record of its proceedings. or has . (1) A Judicial and Bar Council is hereby created under the supervision of the Supreme Court composed of the Chief Justice as ex officio Chairman. a retired Member of the Supreme Court. held public office in the Phil. (5) The Council shall have the principal function of recommending appointees to the Judiciary. and the Commission on Audit. the President shall issue the appointments within ninety days from the submission of the list. directly or indirectly. in any 105 .

or in any franchise or privilege granted by the Government. SECTION 5. resignation or disability before the expiration of the term should only be filled only for the unexpired balance of the term. The Commission shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Yorac. irrespective of the variations in the dates of appointments and qualifications of the appointees. The Chairmen and members are subject to certain disqualifications calculated to strengthen their integrity. 192 SCRA 358]. 1987. both indispensable to its workability: (1) that the terms of the first three (3) Commissioners should start on a common date. or instrumentalities. may not be abolished by statute. A case or matter is deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pleading. Each is expressly described as “independent”. order. The Chairmen and members may not be reappointed or appointed in an acting capacity [Brillantes v. SECTION 4. agencies. Each Commission en banc may promulgate its own rules concerning pleadings and practice before it or before any of its offices. Unless otherwise provided by this Constitution or by law. The Commission enjoy fiscal autonomy. provided they do not diminish. Each Commission shall perform such other functions as may be provided by law. The Constitutional Commissions shall appoint their officials and employees in accordance with law. brief. any of its subdivisions. The Commission may appoint their own officials and employees in accordance with Civil Service Law. SECTION 3. Imperial (96 Phil. the date of the adoption of the 1987 Constitution. 347 SCRA 655 (2000) HELD: In Republic vs.contract with. The Chairmen and members are given fairly long tem of office of seven years. appropriations shall be automatically and regularly released. or ruling of each Commission may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty days from receipt of a copy thereof. b. 770). Each is conferred certain powers and functions which cannot be reduced by statute. however. we rule that the appropriate starting point of the terms of office of the first appointees to the Constitutional Commissions under the 1987 Constitution must be on February 02. any decision. and fixes the interval after which the several incumbents shall succeed one another. In case of a belated appointment or qualification. g. i. five and three years should lead to the regular recurrence of the two-year interval between the expiration of the terms. The salary of the Chairman and the Commissioners shall be fixed by law and shall not be decreased during their tenure. the terms of the first Chairmen and Commissioners of the Constitutional Commissions under the 1987 Constitution must start on a common date." Consequently. j. d. Each Commission shall decide by a majority vote of all its Members any case or matter brought before it within sixty days from the date of its submission for decision or resolution. SECTION 8. SECTION 7. Applying the foregoing conditions to the case at bar. Each Commission may promulgate its own procedural rules. • Safeguards insuring the independence of the Commissions: a. the interval between the start of the term and the actual qualification of the appointee must be counted against the latter. e. The term means the time during the officer may claim to hold office as of right. k. Gaminde v. The Chairmen and members cannot be removed except by impeachment. They are constitutionally created. increase. c. or memorandum required by the rules of the Commission or by the Commission itself. In the law of public officers. The tenure represents the term 106 . or modify substantive rights. including government-owned or controlled corporation or their subsidiaries. we said that "the operation of the rotational plan requires two conditions. COA. Such rules. (2) that any vacancy due to death. in order that the expiration of the first terms of seven. f. The salaries of the chairmen and members are relatively high and may not be decreased during continuance in office." "The term of an office must be distinguished from the tenure of the incumbent. shall not diminish. Their approved annual SECTION 6. and. there is a settled distinction between "term" and "tenure. increase or modify substantive rights [though subject to disapproval by the Supreme Court]. h.

during which the incumbent actually holds the office. The term of office is not affected by the hold-over. The tenure may be shorter than the term for reasons within or beyond the power of the incumbent." In concluding that February 02, 1987 is the proper starting point of the terms of office of the first appointees to the Constitutional Commissions of a staggered 7-5-3 year terms, we considered the plain language of Article IX (B), Section 1 (2), Article IX (C). Section 1 (2) and Article IX (D), Section 1 (2) of the 1987 Constitution that uniformly prescribed seven-year term of office for Members of the Constitutional Commissions, without reappointment. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. There is no need to expressly state the beginning of the term of office as this is understood to coincide B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION

SECTION 1. (1) The Civil Service shall be administered by the Civil Service Commission composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, with proven capacity for public administration, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment. (2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, the Chairman shall hold office for seven years, a Commissioner for five years, and another Commissioner for three years, without reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired term of the predecessor. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. SECTION 2. (1) The civil service embraces all branches, subdivisions, instrumentalities, and agencies of the Government, including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters. (2) Appointments in the civil service shall be made only according to merit and fitness to be determined, as far as practicable, and, except as to positions which are policydetermining, primarily confidential, or highly technical, by competitive examination. (3) No officer or employee of the civil service shall be removed or suspended except for cause provided by law. (4) No officer or employee in the civil service shall engage, directly or indirectly, in any electioneering or partisan political campaign. (5) The right to self-organization shall not be denied to government employees.

(6) Temporary employees of the Government shall be given such protection as may be provided by law. SECTION 3. The Civil Service Commission, as the central personnel agency of the Government, shall establish a career service and adopt measures to promote morale, efficiency, integrity, responsiveness, progressiveness, and courtesy in the civil service. It shall strengthen the merit and rewards system, integrate all human resources development programs for all levels and ranks, and institutionalize a management climate conducive to public accountability. It shall submit to the President and the Congress an annual report on its personnel programs. SECTION 4. All public officers and employees shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend this Constitution. SECTION 5. The Congress shall provide for the standardization of compensation of government officials, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters, taking into account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to, and the qualifications required for their positions. SECTION 6. No candidate who has lost in any election shall, within one year after such election, be appointed to any office in the Government of any government-owned or controlled corporations or in any of its subsidiaries. SECTION 7. No elective official shall be eligible for appointment or designation in any capacity to any public office or position during his tenure. Unless otherwise allowed by law or by the primary functions of his position, no appointive official shall hold any other office or employment in the Government or any subdivision,

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agency or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. SECTION 8. No elective or appointive public officer or employee shall receive additional, double, or indirect compensation, unless specifically authorized by law, nor accept without the consent of the Congress, any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind from any foreign government. Pensions or gratuities shall not be considered as additional, double, or indirect compensation.

The civil service now covers only government owned or controlled corporations with original or legislative charters, that is those created by an act of Congress of by special law, and not those incorporated under and pursuant to a general legislation.[Trade Unions of the Phil. and Allied Services (TUPAS) v. NHA, 173 SCRA 33 (1989)] The test to determine whether a corporation is government owned or controlled, or private in nature is simple. Is it created by its own charter for the exercise of a public function, or by incorporation under the general corporation law? Those with special charters are government corporations subject to its provisions, and its employees are under the jurisdiction of the Civil Service Commission. [Camporedondo v. NLRC, 312 SCRA 47 (1999)] The civil service does not include Government owned or controlled corporations (GOCC) which are organized as subsidiaries of GOCC under the general corporation law. [National Service Corp. v. NLRC, 168 SCRA 125 (1988)]

* More cases and doctrines under ADMINISTRATIVE LAW C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS

SECTION 1. (1) There shall be a Commission on Elections composed of a Chairman and six Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, holders of a college degree, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the immediately preceding elections. However, a majority thereof, including the Chairman, shall be Members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years. (2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, three Members shall hold office for seven years, two Members for five years, and the last Members for three years, without reappointment. Appointment to a vacancy shall be only for the unexpired term of the predecessor. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. SECTION 2. The Commission on Elections shall exercise the following powers and functions : (1) Enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, and recall. (2) Exercise exclusive original jurisdiction over all contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of all elective regional, provincial, and city officials, and appellate jurisdiction over all contests involving elective municipal officials decided by trial courts of general jurisdiction, or involving elective barangay officials decided by trial courts of limited jurisdiction. Decisions, final orders, or rulings of the Commission on election contests involving elective municipal and barangay offices shall be final, executory, and not appealable. (3) Decide, except those involving the right to vote, all questions affecting elections, including determination of the number and location of polling places, appointment of election officials and inspectors, and registration of voters. (4) Deputize, with the concurrence of the President, law enforcement agencies and instrumentalities of the Government, including the Armed Forces of the Philippines, for the exclusive purpose of ensuring free, orderly, honest, peaceful, and credible elections. (5) Register, after sufficient publication, political parties, organizations, or coalitions which, in addition to other requirements, must present their platform or program of government; and accredit citizens' arms of the Commission on Elections. Religious denominations and sects shall not be registered. Those which seek to achieve their goals through violence or unlawful means, or refuse to uphold and adhere to this Constitution, or which are supported by any foreign government shall likewise be refused registration.

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Financial contributions from foreign governments and their agencies to political parties, organizations, coalitions, or candidates related to elections constitute interference in national affairs, and, when accepted, shall be an additional ground for the cancellation of their registration with the Commission, in addition to other penalties that may be prescribed by law. (6) File, upon a verified complaint, or on its own initiative, petitions in court for inclusion or exclusion of voters; investigate and, where appropriate, prosecute cases of violations of election laws, including acts or omissions constituting election frauds, offenses, and malpractices. (7) Recommend to the Congress effective measures to minimize election spending, including limitation of places where propaganda materials shall be posted, and to prevent and penalize all forms of election frauds, offenses, malpractices, and nuisance candidates. (8) Recommend to the President the removal of any officer or employee it has deputized, or the imposition of any other disciplinary action, for violation or disregard of, or disobedience to its directive, order, or decision. (9) Submit to the President and the Congress a comprehensive report on the conduct of each election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, or recall. SECTION 3. The Commission on Elections may sit en banc or in two divisions, and shall promulgate its rules of procedure in order to expedite disposition of election cases, including pre-proclamation controversies. All such election cases shall be heard and decided in division, provided that motions for reconsideration of decisions shall be decided by the Commission en banc. SECTION 4. The Commission may, during the election period, supervise or regulate the enjoyment or utilization of all franchises or permits for the operation of transportation and other public utilities, media of communication or information, all grants, special privileges, or concessions granted by the Government or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including any government-owned or controlled corporation or its subsidiary. Such supervision or regulation shall aim to ensure equal opportunity, time and space, and the right to reply, including reasonable, equal rates therefor, for public information campaigns and forums among candidates in connection with the objective of holding free, orderly, honest, peaceful, and credible elections. SECTION 5. No pardon, amnesty, parole, or suspension of sentence for violation of election laws, rules, and regulations shall be granted by the President without the favorable recommendation of the Commission. SECTION 6. A free and open party system shall be allowed to evolve according to the free choice of the people, subject to the provisions of this Article. SECTION 7. No votes cast in favor of a political party, organization, or coalition shall be valid, except for those registered under the party-list system as provided in this Constitution. SECTION 8. Political parties, or organizations or coalitions registered under the party-list system, shall not be represented in the voters' registration boards, boards of election inspectors, boards of canvassers, or other similar bodies. However, they shall be entitled to appoint poll watchers in accordance with law. SECTION 9. Unless otherwise fixed by the Commission in special cases, the election period shall commence ninety days before the day of the election and shall end thirty days after. SECTION 10. Bona fide candidates for any public office shall be free from any form of harassment and discrimination. SECTION 11. Funds certified by the Commission as necessary to defray the expenses for holding regular and special elections, plebiscites, initiatives, referenda, and recalls, shall be provided in the regular or special appropriations and, once approved, shall be released automatically upon certification by the Chairman of the Commission. Cayetano v. Monsod, 201 SCRA 210 (1991) FACTS: Monsod was nominated by President Aquino as Chairman of the Comelec. The Commission on Appointments confirmed the appointment despite Cayetano's objection,

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based on Monsod's alleged lack of the required qualification of 10 year law practice. Cayetano filed this certiorari and prohibition. ISSUE: w/n monsod has been engaged in the practice of law for 10 years? HELD: YES. The practice of law is not limited to the conduct of cases or litigation in court. It embraces the preparation of pleadings and other papers incident to actions and special proceedings, the management of such actions and proceedings on behalf of clients, and other works where the work done involves the determination of the trained legal mind of the legal effect of facts and conditions (PLA vs. Agrava.) The records of the 1986 constitutional commission show that the interpretation of the term practice of law was liberal as to consider lawyers employed in the Commission of Audit as engaged in the practice of law provided that they use their legal knowledge or talent in their respective work. The court also cited an article in the January 11, 1989 issue of the Business Star, that lawyers nowadays have their own specialized fields such as tax lawyers, prosecutors, etc., that because of the demands of their specialization, lawyers engage in other works or functions to meet them. These days, for example, most corporation lawyers are involved in management policy formulation. Therefore, Monsod, who passed the bar in 1960, worked with the World Bank Group from 1963-1970, then worked for an investment bank till 1986, became member of the CONCOM in 1986, and also became a member of the Davide Commission in 1990, can be considered to have been engaged in the practice of law as lawyer-economist, lawyer-manager, lawyerentrepreneur, etc. Brillantes v. Yorac, 192 SCRA 358 (1990) FACTS: Associate Commissioner Haydee Yorac was appointed by Pres. Aquino as Acting Chairman of the Commission on Elections, in place of Chairman Hilario Davide, who had been named chairman of the fact-finding commission to investigate the Dec. 1989 coup d'état attempt. ISSUE: WON the appointment is unconstitutional HELD: NO. Art. IX-A, Section 1, of the Constitution expressly describes all the Constitutional Commissions as "independent". Although essentially executive in nature, they are not under the control of the President of the Philippines in the discharge of their respective functions. Each of these Commissions conducts its own proceedings under the applicable laws and its own rules and in the exercise of its own discretion. Its decisions, orders and rulings are subject only to review on certiorari by the SC as provided by the Constitution in Art. IX-A, Section 7. The choice of a temporary chairman in the absence of the regular chairman comes under that discretion. That discretion cannot be exercised for it, even with its consent, by the President of the Philippines. Matibag v. Benipayo, 380 SCRA 49 (2002) FACTS: Benipayo, Tuason and Borra were appointed Chairman and Commissioners, respectively, of the Commission on Elections, by the President when Congress was not in session. Did their appointment violate the Sec. 1(2), Art. IX-C of the Constitution that substantially provides that “No member of the Commission (on Elections) shall be appointed in an acting or temporary capacity? HELD: In the instant case, the President did in fact appoint permanent Commissioners to fill the vacancies in the COMELEC, subject only to confirmation by the Commission on Appointments. Benipayo, Borra and Tuason were extended permanent appointments during the recess of Congress. They were not appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity, unlike Commissioner Haydee Yorac in Brillantes v. Yorac and Solicitor General Felix Bautista in Nacionalista Party v. Bautista. The ad interim appointments of Benipayo, Borra and Tuason are expressly allowed by the Constitution which authorizes the President, during the recess of Congress, to make appointments that take effect immediately. While the Constitution mandates that the COMELEC “shall be independent,” this provision should be harmonized with the President’s power to extend ad interim appointments. To hold that the independence of the COMELEC requires the Commission on Appointments to first confirm ad interim appointees before the appointees can assume office will negate the President’s power to make ad interim appointments. This is contrary to the rule on statutory

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construction to give meaning and effect to every provision of the law. It will also run counter to the clear intent of the framers of the Constitution. The President’s power to extend ad interim appointments may indeed briefly put the appointee at the mercy of both the appointing and confirming powers. This situation, however, in only for a short period – from the time of issuance of the ad interim appointment until the Commission on Appointments gives or withholds its consent. The Constitution itself sanctions this situation, as a trade-off against the evil of disruptions in vital government services. This is also part of the check-and-balance under the separation of powers, as a trade-off against the evil of granting the President absolute and sole power to appoint. The Constitution has wisely subjected the President’s appointing power to the checking power of the legislature. This situation, however, does not compromise the independence of the COMELEC as a constitutional body. The vacancies in the COMELEC are precisely staggered to insure that the majority of its members hold confirmed appointments, and no one President will appoint all the COMELEC members. x x x The special constitutional safeguards that insure the independence of the COMELEC remain in place (See Sections, 3, 4, 5 and 6, Article IX-A of the Constitution). In fine, we rule that the ad interim appointments extended by the President to Benipayo, Borra and Tuason, as COMELEC Chairman and Commissioners, respectively, do not constitute temporary or acting appointments prohibited by Section 1 (2), Article IX-C of the Constitution. * More cases and doctrines under ELECTION LAWS D. COMMISSION ON AUDIT

SECTION 1. (1) There shall be a Commission on Audit composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners, who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, certified public accountants with not less than ten years of auditing experience, or members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment. At no time shall all Members of the Commission belong to the same profession. (2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, the Chairman shall hold office for seven years, one Commissioner for five years, and the other Commissioner for three years, without reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. SECTION 2. (1) The Commission on Audit shall have the power, authority and duty to examine, audit, and settle all accounts pertaining to the revenue and receipts of, and expenditures or uses of funds and property, owned or held in trust by, or pertaining to, the Government, or any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned and controlled corporations with original charters, and on a post-audit basis: (a) constitutional bodies, commissions and offices that have been granted fiscal autonomy under this Constitution; (b) autonomous state colleges and universities; (c) other government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries; and (d) such nongovernmental entities receiving subsidy or equity, directly or indirectly, from or through the government, which are required by law or the granting institution to submit to such audit as a condition of subsidy or equity. However, where the internal control system of the audited agencies is inadequate, the Commission may adopt such measures, including temporary or special pre-audit, as are necessary and appropriate to correct the deficiencies. It shall keep the general accounts of the Government and, for such period as may be provided by law, preserve the vouchers and other supporting papers pertaining thereto. (2) The Commission shall have exclusive authority, subject to the limitations in this Article, to define the scope of its audit and examination, establish the techniques and methods required therefor, and promulgate accounting and auditing rules and regulations, including those for the prevention and disallowance of irregular, unnecessary, excessive, extravagant, or unconscionable expenditures, or uses of government funds and properties. SECTION 3. No law shall be passed exempting any entity of the Government or its subsidiary in any guise whatever, or any investment of public funds, from the jurisdiction of the Commission on Audit.

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SECTION 4. The Commission shall submit to the President and the Congress, within the time fixed by law, an annual report covering the financial condition and operation of the Government, its subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations, and non-governmental entities subject to its audit, and recommend measures necessary to improve their effectiveness and efficiency. It shall submit such other reports as may be required by law. Q: What is the general function of the Commission on Audit? A: It is the function of the Commission on Audit to examine the accuracy of the records kept by accountable officers and to determine whether expenditures have been made in conformity with law. It is therefore through the Commission on Audit that the people can verify whether their money has been properly spent. Q: Classify the functions of the Commission on Audit? A: They may be classified thus: (1) to examine and audit all forms of government revenues; (2) to examine and audit all forms of government expenditures; (3) to settle government accounts; (4) to promulgate accounting and auditing rules “including those for the prevention and disallowance of irregular, unnecessary, excessive, extravagant, or unconscionable expenditures;” and (5) to decide administrative cases involving expenditures of public funds.

The COA is clothed under Section 2(2), Article IX-D of the 1987 Constitution with the "exclusive authority, subject to the limitations in this Article, to define the scope of its audit and examination, establish the techniques and methods required therefor, and promulgate accounting and auditing rules, and regulations including those for the prevention and disallowance of irregular, unnecessary, excessive, extravagant or unconscionable expenditures, or uses of government funds and properties." The authority granted under this constitutional provision, being broad and comprehensive enough, enables COA to adopt as its own, simply by reiteration or by reference, without the necessity of repromulgation, already existing rules and regulations. It may also expand the coverage thereof to agencies to instrumentalities under its audit jurisdiction. [PAL v. COA, 245 SCRA 39 (1995)]

Mamaril v. Domingo, 227 SCRA 206 (1993) HELD: The responsibility for state audit is vested by the Constitution on the Commission on Audit. Under the Constitution, the COA "shall have the power, authority, and duty to examine, audit, and settle all accounts, pertaining to the revenue and receipts of, and expenditures or uses of funds and property, owned or held in trust by, or pertaining to, the Government, or any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, . . . However, where the internal control system of the audited agencies is inadequate, the Commission may adopt such measures, including temporary or special pre-audit, as are necessary and appropriate to correct the deficiencies. It shall keep the general accounts of the Government and, for such period as may be provided by law, preserve the vouchers and other supporting papers pertaining thereto." (Italics supplied; Art. IX-D, Sec. 2, par. 1). Section 2(2) of the above article states that the COA is given the "exclusive authority, subject to the limitations in this Article, to define the scope of its audit and examination, establish the technique and methods required therefor, and promulgate accounting and auditing rules and regulations, . . ." (Italics supplied). As can be gleaned from the foregoing provisions of the Constitution, state audit is not limited to the auditing of the accountable officers and the settlement of accounts, but includes accounting functions and the adoption in the audited agencies of internal controls to see to it, among other matters, that the correct fees and penalties due the government are collected. The verification of the correctness of the evaluation and computation of the fees and penalties collectible under the Land Transportation Law (R.A. No. 4136) are parts of the functions of the COA, which examines and audits revenue accounts (The Government Auditing Code of the Philippines, P.D. No. 1445, sec. 60). When any person is indebted to any government agency, the COA may direct the proper officer to withhold the payment of any money due such person or his estate to be applied in satisfaction of the indebtedness (P. D. No. 1445, sec. 37). Likewise, under the Manual on Certificate of Settlement and Balances, a government auditor is empowered to order the withholding of the payment of any money due a person determined to be liable for disallowances, suspensions, and, other deficiencies in the accounts audited (Sec. 39).

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and the charges or differences arising from the settlement by reason of disallowances. will be ultra vires. The superiority or preponderance of the COA audit over private audit can be gleaned from the records of the 113 . P. including those for the prevention and disallowance of irregular. (Tantuico. v. . not only is the Commission on Audit (COA) vested with the power and authority. or when a government corporation is privatized or publicly listed. it behooves the Commission on Audit to put a stop thereto. 1445). it determines whether or not the fiscal responsibility that rests directly with the head of the government agency has been properly and effectively discharged (Section 25 (1) ibid).M. establish the techniques and methods required therefor. 82. p. at least insofar as government agencies and officials are concerned. agencies or instrumentalities (Article IX (D-1) Section 2(1).) (Dingcong v. stating the balances found due thereon and certified. but is also charged with the duty to examine. Inc. owned by. frustrating government efforts to attract investments or secure loans that may be critical to stimulate moribund industries or resuscitate a badly shattered national economy as in the case at bar. unnecessary excessive. point to only one indubitable conclusion – the COA does not have the exclusive power to examine and audit government agencies. By design the Constitution is flexible enough to meet these exigencies. the expenditure or uses of funds . . On the proposition that improper or wasteful spending of public funds or immoral use of government property. State Audit Code Philippines. the express language of the Constitution. v. 175 SCRA 701 (1989) and D. Province of Isabela.Sambeli v. No. We defined the role of the COA in this wise: ".. .D. IX D. extravagant or unconscionable expenditures or use of government funds and properties. . (Sec. COA." (Art. for being highly irregular or unnecessary. ibid. the government must abide with the reasonable business practices of the marketplace. charges or suspensions. and the clear intent of its framers. its auditors issue a certificate of settlement to each officer whose account has been audited and settled in whole or in part. Sec. In these instances the government enters the marketplace and competes with the rest of the world in attracting investments or loans. or scandalously excessive or extravagant. unnecessary. or as in the case at bar when the government borrows money from abroad. which should prevail? HELD: Moreover. offends the sovereign people's will. No less than the Constitution has ordained that the COA shall have exclusive authority to define the scope of its audit and examination. Consunji Inc. The framers of the Constitution were fully aware of the need to allow independent private audit of certain government agencies in addition to the COA audit. 373 SCRA 356 (2002) ISSUE: Is the constitutional power of the COA to examine and audit government banks and agencies exclusive? Does it preclude a concurrent audit by a private external auditor? HELD: Manifestly. as when there is a private investment in a government-controlled corporation. and promulgate accounting and auditing rules and regulations.). the COA’s findings and conclusions necessarily prevail over those of private auditors.. after an audit has been made. 2(2) 1987 Constitution of the Philippines) (emphasis supplied) Indeed. audit and settle all accounts pertaining to . or in similar instances. That authority extends to the accounts of all persons respecting funds or properties received or held by them in any accountable capacity. It is also empowered to review and evaluate contracts. Commission on Audit. ibid. Guingona 162 SCRA 782) DBP v. excessive or extravagant expenditures or uses of such funds and property should be prevented. 199 SCRA 549 (1991). and whether or not there has been loss or wastage of government resources. (Section 18 (4). 1987 Constitution). as the constitutionally-mandated auditor of all government agencies. (Section 26. 210 SCRA 80 (1992) HELD: In the exercise of the regulatory power vested upon it by the Constitution. or pertaining to. Otherwise no investor or creditor will do business with the government. ISSUE: Between the COA’s findings and conclusions and that of private auditors. the Government or any of its subdivisions. Commission on Audit. Any attempt to nullify this flexibility in the instances mentioned. To succeed. in the absence of a statute limiting or removing such flexibility. And. 235) In the cases of Danville Maritime. In the exercise of its jurisdiction. the Commission on Audit adheres to the policy the government funds and property should be fully protected and conserved and that irregular.

42 (1919). whether the matter falls under the first or second paragraph of Section 2. the President of the Philippines. including those in government owned or controlled corporations. in relation to their office. cannot be taken away from the COA.Constitutional Commission x x x. Sandiganbayan. The intention of the framers of the New Constitution is patent from the explicit language thereof as well as from Section 1 of the same Article XIII titled "Accountability of Public Officers. and shall remain accountable to the people. though not involving graft and corrupt practices. Article IX-C of the Constitution mandates that: “Sec. they shall be tried jointly with said public officers and employees. 3. as amended. Private persons may be charged together with public officers to avoid repeated and unnecessary presentation of witnesses and exhibits against conspirators in different venues. Said constitutional provision delegates to the lawmaking body the determination of "such other offenses" committed by public officers over which the Sandiganbayan shall have jurisdiction. loyalty. especially if the issues involved are the same. 195 SCRA 497 (1991) HELD: The Sandiganbayan has jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases involving graft and corrupt practices and such other offenses committed by public officers and employees. 1486. No law shall be passed exempting any entity of the Government or its subsidiary in any guise whatsoever. Accordingly. The findings and conclusions of the private auditor may guide private investors or creditors who require such private audit. is violative of the provision of Section 5 of Article XIII of the New Constitution because the former enlarges what the latter limited. In case private individuals are charged as co-principals. including those employed in government-owned or controlled corporation." which provides:. Compañia General de Tabacos v. ISSUE: May the power of the COA to examine and audit government agencies be validly taken away from it? HELD: The power of the COA to examine and audit government agencies. Government agencies and officials.” The mere fact that private auditors may audit government agencies does not divest the COA of its power to examine and audit the same government agencies. issued Presidential Decree No. 34. as may be determined by law. accomplices or accessories with the public officers or employees. as in the case of the present petitioners. however. It does not include the power to fix the amount of an unfixed or undetermined debt." (Emphasis supplied) When the lawmaking authority 114 . in relation to their office as may be determined by law. and efficiency. Sandiganbayan. Lecaroz v. or any investment of public funds. those accounts which may be adjusted simply by an arithmetical process. SANDIGANBAYAN Balmadrid v. integrity. (Section 4. he may also be convicted jointly with them. "SECTION 1. while nonexclusive." There is no merit in petitioner's contention that Section 4(c) of Presidential Decree No. remain bound by the findings and conclusions of the COA. It follows therefore that if a private person may be tried jointly with public officers. 128 SCRA 324 (1984) HELD: It is clear from the above-quoted constitutional provision that respondent court has jurisdictional competence not only over criminal and civil cases involving graft and corrupt practices committed by public officers and employees but also over other crimes committed by them in relation to their office. Public office is a public trust. PD 1606). Q: What is meant by the power of the Commission to “settle accounts?” A: It means the power to settle liquidated accounts. that is. exercising his lawmaking authority and prerogative vested in him by the Constitution. French and Unson. unless of course such findings and conclusions are modified or reversed by the courts. from the jurisdiction of the Commission on Audit. 39 Phil. Section 3. 1486 which mandates in Section 4(c) thereof that the Sandiganbayan shall have jurisdiction over "other crimes or offenses committed by public officers or employees. Public officers and employees shall serve with the highest degree of responsibility.

if it is. were excessive and unreasonable. (2) the offender committing the offenses in items (a).D. and 14-A.D. This paragraph b pertains to "other offenses or felonies whether simple or complexed with other crimes committed by the public officials and employees mentioned in subsection a of [Section 4. (c) Chapter II. — When the administrative case against the officer or employee under preventive suspension is not finally decided by the disciplining authority within the period of ninety (90) days after the date of suspension of the respondent who is not a presidential appointee. b and c of the same Section 4 do not make any reference to the criminal participation of the accused public officer as to whether he is charged as a principal. 13 of Republic Act No. 14. accomplice or accessory. 235 SCRA 103 (1994) HELD: It is now settled that sec. Section 2. the courts will not review questions of legislative policy. But that is only for the purpose of emphasizing that the preventive suspension therein involved. but if the case is not decided within ninety days. the law requires the judge to issue a warrant for the arrest of the accused. as applied to 115 . which were for more than ninety (90) days. 8249. Lacson v. That when the delay in the disposition of the case is due to the fault. then the suspension will last less than ninety days. the respondent shall be automatically reinstated in the service: Provided. This latter provision states: Sec. the Congress simply restored the original provisions of P. 13 of Republic Act No. Considering that herein petitioner and intervenors are being charged with murder which is a felony punishable under Title VIII of the Revised Penal Code. 2. Similarly. Title 7 of the Revised Penal Code. Executive Secretary. R. The duration of preventive suspension is thus coeval with the period prescribed for deciding administrative disciplinary cases. Book II of the Revised Penal Code (the law on bribery). or (e) other offenses or felonies whether simple or complexed with other crimes. 3019. It is enough that the act is within the constitutional power of the lawmaking body or authority and. 3019 but was adopted from sec.A.A. The court trying a case has neither discretion nor duty to determine whether preventive suspension is required to prevent the accused from using his office to intimidate witnesses or frustrate his prosecution or continue committing malfeasance in office. 42 of the Civil Service Decree (P. It is to be noted that the ninety-day period of preventive suspension is not found in sec. No. whether he is one of those public officers or employees enumerated in paragraph a of Section 4.A. 1379 (the law on ill-gotten wealth). (b). negligency or petition of the respondent. as amended (the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act). or any offense involving fraud upon government or public funds or property is filed. under said paragraph b. 8249 reveals that to fall under the exclusive original jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan. Title VII. in the same way that upon a finding that there is probable cause to believe that a crime has been committed and that the accused is probably guilty thereof. Book II. what determines the Sandiganbayan's jurisdiction is the official position or rank of the offender — that is. The presumption is that unless the accused is suspended he may frustrate his prosecution or commit further acts of malfeasance or do both. Sandiganbayan.A. issued in 1986 (sequestration cases). Bolastig v. (b) R. Section 4 of R. then the preventive suspension must be up to ninety days only. 52. 8249. 7 which is not sec. 1. It is indeed true that in some of our decisions the expression "the maximum period of ninety (90) days" is used. 52 of the Administrative Code of 1987. Thus. and (3) the offense committed is in relation to the office. 8249] in relation to their office. Lifting of Preventive Suspension Pending Administrative Investigation. the following requisites must concur: (1) the offense committed is a violation of (a) R. the courts are bound to follow and apply. (c) and (e) is a public official or employee holding any of the positions enumerated in paragraph a of Section 4. 3019 makes it mandatory for the Sandiganbayan to suspend any public officer against whom a valid information charging violation of that law. The offenses mentioned in paragraphs a. The law does not require the court to determine whether the accused is likely to escape or evade the jurisdiction of the court. provided it was committed in relation to the accused's official functions. the governing provision on the jurisdictional offense is not paragraph a but paragraph b. If the case is decided before ninety days. 301 SCRA 298 (1999) HELD: A perusal of the aforequoted Section 4 of R." The phrase "other offenses or felonies" is too broad as to include the crime of murder.A. In enacting R. 1606 which does not mention the criminal participation of the public officer as a requisite to determine the jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan.chose to include all public office-related offenses over which respondent court shall have jurisdiction.A. (d) Executive Order Nos. 807). the period of delay shall not be counted in computing the period of suspension herein provided.

criminal prosecutions under Republic Act No. 3019, preventive suspension will last for less than ninety days only if the case is decided within that period: otherwise, it will continue for ninety days. OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN COMPOSITION Art. XI, Sec. 5. There is hereby created the independent Office of the Ombudsman, composed of the Ombudsman to be known as Tanodbayan, one overall Deputy and at least one Deputy each for Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. A separate Deputy for the military establishment may likewise be appointed. QUALIFICATIONS Art. XI, Sec. 8. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, and at the time of their appointment, at least forty years old, of recognized probity and independence, and members of the Philippine Bar, and must not have been candidates for any elective office in the immediately preceding election. The Ombudsman must have for ten years or more been a judge or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines. During their tenure, they shall be subject to the same disqualifications and prohibitions as provided for in Section 2 of Article IX-A of this Constitution. APPOINTMENT AND TERM Art. XI, Sec. 9. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall be appointed by the President from a list of at least six nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council, and from a list of three nominees for every vacancy thereafter. Such appointments shall require no confirmation. All vacancies shall be filled within three months after they occur. Id., Sec. 11. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall serve for a term of seven years without reappointment. They shall not be qualified to run for any office in the election immediately succeeding their cessation from office. RANK AND SALARY Id., Sec. 10. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall have the rank of Chairman and Members, respectively, of the Constitutional Commissions, and they shall receive the same salary, which shall not be decreased during their term of office. DISQUALIFICATIONS Art. IX, Sec. 8. xxx During their tenure, they shall be subject to the same disqualifications and prohibitions as provided for in Section 2 of Article IX-A of this Constitution. Art. IX, A, Sec. 2. No Member of a Constitutional Commission shall, during his tenure, hold any other office or employment. Neither shall he engage in the practice of any profession or in the active management or control of any business which in any way may be affected by the functions of his office, nor shall he be financially interested, directly or indirectly, in any contract with, or in any franchise or privilege granted by the Government, any of its subdivisions, agencies or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. Art. XI, Sec. 16. No loan, guaranty, or other form of financial accommodation for any business purpose may be granted, directly or indirectly by any government owned or controlled bank or financial institution to the President, Vice President, the Members of the Cabinet, the Congress, the Supreme Court, and the Constitutional Commissions, the Ombudsman, or to any firm or entity in which they have controlling interest, during their tenure. JURISDICTION

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Id., Sec. 12. The Ombudsman and his Deputies, as protectors of the people, shall act promptly on complaints filed in any form or manner against public officials or employees of the government, or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including government owned or controlled corporations and shall, in appropriate cases, notify the complainants of the action taken and the result thereof. POWERS AND FUNCTIONS Art. XI, Sec. 13. The Office of the Ombudsman shall have the following powers, functions and duties: (1) Investigate on its own or on complaint any act or omission of any public official, employee, office or agency, when such act or omission appears to be illegal, unjust, improper, or inefficient (2) Direct, upon complaint or at its own instance, any public official or employee of the Government, or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, as well as of any government-owned or controlled corporation with original charter; to perform and expedite any act or duty required by law, or to stop, prevent, and correct any abuse or impropriety in the performance of duties. (3) Direct the officer concerned to take appropriate action against a public official or employee at fault, and recommend his removal, suspension, demotion, fine, censure, or prosecution, and ensure compliance therewith. (4) Direct the officer concerned in any appropriate case, and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law, to furnish it with copies of documents relating to contracts or transactions entered into by his office involving disbursement or use of public funds or properties, and report any irregularity to the Commission on Audit for appropriate action. (5) Request any government agency for assistance and information necessary in the discharge of its responsibilities, and to examine, if necessary, pertinent records and documents. (6) Publicize matters covered by its investigation when circumstances so warrant and with due prudence. (7) Determine the causes of inefficiency, red tape, mismanagement, fraud and corruption in the Government and make recommendations for their elimination and the observance of high standards of ethics and efficiency. (8) Promulgate its rules of procedure and exercise such other powers or perform such functions or duties as may be provided by law.

The functions of the Ombudsman may be divided into four: Prosecutory; (3) Disciplinary; and (4) Assistory.

(1)

Investigatory; (2)

Deloso v. Domingo, 191 SCRA 545 (1990) HELD: As protector of the people, the office of the Ombudsman has the power, function and duty "to act promptly on complaints filed in any form or manner against public officials" (Sec. 12) and to "investigate . . . any act or omission of any public official . . . when such act or omission appears to be illegal, unjust, improper or inefficient." (Sec. 13 [1].) The Ombudsman is also empowered to "direct the officer concerned," in this case the Special Prosecutor, "to take appropriate action against a public official . . . and to recommend his prosecution" (Sec. 13 [3]). The clause "any [illegal] act or omission of any public official" is broad enough to embrace any crime committed by a public official. The law does not qualify the nature of the illegal act or omission of the public official or employee that the Ombudsman may investigate. It does not require that the act or omission be related to or be connected with or arise from, the performance of official duty. Since the law does not distinguish, neither should we. The reason for the creation of the Ombudsman in the 1987 Constitution and for the grant to it of broad investigative authority, is to insulate said office from the long tentacles of officialdom that are able to penetrate judges' and fiscals' offices, and others involved in the prosecution of erring public officials, and through the exertion of official pressure and influence, quash, delay, or dismiss investigations into malfeasances and misfeasances

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committed by public officers. It was deemed necessary, therefore, to create a special office to investigate all criminal complaints against public officers regardless of whether or not the acts or omissions complained of are related to or arise from the performance of the duties of their office. The Ombudsman Act makes perfectly clear that the jurisdiction of the Ombudsman encompasses "all kinds of malfeasance, misfeasance, and non-feasance that have been committed by any officer or employee as mentioned in Section 13 hereof, during his tenure of office" (Sec. 16, R.A. 6770). Lastimoza v. Vasquez, 243 SCRA 497 (1995) HELD: The Office of the Ombudsman has the power to "investigate and prosecute on its own or on complaint by any person, any act or omission of any public officer or employee, office or agency, when such act or omission appears to be illegal, unjust, improper or inefficient." This power has been held to include the investigation and prosecution of any crime committed by a public official regardless of whether the acts or omissions complained of are related to, or connected with, or arise from, the performance of his official duty. It is enough that the act or omission was committed by a public official. Hence, the crime of rape, when committed by a public official like a municipal mayor, is within the power of the Ombudsman to investigate and prosecute. Buenaseda v. Flavier, 226 SCRA 645 (1993) HELD: The crucial issue to resolve is whether the Ombudsman has the power to suspend government officials and employees working in offices other than the Office of the Ombudsman, pending the investigation of the administrative complaints filed against said officials and employees. In upholding the power of the Ombudsman to preventively suspend petitioners, respondents (Urgent Motion to Lift Status Quo, etc, dated January 11, 1993, pp. 10-11), invoke Section 24 of R.A. No. 6770, which provides: "Sec. 24. Preventive Suspension. — The Ombudsman or his Deputy may preventively suspend any officer or employee under his authority pending an investigation, if in his judgment the evidence of guilt is strong, and (a) the charge against such officer or employee involves dishonesty, oppression or grave misconduct or neglect in the performance of duty; (b) the charge would warrant removal from the service; or (c) the respondent's continued stay in office may prejudice the case filed against him. The preventive suspension shall continue until the case is terminated by the Office of Ombudsman but not more than six months, without pay, except when the delay in the disposition of the case by the Office of the Ombudsman is due to the fault, negligence or petition of the respondent, in which case the period of such delay shall not be counted in computing the period of suspension herein provided." X x x x x x x x x

When the Constitution vested on the Ombudsman the power "to recommend the suspension" of a public official or employees (Sec. 13 [3]), it referred to "suspension," as a punitive measure. All the words associated with the word "suspension" in said provision referred to penalties in administrative cases, e.g. removal, demotion, fine, censure. Under the rule of Noscitor a sociis, the word "suspension" should be given the same sense as the other words with which it is associated. Where a particular word is equally susceptible of various meanings, its correct construction may be made specific by considering the company of terms in which it is found or with which it is associated (Co Kim Chan v. Valdez Tan Keh, 75 Phil. 371 [1945]; Caltex (Phils.) Inc. v. Palomar, 18 SCRA 247 [1966]). Section 24 of R.A. No. 6770, which grants the Ombudsman the power to preventively suspend public officials and employees facing administrative charges before him, is a procedural, not a penal statute. The preventive suspension is imposed after compliance with the requisites therein set forth, as an aid in the investigation of the administrative charges. Under the Constitution, the Ombudsman is expressly authorized to recommend to the appropriate official the discipline or prosecution of erring public officials or employees. In order to make an intelligent determination whether to recommend such actions, the Ombudsman has to conduct an investigation. In turn, in order for him to conduct such investigation in an expeditious and efficient manner, he may need to suspend the respondent.

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The need for the preventive suspension may arise from several causes, among them, the danger of tampering or destruction of evidence in the possession of respondent; the intimidation of witnesses, etc. The Ombudsman should be given the discretion to decide when the persons facing administrative charges should be preventively suspended. In Nera v. Garcia, 106 Phil. 1031 [1960], this Court, holding that a preventive suspension is not a penalty, said: "Suspension is a preliminary step in an administrative investigation. If after such investigation, the charges are established and the person investigated is found guilty of acts warranting his removal, then he is removed or dismissed. This is the penalty." OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL PROSECUTOR Zaldivar v. Sandiganbayan, 160 SCRA 843 (1988) HELD: Now then, inasmuch as the aforementioned duty is given to the Ombudsman, the incumbent Tanodbayan (called Special Prosecutor under the 1987 constitution and who is supposed to retain powers and duties NOT GIVEN to the Ombudsman) is clearly without authority to conduct preliminary investigations and to direct the filing of criminal cases with the Sandiganbayan, except upon orders of the Ombudsman. This right to do so was lost effective February 2, 1987. From that time, he has been divested of such authority. Under the present Constitution, the Special Prosecutor (Raul Gonzalez) is a mere subordinate of the Tanodbayan (Ombudsman) and can investigate and prosecute cases only upon the latter's authority or orders. The Special Prosecutor cannot initiate the prosecution of cases but can only conduct the same if instructed to do so by the Ombudsman. Even his original power to issue subpoena, which he still claims under Section 10(d) of PD 1630, is now deemed transferred to the Ombudsman, who may, however, retain it in the Special Prosecutor in connection with the cases he is ordered to investigate. COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS Composition and Qualifications Art. XIII, Sec. 17. (1) There is hereby created an independent office called the Commission on Human Rights. (2) The Commission shall be composed of a Chairman and four Members who must be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and a majority of whom shall be members of the Bar. The term of office and other qualifications and disabilities of the Members of the Commission shall be provided by law. (3) Until this Commission is constituted, the existing Presidential Committee on Human Rights shall continue to exercise its present functions and powers. (4) The approved annual appropriations of the Commission shall be automatically and regularly released. Powers and Functions Art. XIII, Sec. 18. The Commission on Human Rights shall have the following powers and functions: (1) Investigate, on its own or on complaint by any party, all forms of human rights violations involving civil and political rights; (2) Adopt its operational guidelines and rules of procedure, and cite for contempt for violations thereof in accordance with the Rules of Court; (3) Provide appropriate legal measures for the protection of human rights of all persons within the Philippines, as well as Filipinos residing abroad, and provide for preventive measures and legal aid services to the underprivileged whose human rights have been violated or need protection; (4) Exercise visitorial powers over jails, prisons, or detention facilities; (5) Establish a continuing program of research, education, and information to enhance respect for the primacy of human rights;

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(6) Recommend to the Congress effective measures to promote human rights and provide for compensation to victims of violations of human rights, or their families; (7) Monitor the Philippine Government's compliance with international treaty obligations on human rights; (8) Grant immunity from prosecution to any person whose testimony or whose possession of documents or other evidence is necessary or convenient to determine the truth in any investigation conduced by it or under its authority; (9) Request the assistance of any department, bureau, office, or agency in the performance of its functions; (10) Appoint its officers and employer in accordance with law; and (11) Perform such other duties and functions as may be provided by law. Id., Sec. 19. The Congress may provide for other cases of violations of human rights that should fall within the authority of the Commission, taking into account its recommendations. Carino v. Commission on Human Rights, 204 SCRA 483 (1991) HELD: The threshold question is whether of not the CHR has the power under the Constitution to adjudicate; whether or not, like a court of justice, or even a quasi-judicial agency, it has jurisdiction or adjudicatory powers or the power to try and decide, or hear and determine, certain specific type of cases, like alleged human rights violations involving civil or political rights. The Court declares the CHR to have no such power xxx The most that may be conceded to the CHR in the way of adjudicative power is that it may investigate, i.e., receive evidence and make findings of fact as regards claimed human rights violations involving civil and political rights. But fact-finding is not adjudication, and cannot be likened to the judicial function of a court of justice, or even a quasi-judicial agency or official. xxx To be considered a judicial function, the faculty or receiving evidence and making factual conclusions in a controversy must be accompanied by the authority of applying the law to those factual conclusions to the end that the controversy may be decided or determined authoritatively, finally and definitely, subject to such appeals or modes of review as may be provided by law. This function, to repeat, the CHR does not have. EPZA v. CHR, 208 SCRA 125 (1992) ISSUE: Does the CHR have jurisdiction to issue a writ of injunction or restraining order against supposed violators of human rights, to compel them to cease and desist from continuing the acts complained of.? HELD: No. The constitutional provision directing the CHR directing the CHR to "provide for preventive measures and legal aid services to the underprivileged whose human rights have been violated or need protection" may not be construed to confer jurisdiction on the CHR to issue a restraining order or writ of injunction for, if that were the intention, the Constitution would have expressly said so. Jurisdiction is only conferred by the Constitution or by law." xxx Evidently, the "preventive measures and legal aid services" mentioned in the Constitution refer to extrajudicial and judicial remedies (including preliminary writ of injunction) which the CHR may seek from the proper courts on behalf of the victims of human rights violations. Not being a court of justice, the CHR itself has not jurisdiction to issue the writ, for a writ of preliminary injunction may only be issued "by the judge of any court in which the action is pending (w/in his district), or by a Justice of the CA, or of the SC. It may also be granted by a judge of a RTC in any action pending in an inferior court w/in his district. CONSTITUTIONAL LAW CONSTITUTIONAL LAW; DEFINITION: The study of the maintenance of the proper balance between authority as represented by the three inherent powers of the State and liberty as guaranteed by the Bill of Rights.

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267 SCRA 408 [1997] [Bellosillo]) I. Conventional vs. 2. The constitution must be comprehensive enough to provide for every contingency. absolute and unalterable except by the authority from which it emanates. Constitution of Government • Series of provisions outlining the organization of the government. whether promulgated by the legislative or by the executive branch or entered into by private persons for private purposes. that law or contract. V. Thus. if a law or contract violates any norm of the Constitution. Cumulative – result of political evolution. 1. ESSENTIAL QUALITIES OF THE WRITTEN CONSTITUTION Broad • Not only because it provides for the organization of the entire government and covers all persons and things within the territory of the State but more so because it is supposed to embody the past. and. Brief • It must be brief and confine itself to basic principles to be implemented with legislative details more adjustable to change and easier to amend. Cumulative 1. and perhaps even physical conflict. since the Constitution is the fundamental. and certain common law principles. Definite • Ambiguity in its provisions will result in confusion and divisiveness among the people. III. formally “struck off” at a definite time and place following a conscious or deliberate effort taken by a constituent body or ruler. It has been defined as the fundamental and paramount law of the nation. like the due process clause. IV. • ARTICLES II. 121 . concrete form but are scattered in various sources. (Manila Prince Hotel v. • The Constitution of the Philippines is written. ESSENTIAL PARTS OF THE WRITTEN CONSTITUTION Constitution of Liberty • Series of prescriptions setting forth the fundamental civil and political rights of the citizens and imposing limitations on the powers of government as a means of securing the enjoyment of these rights. to reflect the present and to anticipate the future. Flexible Rigid – one that can be amended only by a formal and usually difficult process.” Rigid vs. imperious. 3. III. and establishes certain fixed principles on which government is founded. 1. commentaries of publicists. customs and traditions.Manila Prince v. it is deemed written in every statute and contract. 3. It is supreme. • Exception: Found only in those cases where the rules are deliberately worded in a vague manner. 2. GSIS. 267 SCRA 408 (1997) HELD: A Constitution is a system of fundamental laws for the governance and administration of a nation. CLASSIFICATION Written vs. laying down certain rules relative to its administration and defining the electorate. • ARTICLES VI to XI Constitution of Sovereignty II. assigns to the different departments their respective powers and duties. GSIS. to make them more malleable to judicial interpretation in the light of new conditions and circumstances. 2. “not inaugurated at any specific time but changing by accretion rather than by any systematic method. Conventional – an enacted constitution. 2. is null and void and without any force and effect. The fundamental conception in other words is that it is a supreme law to which all other laws must conform and in accordance with which all private rights must be determined and all public authority administered. It prescribes the permanent framework of a system of government. XII. enumerating its powers. 2. Written – one whose precepts are embodied in one document or set of documents. judicial decisions. such as statutes of fundamental character. Unwritten – consists of rules which have not been integrated into a single. paramount and supreme law of the nation. What is the Doctrine of Constitutional Supremacy? Under the doctrine of constitutional supremacy. conventional and rigid 1. Unwritten 1. Flexible – one that can be changed by ordinary legislation.

either with penalties or without.• • Consists of provisions pointing out the mode or procedure in accordance with which formal changes in the fundamental law may be brought about.g. There is transfer of ownership or a lesser right (e. Relatively free from Constitutional limitations and is superior to the nonimpairment provisions. a class of individuals or their property..g. [Puno] HELD: Police power is an inherent attribute of sovereignty. It cannot be exercised by any group or body of individuals not possessing legislative power. morals. and establish all manner of wholesome and reasonable laws. Person affected receives just compensation for the property taken from him. EMINENT DOMAIN Power of the State to take private property for public use upon paying to the owner a just compensation to be ascertained according to law. Money contributed in the concept of taxes becomes part of public funds. Enforced contribution is demanded for the support of the government. of the property. subdivisions. Relationship to the Constitution Subject to certain Constitutional limitations Subject to certain Constitutional limitations (e. It bears stressing that police power is lodged primarily in the National Legislature. may delegate this power to the President and administrative 122 . POLICE POWER MMDA v. 328 SCRA 836. No amount imposed. DEFINITION Authority exercising the power Purpose Persons affected Effect Benefits received Amount of imposition Presumed that the taxpayer receives the equivalent of what he contributed in the form of protection from the government. at most there is restraint on the injurious use of the property. safety. Operates upon a community. ordain. Persons affected receives no direct benefit but only as such as may arise from the maintenance of the healthy economic standard of society. Inc. No transfer of ownership of the property seized. Amount imposed should not be more that that sufficient to cover the cost of the license and the necessary expenses of regulation. inferior to the nonimpairment of contracts clause). The National Legislature. Bel-Air Village Association. It has been defined as the power vested by the Constitution in the legislature to make. and property as may promote public health. since it is property which is taken. Use of property is regulated for the purpose of promoting the general welfare. Operates on an individual as the owner of a particular property. a class of individuals or their property. Generally no limit as to the amount of tax to be imposed. however. as they shall judge to be for the good and welfare of the commonwealth. 2000. Operates upon a community. statutes and ordinances. March 27. not repugnant to the Constitution. May be granted to public service or public utility companies. Property is taken for public use. ARTICLES XVII INHERENT POWERS OF THE STATE TAXATION POLICE POWER Power of the State to Power of the State to demand enforced enact such laws in contributions for public relation to persons purposes. and for the subjects of the same. and the enjoyment of living in a civilized society. Only the government Only the government or its political and its political subdivisions. lease). Restraint on the exercise of a right. and the general welfare of the public. 1st Div.

and it has been said to be the very foundation on which our social system rests. when the power is used to further private interests at the expense of the citizenry. . (16 C. et al. comfort and convenience of the people. vs. It is founded largely on the maxims. 896) However. (Sangalang. PASEI v. good order. In a sense it is the greatest and most powerful attribute of the government. which was born with civilized government. It is elastic and must be responsive to various social conditions. • The exercise of the police power lies in the discretion of the legislative department. Thus. police power is not without its own limitations. IAC. It has been defined as the "state authority to enact legislation that may interfere with personal liberty or property in order to promote the general welfare. insistent. it defeats the purpose for which it is exercised. LAC. have been remiss in the discharge of their duties. the Bill of Rights itself does not purport to be an absolute guaranty of individual rights and liberties "Even liberty itself. It is a fundamental attribute of government that has enabled it to perform the most vital functions of governance. vs. education." "The police power of the State . (Sangalang. It is the most essential.. Binay v. 201 SCRA 508 (1991) HELD: The police power is a governmental function. Notwithstanding its extensive sweep. According to Fernando. safety. 163 SCRA 386 (1988) HELD: The concept of police power is well-established in this jurisdiction. it is "rooted in the conception that men in organizing the state and imposing upon its government limitations to safeguard constitutional rights did not intend thereby to enable an individual citizen or a group of citizens to obstruct unreasonably the enactment of such salutary measures calculated to ensure communal peace. an inherent attribute of sovereignty. Police power is the power to prescribe regulations to promote the health. good order or safety and general welfare of the people. purposely. to whom the expression has been credited. ever-expanding to meet the exigencies of the times. Along with the taxing power and eminent domain. It is not capable of an exact definition but has been. and illimitable of powers. veiled in general terms to underscore its all-comprehensive embrace. Once delegated. the refusal of the electorate to return to the legislature members who.boards as well as the lawmaking bodies of municipal corporations or local government units. to advance the public good. No mandamus is available to coerce the exercise of the police power. and welfare. the greatest of all rights." It is subject to the far more overriding demands and requirements of the greater number. and it is not inaptly termed the 'law of overwhelming necessity. there is a clear misuse of the power." As defined. "Its scope. "Sic utere tuo et alienum non laedas" and "Salus populi est suprema lex. Marshall. Domingo. the agents can exercise only such legislative powers as are conferred on them by the national lawmaking body. et al. it is inborn in the very fact of statehood and sovereignty. provides enough room for an efficient and flexible response to conditions and circumstances thus assuring the greatest benefits. in their view. supra). it must follow the legal progress of a democratic way of life. peace. For all its awesome consequences. is not unrestricted license to act according to one's will. Drilon." It constitutes an implied limitation on the Bill of Rights. 123 . the life and health of the citizen. that is. Otherwise.J. The only remedy against legislative inaction is a resort to the bar of public opinion. p. and the beneficial use of property. the comfort of an existence in a thickly populated community.S.' It may be said to be that inherent and plenary power in the State which enables it to prohibit all things hurtful to the comfort. On it depends the security of social order. . it may not be exercised arbitrarily or unreasonably." Significantly. safety. • Police power may sometimes use the taxing power as an implement for the attainment of a legitimate police objective. refers to it succinctly as the plenary power of the State "to govern its citizens. is a power coextensive with self-protection. the enjoyment of private and social life. and in that event." It finds no specific Constitutional grant for the plain reason that it does not owe its origin to the Charter." Its fundamental purpose is securing the general welfare. morals. (2) in order to foster the common good. it is not confined within narrow circumstances of precedents resting on past conditions. and welfare of society. 176 SCRA 719). even to anticipate the future where it could be done. it consists of (1) an imposition of restraint upon liberty or property.

What powers of the State are involved in the implementation of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL)? Discuss. To the extent that the CARL prescribes retention limits to the landowners. A valid delegation of police power may arise 124 . is essentially in the exercise of the police power of the State within the contemplation of the general welfare clause of the Local Government Code.. 151 SCRA 208 (1987) HELD: "The public purpose of a tax may legally exist even if the motive which impelled the legislature to impose the tax was to favor one industry over another”. Inc. "It is inherent in the power to tax that a state be free to select the subjects of taxation. 201 SCRA 508 (1991) HELD: Police power is inherent in the state but not in municipal corporations (Balacuit v. MERALCO. When private property is used for a public purpose and is affected with public interest. The taking contemplated is not a mere limitation of the use of the land. HELD: The regulation of rates to be charged by public utilities is founded upon the police power of the State and statutes prescribing rules for the control and regulations of public utilities are a valid exercise thereof. HELD: The issuance of business licenses and permits by a municipality or city is essentially regulatory in nature. Roxas & Co. Binay v.Tio v. there is an exercise of police power for the regulation of private property in accordance with the Constitution. 329 SCRA 314 (2000) Q. and it has been repeatedly held that "inequities which result from a singling out of one particular class for taxation or exemption infringe no constitutional limitation'. there must be a valid delegation of such power by the legislature which is the repository of the inherent powers of the State. What is required is the surrender of the title to and physical possession of the said excess and all beneficial rights accruing to the owner in favor of the farmer beneficiary. The exercise of the power of eminent domain requires that due process be observed in the taking of private property. The Bill of Rights provides that “[n]o person shall be deprived of life. CA. the rates prescribed by the State must be one that yields a fair return on the public utility upon the value of the property performing the service and one that is reasonable to the public for the service rendered. HELD: The implementation of the CARL is an exercise of the State’s police power and the power of eminent domain." Taxation has been made the implement of the state's police power. In regulating rates charged by public utilities. liberty or property without due process of law. the same is subject to public regulation. 391 SCRA 700 (2002) Q. Domingo. VRB. The regulation is to promote the common good. The fixing of just and reasonable rates involves a balancing of the investor and the consumer interests. Discuss the nature of the authority of local government units to issue or grant licenses or permits. the State protects the public against arbitrary and excessive rates while maintaining the efficiency and quality of services rendered. Submission to regulation may be withdrawn by the owner by discontinuing use. to carry out such regulation. CFI of Agusan del Norte. which devolved upon local government units to issue or grant such licenses or permits. the owners are deprived of lands they own in excess of the maximum area allowed. The authority. v. v. But where. but as long as the use of the property is continued. Before a municipal corporation may exercise such power. 163 SCRA 182).” The CARL was not intended to take away property without due process of law. the power to regulate rates does not give the State the right to prescribe rates which are so low as to deprive the public utility of a reasonable return on investment. it ceases to be juris privati only and becomes subject to regulation. • The power of eminent domain could also be used as an implement of the police power. Discuss why rates to be charged by public utilities like MERALCO are subject to State regulation. Thus. Inc. CA. However. 321 SCRA 106 (1999) Q. Acebedo Optical Company. there is also a taking under the power of eminent domain. Republic v.

municipal corporations. (Crawfordsville vs. security. v. REQUISITES LAWFUL SUBJECT: The interests of the public generally. 28 N. upon the determination of the Secretary of Labor that such industry is indispensable to the national interest. as governmental agencies. and statutes conferring powers on public corporations have been construed as empowering them to do the things essential to the enjoyment of life and desirable for the safety of the people. Thus. They are still subject to control and limitation to ensure that they are not exercised arbitrarily. The rights granted by the Constitution are not absolute. 269 SCRA 393. and convenience as consistently as may be with private rights. those necessarily implied therefrom. and insure the protection of property therein. The power is a continuing one.. and as a general rule. Municipal governments exercise this power under the general welfare clause: pursuant thereto they are clothed with authority to "enact such ordinances and issue such regulations as may be necessary to carry out and discharge the responsibilities conferred upon it by law. "every local government unit shall exercise the powers expressly granted." The police power of a municipal corporation is broad.J. and has been said to be commensurate with.from express delegation. 177 and 208. when in the exercise of such right.. The interests of both the employers and the employees are intended to be protected and not one of them is given undue preference. 39 Phil. This is done for the promotion of the common good considering that a prolonged strike or lockout can be inimical to the national economy. it is not limited thereto. safety. national interests will be affected. morals. 1997 HELD: Article 263(g) of the Labor Code (vesting upon the Secretary of Labor the discretion to determine what industries are indispensable to the national interest and thereafter. improve public morals. safety. founded on public necessity. it is deemed inadvisable to attempt to frame any definition which shall absolutely indicate the limits of police power. 849). the duty to provide for the real needs of the people in their health. BP 337). As long as the object is the public welfare and the subject of regulation 125 . and general welfare of the community.S.E. p. that the activity or property sought to be regulated affects the public welfare. that is. require the exercise of the police power LAWFUL MEANS: The means employed are reasonably necessary for the accomplishment of the purpose and not unduly oppressive upon individuals • The first requisite simply means that the subject of the measure is within the scope of the police power. Salaveria. Philtread Workers Union [PTWU] v. or be inferred from the mere fact of the creation of the municipal corporation. must have such measures of the power as are necessary to enable them to perform their governmental functions. The so-called inferred police powers of such corporations are as much delegated powers as are those conferred in express terms.S. not only does the State effectuate its purposes through the exercise of the police power but the municipality does also. while it is especially occupied with whatever affects the peace. in a broad sense includes all legislation and almost every function of the municipal government. Thus. (U. and preserve the comfort and convenience of the inhabitants therein. municipal corporations may exercise police powers within the fair intent and purpose of their creation which are reasonably proper to give effect to the powers expressly granted. it will assume jurisdiction over the labor dispute of said industry. and to everything worthwhile for the preservation of comfort of the inhabitants of the corporation (62 C. 149.S. Confesor. maintain peace and order. health. 128). Braden. improve morals. and. p. comfort and convenience. March 12. Sec. Furthermore. assume jurisdiction over disputes in said industries) does not interfere with the workers’ right to strike but merely regulates it. as well as powers necessary and proper for governance such as to promote health and safety. (62 C. and such as shall be necessary and proper to provide for the health. enhance prosperity. The assumption of jurisdiction is in the nature of police power measure. and maintain peace and order in the local government unit. but not to exceed. as distinguished from those of a particular class. And under Section 7 of BP 337.J. 273) Thus. comfort. but is broadened to deal with conditions which exists so as to bring out of them the greatest welfare of the people by promoting public convenience or general prosperity. (62 C." (Sections 91. It covers a wide scope of subjects. It extends to all the great public needs.J. 277). 102).S. promote the prosperity and general welfare of the municipality and the inhabitants thereof. The Labor Code vests upon the Secretary of Labor the discretion to determine what industries are indispensable to national interest. and. the inference of their delegation growing out of the fact of the creation of the municipal corporation and the additional fact that the corporation can only fully accomplish the objects of its creation by exercising such powers.

boulevards. It is not the adoption of a new principle but simply the extension of a well established principle to hold that the police power may also regulate and restrict uses of private property when devoted to advertising which is offensive to the sight. not to speak of the fact that it can open the door to the adoption of multiple standards. however. against the so-called billboards — the most common form of this kind of advertising — shows that they are a source of annoyance and irritation to the public and interfere with the proper enjoyment of outdoor life by the general public. their actual physical condition should be taken into consideration at the time of registration. It is elastic and is exercised from time to time as varying social conditions demand correction. the end does not justify the means." From whatever direction the social. This is of common knowledge. Lacking such concurrence. or comfort. The widespread agitation in many European countries. The span of six years supplies that reasonable standard. compared to those of other places. be held to be invalid. and the use of private property may be regulated or restricted to whatever extent may be necessary to preserve inviolate these declared essentials to the well being of the public. possible collusion. must be pursued through a lawful method. This justifies their suppression or regulation to the extent that they interfere with the right of the public. If a law relates to the public health. the police measure shall be struck down as an arbitrary intrusion into private rights.may be properly related thereto. The courts cannot substitute their own views for what is proper in the premises for those of the Legislature. As public respondents contend. 126 . or general welfare of the people is menaced. In Constitutional Law. economic. The Board's reason for enforcing the Circular initially in Metro Manila is that taxicabs in this city. 117 SCRA 597 (1982) HELD: Petitioners farther take the position that fixing the ceiling at six (6) years is arbitrary and oppressive because of roadworthiness of taxicabs depends upon their kind of maintenance and the use to which they are subjected. An Act of the Legislature which is obviously and undoubtedly foreign to any of the purposes of the police power and interferes with the ordinary enjoyment of property would. fairly. A reasonable standard must be adopted to apply to all vehicles affected uniformly. At the outset it should be pointed out that implementation outside Metro Manila is also envisioned in Memorandum Circular No. and buildings. therefore. expediency. in other words. and a fair return on investment obtained. Taxicab Operators of MM v. Rafferty. the law will still be annulled if the subject is sought to be regulated in violation of the second requirement. Churchill & Tait v. The product of experience shows that by that time taxis have fully depreciated. 32 Phil 580 (1915) HELD: There can be no doubt that the exercise of the police power of the Philippine Government belongs to the Legislature and that this power is limited only by the Acts of Congress and those fundamental principles which lie at the foundation of all republican forms of government. • Even if the purpose be within the scope of the police power. comfort. and. The indiscriminate use of outdoor advertising tends to mar not only natural outdoor landscapes but whatever of civic beauty has been attained by the expenditure of public moneys for parks. their cost recovered. or general welfare of the community. it is impractical to subject every taxicab to constant and recurring evaluation. The lawful objective. It has long been recognized that uses of private property which are offensive to the senses of smell of hearing may be so regulated or segregated as to disturb as little as possible the pursuits of other persons. and justly. are subjected to heavier traffic pressure and more constant use. But where the Act is reasonably within a proper consideration of and care for the public health. there is legal justification for the exercise of the police power.' Courts have consistently and wisely declined to set any fixed limitations upon subjects calling for the exercise of this power. without doubt. that is. safety. BOT. Within such bounds the wisdom. "It [the police power] has for its object the improvement of social and economic conditions affecting the community at large and collectively with a view to bring about 'the greatest good of the greatest number. morals. there is compliance with the first test requiring the primacy of the welfare of the many over the interests of the few. it should not be disturbed by the courts. and evens graft and corruption. safety. 77-42. or necessity of the law does not concern the courts. it is within the scope of the police power of the State. both the end and the means must be legitimate. as well as in the United States.

The state can do this in the exercise of its police power. As enunciated in the preambular clauses of the challenged BOT Circular. hence not malum in se. It may be constitutionally impermissible for the legislature to penalize a person for nonpayment of a debt ex contractu. he may not be forced to be a plumber. Mayor of Bacolod City. p. DECS v. however appropriate this career may be for others. a substantial distinction exist so that infringement of the equal protection clause can hardly be successfully claimed. Ericta. safety and general welfare of the people. Second Edition. the making of worthless checks and putting them in circulation. the practice is proscribed by the law. (Edu vs. 35 SCRA 48 [1970]. The method employed by the challenged regulation is not irrelevant to the purpose of the law nor is it arbitrary or oppressive. San Diego. While every person is entitled to aspire to be a doctor. Martinez. The State. These resources must be applied in a manner that will best promote the common good while also giving the individual a sense of satisfaction. (Samson vs. If one who wants to be a lawyer may prove better as a plumber. 60 SCRA 267 [1974]. The State has the responsibility to harness its human resources and to see to it that they are not dissipated or. The thrust of the law is to prohibit. But certainly it is within the prerogative of the lawmaking body to proscribe certain acts deemed pernicious and inimical to public welfare. safety and welfare of society. The law punishes the act not as an offense against property. In the language of Chief Justice Enrique M. morals. in the exercise of its police power. and the closer the link. Because of its deleterious effects on the public interest.) Lozano v. he does not have a constitutional right to be a doctor. but on the other hand he may not force his entry into the bar. peace. 22 is the act of making and issuing a worthless check or a check that is dishonored upon its presentation for payment. under pain of sanctions.Considering that traffic conditions are not the same in every city. The law is not intended or designed to coerce a debtor to pay his debt. Acts mala in se are not the only facts which the law can punish. 180 SCRA 533 (1989) FACTS: The question is whether a person who has thrice failed the National Medical Admission Test (NMAT) is entitled to take it again. The petitioner contends he may not. By the same token. Of course. The three-flunk rule is intended to insulate the medical schools and ultimately the medical profession from the intrusion of those not qualified to be doctors. 548. no less worse. Fernando "the necessities imposed by public welfare may justify the exercise of governmental authority to regulate even if thereby certain groups may plausibly assert that their interests are disregarded". under its rule that — h) A student shall be allowed only three (3) chances to take the NMAT. a student shall not be allowed to take the NMAT for the fourth time. a student who has demonstrated promise as a pianist cannot be shunted aside to take a course in nursing. (The Constitution of the Philippines. it can be outlawed and criminally punished as malum prohibitum. the overriding consideration is the safety and comfort of the riding public from the dangers posed by old and dilapidated taxis. not used at all. An act may not be considered by society as inherently wrong. After three (3) successive failures. HELD: The proper exercise of the police power requires the concurrence of a lawful subject and a lawful method. The subject of the challenged regulation is certainly within the ambit of the police power. 146 SCRA 324 (1986) HELD: The gravamen of the offense punished by B.P. It is not the non-payment of an obligation which the law punishes. A person cannot insist on being a physician if he will be a menace to his patients. but because of the harm that it inflicts on the community. This is true of any other calling in which the public interest is involved. can prescribe regulations to promote the health. he should be so advised and adviced. good order. It may also regulate property rights. It is the right and indeed the responsibility of the State to insure that the medical profession is not infiltrated by incompetents to whom patients may unwarily entrust their lives and health. but an offense against public order. 127 . It can prohibit all things hurtful to comfort. the longer the bridge to one's ambition.

on the time-honored justification of Salus populi est suprema lex. which does not involve any religious test and does not unreasonably obstruct or delay the collection of funds. or convenience. the police power becomes correspondingly ubiquitous.The right to quality education invoked by the private respondent is not absolute. from the constitutional guarantees of the free exercise of religion that everything which may be so called can be tolerated. It does not follow. 128 . Increasingly. he is hemmed in by all manner of statutory. Certainly. peace. The State is likewise free to regulate the time and manner of solicitation generally. There is no taking of property involved here. subject to fair. it is likely to destroy that prized and peculiar virtue of the free society: individualism. in the concept of police power. Centeno v. comfort. there is all the more reason to bar those who. As society becomes more and more complex. It has been said that a law advancing a legitimate governmental interest is not necessarily invalid as one interfering with the “free exercise” of religion merely because it also incidentally has a detrimental effect on the adherents of one or more religion. This has to be so for the individual must subordinate his interests to the common good. reasonable and equitable admission and academic requirements. in the interest of public safety. 176 SCRA 719 (1989) ISSUE: Whether or not the Mayor of Makati could have validly opened Jupiter and Orbit Streets to vehicular traffic? HELD: There is no merit in BAVA's claims that the demolition of the gates at Orbit and Jupiter Streets amounts to deprivation of property without due process of law or expropriation without just compensation. Thus. Without doubt. 143 SCRA 480 (1986) HELD: Regulation is a fact of life in any well-ordered community. at the expense of the minority. in order that the State may protect its citizens from injury. to establish his identity and his authority to act for the cause which he purports to represent. or that the Mayor acted unreasonably. practically everything a person does and owns affects the public interest directly or at least vicariously. before permitting him publicly to solicit funds for any purpose. police power is exercised without provision for just compensation. The fact that it has led to the loss of privacy of BAVA residents is no argument against the Municipality's effort to ease vehicular traffic in Makati. unavoidably drawing him within the embrace of the police power. Villacorta v. a State may protect its citizens from fraudulent solicitation by requiring a stranger in the community. the general regulation. rather. The Constitution also provides that "every citizen has the right to choose a profession or course of study. is not open to any constitutional objection. It is necessary to stress that unless the creeping interference of the government in essentially private matters is moderated. 236 SCRA 197 (1994) Q. it may not be done arbitrarily or unreasonably. administrative and municipal requirements and restrictions that he may find officious and even oppressive. therefore. Our considered opinion is that BAVA has failed to show that the opening up of Orbit Street was unjustified. Such regulation would not constitute a prohibited previous restraint on the free exercise of religion or interpose an inadmissible obstacle to its exercise. The act of the Mayor now challenged is. of solicitation. IAC. in the public interest. like him." The private respondent must yield to the challenged rule and give way to those better prepared. But the burden of showing that it is unjustified lies on the aggrieved party. in many cases. Villalon-Pornillos. at some slight inconvenience. Bernardo. even though the collection be for a religious purpose. have been tested and found wanting. Sangalang v. However. Where even those who have qualified may still not be accommodated in our already crowded medical schools. the duty of a local executive is to take care of the needs of the greater number. even the exercise of religion may be regulated. In this prolix age. Unlike the power of eminent domain. May solicitation for religious purposes be subject to proper regulation by the State in the exercise of police power? HELD: Whence.

5. And in G. This is logical. while paying proper deference to the general welfare. judging from the blunders committed by policemen in the cases passed upon by the Court. David v. Inc. if not more so than. to Ayala Avenue. Let it always be remembered that in the truly democratic state. in the idiom of the day. the CIDG operatives “raided and ransacked without warrant” their office. alleged that their members were “turned away and dispersed” when they went to EDSA and later. In G.O. protecting the rights of the public. No. The validity of a statute or ordinance is to be determined from its general purpose and its efficiency to accomplish the end desired. to celebrate the 20th Anniversary of People Power I. ISSUE: Can this Court adjudge as unconstitutional PP 1017 and G. Three policemen were assigned to guard their office as a possible “source of destabilization.O. 2006. 171396. In G. petitioners KMU and NAFLU-KMU et al. Now.” Again. If this were so. let us not forget that PAGCOR is engaged in business affected with public interest. 346 SCRA 485 (2000) Q. Its general purpose is to command the AFP to suppress all forms of lawless violence. Del Mar v. No 5 on the basis of these illegal acts? In general. pursuant to G. may this Court adjudge a law or ordinance unconstitutional on the ground that its implementor committed illegal acts? The answer is no. protecting the rights of the individual is as important as. PAGCOR. 2006. 171409. It had accomplished the end desired which prompted President Arroyo to issue PP 1021. expressly or impliedly. How should laws that grant the right to exercise a part of the police power of the State be construed? Held: Lest the idea gets lost in the shoals of our subconsciousness. 2006 May a Law be declared unconstitutional because of the illegal acts done in pursuant of its implementation? FACTS: Of the seven (7) petitions. invasion or rebellion. to conduct illegal arrest. not from its effects in a particular case. petitioners David and Llamas alleged that. the basis was PP 1017.R. majority of the provisions of the Revised Penal Code would have been declared unconstitutional a long time ago. Just imagine the absurdity of situations when laws maybe declared unconstitutional just because the officers implementing them have acted arbitrarily.Every member of society. "to do his thing.R. search or violate the citizens’ constitutional rights. We therefore urge that proper care attend the exercise of the police power lest it deteriorate into an unreasonable intrusion into the purely private affairs of the individual. Macapagal-Arroyo. must not be deprived of the right to be left alone or. claimed that on February 25. of PP 1017. The phrase “affected with public interest” means that an industry is subject to control for the public good. May 3. they were arrested without warrants on their way to EDSA to celebrate the 20 th Anniversary of People Power I. does the illegal implementation of a law render it unconstitutional? HELD: Settled is the rule that courts are not at liberty to declare statutes invalid although they may be abused and misabused and may afford an opportunity for abuse in the manner of application. No. petitioners Cacho-Olivares and Tribune Publishing Co. his freedom as an individual must not be unduly curtailed. and not a mere incidental result arising from its exertion. But there is nothing in PP 1017 allowing the police. No. 171483. A perusal of the “direct injuries” allegedly suffered by the said petitioners shows that they resulted from the implementation. it has been 129 . The so-called "general welfare" is too amorphous and convenient an excuse for official arbitrariness. on February 24. GR No.R. The criterion by which the validity of the statute or ordinance is to be measured is the essential basis for the exercise of power.. This advice is especially addressed to the local governments which exercise the police power only by virtue of a valid delegation from the national legislature under the general welfare clause. three (3) indicate “direct injury”. The arresting officers cited PP 1017 as basis of the arrest. No." As long as he does not prejudice others. 171396. PP 1017 is merely an invocation of the President’s calling-out power.

as required under Section 9. or for the benefit of the poor and the landless. It is stressed that the case at bar does not involve a franchise to operate a public utility (such as water. Section 19 of RA 7160. the two are enacted differently — a third reading is necessary for an ordinance.. Constitutions are widely understood to withhold from legislatures any authority to bargain away their police power for the power to protect the public interest is beyond abnegation. The familiar rule is that laws which grant the right to exercise a part of the police power of the state are to be construed strictly and any doubt must be resolved against the grant. An ordinance possesses a general and permanent character. 2. but a resolution is merely a declaration of the sentiment or opinion of a lawmaking body on a specific matter. July 20. Additionally. Exercise of Eminent Domain by LGUs Municipality of Paranaque v. 4. courts do not assume that the legislature intended to part away with its power to regulate public morals. Realty Corp. whether directly by the State. also lays down the parameters for its exercise. transportation. but a resolution is temporary in nature. The presumption is influenced by constitutional considerations. When the legislature interferes with that right. a legislative franchise to operate jai-alai is imbued with public interest and involves an exercise of police power. The legislature is regarded as the guardian of society. Thus. Thus. in behalf of the LGU. An ordinance is a law. POWER OF EMINENT DOMAIN Who May Exercise? Heirs of Alberto Suguitan v. there was no compliance with the first requisite that the mayor be authorized through an ordinance. or by its authorized agents. Article III of the Constitution. unless decided otherwise by a majority of all the Sanggunian members. which may delegate the exercise thereof to LGUs. the local chief executive sought to exercise the power of eminent domain pursuant to a resolution of the municipal council. but not for a resolution. The power of eminent domain is exercised for public use. 292 SCRA 678. and none is guarded by the Constitution and the laws more sedulously. other public entities and public utilities.considered as the equivalent of “subject to the exercise of the police power. and therefore is not presumed to disable itself or abandon the discharge of its duty. purpose or welfare. is necessarily in derogation of private rights. V. the plain meaning of the law should not be enlarged by doubt[ful] interpretation. communication or electricity) – the operation of which undoubtedly redounds to the benefit of the general public. 3. A valid and definite offer has been previously made to the owner of the property sought to be expropriated.” Perforce. 1998 [Panganiban] The power of eminent domain is lodged in the legislative branch of government. City of Mandaluyong. A municipal ordinance is different from a resolution. and other pertinent laws." In this case. 130 . for greater public purposes. than the right to the freehold of inhabitants. but said offer was not accepted. and the rule in that case is that the authority must be strictly construed. appropriates the land of ah individual without his consent. which delegates to LGUs the power of eminent domain.M. An LGU may therefore exercise the power to expropriate private property only when authorized by Congress and subject to the latter's control and restraints imposed "through the law conferring the power or in other legislations. Thus. and. What is claimed is an alleged legislative grant of a gambling franchise – a franchise to operate jai-alai. 2000 The exercise of the right of eminent domain. March 14. In the case at bar. the following essential requisites must concur before an LGU can exercise the power of eminent domain: 1. to exercise the power of eminent domain or pursue expropriation proceedings over a particular private property. There is payment of just compensation. 328 SCRA 137. No species of property is held by individuals with greater tenacity. An ordinance is enacted by the local legislative council authorizing the local chief executive. A statute which legalizes a gambling activity or business should be strictly construed and every reasonable doubt must be resolved to limit the powers and rights claimed under its authority.

TELEBAP. Section 2 does not constitute a valid exercise of the power of eminent domain. Exproprietor must enter a private property 2. let alone demonstrated. do not own the airwaves and frequencies through which they transmit broadcast signals and images. may be very substantial indeed. v. . Inc. 289 SCRA 337. The element of necessity for the taking has not been shown by respondent Comelec…xxx Similarly. authorized by the Constitution.R. COMELEC. by necessity. The threshold requisites for a lawful taking of private property for public use need to be examined here: one is the necessity for the taking. but not without payment of "just compensation" (Article III. 2722.” As radio and television broadcast stations do not own the airwaves. which are given franchises. amounts to "taking" of private personal property for public use or purposes…xxx The extent of the taking or deprivation is not insubstantial. 1995. it is not casually to be assumed.Requisites for Proper Exercise 1Taking of private property 2Public use/purpose 3Payment of just compensation 4Valid offer to buy and refusal of offer “TAKING” in the Constitutional Sense > May include trespass without actual eviction of the owner. Section 9). or perhaps an appeal. Since a franchise is a mere privilege. or as an exhortation. the exercise of the privilege may reasonably be burdened with the performance by the grantee of some form of public service. radio and television broadcasting companies. Entry must be under warrant or color of authority 4. . whether Section 2 of Resolution No. April 21. Consequently. be barred from the airwaves. another is the legal authority to effect the taking. Entry must be for more than a momentary period 3. that Comelec has been granted the power of eminent domain either by the Constitution or by the legislative authority. of course.] To compel print media companies to donate "Comelec space" of the dimensions specified in Section 2 of Resolution No. 2772 is read as petitioner PPI reads it." measured by the advertising rates ordinarily charged by newspaper publishers whether in cities or in non-urban areas. 1998 [Mendoza] In truth. And apparently the necessity of paying compensation for "Comelec space" is precisely what is sought to be avoided by respondent Commission. A reasonable relationship between that power and the enforcement and administration of election laws by Comelec must be shown. The taking of private property for public use is. [G. 2772-A attempts to suggest. There is nothing in the First Amendment which prevents the government from requiring a licensee to share his frequency with others and to conduct himself as a proxy or fiduciary with obligations to present those views and voices which are representative of his community and which would otherwise. Utilization of the property must be in such a way as to oust the owner and deprive him of beneficial enjoyment “Taking” under Eminent Domain distinguished from “Taking” under the Police Power PPI v. The monetary value of the compulsory "donation. Property must be devoted to public use or otherwise informally appropriated or injuriously affected 5. this is not a case of a de minimis temporary limitation or restraint upon the use of private property. it has not been suggested. 119694. to publishers to donate free print space. . as an assertion of authority to require newspaper publishers to "donate" free print space for Comelec purposes. as Section 1 of Resolution No. They are merely given the temporary privilege of using them. May 22. 131 . material impairment of the value of the property or prevention of the ordinary uses fro which the property was intended. but the licensee has no constitutional right to be the one who holds the license or to monopolize a radio frequency to the exclusion of his fellow citizens. COMELEC. no private property is taken by the requirement that they provide airtime to the Comelec. Requisites for a valid taking: 1. “a license permits broadcasting. No.

Payment of Just Compensation Just compensation is described as a full and fair equivalent of the property taken from the private owner by the exproprietor. conversion of a slum area into a model housing community. but also the payment of the land within a reasonable time from its taking. In such a case. urban land reform and housing. and to laborers and low-salaried employees of the city. Any delay in payment must be counted from said order. However. 16. This is intended to indemnify the owner fully for the losss he has sustained as a result of the expropriation. the suitableness of the location selected. acting through its legislative branch. 132 . has the express power to acquire private lands in the city and subdivide these lands into home lots for sale to bona fide tenants or occupants thereof. are all questions exclusively for the legislature to determine. The Legislature may directly determine the necessity for appropriating private property for a particular improvement for public use. In the absence of some constitutional or statutory provision to the contrary. the necessity and expediency of exercising the right of eminent domain are questions essentially political and not judicial in their character. only as much land can be taken as is necessary for the legitimate purpose of the condemnation. including in particular. It is simply not possible to provide all at once land and shelter for all who need them. Through the years. the public use requirement in eminent domain has evolved into a flexible concept. The concept of just compensation embraces not only the correct determination of the amount to be paid to the owners of the land. the expediency of constructing it. CA. Jan. 284 SCRA 716. Without prompt payment. growth and future needs of the enterprise. The purpose is public as long as the society in general is indirectly benefited. the benefits redound in favor of individuals. i. There is a vicarious advantage to the society. The respondent cannot attain a self-sustaining and viable ECOZONE if inevitable needs in the expansion in the surrounding areas are hampered by the mere refusal of the private landowners to part with their properties. it is well-settled that the utility of the proposed improvement. does not mean absolutely indispensable but requires only a reasonable necessity of the taking for the stated purpose. in this connection. Jan. 46 Payment of just compensation should follow as a matter of right immediately after the order of expropriation is issued. PEZA. 2001. Payment of Just Compensation) In the exercise of eminent domain.consequential benefits (which should not exceed the consequential damages) The basic or market value of the property is the price that may be agreed upon by parties willing but not compelled to enter into a contract of sale. Public use now includes the broader notion of indirect public benefit or advantage. it must be deliberately done by a party in order to defeat the ends of justice.Meaning of “Public Use” Traditional Concept: The number of actual beneficiaries determines public purpose. Just compensation = actual or basic value of the property + consequential damages .e. Estate of Salud Jimenez v. and it may select the exact location of the improvement. The term "necessary". That only a few could actually benefit from the expropriation of the property does not diminish its public character. Filstream International Incorporated v. compensation cannot be considered "just" inasmuch as the property owner is made to suffer the consequences of being immediately deprived of his land while being made to wait for a decade or more before actually receiving the amount necessary to cope with his loss. (Public Use Requirement. influenced by changing conditions. the delay to constitute a violation of due process must be unreasonable and inexcusable. and the courts have no power to interfere or to substitute their own views for those of the representatives of the people. If “Concept of vicarious benefit”: Abandons the traditional concept. The purpose of creating an ECOZONE and other facilities is better served if respondent directly owns the areas subject of the expansion program. 23. 349 SCRA 240. 1998 [Francisco] The City of Manila. then the purpose is not public. the existence of the public necessity for its construction.

CA & DAR v. and direct the Solicitor General. indeed. 28. When may the Expropriator enter the Property? Upon receipt of the landowner of the corresponding payment or. while it is true that the plaintiff is only after a right-of-way easement. Is prior unsuccessful negotiation a condition precedent for the exercise of eminent domain? SMI Development Corporation v. the President chose to prescribe this condition as an additional requirement instead. to institute expropriation proceedings in the proper court. Moreover. 137569. Therefore. Consequently. in case of rejection or no response from the landowner. it may only result in the imposition of a burden upon the owner of the condemned property. June 23. whenever he deems the action advisable. 2000. The first is concerned with the determination of the authority of the plaintiff to exercise the power of eminent domain and the propriety of its exercise in the context of the facts involved in the suit. G. no such voluntary restriction was imposed. Salem Investment Corporation. "of condemnation declaring that the plaintiff has a lawful right to take the property sought to be condemned.R." This is done by the court with the assistance of not more than three (3) commissioners…xxx It is only upon the completion of these two stages that expropriation is said to have been completed. 2000 The recognized rule. for the public use or purpose declared in the complaint. is that title to the property expropriated shall pass from the owner to the expropriator only upon full payment of the just compensation. 2000 Current effective law on delegated authority to exercise the power of eminent domain is found in Section 12. When Ownership transferred to Expropriator Republic v.” The foregoing provision does not require prior unsuccessful negotiation as a condition precedent for the exercise of eminent domain. 193 SCRA 1) How expropriation may be initiated? Two Stages in Expropriation of Land Republic v. In the instant case. June 23. Book III of the Revised Administrative Code. without loss or title or possession. the DAR shall take immediate possession of the land …xxx (Land Bank v. subject to the power of the State ultimately to acquire it through expropriation. it nevertheless perpetually deprives defendants of their proprietary rights as manifested y the imposition by the plaintiff upon the defendants that below said transmission lines. Republic. No. G. No. In Iron and Steel Authority v. Jan. CA) When used as Implement of Police Power 133 . In this case. including the right to dispose of his property. Gutierrez. The second phase of the eminent domain action is concerned with the determination by the court of "the just compensation for the property sought to be taken. Jurisprudence on this settled principle is consistent both here and in other democratic jurisdictions. upon the payment of just compensation to be determined as of the date of the filing of the complaint"…xxx. Court of Appeals. no plant higher than 3 meters is allowed. 12. Salem Investment Corporation. however. Power of Eminent Domain – The President shall determine when it is necessary or advantageous to exercise the power of eminent domain in behalf of the National Government.R. which provides: “SEC. It ends with an order. 137569.Acquisition of Easement of Right-of-Way The exercise of the power of eminent domain does not always result in the taking or appropriation of title to the expropriated property. the latter can exercise all rights pertaining to an owner. it is only upon payment of just compensation that title over the property passes to the government. until the action for expropriation has been completed and terminated. if not dismissal of the action. upon the deposit with an accessible bank designated by DAR of the compensation in cash or in Land Bank Bonds in accordance with this Act. ownership over the property being expropriated remains with the registered owner. (NPC v. 323 SCRA 862.

(CIR v. However. taxation is used to implement the police power of the state. Pineda. 294 SCRA 687. 21 SCRA 105) The existence of the government is a necessity. A professional license. Algue. (CIR v. on the other hand. There is a material distinction between a tax and debt. if exercised for a regulatory and not revenue-raising purpose. it does not include the power to destroy if it is used solely for the purpose of raising revenue. The first is usually granted by the local authorities and the second is issued by the Board or Commission tasked to regulate the particular profession. morals. or enterprises and the purpose is to raise revenue. safety. is within the ambit of this power. 2000. 28. March 31. If any taxpayer can defer the payment 134 . En Banc [Purisima] The scope of police power has been held to be so comprehensive as to encompass almost all matters affecting the health. • > If the power of taxation is used to destroy things. to engage in business or some form of commercial activity. while taxes are due to the Government in its sovereign capacity. Debts are due to the Government in its corporate capacity. Inc. businesses. A business permit authorizes the person. It must be noted that a distinguishing feature of a tax is that it is compulsory rather than a matter of bargain. 158 SCRA 8) - Can taxes be subject to off-setting or compensation?  Philex Mining Corporation v. The government will not be able to survive and continue to perform its functions without taxes. v. (ROXAS vs. CIR. 1998 [Romero] Taxes cannot be subject to compensation for the simple reason that the government and the taxpayer are not creditors and debtors of each other. 329 SCRA 314. These are the life-blood of the government. Aug. It is the Constitution itself which mandated the pursuit of Agrarian Reform Program to address once and for all the plight of the landless and the poor which for centuries has been the source of discontent and unrest. The power to grant or issue licenses or business permits must always be exercised in accordance with law. peace. DAR) POWER OF TAXATION Does the power to tax include the power to destroy? The power to tax includes the power to destroy if it is used as an implement of the police power (regulatory) of the State. comfort and convenience of the community. order. with utmost observance of the rights of all concerned to due process and equal protection of the law.Power of Eminent Domain is utilized as an implement of Police Power to promote the welfare of the people.. Taxes distinguished from Licenses -  Acebedo Optical Company. natural or otherwise. the court will come in because there will be violation of the inherent and constitutional limitations and it will be declared invalid. the main source of the government is taxes. a tax does not depend upon the consent of the taxpayer. CTA) NOTES: • > If the purpose of taxation is regulatory in character. Police power is essentially regulatory in nature and the power to issue licenses or grant business permits. Sec. Hence. Distinction must be made between the grant of a license or permit to do business and the issuance of a license to engage in the practice of a particular profession. is the grant of authority to a natural person to engage in the practice or exercise of his or her profession. Inc. (ASLP v. CA.  The Life-Blood Doctrine Taxes are the life-blood of the Government and their prompt and certain availability are an imperious need.

C. 3rd Div. (3) Charitable institutions. and exclusively used for religious. - Tax Treaties. International juridical double taxation is defined as the imposition of comparable taxes in two or more states on the same taxpayer in respect of the same subject matter and for identical periods.  CIR v. 1999. Johnson and Son. conditions deemed vital in creating robust and 135 . churches and parsonages or convents appurtenant thereto. Upon the dissolution or cessation of the corporate existence of such institutions. to a certain extent. the tax conventions are drafted with a view towards the elimination of international juridical double taxation. Art. A taxpayer cannot refuse to pay his taxes when they fall due simply because he has a claim against the government or that the collection of a tax is contingent on the result of the lawsuit it filed against the government. and improvements. Inc. 14. - Who may grant tax exemptions?  Chavez v. buildings. (3) All revenues and assets of non-stock. including those cooperatively owned. Article VI of the Constitution. directly.. may likewise be entitled to such exemptions subject to the limitations provided by law including restrictions on dividends and provisions for reinvestment. CA.” The PCGG has absolutely no power to grant tax exemptions. 299 SCRA 744. for the YMCA to be granted the exemption it claims under the abovecited provision. technology and persons between countries. specifically provides: “No law granting any tax exemption shall be passed without the concurrence of a majority of all the members of the Congress. 309 SCRA 87. The purpose of these international agreements is to reconcile the national fiscal legislations of the contracting parties in order to help the taxpayer avoid simultaneous taxation in two different jurisdictions. Dec. Oct. June 25. directly. Hence. non-profit educational institutions used actually.  Tax Exemptions Sec. The apparent rationale for doing away with double taxation is to encourage the free flow of goods and services and the movement of capital. 4[3]. directly. the Court notes that not a scintilla of evidence was submitted by private respondent to prove that it met the said requisites. 1987 Constitution SECTION 28. their assets shall be disposed of in the manner provided by law. it must prove with substantial evidence that (1) it falls under the classification nonstock. International Juridical Double Taxation  CIR v. non-profit educational institution. VI. 1998 [Panganiban] The power to tax and to grant exemptions is vested in the Congress and.of taxes by raising the defense that it still has a pending claim for refund or credit. S. and exclusively for educational purposes. However. this would adversely affect the government revenue system. 28[3]. Section 28(4). [Gonzaga-Reyes] The RP-US Tax Treaty is just one of a number of bilateral treaties which the Philippines has entered into for the avoidance of double taxation. and (2) the income it seeks to be exempted from taxation is used actually.  Sec. 9. and all lands. charitable. More precisely. non-profit cemeteries. 298 SCRA 83. in the local legislative bodies. XIV. 1998 [Panganiban] Laws allowing tax exemption are construed strictissimi juris. even under the cover of its authority to compromise ill-gotten wealth cases. actually. or educational purposes shall be exempt from taxation. PCGG. mosques. Art. 1987 Constitution SECTION 4. and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from taxes and duties. Proprietary educational institutions.

Indeed.  Secretary of Justice v. As aforesaid." while substantive due process "requires that the law itself. 136 . No. Hence."  Secretary of Justice v. 1997 [Romero] When one speaks of due process of law. G.. 2000. It is. Let it be stressed that in an extradition proceeding.D. 139465. Oct. which has been endowed by our Constitution with greater power over matters involving our foreign relations. Art. not merely the procedures by which the law would be enforced. constitutional rights that are only relevant to determine the guilt or innocence of an accused cannot be invoked by an extraditee. the degree of denial of private respondent's rights to due process and to information is too slight to warrant the interposition of judicial power. 18 Even the rules of evidence are different in an extradition proceeding. No. G. 2000. In an extradition proceeding. again because the guilt of the extraditee is not under litigation. Admission of evidence is less stringent. III. The extraditee's right to know is momentarily withheld during the evaluation stage of the extradition process to accommodate the more compelling interest of the State to prevent escape of potential extraditees which can be precipitated by premature information of the basis of the request for his extradition. futile to determine what it is. thus. 1. 1987 Constitution SECTION 1. and just. reasonable. 12. nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws. Dissenting Opinion] Proceeding from this premise of relativism of rights. Lantion." If more need be said.  Corona v. an extradition proceeding is sui generis. No less compelling at that stage of the extradition proceedings is the need to be more deferential to the judgment of a co-equal branch of the government." We have explained why an extraditee has no right to notice and hearing during the evaluation stage of the extradition process. Foreign investments will only thrive in a fairly predictable and reasonable international investment climate and the protection against double taxation is crucial in creating such a climate. is fair. 18. No person shall be deprived of life. and the degree of what is due. an accused can only be convicted by proof beyond reasonable doubt. still. As admitted in the ponencia itself. when it is due. the Executive. What is certain is that it is not a criminal proceeding where there is an accused who can claim the entire array of rights guaranteed by the Bill of Rights. In a criminal case. the nature of an extradition decision is different from a judicial decision whose finality cannot be changed by executive fiat. No. however. which in turn depends on the extent to which an individual will be "condemned to suffer grievous loss. In essence. a prior determination should be made as to whether procedural protections are at all due and when they are due.R. Lantion. or property without due process of law. a distinction must be made between matters of procedure and matters of substance. Dec. En Banc [Puno] Procedural due process requires a determination of what process is due. 139465. United Harbor Pilots Association of the Phils. procedural due process "refers to the method or manner by which the law is enforced. Stated otherwise. P. The time for the extraditee to know the basis of the request for his extradition is merely moved to the filing in court of the formal petition for extradition. En Banc [Puno. Jan. I venture the view that even assuming arguendo respondent's weak claim.dynamic economies. THE BILL OF RIGHTS THE RIGHT TO DUE PROCESS  Sec. 17. an extraditee can be ordered extradited "upon showing of the existence of a prima facie case. 1069 which implements the RP-US Extradition Treaty affords an extraditee sufficient opportunity to meet the evidence against him once the petition is filed in court. there is no accused and the guilt or innocence of the extraditee will not be passed upon by our executive officials nor by the extradition judge. an extradition proceeding is summary in nature which is untrue of criminal proceedings.R. liberty. 283 SCRA 31. It is not only the quality but even the quantum of evidence in extradition proceeding is different.

in any proceeding. a statute or act may be said to be vague when it lacks comprehensible standards that men "of common intelligence must necessarily guess at its meaning and differ as to its application." or is so indefinite that "it encourages arbitrary and erratic arrests and convictions." It is repugnant to the Constitution in two respects: (1) it violates due process for failure to accord persons. Nov. Nov. The right to counsel is not indispensable to due process unless required by the Constitution or the law. It is not an absolute right and may. and no duty rests on such a body to furnish the person being investigated with counsel. 220 SCRA 536. to present witnesses and evidence in one's favor. 1st Div. Jan.Needless to state. There is no denial of due process as long as fundamental fairness is assured a party. The constitutional vice in a vague or indefinite statute is the injustice to the accused in placing him on trial for an offense. 282 SCRA 256. (2) A real opportunity to be heard personally or with the assistance of counsel. be invoked or rejected in a criminal proceeding and. which cannot be waived unless the waiver is in writing and in the presence of counsel. 282 SCRA 125. a party in an administrative inquiry may or may not be assisted by counsel. the nature of which he is given no fair warning. and (4) A finding by said tribunal which is supported by substantial evidence submitted for consideration during the hearing or contained in the records or made known to the parties affected. En Banc [Bellosillo] (When prior notice and hearing may be dispensed with) 137 . Exevea. this balance of interests is not a static but a moving balance which can be adjusted as the extradition process moves from the administrative stage to the judicial stage and to the execution stage depending on factors that will come into play. We reiterated these principles in People vs. 18. 24. 28. While investigations conducted by an administrative body may at times be akin to a criminal proceeding. irrespective of the nature of the charges and of the respondent's capacity to represent himself. in an administrative inquiry. Indeed. is a right afforded a suspect or an accused during custodial investigation. the fact remains that under existing laws. A criminal statute that "fails to give a person of ordinary intelligence fair notice that his contemplated conduct is forbidden by the statute. Nazario: As a rule. CA. we rule that the temporary hold on private respondent's privilege of notice and hearing is a soft restraint on his right to due process which will not deprive him of fundamental fairness should he decide to resist the request for his extradition to the United States.  People v. 1997 [Romero] The right to counsel. thus. CA. the essence of procedural due process is embodied in the basic requirement of notice and a real opportunity to be heard. march 30. Dela Piedra. 1993.  Fabella v. especially the parties targeted by it. (3) A tribunal vested with competent jurisdiction and so constituted as to afford a person charged administratively a reasonable guarantee of honesty as well as impartiality." is void for vagueness.  Lumiqued v. 350 SCRA 163. with more reason. [Kapunan] [Void for Vagueness Doctrine] Due process requires that the terms of a penal statute must be sufficiently explicit to inform those who are subject to it what conduct on their part will render them liable to its penalties. In sum. 1998 [Panganiban] In administrative proceedings. fair notice of the conduct to avoid. and (2) it leaves law enforcers unbridled discretion in carrying out its provisions and become an arbitrary flexing of the Government muscle. 2001. and to defend one's rights.  Central Bank of the Philippines v. due process has been recognized to include the following: (1) The right to actual or constructive notice of the institution of proceedings which may affect a respondent's legal rights.

much less those who had been acquitted by such bodies more than a decade ago like the petitioners Tan. the resolution may properly nullified and the receivership lifted as the trial court may determine. the bank itself. 1. in hard fact if not in constitutional logic. liberty. the depositors. III. ϑ TAN vs. In the process. the proceedings were fair. rendered by military courts against civilians before the promulgation of the Olaguer decision. in which event. Enrile as their authority to refile in the civil court the criminal actions against petitioners who had been tried and acquitted by Military Commission No. 1. had been affirmed by this Court (Aquino vs.e.. It is an unreasonable application of Cruz vs. 2. 29 nor does the constitutional requirement of due process demand that the correctness of the Monetary Board's resolution to stop operation and proceed to liquidation of first adjudged before making the resolution effective. the refiling of the information against the petitioners would place them in double jeopardy. Because of the  138 . Enrile." Admittedly. i. Such final sentences should not be disturbed by the State. whether of conviction or acquittal. 1987 Constitution SECTION 1. 1 during the period of martial law. 85481-82.] In the interest of justice and consistency. bank runs would be the order of the day. is no longer possible. for the decision therein will be searched in vain for such authority to reprosecute every civilian who had ever faced a court martial. 1998 [Mendoza] There are important differences in the characteristics of the two media which justify their differential treatment for free speech purposes. Inc. resulting in panic and hysteria. that there were no serious violations of their constitutional right to due process. 29 is truly designed to protect the interest of all concerned. nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws. or property without due process of law.R. October 18. and the summary closure pales in comparison to the protection afforded public interest. Nos. and not on the Olaguer doctrine. Because of these established operative facts. BARRIOS. creditors and stockholders. there should be no retroactive nullification of final judgments. we hold that Olaguer should. Hence. The principle of absolute invalidity of the jurisdiction of the military courts over civilians should not be allowed to obliterate the "operative facts" that in the particular case of the petitioners. 1990. April 21. the mere filing of a case for receivership by the Central Bank cab trigger a bank run and drain its assets in days or even hours leading to insolvency even if the bank be actually solvent. et al. The procedure prescribed in Sec.We held that a previous hearing is nowhere required in Sec. [G. fortunes may be wiped out and disillusionment will run the gamut of the entire banking community. No person shall be deprived of life. At any rate. TELEBAP. Only in particular cases where the convicted person or the State shows that there was serious denial of the Constitutional rights of the accused should the nullity of the sentence be declared and a retrial be ordered based on the violation of the constitutional rights of the accused. be applied prospectively only to future cases and cases still ongoing or not yet final when that decision was promulgated. in principle. COMELEC. 289 SCRA 337. THE EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE  Sec. herein…xxx The doctrine of "operative facts" applies to the proceedings against the petitioners and their co-accused before Military Commission No. Military Commission No. 63 SCRA 546) years before the Olaguer case arose and came before us. v. the bank is given full opportunity to prove arbitrariness and bad faith in placing the bank under receivership. the accused should be released since the judgment against him is null on account of the violation of his constitutional rights and denial of due process…xxx The public respondents gravely abused their discretion and acted without or in excess of their jurisdiction in misconstruing the third paragraph of the dispositive portion of this Court's decision in Cruz vs. and that the jurisdiction of the military commission that heard and decided the charges against them during the period of martial law. and the general public. One can just imagine the dire consequences of a prior hearing. If a retrial. Art.

particularly in terms of wages. 139 . prohibits and penalizes the payment of lesser compensation to a female employee as against a male employee for work of equal value. No. 1987 Constitution SECTION 2. material to their rights. the denial of equal justice is still within the prohibition of the Constitution. Where the official action purports to be in conformity to the statutory classification. under similar conditions. Article 248 declares it an unfair labor practice for an employer to discriminate in regards to wages in order to encourage or discourage membership in any labor organization. This rule applies to the School (International School. 3. 2. 1st Div. 128845. Lawful arrest and confinement are germane to the purposes of the law and apply to all those belonging to the same class. allocate broadcast frequencies to those wishing to use them. June 1. [Kapunan] A statute nondiscriminatory on its face may be grossly discriminatory in its operation. find that election to the position of Congressman is not a reasonable classification in criminal law enforcement. its "international character" notwithstanding. for example. by itself. the government must.  People v. 24. or it may only be shown by extrinsic evidence showing a discriminatory design over another not to be inferred from the action itself. But a discriminatory purpose is not presumed. is frowned upon by the Labor Code. 324 SCRA 689. of necessity. 2000. and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable. is not. From another point of view. The unlawful administration by officers of a statute fair on its face. a denial of the equal protection of the laws. yet. X x x The foregoing provisions impregnably institutionalize in this jurisdiction the long honored legal truism of "Equal pay for equal work. 2001. [Kapunan] Discrimination. Though the law itself be fair on its face and impartial in appearance. and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. resulting in its unequal application to those who are entitled to be treated alike.”  ISAE v. and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce. G. is not a denial of equal protection unless there is shown to be present in it an element of intentional or purposeful discrimination.physical limitations of the broadcast spectrum. effort and responsibility. houses. an erroneous or mistaken performance of the statutory duty. There is no similar justification for government allocation and regulation of the print media. Feb. Article 135. “[n]ecessarily x x x the freedom of television and radio broadcasting is somewhat lesser in scope than the freedom accorded to newspaper and print media. is not without more a denial of the equal protection of the laws. Dela Piedra. Quisumbing. if it is applied and administered by public authority with an evil eye and unequal hand. should be paid similar salaries. The right of the people to be secure in their persons. Jalosjos."  People v. there must be a showing of "clear and intentional discrimination. En Banc [Ynares-Santiago] We. THE RIGHT AGAINST UNREASONABLE SEARCHES AND SEIZURES  Sec. although a violation of the statute. therefore. the SC has also held that because of the unique and pervasive influence of the broadcast media. This may appear on the face of the action taken with respect to a particular class or person. however. The prosecution of one guilty person while others equally guilty are not prosecuted. 1st Div." Persons who work with substantially equal qualifications. 350 SCRA 163. so as practically to make unjust and illegal discriminations between persons in similar circumstances. Jan. 2000. Inc. skill. papers.). III. Art.R. The functions and duties of the office are not substantial distinctions which lift him from the class of prisoners interrupted in their freedom and restricted in liberty of movement.

the law specifies that the court sets a hearing upon receipt of the answer or upon failure of the accused to answer after receiving the summons. Neither the Treaty nor the Law could have intended that consequence. Moreover. for issuing an arrest warrant was already evident from the Petition itself and its supporting documents. G. From the knowledge and the material then available to it. 148571. 2. The trial court is not expected to make an exhaustive determination to ferret out the true and actual situation. after having already determined therefrom that a prima facie finding did exist. By using the phrase “if it appears. the court is expected merely to get a good first impression – a prima facie finding – sufficient to make a speedy initial determination as regards the arrest and detention of the accused…xxx It is evident that respondent judge could have already gotten an impression from these records adequate for him to make an initial determination of whether the accused was someone who should immediately be arrested in order to “best serve the ends of justice. In point of fact. Hearing entails sending notices to the opposing parties.. receiving facts and arguments from them. PD 1069) in nature. Arrest subsequent to a hearing can no longer be considered “immediate. 3. Sept.R. It also bears emphasizing at this point that extradition proceedings are summary (See Sec. 9. the word “hearing” is notably absent from the provision. Evidently. Dissenting Opinion] (Is Prior Notice and Hearing Required before Judge Issues Warrant of Arrest in Extradition proceeding?) 1. 1987 Constitution SECTION 3. 2002. In connection with the matter of immediate arrest. the law could have easily so provided. 24. Sec. On the Basis of the Extradition Law It is significant to note that Section 6 of PD 1069. however.” He could have determined whether such facts and circumstances existed as would lead a reasonably discreet and prudent person to believe that the extradition request was prima facie meritorious. respondent judge gravely abused his discretion when he set the matter for hearing upon motion of Jimenez. for the very purpose of both would have been defeated by the escape of the accused from the requested state. Hence. This qualification would be rendered nugatory by setting for hearing the issuance of the arrest warrant. and giving them time to prepare and present such facts and arguments. (2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding. a priori. 2nd par. Hence. Requisites of Valid Search Warrant and Warrant of Arrest  Government of the USA v. had the holding of a hearing at that stage been intended. our Extradition Law. immediately upon the filing of the petition. Purganan. No. he actually concluded from these supporting documents that “probable cause” did exist. the silence of the Law and the Treaty leans to the more reasonable interpretation that there is no intention to punctuate with a hearing every little step in the entire proceedings…xxx Verily x x x sending to persons sought to be extradited a notice of the request for their arrest and setting it for hearing at some future date would give them ample opportunity to prepare and execute an escape. does not require a notice or a hearing before the issuance of a warrant of arrest… xxx 140 . Art. on the whole. uses the word “immediate” to qualify the arrest of the accused. which is invoked by Jimenez. We stress that the prima facie existence of probable cause for hearing the petition and.” The law could not have intended the word as a mere superfluity but. as a means of impairing a sense of urgency and swiftness in the determination of whether a warrant of arrest should be issued. On the Basis of the Constitution Even Section 2 of Article III of our Constitution. En Banc [Panganiban] [Vitug.” the law further conveys that accuracy is not as important as speed at such early stage. III.

the contents of the prosecutor’s report will support his own conclusion that there is reason to charge the accused for an offense and hold him for trial. 2000. the 141 . If a different procedure were called for at all. there should be no confusion as to their distinct objectives. Second. as Respondent Court did in this case. a more restrictive one – not the opposite – would be justified in view of respondent’s demonstrated predisposition to flee. At most. i. but also so much of the records and the evidence on hand as to enable the His Honor to make his personal and separate judicial finding on whether to issue a warrant of arrest. since their objectives are different. determines whether a warrant of arrest should be issued against the accused. 680.” In Webb v. 1994).. even if both should base their findings on one and the same proceeding or evidence. what would stop him from presenting his entire plethora of defenses at this stage – if he so desires – in his effort to negate a prima facie finding? Such a procedure could convert the determination of a prima facie case into a full-blown trial of the entire proceedings and possibly make trial of the main case superfluous. per Puno. Feb. the prosecutor could ease the burden of the judge and speed up the litigation process by forwarding to the latter not only the information and his bare resolution finding probable cause. 3rd Div. upon which to verify the findings of the prosecutor as to the existence of probable cause. Although the prosecutor enjoys the legal presumption of regularity in the performance of his official duties and functions. Whether there is reasonable ground to believe that the accused is guilty of the offense charged and should be held for trial is what the prosecutor passes upon. May 5. This scenario is also anathema to the summary nature of extraditions. or at the very least. validating the act of respondent judge and instituting the practice of hearing the accused and his witnesses at this early stage would be discordant with the rationale for the entire system. 1997) and in all the cases cited therein. In the present case. never was a judge required to go to the extent of conducting a hearing just for the purpose of personally determining probable cause for the issuance of a warrant of arrest. upon which to legally sustain his own findings on the existence (or nonexistence) of probable cause to issue an arrest order. This responsibility of determining personally and independently the existence or nonexistence of probable cause is lodged in him by no less than the most basic law of the land. the Constitution itself requires only the examination – under oath or affirmation – of complainants and the witnesses they may produce. Obviously and understandably. If the accused were allowed to be heard and necessarily to present evidence during the prima facie determination for the issuance of a warrant of arrest. in cases of clear insufficiency of evidence on record. There is no requirement to notify and hear the accused before the issuance of warrants of arrest. 18. All we required was that the “judge must have sufficient supporting documents upon which to make his independent judgment. judges merely further examine complainants and their witnesses (Ibid. Thus. the Court categorically stated that a judge was not supposed to conduct a hearing before issuing a warrant of arrest x x x. People (280 SCRA 365. Guiani. [Gonzaga-Reyes] The determination of probable cause by the prosecutor is for a purpose different from that which is to be made by the judge.). October 9. 233 SCRA 192. which in turn gives his report the presumption of accuracy. citing Allado v. he must have supporting evidence. In Ho v. De Leon (247 SCRA 652. That the case under consideration is an extradition and not a criminal action is not sufficient to justify the adoption of a set of procedures more protective of the accused. other than the prosecutor’s bare report. the judge must decide independently. on the other hand. Hence. However. The judge. whether there is a necessity for placing him under immediate custody in order not to frustrate the ends of justice. Diokno. 326 SCRA 1. The point is: he cannot rely solely and entirely on the prosecutor’s recommendation.e. Parenthetically. the judge cannot rely solely on the report of the prosecutor in finding probable cause to justify the issuance of a warrant of arrest. J.To determine probable cause for the issuance of arrest warrants. Determination of Probable Cause is a Judicial Function  Abdula v.

whether an arrest was merely used as a pretext for conducting a search. This Court has consistently held that a judge fails in his bounden duty if he relies merely on the certification or the report of the investigating officer. In a search incidental to a lawful arrest. Chua Ho San.Constitution. Cebu City.R. e. [Mendoza] Persons may lose the protection of the search and seizure clause by exposure of their persons or property to the public in a manner reflecting a lack of subjective expectation of privacy. as the precedent arrest determines the validity of the incidental search. or had represented in the proofs they submitted to the court issuing the warrant. 18. commands the judge to personally determine probable cause in the issuance of warrants of arrest. In the present case. a valid arrest must precede the search. Leila Johnson. the law requires that there be first a lawful arrest before a search can be made – the process cannot be reversed. June 17. wherever and whenever it is feasible. The process cannot be reversed. 2nd Div.. CA. 138881.. 1998 [Narvasa] It is neither fair nor licit to allow police officers to search a place different from that stated in the warrant on the claim that the place actually searched – although not that specified in the warrant – is exactly what they had in view when they applied for the warrant and had demarcated in their supporting evidence. In this instance. 1999. Consented Search  People v.  People v. the inadequacy of the description of the residence of private respondent sought to be searched has characterized the questioned search warrant as a general warrant.. 308 SCRA 432. 291 SCRA 400. G.” Particular Description of Place to be Searched or Persons or Things to be Seized  People v. 296 SCRA 383 [Martinez] The applicant should particularly describe the place to be searched and the person or things to be seized. Dec. But the search warrant merely indicated the address of the compound which is 516 San Jose de la Montana St. which is violative of the constitutional requirement.g. Thus. No. June 26. Instances of Valid Warrantless Searches 1234567Search incidental to a lawful arrest Consented search Stop & frisk Plain view Search on a moving vehicle Customs search Check points Search Incidental to a Lawful Arrest  People v. it could have been very easy to describe the residential house of private respondent with sufficient particularity so as to segregate it from the other buildings or structures inside the same compound. not what applicants had in their thoughts. The sketch indicated the 2-storey residential house of private respondent with a large "X" enclosed in a square…xxx With this sketch as the guide. the legality of the arrest is questioned in a large majority of these cases. Mabolo. 2000. Cebu City. Mabolo. which expectation society is prepared to 142 . it must be noted that the application for a search warrant was accompanied by a sketch of the compound at 516 San Jose de la Montana St. This description of the place to be searched is too general and does not pinpoint the specific house of private respondent. Estrada. What is material in determining the validity of a search is the place stated in the warrant itself. En Banc [Davide] While a contemporaneous search of a person arrested may be effected to discover dangerous weapons or proofs or implements used in the commission of the crime and which search may extend to the area within his immediate control where he might gain possession of a weapon or evidence he can destroy. we repeat.

recognize as reasonable. 283 SCRA 159. With increased concern over airplane hijacking and terrorism has come increased security at the nation’s airports. 9. Jan. given their minimal intrusiveness.) Plain View Search  People v.” it nevertheless holds that mere suspicion or a hunch will not validate a “stop-and-frisk. G. signs. travelers are often notified through airport public address systems.” A genuine reason must exist. its transparency. CA. 129296. 1999. although likewise without warrant. the object itself is not in plain view and therefore cannot be seized without a warrant. and the reduced privacy expectations associated with airline travel. a stop-and-frisk was defined as the vernacular designation of the right of a police officer to stop a citizen on the street. The object must be open to eye and hand and its discovery inadvertent. where in the course of investigating this behavior he identified himself as a policeman and make reasonable inquiries. the following elements must be present: a) A prior valid intrusion based on the valid warrantless arrest in which the police are legally present in the pursuit of their official duties. Doria. such would be subject to seizure. Where the object seized was inside a closed package. No. in light of the 143 . (Her subsequent arrest. if any prohibited materials or substances are found.  Malacat v. However. whether by its distinctive configuration. and pat him for weapon(s): Where a police officer observes an unusual conduct which leads him reasonably to conclude in light of his experience that criminal activity may be afoot and that the persons with whom he is dealing may be armed and presently dangerous. Passengers attempting to board an aircraft routinely pass through metal detectors. if the package proclaims its contents. 301 SCRA 668. 25. It is clear that an object is in plain view if the object itself is plainly exposed to sight. physical searches are conducted to determine what the objects are. The difficulty arises when the object is inside a closed container. he is entitled for the protection of himself or others in the area to conduct a carefully limited search of the outer clothing of such persons in an attempt to discover weapons which might be used to assault him. and d) plain view justified mere seizure of evidence without further search. Indeed. CA. 280 SCRA 400.R. En Banc[Quisumbing] For the doctrine to apply. Dec. Oct. There is little question that such searches are reasonable. was justified since it was effected upon the discovery and recovery of “shabu” in her person in flagrante delicto. 22. These announcements place passengers on notice that ordinary constitutional protections against warrantless searches and seizures do not apply to routine airport procedures. Should these procedures suggest the presence of suspicious objects.  People v. interrogate him. 1997 [Panganiban] In the landmark case of Terry v. Sept. En Banc [Puno] The law enforcement officer must lawfully make an initial intrusion or properly be in a position from which he can particularly view the area. 1997 [Davide] Other notable points of Terry are that while probable cause is not required to conduct a “stop-and-frisk. Such recognition is implicit in airport security procedures. and where nothing in the initial stages of the encounter serves to dispel his reasonable fear for his own or others’ safety. b) The evidence was inadvertently discovered by the police who have the right to be where they are. Ohio. and c) The evidence must be immediately apparent. 12. Abe Valdez. then the contents are in plain view and may be seized. the gravity of the safety interests involved. their carry-on baggage as well as checked luggage are routinely subjected to x-ray scans. and notices in their airline tickets that they are subject to search and. he came inadvertently across a piece of evidence incriminating the accused. or if its contents are obvious to an observer. In the course of such lawful intrusion. 2000. Stop-and-Frisk Search  Manalili v.

that the person to be arrested committed the offense. under appropriate circumstances and in an appropriate manner. 323 SCRA 754. 1st Div. to a certain extent. that the person to be arrested committed the offense. [Davide] This Court has ruled that not all checkpoints are illegal. namely: 1An offense had just been committed. be amplified or modified by the officers’ own personal knowledge of the premises.” Under this paragraph. 2000. Searches at Checkpoints  People v. approach a person for purposes of investigating possible criminal behavior even without probable cause. 5. that the person to be arrested committed the offense. (Inflagrante delicto) b) When an offense had just been committed and there is probable cause to believe. Jan. when conducted in a fixed area. Molina. (Hot pursuit) c) When the person to be arrested is a prisoner who has escaped from a penal establishment or place where he is serving final judgment or temporarily confined while his case is pending. Arrest in Hot Pursuit “When an offense had just been committed and there is probable cause to believe. or has escaped while being transferred from one confinement to another. these routine checks. or is attempting to commit a crime. 352 SCRA 174. it involves only a brief detention of travelers during which the vehicle’s occupants are required to answer a brief question or two. to constitute a valid in flagrante delicto arrest. En Banc [Ynares-Santiago] Clearly. to warrant the belief that the person detained has weapons concealed about him. Feb. routine checkpoints do intrude. Outline Reviewer in Political Law]  Can the place to be searched. [Nachura. (Escapee) In Flagrante Delicto Arrest  People v. and the inspection of the vehicle is limited to a visual search. 28. For. two requisites must concur: (1) the person to be arrested must execute an overt act indicating that he has just committed. For as long as the vehicle is neither searched nor its occupants subjected to a body search. are even less intrusive. In fact.” but it cannot be denied that. based on his personal knowledge or of other circumstances. Those which are warranted by the exigencies of public order and are conducted in a way least intrusive to motorists are allowed. which underlies the recognition that a police officer may. based on his personal knowledge or of other circumstances. or is attempting to commit an offense in his presence. on motorists’ right to “free passage without interruption. and 2There is probable cause. as set out in the warrant. Rules of Court: a) When the person to be arrested has committed. Instances of Valid Warrantless Arrests Sec. and (2) the more pressing interest of safety and selfpreservation which permit the police officer to take steps to assure himself that the person with whom he deals is not armed with a deadly weapon that could unexpectedly and fatally be used against the police officer. as a rule. is actually committing.police officer’s experience and surrounding conditions. is actually committing. a “stop-andfrisk” serves a two-fold interest: (1) the general interest of effective crime prevention and detection. admittedly. 2001. Finally. or the evidence they adduce in support of their application for the warrant? 144 . Rule 113. 2 stringent requirements must be complied with. based on his personal knowledge of the person making the arrest or of other circumstances. and (2) such overt act is done in the presence or within the view of the arresting officer. 19. Usana. said routine checks cannot be regarded as violative of an individual’s right against unreasonable search.

That the use of such record or any copies thereof as evidence in any civil.A. 291 SCRA 400. and. or copies thereof. upon conviction thereof. or by using any other device or arrangement. Any person who wilfully or knowingly does or who shall aid. 1987 Constitution SECTION 3. June 26. It would open wide the door to abuse of the search process. (1) The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court. be punished by imprisonment for not less than six months or more than six years and with the accessory penalty of perpetual absolute disqualification from public office if the offender be a public official at the time of the commission of the offense. intercept. The particularization of the description of the place to be searched may properly be done only by the Judge. or however otherwise described: It shall also be unlawful for any person. III. Court of Appeals. or record such communication or spoken word by using a device commonly known as a dictaphone or dictagraph or detectaphone or walkie-talkie or tape recorder.Held: Such a change is proscribed by the Constitution which requires inter alia the search warrant to particularly describe the place to be searched as well as the persons or things to be seized. or had represented in the proofs they submitted to the court issuing the warrant. - Zulueta v. or aids. or to communicate the contents thereof.  R. not being authorized by all the parties to any private communication or spoken word. or causes such violation shall. it cannot be left to the discretion of the police officers conducting the search. to tap any wire or cable. or when public safety or order requires otherwise as prescribed by law. or to replay the same for any other person or persons. 4200 AN ACT TO PROHIBIT AND PENALIZE WIRE TAPPING AND OTHER RELATED VIOLATIONS OF THE PRIVACY OF COMMUNICATION. of any communication or spoken word secured either before or after the effective date of this Act in the manner prohibited by this law. or cause to be done any of the acts declared to be unlawful in the preceding section or who violates the provisions of the following section or of any order issued thereunder. whether complete or partial. Art. and only in the warrant itself. 1998 [Narvasa]) THE RIGHT TO PRIVACY OF COMMUNICATIONS AND CORRESPONDENCE  Sec. It would concede to police officers the power of choosing the place to be searched. to any other person: Provided. It is neither fair nor licit to allow police officers to search a place different from that stated in the warrant on the claim that the place actually searched – although not that specified in the warrant – is exactly what they had in view when they applied for the warrant and had demarcated in their supporting evidence. (People v. not what applicants had in their thoughts. or any other such record. 145 . or to furnish transcriptions thereof. to knowingly possess any tape record. either verbally or in writing. No. be he a participant or not in the act or acts penalized in the next preceding sentence. permit. and grant to officers executing a search warrant that discretion which the Constitution has precisely removed from them. disc record. It shall be unlawful for any person. if the offender is an alien he shall be subject to deportation proceedings. wire record. 4200 REPUBLIC ACT NO. AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES SECTION 1. even if it not be that delineated in the warrant. criminal investigation or trial of offenses mentioned in section 3 hereof. CA (253 SCRA 699) The right may be invoked against the wife who went to the clinic of her husband and there took documents consisting of private communications between her husband and paramour. shall not be covered by this prohibition. SECTION 2. to secretly overhear. (2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding. permits. 3. What is material in determining the validity of a search is the place stated in the warrant itself.

inciting to sedition. (2) the identity of the peace officer authorized to overhear. conspiracy to commit sedition. the number of tapes. 121087. unless extended or renewed by the court upon being satisfied that such extension or renewal is in the public interest.R. which shall not be granted except upon motion. discussions. or to the solution of. and certifying that no duplicates or copies of the whole or any part thereof have been made. in the case of telegraphic or telephonic communications. SECTION 6. conspiracy and proposal to commit rebellion. as the case may be. CA. the telegraph line or the telephone number involved and its location. 1994 [Padilla] Absent a clear showing that both parties to the telephone conversations allowed the recording of the same. or recorded and. except upon order of the court. 4. 1999. or the recordings replayed. All recordings made under court authorization shall. conversations. rebellion. any such crimes. The order granted or issued shall specify: (1) the identity of the person or persons whose communications. the inadmissibility of the subject tapes is mandatory under Rep. The authorization shall be effective for the period specified in the order which shall not exceed sixty (60) days from the date of issuance of the order. purport. August 26. All laws inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or accordingly amended. quasi-judicial. or records included in the deposit.] 146 . inciting to rebellion. however. SECTION 4. conversations. Act No. Any communication or spoken word. or spoken words are to be overheard. The envelope or package so deposited shall not be opened. inciting to rebellion. discs. That such written order shall only be issued or granted upon written application and the examination under oath or affirmation of the applicant and the witnesses he may produce and a showing: (1) that there are reasonable grounds to believe that any of the crimes enumerated hereinabove has been committed or is being committed or is about to be committed: Provided. be deposited with the court in a sealed envelope or sealed package. espionage. punishing espionage and other offenses against national security: Provided. or their contents revealed. and (4) the period of the authorization. to execute any of the acts declared to be unlawful in the two preceding sections in cases involving the crimes of treason. CA. and shall be accompanied by an affidavit of the peace officer granted such authority stating the number of recordings made. intercepted. that all such duplicates or copies are included in the envelope or package deposited with the court. such authority shall be granted only upon prior proof that a rebellion or acts of sedition. substance. however. shall render it unlawful or punishable for any peace officer. or spoken words. or record the communications. kidnapping as defined by the Revised Penal Code. effect. or any information therein contained obtained or secured by any person in violation of the preceding sections of this Act shall not be admissible in evidence in any judicial. or used in evidence. That in cases involving the offenses of rebellion. This Act shall take effect upon its approval. mutiny in the high seas. (2) that there are reasonable grounds to believe that evidence will be obtained essential to the conviction of any person for. Nothing contained in this Act. the dates and times covered by each recording. 4200. who is authorized by a written order of the Court.SECTION 3. have actually been or are being committed. The court referred to in this section shall be understood to mean the Court of First Instance within whose territorial jurisdiction the acts for which authority is applied for are to be executed. within forty-eight hours after the expiration of the period fixed in the order. 616. conspiracy to commit sedition. with due notice and opportunity to be heard to the person or persons whose conversation or communications have been recorded. sedition. or the existence. sedition.  Salcedo-Ortanez v. 235 SCRA 111. or meaning of the same or any part thereof. [G.  Navarro v. conspiracy and proposal to commit rebellion. (3) the offense or offenses committed or sought to be prevented. and (3) that there are no other means readily available for obtaining such evidence. contents. and inciting to sedition. or to the prevention of. SECTION 5. piracy. provoking war and disloyalty in case of war. Aug. and violations of Commonwealth Act No. or if made. legislative or administrative hearing or investigation. discussions. intercept. No.

2000. Invasion of privacy is an offense in special laws like the anti-Wiretapping Law. G.  ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation v. 4200. En Banc [Pardo] “Section 2 of the Law on Secrecy of Bank Deposits.e. Jalbuena’s testimony is confirmed by the voice recording he had made. there are other 147 . the Secrecy of Bank Deposits Act. June 27. On the other hand. 1998 [Puno] The essence of privacy is the “right to be let alone. 3) Upon written permission of the depositor. COMELEC. No. Torres. of expression. The answer is in the affirmative…xxx Thus. July 23. therefore. The Civil Code provides that “[e]very person shall respect the dignity.Indeed. which prohibits wire tapping.  Marquez v. 5) Upon order of a competent court in cases of bribery or dereliction of duty of public officials. personality.A. revelation of trade and industrial secrets. 1. 133486. G. declares bank deposits to be ‘absolutely confidential’ except: 1) In an examination made in the course of a special or general examination of a bank that is specifically authorized by the Monetary Board after being satisfied that there is reasonable ground to believe that a bank fraud or serious irregularity has been or is being committed and that it is necessary to look into the deposit to establish such fraud or irregularity. 127685. Other facets of the right to privacy are protected in various provisions of the Bill of Rights. Desierto. It is expressly recognized in Section 3(1) of the Bill of Rights. or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the Government for redress of grievances..R No. IV. Zones of privacy are recognized and protected in our laws. 28. as amended. and recognizes the privacy of letters and other private communications. 2) In an examination made by an independent auditor hired by the bank to conduct its regular audit provided that the examination is for audit purposes only and the results thereof shall be for the exclusive use of the bank. be justified. The Revised Penal Code makes a crime of the violation of secrets by an officer. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech.R. i. and trespass to dwelling. THE RIGHT TO PRIVACY Is there a Constitutional Right to Privacy?  Ople v. G. 2001. It also holds public officer or employee or any private individual liable for damages for any violation of the rights and liberties of another person. It may be asked whether the tape is admissible in view of R. or of the press.” The SC clarified that the right of privacy is recognized and enshrined in several provisions of our Constitution. 6. 8. III. or recording of private communications. intercepting. and 17. Secs. Art.R. or 6) In cases where the money deposited or invested is the subject matter of the litigation”. 135882. its tape recording is not prohibited. No. 1987 Constitution SECTION 4. Jan. Since the exchange between petitioner Navarro and Lingan was not private. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION  Sec. and the Intellectual Property Code. privacy and peace of mind of his neighbors and other persons” and punishes as actionable torts several acts for meddling and prying into the privacy of another. It does not leave open any alternative channel of communication to gather the type of information obtained through exit polling. No. 4) In cases of impeachment. the law prohibits the overhearing. En Banc [Panganiban] The absolute ban imposed by the Comelec cannot. 2.

6646. 147571. March 31.4 (United States v. A deferential standard of review will suffice to test their validity. 288 SCRA 447.valid and reasonable ways and means to achieve the Comelec end of avoiding or minimizing disorder and confusion that may be brought about by exit surveys. 11(b) of R. Content-neutral restrictions. To apply the clear-and-present danger test to such regulatory measures would be like using a sledgehammer to drive a nail when a regular hammer is all that is needed. and for the elimination of election-fixing. 2001. v. or it will not pass muster under strict scrutiny. such a measure is vitiated by a weighty presumption of invalidity. dated Oct. (2) if it furthers an important or substantial governmental interest. and (4) if the incidental restriction on alleged First Amendment freedoms (of speech. like Sec. which are not concerned with the content of political ads but only with their incidents. Because of the preferred status of the constitutional rights of speech.A. Section 5. Live Media Coverage of Court Proceedings  Supreme Court En Banc Resolution Re: Live TV and Radio Coverage of the Hearing of President Corazon C. In addition. expression and press) is no greater than is essential to the furtherance of that interest. subject to the clear-and-present danger test. instead of disrupting elections. even if the purpose is unrelated to the suppression of free speech. No. fraud and other electoral ills. 11(b) of R. COMELEC.  SWS. therefore. O’ Brien Test should then be employed to determine the constitutional validity of Section 5. exit polls – properly conducted and publicized – can be vital tools for the holding of honest. a rule such as that involved in Sanidad v. (3) if the governmental interest is unrelated to the suppression of free expression. For example. The clear-and-present danger rule is inappropriate as a test for determining the constitutional validity of laws. To be sure. 6646. O’ Brien): A government regulation is sufficiently justified— (1) if it is within the constitutional power of the government. 9006 constitutes an unconstitutional abridgment of freedom of speech. expression. the law should nevertheless be invalidated if the restriction on freedom of expression is greater than is necessary to achieve the governmental purpose in question. and the press by prohibiting the publication of election survey results affecting candidates within the prescribed periods of fifteen (15) days immediately preceding a national election and seven (7) days before a local election. they will be tested for possible overbreadth and vagueness. Content-Based and Content-Neutral Restrictions on Free Speech  Osmena v. Quite the contrary. Aquino’s Libel Case. 1991 148 .” Moreover.A. No. it should be invalidated if such governmental interest is “not unrelated to the suppression of free expression. 22. orderly. and the press. 1998 [Mendoza] Content-based restrictions are imposed because of the content of the speech and are. These restrictions are censorial and therefore they bear a heavy presumption of constitutional invalidity. expression.R. on the other hand. peaceful and credible elections. Under this test. No. prohibiting columnists. Inc.4 of R. even if a law furthers an important or substantial governmental interest. G.A. and the press. expression. and announcers from campaigning either for or against an issue in a plebiscite must have compelling reason to support it.4 lays a prior restraint on freedom of speech. No. are not concerned with the content of the speech. commentators. These regulations need only a substantial governmental interest to support them. Comelec (181 SCRA 529 [1990]). May 5. En Banc [Mendoza] Section 5. It is concluded that the interest of the state in reducing disruption is outweighed by the drastic abridgment of the constitutionally guaranteed rights of the media and the electorate. which prohibits the sale or donation of print space and air time to political candidates during the campaign period. like Sec. COMELEC.

No video shots or photographs shall be permitted during the trial proper. or photograph court proceedings involves weighing the constitutional guarantees of freedom of the press. Sullivan. where his life or liberty can be held critically in balance. and every false imputation is deemed malicious. the prosecution failed to prove not only that the charges made by petitioner were false but also that petitioner made them with knowledge of their falsity or with reckless disregard of whether they were false or not. and the fundamental rights of the accused.M. A public trial is not synonymous with publicized trial. and considering further that the freedom of the press and the right of the people to information may be served and satisfied by less distracting. A. In order that such discreditable imputation to a public official may be actionable. June 29. 15. the judicial officers. record. along with the constitutional power of a court to control its proceedings in ensuring a fair and impartial trial. above all. then it is immaterial that the opinion happens to be mistaken. unless the public official concerned proves that the statement was made with actual malice — that is. 314 SCRA 460. and on the other hand. it must either be a false allegation of fact or a comment based on a false supposition. live radio and television coverage of court proceedings shall not be allowed. 1999. Considering the prejudice it poses to the defendant's right to due process as well as to the fair and orderly administration of justice. 149 . 01-403-SC. Video footages of court hearings for news purposes shall be restricted and limited to shots of the courtroom.The propriety of granting or denying permission to the media to broadcast. No. no liability can attach if it relates to official conduct. on the one hand. as long as it might reasonably be inferred from the facts. CA. 1999. nevertheless. It would. based on established facts. on the other hand. Such a rule would deter citizens from performing their duties as members of a self-governing community. 2001. Estrada. Sept. sit in the available seats.  Vasquez v. This is the gist of the ruling in the landmark case of New York Times v. the due process rights of the defendant and the inherent and constitutional power of the courts to control their proceedings in order to permit the fair and impartial administration of justice. 301 SCRA 1. infringe on the constitutionally guaranteed freedom of expression. when the discreditable imputation is directed against a public person in his public capacity. 26 This is the rule of "actual malice. If the comment is an expression of opinion. it is not necessarily actionable. conduct themselves with decorum and observe the trial process. The doctrine of fair comment means that while in general every discreditable imputation publicly made is deemed false. the right of the public to information and the right to public trial. it only implies that the court doors must be open to those who wish to come. 14. Without free speech and assembly. The Doctrine of Fair Comment  Borjal v. An accused has a right to a public trial but it is a right that belongs to him. 361 of the Revised Penal Code." In this case.  Re: Request Radio-TV Coverage of the Trial in the Sandiganbayan of the Plunder Cases Against Former President Joseph E. En Banc [Mendoza] Even if the defamatory statement is false. more than anyone else. Jan. because every man is presumed innocent until his guilt is judicially proved. En Banc [Vitug] The propriety of granting or denying the instant petition involve the weighing out of the constitutional guarantees of freedom of the press and the right to public information. [Bellosillo] Fair commentaries on matters of public interest are privileged and constitute a valid defense in an action for libel or slander. on the one hand. 2nd Div. the parties and their counsel taken prior to the commencement of official proceedings. which this Court has cited with approval in several of its own decisions. degrading and prejudicial means. A public trial aims to ensure that he is fairly dealt with and would not be unjustly condemned and that his rights are not compromised in secret conclaves of long ago. with knowledge that it was false or with reckless disregard of whether it was false or not. CA. A rule placing on the accused the burden of showing the truth of allegations of official misconduct and/or good motives and justifiable ends for making such allegations would not only be contrary to Art.

" regulation was limited to the mayor's reasonable discretion in issuing a permit to determine or specify only the streets or public places to be used for the purpose and to provide adequate and proper policing to minimize the risk of disorder. Art. to impose a rerouting of the parade or street march. CA. 1972.P.. Blg. to limit the volume of loud speakers or sound system and to prescribe other appropriate restrictions on the conduct of the public assembly. or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged.discussions of our most abiding concerns as a nation would be stifled. to form unions. 98-7-02-SC – Ricardo C.") 150 . 880 did not establish streets and sidewalks. this Court merely moved away the situs of mass actions within a 200-meter radius from every courthouse. J. the overriding considerations of national security and the preservation of democratic institutions (People v. and isolate it from public hysteria. 14. friendly or otherwise. 134621.  Jacinto v.P. Blg. There is thus no discrepancy between the two sets of regulatory measures. 281 SCRA 657. place. On the other hand. Held: Specifically. Simply put. place and manner of conducting concerted actions. 1987 Constitution SECTION 8. 1997. November 15. Ferrer-Calleja (203 SCRA 596. III. 48 SCRA 382. 281 SCRA 657.M. clarified.  In Re: Petition to Annul En Banc Resolution A. 8. To insulate the judiciary from mob pressure. 14. Blg. FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION  Sec." Right to Peaceably Assemble  Jacinto v.R. associations. as in the exercise of the rights of free expression and of assembly. Nov. Nov. En Banc [Panganiban] Does the right of civil servants to organize include their right to strike? Clarify. CA. 29. 880 imposes general restrictions to the time. among other places. that "the need for prudence and circumspection [cannot be overemphasized] in [the law's] enforcement. As Justice Brandeis has said. December 27. operating as it does in the sensitive area of freedom of expression and belief. "public discussion is a political duty" and the "greatest menace to freedom is an inert people.P. A close look at the law will reveal that it in fact prescribes reasonable time. the resolution of this Court regulating demonstrations adds specific restrictions as they involve judicial independence and the orderly administration of justice. per Castro. En Banc [Panganiban] The exercise of the rights of free speech and of peaceful assembly to petition the government for redress of grievances "is not absolute for it may be so regulated that it shall not be injurious to the equal enjoyment of others having equal rights. "Whatever interest in freedom of speech and freedom of association is infringed by the prohibition against knowing membership in the Communist Party of the Philippines." It cautioned. though. 1998 B. Thus. the right of civil servants to organize themselves was positively recognized in Association of Court of Appeals Employees (ACAE) v. The right of the people. 880 and the assailed resolution complement each other. B. nor injurious to the rights of the community or society. Valmonte and Union of Lawyers and Advocates for Transparency in Government [ULAT]. B. there are standards for allowable limitations such as the legitimacy of the purposes of the association. while upholding the validity of the Anti-Subversion Act which outlawed the Communist Party of the Philippines and other "subversive" organizations. where the Court. it requires a written permit for the holding of public assemblies in public places subject. Ferrer. But. to the right of the mayor to modify the place and time of the public assembly. G. 1991). 1997. is so indirect and so insubstantial as to be clearly and heavily outweighed by the overriding considerations of national security and the preservation of democratic institutions in this country. even. and manner regulations. In fine. as public fora. Sept. No. including those employed in the public and private sectors.

The principle behind labor unionism in private industry is that industrial peace cannot be secured through compulsion by law. and penalized. such as the removal of US bases and the repudiation of foreign debts. in general. s. 4. implicitly endorsed an earlier CSC circular which "enjoins under pain of administrative sanctions. which took effect after the instant dispute arose.. workers in the public sector do not enjoy the right to strike. Relations between private employers and their employees rest on an essentially voluntary basis. including any political subdivision or instrumentality thereof are governed by law. 180 (Issued by former President Corazon C. it is the legislature and.' X x x. dated April 21. Court of Appeals (175 SCRA 686. p. the terms and conditions of employment in the unionized private sector are settled through the process of collective bargaining. demonstrations. therefore. however. the Constitution itself qualifies its exercise with the proviso "in accordance with law. They denied that they engaged in “strike” but claimed that they merely exercised a constitutionally guaranteed right – the right to peaceably assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances . They also raised national issues. from their schools during regular school days. August 3. like workers in the private sector.) rationalized the proscription thus: "The general rule in the past and up to the present is that the 'terms and conditions of employment in the Government. Executive Order No. not through collective bargaining agreements. 6. 1987. 1983. also per Gutierrez. in their mass actions. In government employment. walkouts and other temporary work stoppages. rules." This is a clear manifestation that the state may.. '[t]he terms and conditions of employment in the government. either petition the Congress for the betterment of the terms and conditions of employment which are within the ambit of legislation or negotiate with the appropriate government agencies for the improvement of those which are not fixed by law. Rule III of the Rules and Regulations to Govern the Exercise of the Right of Government Employees to Self-Organization. through their unions or associations. the dispute may be referred to the Public Sector Labor-Management Council for appropriate action. Subject to the minimum requirements of wage laws and other labor and welfare legislation. therefore. 1987) by stating that the Civil Service law and rules governing concerted activities and strikes in the government service shall be observed.As regards the right to strike. all government officers and employees from staging strikes. to pressure the Government to accede to their demands.and. July 28. If there be any unresolved grievances. It is also settled in jurisprudence that. regulate the use of this right. Alliance of Concerned Government Workers v. including any political subdivision or instrumentality thereof and government-owned and controlled corporations with original charters are governed by law and employees therein shall not strike for the purpose of securing changes [thereto]. 698) Petitioners public school teachers walked out of their classes and engaged in mass actions during certain dates in September 1990 protesting the alleged unlawful withholding of their salaries and other economic benefits. by law. J. Should their contention be upheld? 151 . 1987) which provides guidelines for the exercise of the right of government workers to organize.. the administrative heads of government which fix the terms and conditions of employment. Jr. and regulations. But employees in the civil service may not resort to strikes. should not have been penalized. They refused to return to work despite orders to do so and subsequently were found guilty of conduct prejudicial to the best interests of the service for having absented themselves without proper authority. walkouts and other forms of mass action which will result in temporary stoppage or disruption of public service" (CSC Memorandum Circular No. 1989) and explained: "Government employees may. government workers cannot use the same weapons employed by the workers in the private sector to secure concessions from their employers. Minister of Labor and Employment (124 SCRA 1. 13) After delving into the intent of the framers of the Constitution. the Court affirmed the above rule in Social Security System Employees Association (SSSEA) v. for instance. p. mass leaves. As now provided under Sec. Aquino on June 1. And this is effected through statutes or administrative circulars." (Ibid. where properly given delegated power. Since the terms and conditions of government employment are fixed by law.'' (Ibid. or even deny certain sectors such right.

recess. from their schools during regular school days. as defined by law. 1987 Constitution SECTION 5. since the substance of the situation. July 31. regardless of whether the disputants stand in the proximate relation of employers and employees. or absence from. Carino (Ibid. we now evaluate the circumstances of the instant petition. they also raised national issues such as the removal of the U. however. for which they were responsible. the Civil Service Commission found them guilty of conduct prejudicial to the best interest of the service for having absented themselves without proper authority. after classes. J. Moreover.). work which it was the teachers' duty to perform. FREEDOM OF RELIGION Sec. It cannot be denied that the mass action or assembly staged by the petitioners resulted in the non-holding of classes in several public schools during the corresponding period.R. and not its appearance. as the underlying facts are allegedly not identical. Rather. rules and regulations. Had petitioners availed themselves of their free time . Their act by their nature was enjoined by the Civil Service law. per Narvasa. No. the temporary stoppage of classes resulting from their activity necessarily disrupted public services. No administrative charges were allegedly instituted against any of the participants. In Balingasan v. MPSTA v. With these premises." should not principally resolve the present case.not the DECS. Rather. as well. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. now CJ. 1997. maintaining.to fully and justly implement certain laws and measures intended to benefit them materially x x x. their "employers" . Petitioners do not dispute that the grievances for which they sought redress concerned the alleged failure of public authorities essentially. in order to participate in the mass protest. undertaken for essentially economic reasons. petitioners liken their activity to the pro-bases rally led by former President Corazon C. per Regalado. this Court said that the fact that the conventional term "strike" was not used by the participants to describe their common course of action was insignificant. III. the petitioners here x x x were not penalized for the exercise of their right to assemble peacefully and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. the very evil sought to be forestalled by the prohibition against strikes by government workers. for which they must. bases and the repudiation of foreign debt. by public school teachers who consequently absented themselves from their classes. Strike. No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion. no one . therefore. they tenaciously insist that their absences during certain dates in September 1990 were a valid exercise of their constitutional right to engage in peaceful assembly to petition the government for a redress of grievances. who are public schoolteachers and thus government employees. Laguio (Supra. 1991. the CSC or even this Court . The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship. Art. They claim that their gathering was not a strike. And probably to clothe their action with permissible character (In justifying their mass actions. in which this Court declared that "these 'mass actions' were to all intents and purposes a strike. 1987 Constitution 152 .S. they constituted a concerted and unauthorized stoppage of. do not seek to establish that they have a right to strike. was deemed controlling. fixing. their participation therein did not constitute any offense. or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. II. 124678..to dramatize their grievances and to dialogue with the proper authorities within the bounds of law.).).could have held them liable for the valid exercise of their constitutionally guaranteed rights. or the association or representation of persons in negotiating. be made answerable. without discrimination or preference. 6.Held: Petitioners.) and ACT v. As it was. J. Court of Appeals (G. their absence ineluctably resulting in the nonholding of classes and in the deprivation of students of education. therefore. shall forever be allowed. Sec. V. A labor dispute includes any controversy or matter concerning terms and conditions of employment. Aquino on September 10. weekends or holidays . means any temporary stoppage of work done by the concerted action of employees as a result of an industrial or labor dispute. changing or arranging the terms and conditions of employment. participated in. Art.

preacher.. viz.”  INC v. sing the national anthem and recite the patriotic pledge. XIV. denomination. The Iglesia Ni Cristo's postulate that its religious freedom is per se beyond review by the MTRCB should be rejected. the State should not stand still. "For sure. Cruz. 176-177). or government orphanage or leprosarium. or pose “a grave and present danger of a serious evil to public safety.. we shall continue to subject any act pinching the space for the free exercise of religion to a heightened scrutiny but we shall not leave its rational exercise to the irrationality of man. (2) No public money or property shall be appropriated. En Banc [Grino-Aquino] While the highest regard must be afforded their right to the free exercise of their religion.  The Two Aspects of Freedom of Religion “The right to religious profession and worship has a two-fold aspect. 259 SCRA 529. The second is subject to regulation where the belief is translated into external acts that affect the public welfare” (J. or to any penal institution. public health or any other legitimate public interest that the State has a right (and duty) to prevent. or dignitary as such. Art. or public welfare. serious detriment to the more overriding interest of public health. i. 1987 Constitution SECTION 29. The exercise of religious freedom can be regulated by the State when it will bring about the clear and present danger of a substantive evil which the State is duty-bound to prevent. 29[2]. Art. The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable. If they quietly stand at attention during the flag ceremony while their classmates and teachers salute the flag. of other persons. CA. Constitutional Law. The first is absolute as long as the belief is confined within the realm of thought. church. directly or indirectly. without additional cost to the Government.  Ebralinag v. 1993. religion shall be allowed to be taught to their children or wards in public elementary and high schools within the regular class hours by instructors designated or approved by the religious authorities of the religion to which the children or wards belong. 1991 Ed. both religious and patriotic. or of any priest. preacher. Television is a medium that reaches even the eyes and ears of children. we do not see how such conduct may possibly disturb the peace. (3) At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians. Sec. paid. “this should not be taken to mean that school authorities are powerless to discipline them” if they should commit breaches of the peace by actions that offend the sensibilities. Division Superintendent of Schools of Cebu. minister." Did the MTRCB act correctly when it rated “X” the Iglesia Ni Cristo's pre-taped TV program simply because it was found to be "attacking" another religion? 153 . 219 SCRA 256. except when such priest. viz. The second is subject to regulation where the belief is translated into external acts that affect the public welfare. The first is absolute as long as the belief is confined within the realm of thought. sectarian institution. 3[3]. public morals. or employed. or support of any sect. July 26. or other religious teacher. A laissez faire policy on the exercise of religion can be seductive to the liberal mind but history counsels the Court against its blind adoption as religion is and continues to be a volatile area of concern in our society today. public morals. minister. applied. 1996 [Puno] The right to religious profession and worship has a two-fold aspect. freedom to believe and freedom to act on one’s belief. freedom to believe and freedom to act on one's belief. for the use. benefit. or dignitary is assigned to the armed forces. For when religion divides and its exercise destroys... pp. March 1. 1987 Constitution SECTION 3. Its public broadcast on TV of its religious programs brings it out of the bosom of internal belief. or system of religion. Sec.e. VI.SECTION 6.

The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. save as those solicited for money or aid may not belong to the same religion as the solicitor. 6. i. the suit may not be dismissed invoking the doctrine of separation of church and the state. Sept. Such solicitation calls upon the virtue of faith. 1999. worship and governance of the congregation. G. public safety. and the power of excluding from such associations those deemed not worthy of membership. the MTRCB cannot squelch the speech of the INC simply because it attacks another religion. or form of worship of the church. administration of sacraments and other activities with attached religious significance…x x x Where what is involved is the relationship of the church as an employer and the minister as an employee and has no relation whatsoever with the practice of faith.” Based on this definition. Under our constitutional scheme. 1994 [Regalado] Solicitation of contributions for the construction of a church is not solicitation for "charitable or public welfare purpose" but for a religious purpose. and a religious purpose is not necessarily a charitable or public welfare purpose. Neither shall the right to travel be impaired except in the interest of national security. In fine. worship or doctrines of the church. 124382. it is not the task of the State to favor any religion by protecting it against an attack by another religion. the marketplace of ideas demands that speech should be met by more speech for it is the spark of opposite speech. ordinations of religious ministers. Consequently. 236 SCRA 197. the heat of colliding ideas. Neutrality alone is its fixed and immovable stance. or public health. creed. Vis-à-vis religious differences. The bedrock of freedom of religion is freedom of thought and it is best served by encouraging the marketplace of dueling ideas. an ecclesiastical affair involves the relationship between the church and its members and relate to matters of faith. To require a government permit before solicitation for religious purpose may be allowed is to lay a prior restraint on the free exercise of religion. the State enjoys no banquet of options.Held: The MTRCB may disagree with the criticisms of other religions by the Iglesia Ni Cristo but that gives it no excuse to interdict such criticisms. THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE TO INFORMATION ON MATTERS OF PUBLIC CONCERN 154 . Religious dogma and beliefs are often at war and to preserve peace among their followers. Such restraint. No. if allowed. the establishment clause of freedom of religion prohibits the State from leaning towards any religion. not of charity. religious doctrines. the minister was not excommunicated or expelled from the membership of the congregation but was terminated from employment. the remedy against bad theology is better theology. Villalon-Pornillos. THE LIBERTY OF ABODE AND THE RIGHT TO TRAVEL Sec. it is a purely secular affair. as may be provided by law. or the adoption and enforcement within a religious association of needful laws and regulations for the government of the membership. NLRC. Art.. 1. III. 1987 Constitution SECTION 6. [Kapunan] An ecclesiastical affair is “one that concerns doctrine. Such solicitation does not engage the philanthropic as much as the religious fervor of the person who is solicited for contribution.  Austria v. examples of this so-called ecclesiastical affairs to which the State cannot meddle are proceedings for excommunication.  Centeno v.e.R. however unclean they may be. When the luxury of time permits. Aug. may well justify requiring a permit before a church can make Sunday collections or enforce tithing. In a State where there ought to be no difference between the appearance and the reality of freedom of religion. 16. To be concrete. that can fan the embers of truth. 1st Div. especially the fanatics.

approved on June 6. Civil Service Commission. In the final analysis. 1997] and other related laws) and banking transactions (pursuant to the Secrecy of Bank Deposits Act [R.” the Court.A. as well as the internal deliberations of the Supreme Court. or simply because such matters naturally arouse the interest of an ordinary citizen. it is for the courts to determine on a case by case basis whether the matter at issue is of interest or importance. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. morals. The Ethical Standards Act (R.” THE NON-IMPAIRMENT CLAUSE  Sec. 155 . 10. Art. The Article on Social Justice was aptly described as the "heart of the new Charter" by the President of the 1986 Constitutional Commission. Access to official records. 1987 Constitution SECTION 7. The constitutional prohibition against impairing contractual obligations is not absolute and is not to be read with literal exactness. 9. Dec. 7. the prosecution and the detention of criminals. Is the constitutional prohibition against impairing contractual obligations absolute? Held: Nor is there merit in the claim that the resolution and memorandum circular violate the contract clause of the Bill of Rights. enacted on February 20. which courts may not inquire into prior to such arrest. or decisions. subject to such limitations as may be provided by law. The executive order creating the POEA was enacted to further implement the social justice provisions of the 1973 Constitution. 6713. III. 3) Criminal matters. transactions. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. 7[c]. It is restricted to contracts with respect to property or some object of value and which confer rights that may be asserted in a court of justice. safety. 1989) further prohibits public officials and employees from using or divulging “confidential or classified information officially known to them by reason of their office and not made available to the public.  Chavez v. Both terms embrace a broad spectrum of subjects which the public may want to know. It does not prevent a proper exercise by the State of its police power by enacting regulations reasonably necessary to secure the health. Social justice is identified with the broad scope of the police power of the state and requires the extensive use of such power. it has no application to statutes relating to public subjects within the domain of the general legislative powers of the State and involving the public rights and public welfare of the entire community affected by it. 1998 [Panganiban] Some of the recognized restrictions to the right of the people to information on matters of public concern: 1) National security matters and intelligence information. No. elucidated: “In determining whether or not a particular information is of public concern there is no rigid test which can be applied. No.) 5) Other acknowledged limitations to information access include diplomatic correspondence. Sec. Art. As to the meanings of the terms “public interest” and “public concern. and to documents. 1405. as amended]).” (Sec. X x x.A. such as those relating to the apprehension. closed door Cabinet meetings and executive sessions of either house of Congress. III. ibid. which have been greatly enhanced and expanded in the 1987 Constitution by placing them under a separate Article (Article XIII). either because these directly affect their lives. as it relates to or affects the public. in Legaspi v. ‘Public concern’ like ‘public interest’ is a term that eludes exact definition. 8293. 299 SCRA 744. 2) Trade or industrial secrets (pursuant to the Intellectual Property Code [R.A. shall be afforded the citizen. and papers pertaining to official acts. retired Justice Cecilia Munoz Palma. detention and prosecution. No. 4) Other confidential information. 1987 Constitution SECTION 10. PCGG. as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development.

morals. (The Conference of Maritime Manning Agencies. working conditions. Jurisprudence holds that the constitutional guarantee of non-impairment of contract is subject to the police power of the state and to reasonable legislative regulations promoting health.comfort. or any other means which vitiate the free will shall be used against him. April 21. And since there was thus no extra consideration for the private respondents to give up their employment. safety and welfare. And under the Civil Code. Art. 243 SCRA 666. such undertakings cannot be allowed to bar the action for illegal dismissal. 1995 [Davide. all contracts and all rights are subject to the police power of the State and not only may regulations which affect them be established by the State. as the general well-being of the community may require. The relations between capital and labor are not merely contractual. solitary. for such matters cannot be placed by contract beyond the power of the State to regulate and control them. even though contracts may thereby be affected. RIGHTS OF AN ACCUSED  Sec. incommunicado. the law will step in to annul the questionable transactions. 797 (Creating the POEA). Verily. These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of counsel.]) Petitioners pray that the present action should be barred. wages. Article 1700 thereof expressly provides: Art. 12. The challenged resolution and memorandum circular being valid implementations of E. [Panganiban]) THE CUSTODIAL INVESTIGATION. violence. except (1) where there is clear proof that the waiver was wangled from an unsuspecting or gullible person. he must be provided with one. (3) Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17 hereof shall be inadmissible in evidence against him. To hold otherwise is to alter long-established constitutional doctrine and to subordinate the police power to the contract clause." The Court disagrees. Therefore. They are so impressed with public interest that labor contracts must yield to the common good. but all such regulations must be subject to change from time to time. 296 SCRA 108. threat. which was enacted under the police power of the State. or as the circumstances may change. because private respondents have voluntarily executed quitclaims and releases and received their separation pay. strikes and lockouts. Not all quitclaims are per se invalid or against public policy. v. they cannot be struck down on the ground that they violate the contract clause. No. III. 124. 1700. they are entitled to separation pay under Article 283 of the Labor Code. In the case at bar. v. force. In these cases. Such quitclaim and release agreements are regarded as ineffective to bar the workers from claiming the full measure of their legal rights. Secret detention places. or general welfare of the community. POEA. Since they were dismissed allegedly for business losses. Inc. collective bargaining. Inc. (Bogo-Medellin Sugarcane Planters Association. If the person cannot afford the services of counsel. Jr. intimidation. or (2) where the terms of settlement are unconscionable on their face. or as experience may demonstrate the necessity. 156 . such contracts are subject to the special laws on labor unions. the freedom to contract is not absolute. (1) Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel preferably of his own choice. closed shop. Petitioners claim that the present suit is a "grave derogation of the fundamental principle that obligations arising from a valid contract have the force of law between the parties and must be complied with in good faith. the private respondents agreed to the quitclaim and release in consideration of their separation pay. or other similar forms of detention are prohibited. contracts of labor are explicitly subject to the police power of the State because they are not ordinary contracts but are impressed with public interest. NLRC.O. hours of labor and similar subjects. 1987 Constitution SECTION 12. (2) No torture.

10) The person arrested must be informed that his initial waiver of his right to remain silent. and Investigating Officers and Providing Penalties for Violations Thereof): 1) The person arrested. he has the right to communicate or confer by the most expedient means . information or communication must be in a language known to and understood by said person. priest or minister chosen by him or by any one from his immediate family or by his counsel. knowingly and intelligently and ensure that he understood the same. shall be admissible in evidence. or investigating officer or his companions must do and observe at the time of making an arrest and again at and during the time of the custodial interrogation in accordance with the Constitution. preferably of his own choice. jurisprudence and Republic Act No. otherwise. 7) He must be informed that he has the right to waive any of said rights provided it is made voluntarily. such confession will be sustained. detaining.with his lawyer (either retained or appointed). any member of his immediate family. in the absence of conclusive evidence showing the declarant’s consent in executing the same has been vitiated. he must be informed that it must be done in writing and in the presence of counsel. regardless of whether he may have answered some questions or volunteered some statements. 4) He must be informed that if he has no lawyer or cannot afford the services of a lawyer. or any medical doctor. the police may not interrogate him if the same had not yet commenced. 332 SCRA 190. inviting. as the case may be. which are dealt with in paragraph 2 of Section 12. invited or under custodial investigation must be informed in a language known to and understood by him of the reason for the arrest and he must be shown the warrant of arrest. at any time. 9) That the person arrested must be informed that he may indicate in any manner at any time or stage of the process that he does not wish to be questioned with warning that once he makes such indication. intimidation. 2) He must be warned that he has a right to remain silent and that any statement he makes may be used as evidence against him. 157 . 302 SCRA 455. if the person arrested waives his right to a lawyer. and. violence.  People v. whether inculpatory or exculpatory. May 17. or be visited by/confer with duly accredited national or international non-government organization. he must be informed that no custodial investigation in any form shall be conducted except in the presence of his counsel of after a valid waiver has been made.  People v. and (2) those which are given without the benefit of Miranda warnings. in whole or in part. Extrajudicial confessions are presumed voluntary. he must be warned that the waiver is void even if he insist on his waiver and chooses to speak. one will be provided for him.(4) The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this section as well as compensation to and rehabilitation of victims of torture or similar practices. En Banc [Per Curiam] Procedure. 1. 7438 (An Act Defining Certain Rights of Person Arrested. obtained in violation of any of the foregoing. 1999. if any. which are the subject of paragraph 1 of the same Section 12. 11) He must also be informed that any statement or evidence.telephone. Mahinay. It shall be the responsibility of the officer to ensure that this is accomplished. 3) He must be informed that he has the right to be assisted at all times and have the presence of an independent and competent lawyer. letter or messenger . Detained or Under Custodial Investigation as well as the Duties of the Arresting. 5) That whether or not the person arrested has a lawyer. or may be appointed by the court upon petition of the person arrested or one acting on his behalf. guidelines and duties which the arresting. 6) The person arrested must be informed that. threat. [Mendoza] There are two kinds of involuntary or coerced confessions treated in this constitutional provision: (1) those which are the product of third degree methods such as torture. 2000. detained. and that a lawyer may also be engaged by any person in his behalf. 2nd Div. or the interrogation must cease if it has already begun. Feb. and their families. Detaining. the right to counsel or any of his rights does not bar him from invoking it at any time during the process. Every other warnings. 8) In addition. Obrero. radio. force.

X x x Moreover. Here. Now. and (3) he must be told that he has a right to counsel. Especially in this case.Moreover. But what renders the confession of accused-appellant inadmissible is the fact that accused-appellant was not given the Miranda warnings effectively. De los Reyes. cannot be considered an “independent counsel” as contemplated by the law for the reason that he was station commander of the WPD at the time he assisted accused-appellant. is presumed to be psychologically coerced. In this case. it is required that the suspect in custodial interrogation must be given the following warnings: (1) he must be informed of his right to remain silent. in several decisions of this Court. This kind of giving of warnings. with the connivance of unscrupulous media practitioners. where the claim of maltreatment in the extraction of the confession is unsubstantiated and where abundant evidence exists showing that the statement was voluntarily executed. if so. reflecting spontaneity and coherence which cannot be said of a mind on which violence and torture have been applied. Article III. Under the Constitution. municipal attorney. though presumably competent. Section 12(1) was derived. Bandula (232 SCRA 566 [1994]). the confession is admissible against the declarant. the confession contains details that only the perpetrator of the crime could have given. openly and publicly in the presence of newsmen. 2nd Div. the independent counsel required by Article III. as PC Captain and Station Commander of the WPD. 158 . It is prudent that trial courts are reminded that extreme caution must be taken in further admitting similar confessions. Section 12(1) requires that counsel assisting suspects in custodial interrogations be competent and independent. De los Reyes. under the first paragraph of this provision. the police. a lawyer will be appointed to represent him…x x x There was thus only a perfunctory reading of the Miranda rights to accusedappellant without any effort to find out from him whether he wanted to have counsel and. was part of the police force who could not be expected to have effectively and scrupulously assisted accused-appellant in the investigation. Section 12(1) cannot be special counsel. an uncounseled statement. For in all probability. such as it is called in the United States from which Article III. This is error. When the details narrated in an extrajudicial confession are such that they could not have been concocted by one who did not take part in the acts narrated. X x x. has been found to be merely ceremonial and inadequate to transmit meaningful information to the suspect. the suspect really needs the guiding hand of counsel. public or private prosecutor. As observed in People v. There is greater reason for finding a confession to be voluntary where it is corroborated by evidence aliunde which dovetails with the essential facts contained in such confession. Such confession does not form part of custodial investigation as it was not given to police officers but to media men in an attempt to elicit sympathy and forgiveness from the public. Such a situation would be detrimental to the guaranteed rights of the accused and thus imperil our criminal justice system. Feb. and that if he is indigent. 20. Atty.  People v. To allow such a happenstance would render illusory the protection given to the suspect during custodial investigation. whether he had his own counsel or he wanted the police to appoint one for him. [Bellosillo] [Admissibility of Video-Taped Confessions Given to Media Men] The interview was recorded on video and it showed accused-appellant unburdening his guilt willingly. (2) he must be warned that anything he says can and will be used against him. It has been held that voluntariness of a confession may be inferred from its being replete with details which could possibly be supplied only by the accused. Endino. 353 SCRA 307. or counsel of the police whose interest is admittedly adverse to the accused. who. may attempt to legitimize coerced extra-judicial confessions and place them beyond the exclusionary rule by having an accused admit an offense on television. Swept into an unfamiliar environment and surrounded by intimidating figures typical of the atmosphere of police interrogation. care should have been scrupulously observed by the police investigator that accused-appellant was specifically asked these questions considering that he only finished the fourth grade of the elementary school. 2001. accused-appellant was assisted by Atty.

596-597 [1998]).We do not suggest that videotaped confessions given before media men by an accused with the knowledge of and in the presence of police officers are impermissible. In fact. but given in an ordinary manner whereby appellant orally admitted having committed the crime. admissible in evidence. March 3. his uncounselled confession to him did not violate his constitutional rights. March 2. The rights under Section 12 are guaranteed to preclude the slightest use of coercion by the State as would lead the accused to admit something false. the mayor did not question the appellant at all. it has been held that the constitutional procedures on custodial investigation do not apply to a spontaneous statement. et al. 2001. not to prevent him from freely and voluntarily telling the truth…xxx Appellant’s confessions to the news reporters were given free from any undue influence from the police authorities. appellant’s confession to the mayor was not made in response to any interrogation by the latter. This is a basic tenet of our Constitution which cannot be disregarded or ignored no matter how brutal the crime committed may be. 269 SCRA 95. Jr. the waiver must be made in writing and with the assistance of counsel.uncounselled confession and is considered a fruit of the poisonous tree. Feb. G. they asked his permission before interviewing him. Estrada v. however. En Banc [Puno] In People v. It was appellant himself who spontaneously. Consequently. 1997 While it is true that a municipal mayor has “operational supervision and control” over the local police and may arguably be deemed a law enforcement officer for purposes of applying Section 12(1) and (3) of Article III of the Constitution.R. there is no evidence to indicate that he intended to waive these rights. 2001. What the Constitution bars is the compulsory disclosure of incriminating facts or confessions. and that if he cannot afford to have counsel of his choice. Teehankee. Andan.  People v. The same was an integral part of the. Lugod. the line between proper and invalid police techniques and conduct is a difficult one to draw. we laid down the doctrine that: 159 . In the same vein. In fact. The Supreme Court further ruled that appellant’s verbal confessions to the newsmen are not covered by Section 12(1) and (3) of Article III of the Constitution and. Moreover.  People v. not elicited through questioning by the authorities. (287 SCRA 581 at pp. Thus. therefore. They were not acting under the direction and control of the police. Court of Appeals. It requires persistence and determination in separating polluted confessions from untainted ones. in order to be valid. (249 SCRA 54 [1995]). Desierto. They did not force appellant to grant them an interview and reenact the commission of the crime. A word of counsel then to lower courts: we should never presume that all media confessions described as voluntary have been freely given. Nos. The mayor did not know that appellant was going to confess his guilt to him. particularly in cases such as this where it is essential to make sharp judgments in determining whether a confession was given under coercive physical or psychological atmosphere. 352 SCRA 498. Indeed. The news reporters acted as news reporters when they interviewed appellant. This type of confession always remains suspect and therefore should be thoroughly examined and scrutinized. even if he did waive these rights. Detection of coerced confessions is admittedly a difficult and arduous task for the courts to make. En Banc [Gonzaga-Reyes] Records reveal that accused-appellant was not informed of his right to remain silent and to counsel. We have a sworn duty to be vigilant and protective of the rights guaranteed by the Constitution. freely and voluntarily sought the mayor for a private meeting. 146710-15. the accused-appellant's act in pointing out the location of the body of Nairube was also elicited in violation of the accused-appellant's right to remain silent. 21. When appellant talked with the mayor as a confidant and not as a law enforcement officer. No police authority ordered appellant to talk to the mayor. Besides. he would be provided with one. the accused-appellant's act of confessing to SPO2 Gallardo that he raped and killed Nairube without the assistance of counsel cannot be used against him for having transgressed accused-appellant's rights under the Bill of Rights. later reiterated in the case of Larranaga v.

we rejected this standard of possibility of prejudice and adopted the test of actual prejudice as we ruled that to warrant a finding of prejudicial publicity. 13. Their mere exposure to publications and publicity stunts does not per se fatally infect their impartiality. Then and now. The mere fact that the trial of appellant was given a day-to-day. The totality of circumstances of the case does not prove that the trial judge acquired a fixed opinion as a result of prejudicial publicity which is incapable of change even by evidence presented during the trial. In the case at bar. Alejandro. Our judges are learned in the law and trained to disregard off-court evidence and on-camera performances of parties to a litigation.. clear and present danger. 1987 Constitution SECTION 13.  Government of the USA v. The state of the art of our communication system brings news as they happen straight to our breakfast tables and right to our bedrooms. 24. The right to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. All persons. Art. strong likelihood. En Banc [Panganiban] [Vitug. The American approach is different. 148571. In Martelino. the records do not show that the trial judge developed actual bias against appellant as a consequence of the extensive media coverage of the pre-trial and trial of his case. Dissenting Opinion][Is Right to Bail Available in Extradition Proceeding?] 160 . Purganan. be bailable by sufficient sureties. appellant can only conjure possibility of prejudice on the part of the trial judge due to the barrage of publicity that characterized the investigation and trial of the case. prosecutors. No. gavel-togavel coverage does not by itself prove that the publicity so permeated the mind of the trial judge and impaired his impartiality. a responsible press has always been regarded as the handmaiden of effective judicial administration. it is impossible to seal the minds of members of the bench from pre-trial and other off-court publicity of sensational criminal cases. as well pointed out. or be released on recognizance as may be provided by law. x x x.R. Pervasive publicity is not per se prejudicial to the right of an accused to fair trial. etc. US courts assume a skeptical approach about the potential effect of pervasive publicity on the right of an accused to a fair trial. These news form part of our everyday menu of the facts and fictions of life. and judicial processes to extensive public scrutiny and criticism. We have not installed the jury system whose members are overly protected from publicity lest they lose their impartiality. They have developed different strains of tests to resolve this issue. not simply that they might be. just like all high profile and high stake criminal trials. except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion perpetua when evidence of guilt is strong. The press does not simply publish information about trials but guards against the miscarriage of justice by subjecting the police. Sept. before conviction. there must be allegation and proof that the judges have been unduly influenced. III. v. Appellant has the burden to prove this actual bias and he has not discharged the burden.e.“We cannot sustain appellant’s claim that he was denied the right to impartial trial due to prejudicial publicity. responsible reporting enhances an accused’s right to a fair trial for.” What are the two principal legal and philosophical schools of thought on how to deal with the rain of unrestrained publicity during the investigation and trial of high profile cases? Held: There are two (2) principal legal and philosophical schools of thought on how to deal with the rain of unrestrained publicity during the investigation and trial of high profile cases. Thus. THE RIGHT TO BAIL  Sec. we rule that the right of an accused to a fair trial is not incompatible to a free press. substantial probability of irreparable harm. et al. our idea of a fair and impartial judge is not that of a hermit who is out of touch with the world. For one. shall. For another. 2002. G. English courts readily stay and stop criminal trials when the right of an accused to fair trial suffers a threat. To be sure.. It is true that the print and broadcast media gave the case at bar pervasive publicity. by the barrage of publicity. The British approach the problem with the presumption that publicity will prejudice a jury. i. At best. Excessive bail shall not be required. especially in the criminal field x x x. et al.

Extradition Different from Ordinary Criminal Proceedings We agree with petitioner. As suggested by the use of the word “conviction,” the constitutional provision on bail x x x, as well as Section 4 of Rule 114 of the Rules of Court, applies only when a person has been arrested and detained for violation of Philippine criminal laws. It does not apply to extradition proceedings, because extradition courts do not render judgments of conviction or acquittal. Moreover, the constitutional right to bail “flows from the presumption of innocence in favor of every accused who should not be subjected to the loss of freedom as thereafter he would be entitled to acquittal, unless his guilt be proved beyond reasonable doubt.” (De la Camara v. Enage, 41 SCRA 1, 6, September 17, 1971, per Fernando, Jr. [later CJ]) It follows that the constitutional provision on bail will not apply to a case like extradition, where the presumption of innocence is not an issue. The provision in the Constitution stating that the right to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended” does not detract from the rule that the constitutional right to bail is available only in criminal proceedings. It must be noted that the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus finds application “only to persons judicially charged for rebellion or offenses inherent in or directly connected with invasion.” (Sec. 18, Article VII, Constitution) Hence, the second sentence in the constitutional provision on bail merely emphasizes the right to bail in criminal proceedings for the aforementioned offenses. It cannot be taken to mean that the right is available even in extradition proceedings that are not criminal in nature. That the offenses for which Jimenez is sought to be extradited are bailable in the United States is not an argument to grant him one in the present case. To stress, extradition proceedings are separate and distinct from the trial for the offenses for which he is charged. He should apply for bail before the courts trying the criminal cases against him, not before the extradition court.

Lavides v. CA (GR 129670, Feb. 1, 2000) In the first place, as the trial court itself acknowledged, in cases where it is authorized, bail should be granted before arraignment, otherwise the accused may be precluded from filing a motion to quash. For if the information is quashed and the case is dismissed, there would then be no need for the arraignment of the accused. In the second place, the trial court could ensure the presence of petitioner at the arraignment precisely by granting bail and ordering his presence at any stage of the proceedings, such as arraignment. Under Rule 114, §2(b) of the Rules on Criminal Procedure, one of the conditions of bail is that "the accused shall appear before the proper court whenever so required by the court or these Rules," while under Rule 116, §1(b) the presence of the accused at the arraignment is required. On the other hand, to condition the grant of bail to an accused on his arraignment would be to place him in a position where he has to choose between (1) filing a motion to quash and thus delay his release on bail because until his motion to quash can be resolved, his arraignment cannot be held, and (2) foregoing the filing of a motion to quash so that he can be arraigned at once and thereafter be released on bail. These scenarios certainly undermine the accused's constitutional right not to be put on trial except upon valid complaint or information sufficient to charge him with a crime and his right to bail.

THE RIGHTS OF AN ACCUSED DURING TRIAL  Sec. 14[2], Art. III, 1987 Constitution SECTION 14. (2) In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved, and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy, impartial, and public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf. However, after arraignment, trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence The Question of Prejudicial Publicity

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Estrada v. Desierto, G.R. Nos. 146710-15, March 2, 2001, En Banc [Puno] Pervasive publicity is not per se prejudicial to the right of an accused to fair trial. The mere fact that the trial of appellant was given a day-to-day, gavel-togavel coverage does not by itself prove that the publicity so permeated the mind of the trial judge and impaired his impartiality. Be that as it may, we recognize that pervasive and prejudicial publicity under certain circumstances can deprive an accused of his due process right to fair trial. Thus, in Martelino, et al. v. Alejandro, et al., we held that to warrant a finding of prejudicial publicity there must be allegation and proof that the judges have been unduly influenced, not simply that they might be, by the barrage of publicity.

The Right to Public Trial  Request for Live Radio/TV Coverage of Trial of Estrada (Vitug) An accused has a right to a public trial but it is a right that belongs to him, more than anyone else, where his life or liberty can be held critically in balance. A public trial aims to ensure that he is fairly dealt with and would not be unjustly condemned and that his rights are not compromised in secret conclaves of long ago. A public trial is not synonymous with publicized trial; it only implies that the court doors must be open to those who wish to come, sit in the available seats, conduct themselves with decorum and observe the trial process. In the constitutional sense, a courtroom should have enough facilities for a reasonable number of the public to observe the proceedings, not too small as to render the openness negligible and not too large as to distract the trial participants from their proper functions, who shall then be totally free to report what they have observed during the proceedings. THE RIGHT AGAINST SELF-INCRIMINATION  Sec. 17, Art. III, 1987 Constitution SECTION 17. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.

Sec. 12, 3rd par., Art. III, 1987 Constitution SECTION 12. (3) Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17 hereof shall be inadmissible in evidence against him.

Immunity Statutes

Mapa, Jr. v. Sandiganbayan (231 SCRA 783) They are the transactional immunity and the use-and-derivative-use immunity. Transactional immunity is broader in the scope of its protection. By its grant, a witness can no longer be prosecuted for any offense whatsoever arising out of the act or transaction. In contrast, by the grant of use-andderivative-use immunity, a witness is only assured that his or her particular testimony and evidence derived from it will not be used against him or her in a subsequent prosecution.

THE PROHIBITION AGAINST CRUEL, DEGRADING AND INHUMAN PUNISHMENT  Sec. 19, Art. III, 1987 Constitution SECTION 19. (1) Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel, degrading or inhuman punishment inflicted. Neither shall the death penalty be imposed, unless, for compelling reasons involving heinous crimes, the Congress hereafter provides for it. Any death penalty already imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua.

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(2) The employment of physical, psychological, or degrading punishment against any prisoner or detainee or the use of substandard or inadequate penal facilities under subhuman conditions shall be dealt with by law. THE RIGHT AGAINST DOUBLE JEOPARDY  Sec. 21, Art. III, 1987 Constitution SECTION 21. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. If an act is punished by a law and an ordinance, conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act. Two kinds of Double Jeopardy

People v. Quejada (259 SCRA 191) The first sentence of Clause 20, Section 1, Article III of the Constitution ordains that “no person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense.” The second sentence of said clause provides that “if an act is punishable by a law and an ordinance, conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act.” Thus, the first sentence prohibits double jeopardy of punishment for the same offense whereas, the second contemplates double jeopardy of punishment for the same act. Under the first sentence, one may be twice put in jeopardy of punishment of the same act, provided that he is charged with different offenses, or the offense charged in one case is not included in, or does not include, the crime charged in the other case. The second sentence applies, even if the offense charged are not the same, owing to the fact that one constitutes a violation of an ordinance and the other a violation of statute. If the two charges are based on one and the same act, conviction or acquittal under either the law or the ordinance shall bar a prosecution under the other. Incidentally, such conviction or acquittal is not indispensable to sustain the plea of double jeopardy of punishment or the same offense. So long as jeopardy has been attached under one of the informations charging said offense, the defense may be availed of in the other case involving the same offense, even if there has been neither conviction nor acquittal in either case.

Almario v. CA, 355 SCRA 1, March 22, 2001, 2nd Div. [Quisumbing][Will Elevation on Appeal of Civil Aspect of Decision Constitute Double Jeopardy?] Clearly, jeopardy attaches only (1) upon a valid indictment, (2) before a competent court, (3) after arraignment, (4) when a valid plea has been entered, and (5) when the defendant was convicted or acquitted, or the case was dismissed or otherwise terminated without the express consent of the accused. In the cases at bar, the order of dismissal based on a violation of the right to speedy trial was made upon motion by counsel for petitioner before the trial court. It was made at the instance of the accused before the trial court, and with his express consent. Generally, the dismissal of a criminal case resulting in acquittal made with the express consent of the accused or upon his own motion will not place the accused in double jeopardy. However, this rule admits of two exceptions, namely: insufficiency of evidence and denial of the right to speedy trial. Double jeopardy may attach when the proceedings have been prolonged unreasonably, in violation of the accused's right to speedy trial. Here we must inquire whether there was unreasonable delay in the conduct of the trial so that violation of the right to speedy trial of the accused, herein petitioner, resulted. For it must be recalled that in the application of the constitutional guaranty of the right to speedy disposition of cases, particular regard must also be taken of the facts and circumstances peculiar to each case.

THE RIGHT AGAINST EX-POST FACTO LAW AND BILL OF ATTAINDER

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Sec. 22, Art. III, 1987 Constitution SECTION 22. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted. ADMINISTRATIVE LAW

ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES  Government of the Republic of the Philippines The Government of the Republic of the Philippines refers to the corporate governmental entity through which the functions of the government are exercised throughout the Philippines, including, save as the contrary appears from the context, the various arms through which political authority is made effective in the Philippines, whether pertaining to the autonomous regions, the provincial, city, municipal or barangay subdivisions or other forms of local government. Agency Refers to any of the various units of the Government, including a department, bureau, office, instrumentality, or government-owned or controlled corporation, or a local government or a distinct unit therein. Department Refers to an executive department created by law. This shall include any instrumentality given having or assigned the rank of department, regardless of name or designation. Bureau Refers to any principal subdivision or unit of any department. This shall include any principal subdivision or unit of any instrumentality given or assigned the rank or a bureau, regardless of actual name or designation, as in the case of department-wide regional offices. Office Refers to any major functional unit of a department or bureau including regional offices, within the framework of governmental organization. It may also refer to any position held or occupied by individual persons, whose functions are defined by law or regulation. Instrumentality A government instrumentality refers to any agency of the national government, not integrated within the department framework, vested with special functions or jurisdiction by law, endowed with some if not all corporate powers, administering special funds, enjoying operational autonomy, usually through a charter. The term includes regulatory agencies, chartered institutions and government-owned or controlled corporations. Regulatory Agency A regulatory agency refers to any agency expressly vested with jurisdiction to regulate, administer or adjudicate matters affecting substantial rights and interest of private persons, the principal powers of which are exercised by a collective body, such as a commission, board or council. Chartered Institution A chartered institution refers to any agency organized or operating under a special charter, and vested by law with functions relating to specific constitutional policies or objectives. This term includes state universities and colleges and the monetary authority of the State. Government-owned or Controlled Corporation Blaquera v. Alcala, 295 SCRA 366, Sept. 11, 1998, En Banc [Purisima] Government-owned or controlled corporations may perform governmental or proprietary functions or both, depending on the purpose for which they have been created. If the purpose is to obtain special corporate benefits or earn pecuniary profit, the function is proprietary. If it is in the interest of health, safety and for the advancement of public good and welfare, affecting the public in general, the function is governmental. Powers classified as “proprietary” are those intended for private advantage and benefit.

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ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONSHIPS  Supervision and Control Supervision and control shall include authority to act directly whenever a specific function is entrusted by law or regulation to a subordinate; direct the performance of duty; restrain the commission of acts; review, approve, reverse or modify acts and decisions of subordinate officials or units; determine priorities in the execution of plans and programs, and prescribe standards, guidelines, plans and programs. Unless a different meaning is explicitly provided in the specific law governing the relationship of particular agencies, the word “control” shall encompass supervision and control as defined in this paragraph.  Administrative Supervision Administrative supervision which shall govern the administrative relationship between a department or its equivalent and regulatory agencies or other agencies as may be provided by law, shall be limited to the authority of the department or its equivalent to generally oversee the operations of such agencies and to insure that they are managed effectively, efficiently, and economically but without interference with day-to-day activities.  Attachment "Attachment" is the lateral relationship between the department or its equivalent and the attached agency or coordination.  General Supervision GENERAL SUPERVISION OF THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE; CONCEPT. — Presidential power over local governments is limited by the Constitution to the exercise of general supervision "to ensure that local affairs are administered according to law." The general supervision is exercised by the President through the Secretary of Local Government. In administrative law, supervision means overseeing or the power or authority of an officer to see that the subordinate officers perform their duties. If the latter fails or neglects to fulfill them the former may take such action or step as prescribed by law to make them perform their duties. Control, on the other hand, means the power of an officer to alter or modify or nullify or set aside what a subordinate officer had done in the performance of his duties and to substitute the judgment of the former for that of the latter. The fundamental law permits the Chief Executive to wield no more authority than that of checking whether said local government or the officers thereof perform their duties as provided by statutory enactments. Hence, the President cannot interfere with local governments so long as the same or its officers act within the scope of their authority. Supervisory power, when contrasted with control, is the power of mere oversight over an inferior body; it does not include any restraining authority over such body. (Taule vs. Santos, G.R. No. 90336. August 12, 1991)

Bermudez v. Executive Secretary Ruben Torres, G.R. No. 131429, Aug. 4, 1999, 3rd Div. [Vitug] When the Constitution or the law clothes the President with the power to appoint a subordinate officer, such conferment must be understood as necessarily carrying with it an ample discretion of whom to appoint. It should be here pertinent to state that the President is the head of government whose authority includes the power of control over all "executive departments, bureaus and offices." Control means the authority of an empowered officer to alter or modify, or even nullify or set aside, what a subordinate officer has done in the performance of his duties, as well as to substitute the judgment of the latter, as and when the former deems it to be appropriate. Expressed in another way, the President has the power to assume directly the functions of an executive department, bureau and office. It can accordingly be inferred therefrom that the President can interfere in the exercise of discretion of officials under him or altogether ignore their recommendations.

Beja, Sr. v. CA, 207 SCRA 689, Mar. 31, 1992 [Romero] An attached agency has a larger measure of independence from the Department to which it is attached than one which is under departmental supervision and control or administrative supervision. This is borne out by the

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approve and periodically review and adjust.. 28. En Banc [Feliciano] "It is well established in this jurisdiction that. 127685. Jan. However. authorized to delegate that power to a common carrier. 1999 [Quisumbing] 166 . CIR. July 23. May 31. G. may implement broad policies laid down in a statute by "filling in" the details which the Legislature may neither have time or competence to provide. The attachment is merely for "policy and program coordination. rates and other related charges.  Ople v. 23. No. the PSC and LTFRB alike. Jr. prescribe. Requisites of a Valid Administrative Regulation  Philippine Bank of Communications v. he can issue administrative orders. for the reason that the legislature often finds it impracticable (if not impossible) to anticipate and provide for the multifarious and complex situations that may be met in carrying the law into effect. is likewise vested with the same under Executive Order No. 1998 [Puno] Administrative power is concerned with the work of applying policies and enforcing orders as determined by proper governmental organs. With this authority. while the making of laws is a non-delegable activity that corresponds exclusively to Congress. relative to the operation of public land transportation services provided by motorized vehicles. Garcia. or other public service. No.R. As subjects for governmental regulation multiply. that the regulation be not in contradiction with it. QUASI-LEGISLATIVE POWER OF ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES  KMU Labor Center v. 239 SCRA 386. nevertheless. the LTFRB. Given the task of determining sensitive and delicate matters as route-fixing and rate-making for the transport sector. nowhere under the aforesaid provisions of law are the regulatory bodies. It enables the President to fix a uniform standard of administrative efficiency and check the official conduct of his agents. G." All that may be reasonably demanded is a showing that the delegated legislation consisting of administrative regulations are germane to the general purposes projected by the governing or enabling statute. Torres. specialization even in legislation has become necessary. Dec. an administrative body and in this case. It must be in harmony with the law and should be for the sole purpose of implementing the law and carrying out the legislative policy. Section 5 (c) of the said executive order authorizes LTFRB "to determine. CSC. the existing regulatory body today. 112024.  Rabor v. Hence. the responsible regulatory body is entrusted with the power of subordinate legislation. reasonable fares. so does the difficulty of administering the laws." Such delegation of legislative power to an administrative agency is permitted in order to adapt to the increasing complexity of modern life." With respect to administrative matters."lateral relationship" between the Department and the attached agency. 1987. rules and regulations. 244 SCRA 614. 202 dated June 19. the independence of an attached agency from Departmental control and supervision is further reinforced by the fact that even an agency under a Department's administrative supervision is free from Departmental interference with respect to appointments and other personnel actions "in accordance with the decentralization of personnel functions" under the Administrative Code of 1987. All that is required is that the regulation should be germane to the objects and purposes of the law.R. 1995. the latter may constitutionally delegate authority and promulgate rules and regulations to implement a given legislation and effectuate its policies. a transport operator. An administrative order is an ordinance issued by the President which relates to specific aspects in the administrative operation of government. but conform to the standards that the law prescribes. 1994 [Kapunan] The Legislature delegated to the defunct Public Service Commission the power of fixing the rates of public services. Respondent LTFRB. To this end.

 Subpoena power. the law they seek to apply and implement. It is settled that these bodies may summon witnesses and require the production of evidence ONLY WHEN: 1.. Special Requisites of a Penal Regulation 1. Like the subpoena power. The power to issue subpoena and subpoena duces tecum is not an inherent in administrative bodies. Jr. and cannot be likened to the judicial function of a court of justice. whose duty is to enforce it. The right to notice and hearing is essential to due process and its non-observance will as a rule invalidate the administrative proceedings.Duly allowed by law 2. 167 . CHR case) Rules of Procedure of Quasi-Judicial Agencies Doctrine of Implication: Where an administrative body is expressly granted the power of adjudication. like alleged human rights violations involving civil or political rights such power.The regulation must be published QUASI-JUDICIAL POWER OF ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES Investigation distinguished from Adjudication  Carino v. v.e. En Banc [Vitug] CHR has no adjudicatory powers (reiterated Cariño v.  Simon. or duplicate much less take over the functions of the latter. courts will not countenance administrative issuances that override. Cruz. The function of receiving evidence and ascertaining therefrom the facts of a controversy is not a judicial function. or hear and determine. 204 SCRA 483 [Narvasa] The Commission on Human Rights to have no adjudicatory powers over.It must be used ONLY in connection with its quasi-judicial as distinguished from its purely administrative or routinary functions. certain specific type of cases. instead of remaining consistent and in harmony with. The essence of due process in administrative proceedings is the opportunity to explain one’s side or a chance to seek reconsideration of the action or ruling complained of. Jan.The law itself must make the violation of the administrative regulation punishable 2.Revenue memorandum-circulars are considered administrative rulings (in the sense of more specific and less general interpretations of tax laws) which are issued from time to time by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. Nevertheless. properly speaking. 5. or even a quasi-judicial agency or official.The law itself must impose the corresponding sanction therefor 3. the power to punish for contempt is essentially judicial and cannot be claimed as an inherent right by the administrative body. receive evidence and make findings of fact as regards claimed human rights violations involving civil and political rights. the rules must not violate the fundamental rights to encroach upon constitutional prerogatives. i. To be validly exercised: 1. The most that may be conceded to the Commission in the way of adjudicative power is that it may investigate. is entitled to great respect by the courts. But fact-finding is not adjudication. it is deemed also vested with the implied power to prescribe the rules to be observed in the conduct of its proceedings. CHR. such interpretation is not conclusive and will be ignored if judicially found to be erroneous. Philippine Administrative Law. and – 2. like the rule making power of the Supreme Court. or the power to try and decide. 229 SCRA 117. To be valid.It must be expressly conferred upon the body. Thus. and that it was not meant by the fundamental law to be another court or quasijudicial agency in this country.Always in connection with the matter they are authorized to investigate  Contempt power. (C. 1994. CHR. It is widely accepted that the interpretation placed upon a statute by the executive officers.

(2) a real opportunity to be heard personally or with the assistance of counsel. (3) a tribunal vested with competent jurisdiction and so constituted as to afford a person charged administratively a reasonable guarantee of honesty as well as impartiality. the essence of procedural due process is embodied in the basic requirement of notice and a real opportunity to be heard. (2) the tribunal must consider the evidence presented. render its decision in such manner that the parties to the proceeding can know the various issues involved. Jan. CONTEMPT POWER OF QUASI-JUDICIAL AGENCIES  Simon. 5. RA 4670 known as the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers. It was this requirement that would have given substance and meaning to the right to be heard. or at least contained in the record and disclosed to the parties affected. 28.  Singson v. to present witnesses and evidence in one's favor. 229 SCRA 117. CA. Nov. to wit: (1) the right to a hearing. Section 9 of said law expressly provides that the committee to hear public schoolteachers' administrative cases should be composed of the school superintendent of the division as chairman. Thus. 283 SCRA 31. NLRC. (3) the decision must have something to support itself. and (4) a finding by said tribunal which is supported by substantial evidence submitted for consideration during the hearing or contained in the records or made known to the parties affected. 282 SCRA 256. 12. and to defend one's rights. In the performance of its executive or legislative functions. (7) the Board or body should. The inclusion of a representative of a teachers' organization in these committees was indispensable to ensure an impartial tribunal. 1997 [Romero] As a general rule. we have ruled that "the reviewing officer must perforce be other than the officer whose decision is under review. Dec. CA. notice and hearing. (6) the tribunal or body or any of its judges must act on its own independent consideration of the law and facts of the controversy. United Harbor Pilots Association of the Phils. 220 SCRA 536. En Banc [Vitug] 168 . It is self-evident from the ruling case law that the officer who reviews a case on appeal should not be the same person whose decision is the subject of review. in all controversial questions. (5) the decision must be based on the evidence presented at the hearing. 1998 [Panganiban] In administrative proceedings. a representative of the local or any existing provincial or national teachers' organization and a supervisor of the division. which includes the right to present one's case and submit evidence in support thereof. 1994."  Central Bank of the Philippines v. which specifically covers administrative proceedings involving public schoolteachers. En Banc [Bellosillo] Sec. and the reason for the decision rendered. CHR. 1993. such as issuing rules and regulations. 274 SCRA 358 [1997] Requisites of procedural due process in administrative proceedings. Jr. v. as the fundamental requirements of procedural due process. and not simply accept the views of a subordinate. 29 does not contemplate prior notice and hearing before a bank may be directed to stop operations and placed under receivership.. an administrative body need not comply with the requirements of notice and hearing. are essential only when an administrative body exercises its quasi-judicial function.  Fabella v. Indeed. due process has been recognized to include the following: (1) the right to actual or constructive notice of the institution of proceedings which may affect a respondent's legal rights. March 30.ADMINISTRATIVE DUE PROCESS  Corona v. in any proceeding. (4) the evidence must be substantial.

It applies “where a claim is originally cognizable in the courts. the jurisdiction over which is lodged with an administrative body of special competence. In recent years. This doctrine is disregarded: 1) when there is a violation of due process. have been placed within the special competence of an administrative body.” In cases where the doctrine of primary jurisdiction is clearly applicable. absent any finding of waiver or estoppel the case is susceptible of dismissal for lack of cause of action. the CHR acted within its authority in providing in its revised rules. 280 SCRA 287 Courts cannot and will not resolve a controversy involving a question which is within the jurisdiction of an administrative tribunal. 169 . It is no less true to state that the courts of justice for reasons of comity and convenience will shy away from a dispute until the system of administrative redress has been completed and complied with so as to give the administrative agency concerned every opportunity to correct its error and to dispose of the case. however. In cases where the doctrine of primary jurisdiction is clearly applicable. under a regulatory scheme.On its contempt powers. and comes into play whenever enforcement of the claim requires the resolution of issues which. and cite for contempt for violations thereof in accordance with the Rules of Court.  Villaflor v. experience and services of the administrative tribunal to determine technical and intricate matters of fact. Accordingly. Hence. its power "to cite or hold any person in direct or indirect contempt. especially where the question demands the exercise of sound administrative discretion requiring the special knowledge. availment of administrative remedy entails lesser expenses and provides for a speedier disposition of controversies. should be understood to apply only to violations of its adopted operational guidelines and rules of procedure essential to carry out its investigatorial powers. CA. for one thing. the jurisdiction over which is lodged with an administrative body of special competence. if a remedy within the administrative machinery can still be resorted to by giving the administrative officer concerned every opportunity to decide on a matter that comes within his jurisdiction then such remedy should be exhausted first before the court’s judicial power can be sought. 2) when the issue involved is purely a legal question. in such case. CA. it has been the jurisprudential trend to apply this doctrine to cases involving matters that demand the special competence of administrative agencies even if the question involved is also judicial in character. and to impose the appropriate penalties in accordance with the procedure and sanctions provided for in the Rules of Court. the court cannot arrogate unto itself the authority to resolve a controversy." Accordingly. REVIEW OF ADMINISTRATIVE DECISIONS The Doctrine of Primary Jurisdiction Courts cannot and will not resolve a controversy involving a question which is within the jurisdiction of an administrative tribunal." That power to cite for contempt. The premature invocation of court’s jurisdiction is fatal to one’s cause of action. the court cannot arrogate unto itself the authority to resolve a controversy. The Doctrine of Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies  Paat v. especially where the question demands the exercise of sound administrative discretion requiring the special knowledge. the judicial process is suspended pending referral of such issues to the administrative body for its view. This doctrine of exhaustion of administrative remedies was not without its practical and legal reasons. experience and services of the administrative tribunal to determine technical and intricate matters of fact. 3) when the administrative action is patently illegal amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction. 266 SCRA 167 [1997] Before a party is allowed to seek the intervention of the court. it is a precondition that he should have availed of all the means of administrative processes afforded him. the CHR is constitutionally authorized to "adopt its operational guidelines and rules of procedure.

344 SCRA 358. 3The powers conferred and the duties to be discharged must be defined by the legislature or through legislative authority 4The duties must be performed independently and without control of a superior power other than the law. in the case before us. Abarintos. Designation. and 11) when there are circumstances indicating the urgency of judicial intervention. En Banc [Pardo] This Court has held consistently that "before a party is allowed to seek the intervention of the court. by the authority vested with the power. if a remedy within the administrative machinery can still be resorted to by giving the administrative officer concerned every opportunity to decide on a matter that comes within his jurisdiction.  Carale v. 269 SCRA 132 [1997] Non-exhaustion of administrative remedies is not jurisdictional. three Justices of the Supreme Court are designated by the Chief Justice to sit in the Electoral Tribunal of the Senate or the House of Representatives.e. It is said that appointment is essentially executive while designation is legislative in nature…xxx Even if so understood. 188 SCRA 154 Appointment may be defined as the selection. under the Constitution. i. 7) when to require exhaustion of administrative remedies would be unreasonable. 6) when the respondent is a department secretary whose acts as an alter ego of the President bears the implied and assumed approval of the latter. COMELEC. to be exercised for the benefit of the people. then such remedy should be exhausted first before the court's judicial power can be sought. connotes merely the imposition by law of additional duties on an incumbent official. it is a pre-condition that he should have availed of all the means of administrative processes afforded him. as an appointment. The reason 170 . v. It only renders the action premature. 10) when the rule does not provide a plain. The premature invocation of court's intervention is fatal to one's cause of action. on the other hand.  Ambil. CHARACTERISTICS OF PUBLIC OFFICE (1) It is a public trust (2) It is not a hereditary possession (3) It is not property. 2000. the Secretary of Tourism is designated Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Philippine Tourism Authority. the designation of the petitioner cannot sustain his claim that he has been illegally removed. Garrucho. Hence. 8) when it would amount to a nullification of a claim. usually with its confirmation. unless the law itself provides otherwise 5It must have some permanence and continuity. of an individual who is to exercise the functions of a given office." THE LAW OF PUBLIC OFFICERS ELEMENTS OF PUBLIC OFFICE 1It must be created by law or by authority of law 2It must possess a delegation of a portion of the sovereign powers of the government. When completed. 25. 9) when the subject matter is a private land in land case proceeding. or where. Jr..4) when there is estoppel on the part of the administrative agency concerned. Oct. 5) when there is irreparable injury. as where. the appointment results in security of tenure for the person chosen unless he is replaceable at pleasure because of the nature of his office. that is. outside the commerce of men (4) There can be no vested right to a public office APPOINTMENT  Binamira v. speedy and adequate remedy. claimed cause of action is not ripe for judicial determination and for that reason a party has no cause of action to ventilate in court.

Torres. the designation is considered only an acting or temporary appointment. Appointment involves an exercise of discretion of whom to appoint. Hence.  Sevilla v. usually with its confirmation. 223 SCRA 568. it (Congress) cannot at the same time limit the choice of the President to only one candidate. upon a person already in the public service by virtue of an earlier appointment or election. the appointment results in security of tenure for the person chosen unless he is replaceable at pleasure because of the nature of his office. June 22. which because of its nature cannot be delegated. En Banc [Bellosillo] The power of choice is the heart of the power to appoint. CA. the implication is that he shall hold the office only in a temporary capacity and may be replaced at will by the appointing authority. that is. In this sense. 3rd Div. Once the power of appointment is conferred on the President. Designation. . A mere "designation" does not confer upon the designee security of tenure in the position or office which he occupies in an "acting" capacity only. Designation on the other hand. such enactment effectively eliminates the discretion of the appointing power to choose and constitutes an irregular restriction on the power of appointment.  171 . .  Bermudez v. 1993. which does not confer security of tenure on the person named. Consequently. by the authority vested with the power. . 209 SCRA 637 (Appointment distinguished from Designation) Appointment is the selection by the proper authority of an individual who is to exercise the functions of an office. it was not possible for Minister Gonzales to assume the exercise of that discretion as an alter ego of the President. The appointment (or designation) of the petitioner was not a merely mechanical or ministerial act that could be validly performed by a subordinate even if he happened as in this case to be a member of the Cabinet." Nature of Appointment  Appointment essentially Discretionary Flores v.is that the decree clearly provides that the appointment of the General Manager of the Philippine Tourism Authority shall be made by the President of the Philippines. Appointment necessarily calls for an exercise of discretion on the part of the appointing authority. 4. on the other hand. when the qualifications prescribed by Congress can only be met by one individual. It is said that appointment is essentially executive while designation is legislative in nature. 1999. Appointment involves the exercise of discretion. [Vitug] An “appointment” to a public office is the unequivocal act of designating or selecting by one having the authority therefor of an individual to discharge and perform the duties and functions of an office or trust. Drilon. 311 SCRA 733. When completed. Aug. it is not a ministerial act of issuing appointment papers to the appointee. Even on the pretext of prescribing the qualifications of the officer. of an individual who is to exercise the functions of a given office. That is the common understanding of the term. Legally speaking. when Congress clothes the President with the power to appoint an officer. as an appointment. Congress may not abuse such power as to divest the appointing authority. such conferment necessarily carries the discretion of whom to appoint. However. of his discretion to pick his own choice. directly or indirectly. Appointment involves the exercise of discretion. "Even if so understood. In other words. connotes merely the imposition of additional duties. . connotes merely the imposition by law of additional duties on an incumbent official. the designation of the petitioner cannot sustain his claim that he has been illegally removed. The appointment is deemed complete once the last act required of the appointing authority has been complied with and its acceptance thereafter by the appointee in order to render it effective. not by any other officer. which because of its nature cannot be delegated. . . where the person is merely designated and not appointed. Thus did this Court make such a distinction: Appointment may be defined as the selection. the choice of the appointee is a fundamental component of the appointing power. "Designation may also be loosely defined as an appointment because it likewise involves the naming of a particular person to a specified public office.

v. the Court construed that phrase to mean that the person next-in-rank “would be among the first to be considered for the vacancy. and appointment of outsiders who have appropriate civil service eligibility. Since only one can qualify for the posts in question.e.In the case at bar. 1995. Indeed. under the Civil Service Law. Neither can we. not necessarily in that order. Such supposed power of appointment. the President is precluded from exercising his discretion to choose whom to appoint.A. the incumbent Mayor of Olongapo City. as the concept does not import any mandatory or peremptory requirement that the person next-in-rank must be appointed to the vacancy. The appointing authority. the appointing authority is given wide discretion to fill a vacancy from among the several alternatives provided by law.” In Taduran v. sans the essential element of choice.. En Banc [Bellosillo] Appointment is an essentially discretionary power and must be performed by the officer vested with such power according to his best lights. The law limits the Commission’s authority only to whether or not the appointees possess the legal qualifications and the appropriate civil service eligibility. the person most familiar with the organizational structure and environmental circumstances within which the appointee must function. 1991. is allowed to fill vacancies by promotion. nothing else. while Congress willed that the subject posts be filled with a presidential appointee for the first year of its operations from the effectivity of R. the proviso nevertheless limits the appointing authority to only one eligible. If he does. then the appointment cannot be faulted on the ground that there are others better qualified who should have been preferred. a process which denotes a scalar ascent of an officer to another position higher either in rank or salary. it can be disregarded for sound reasons made known to the next-in-rank. 7227. 244 SCRA 504. En Banc [Feliciano] The “next-in-rank rule is not absolute. it only applies in cases of promotion. it is manifestly an abuse of congressional authority to prescribe qualifications where only one. reemployment. this is a prerogative of the appointing authority which he alone can decide. Accordingly. convenience. The choice of an appointee from among those who possess the required qualifications is a political and administrative decision calling for considerations of wisdom. Jr. If they do then the appointments are approved because the Commission cannot exceed its power by substituting its will for that of the appointing authority. the proviso limiting his choice to one is certainly an encroachment on his prerogative. CSC. transfer of present employees. There is no legal fiat that a vacancy must be filled only by promotion. the person holding the position next in rank thereto “shall be considered for promotion. utility and the interests of the service which can best be made by the head of the office concerned. And even in promotions. while the conferment of the appointing power on the President is a perfectly valid legislative act. As long as the appointee is qualified the Civil Service Commission has no choice but to attest to and respect the appointment even if it be proved that there are others with superior credentials.” In Santiago. While it may be viewed that the proviso merely sets the qualifications of the officer during the first year of operations of SBMA.. May 29. What the Civil Service Law provides is that if a vacancy is filled by promotion. if qualified. is no power at all and goes against the very nature itself of appointment. and no other. Civil Service Commission (178 SCRA 733 [1989]). he must be the Mayor of Olongapo City. i. can qualify. June 3. the Court elaborated the import of the rule in the following manner: 172 . reinstatement. i. CSC. the only condition being that the appointee should possess the qualifications required by law. Civil Service Commission (131 SCRA 66 [1984]).e. 198 SCRA 102.  The Luego Doctrine • Rimonte v.  The Next-in-Rank Rule • Abila v.

Taking an oath or filing a bond As an ENDOWMENT: This refers to the qualities which the a public officer must possess to insure the proper discharge of the duties of his office. 40. En Banc [Ynares-Santiago] It has been held that upon the issuance of an appointment and the appointee's assumption of the position in the civil service. — The following persons are disqualified from running for any elective local position: (a) Those sentenced by final judgment for an offense involving moral turpitude or for an offense punishable by one (1) year or more of imprisonment. CA. unless there is valid cause to do so. The rule neither grants a vested right to the holder nor imposes a ministerial duty on the appointing authority to promote such person to the next higher position x x x” REVOCATION OF APPOINTMENT  De Rama v. LGC SECTION 40. not just an equitable. (c) Those convicted by final judgment for violating the oath of allegiance to the Republic. Disqualifications. it is well-settled that the person assuming a position in the civil service under a completed appointment acquires a legal. (e) Fugitives from justice in criminal or non-political cases here or abroad. 353 SCRA 94." Therefore. Age. (GR 88831. QUALIFICATIONS TO PUBLIC OFFICE As an ACT: This refers to an act which a public officer must perform for him to formally commence the discharge of his official duties. (f) Permanent residents in a foreign country or those who have acquired the right to reside abroad and continue to avail of the same right after the effectivity of this Code. 8. Citizenship. Nov. or by removal. (b) Those removed from office as a result of an administrative case. and (g) The insane or feeble-minded. This right is protected not only by statute. right to the position. Without such prior waiver. 2001. The waiver of his green card should be manifested by some act or acts independent of and done prior to filing his candidacy for elective office in this country. CA. Residency. his act of filing a certificate of candidacy for elective office in the Philippines. Moreover. the law requires that the candidate who is a green card holder must have "waived his status as a permanent resident or immigrant of a foreign country. Academic & Moral qualifications DISQUALIFICATIONS  Sec.  Caasi v. but by the Constitution as well. Suffrage. "he acquires a legal right which cannot be taken away either by revocation of the appointment or by removal except for cause and with previous notice and hearing". Feb. which right cannot be taken away by either revocation of the appointment. within two (2) years after serving sentence. he was "disqualified to run for any elective office" DE FACTO OFFICERSHIP 173 . Literacy.“One who is next-in-rank is entitled to preferential consideration for promotion to the higher vacancy but it does not necessarily follow that he and no one else can be appointed. did not of itself constitute a waiver of his status as a permanent resident or immigrant of the United States. provided that there is previous notice and hearing. Ex. 28. 1990) To be "qualified to run for elective office" in the Philippines. (d) Those with dual citizenship. Ex.

Exception: De facto officer is entitled to salary when there is no de jure officer in the given office during the period when he actually discharged the functions of said office. even though he entered into the office in good faith and under color of title. 129049.R. be exempted from payment of all duties. rules and standards promulgated in pursuance thereof. Under a known and valid appointment or election. His acts are regarded as valid and binding in so far as third persons and the general public relying on said acts are concerned. before the law is declared unconstitutional. Under a known appointment or election pursuant to an unconstitutional law. Elements: 1. or want of authority of the appointing or electing authority. it has been ruled that “temporary appointees may be terminated at any time even without cause. Is it created by its own charter for the exercise of a public function. want of authority or irregularity being unknown to the public. 174 . such ineligibility. but the officer failed to conform to a requirement imposed by law. LPO]  CLASSIFICATION OF POSITIONS IN THE CIVIL SERVICE  Career Positions 1) Open career positions for appointment to which prior qualification in an appropriate examination is required. G.” [Cruz. 6. Accordingly. fees and other charges. The rightful incumbent of a public office may recover from an officer de facto the salary received by the latter during the time of his wrongful tenure. 1999. including the appropriate eligibility prescribed. LPO] Temporary In the absence of appropriate eligibles and it becomes necessary in the public interest to fill a vacancy. No. a temporary appointment shall be issued to a person who meets all the requirements for the position to which he is being appointed except the appropriate civil service eligibility. c. Reputation or acquiescence b. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION Scope of the Civil Service  Camporedondo v. Under a known appointment or election. The PNRC was not “impliedly converted to a private corporation” simply because its charter was amended to vest in it the authority to secure loans. in accordance with the provisions of laws. They have no fixed tenure.Color of title to the office. etc. taxes.A validly existing public office 2. by— a. or because of an irregularity in his appointment or election. void because of the ineligibility of the officer. [Cruz. provided that such temporary appointment shall not exceed 12 months but the appointee may be replaced sooner if a qualified civil service eligible becomes available. Aug.A DE FACTO OFFICER is one who actually possesses the office under a colorable title. [Pardo] The test to determine whether a corporation is government owned or controlled. KINDS OF APPOINTMENT IN THE CIVIL SERVICE  Permanent A permanent appointment shall be issued to a person who meets all the requirements for the position to which he is being appointed. d.Actual physical possession of said office 3. or by incorporation under the general corporation law? Those with special charters are government corporations subject to its provisions. and its employees are under the jurisdiction of the Civil Service Commission. 1st Div.  Entitlement to Salaries General Rule: The de facto officer is not entitled to salaries. NLRC. or private in nature is simple.

to be accomplished within a specific period. 4) Career officers. PRIMARILY CONFIDENTIAL POSITIONS A primarily confidential position is one which denotes not only confidence in the aptitude of the appointee for the duties of the office but primarily close intimacy which ensures freedom from intercourse without embarrassment or freedom from misgivings or betrayals of personal trust or confidential matters of state. 5) Commissioned officers and enlisted men of the Armed Forces which sall maintain a separate merit system. under his own responsibility with minimum of direction and supervision from the hiring agency. Reg. 175 .Opportunity for advancement to higher career positions. Asec. 274 SCRA 414.Security of tenure  Non-career Positions 1) Elective officials and their personal or confidential staff. where the position occupied is more remote from that of the appointing authority. and performs of accomplishes the specific work or job.. Characteristics: 1. semi-skilled or unskilled. 7) Permanent laborers. Chief Dept. 3) Positions in the Career Executive Service. 2) Department heads and other officials of Cabinet rank who hold positions at the pleasure of the President and their personal or confidential staff. 1997  Under the proximity rule. 2.. Mallare. Service and other officers as may be identified by the Career Executive Services Board. June 19. Salas. HIGHLY TECHNICAL POSITIONS A highly technical position according to the Supreme Court in De los Santos v. the element of trust between them is no longer predominant. or which is limited to the duration of a particular project for which purpose employment was made. which in no case shall exceed 1 year. Dir. other than those in the CES. Usec.2) Closed career positions which are which are scientific or highly technical in nature.Entrance based on merit and fitness to be determined as far as practicable by competitive examinations or based on highly technical qualifications. 6) Personnel of GOCCs whether performing governmental or proprietary functions. Bureau Dir. requiring special or technical skills not available in the employing agency. who are appointed by the President such as the Foreign Service Officers in the DFA. who do not fall under the non-career service. which is limited to a period specified by law or which is co-terminus with that of the appointing authority or subject to his pleasure. these include the faculty and academic staff of state colleges and universities. 2. and 5) Emergency and seasonal personnel. 4) Contractual personnel or those whose employment in the government is in accordance with a special contract to undertake a specific work or job. (De los Santos v.Entrance on bases other than those of usual tests of merit and fitness utilized for the career service. namely. 87 Phil. Mallare.. 3) Chairman and members of commissions and boards with fixed terms of office and their personal or confidential staff. Withal.Tenure.. 289 [1950])  The Proximity Rule CSC v. (87 Phil 289) re quires the appointee thereto to possess technical skill or training in the supreme or superior degree. whether skilled. Characteristics: 1. the occupant of a particular position could be considered a confidential employee if the predominant reason why he was chosen by the appointing authority was the latter’s belief that he can share a close intimate relationship with the occupant which ensures freedom of discussion without fear or embarrassment or misgivings of possible betrayal of personal trust or confidential matters of state. 3. all of whom are appointed by the President.

" conformably to established jurisprudence." Achacoso did not. CA. ADMINISTRATIVE DISCIPLINARY CASES Jurisdiction in Administrative Disciplinary Cases  Fabian v. 6770 should be struck down as unconstitutional. it could be withdrawn at will by the appointing authority and "at a moment's notice. as he is compensated according to his CES rank and not on the basis of the position or office he occupies. Jan. A person who does not have the requisite qualifications for the position cannot be appointed to it in the first place or. 350 SCRA 528. which in turn depends on his eligibility or lack of it. therefore. 350 SCRA 1.APPOINTMENT IN THE CAREER EXECUTIVE SERVICE  De Leon v. pertains only to rank and not to the office or to the position to which they may be appointed. a CESO suffers no diminution of salary even if assigned to a CES position with lower salary grade. relates to procedure only. appeals from decisions of the Office of the Ombudsman in administrative disciplinary cases should be taken to the Court of Appeals under the provisions of Rule 43… xxx In the situation under consideration. Who now may appeal the decision of the Court of Appeals to the Supreme Court? Certainly not the respondent. 22. En Banc [Pardo] Subsequently. in the exercise of its rule-making power. Dacoycoy. At best. and in line with the regulatory philosophy adopted in appeals from quasi-judicial agencies in the 1997 Revised Rules of Civil Procedure. 2001.  General v. the Court of Appeals reversed the decision of the Civil Service Commission and held respondent not guilty of nepotism. Jan.R. That right has been preserved. hence he can have none in rules of procedure which relate to the remedy. his appointment could be regarded only as temporary. may be appointed to it merely in an acting capacity in the absence of appropriate eligibles. [Ynares-Santiago] It must be stressed that the security of tenure of employees in the career executive service (except first and second-level employees in the civil service). 135805. Ombudsman Desierto Section 27 of Republic Act No. 1st Div. only as an exception to the rule. The mere fact that a position belongs to the Career Service does not automatically confer security of tenure on its occupant even if he does not possess the required qualifications. The rationale for this is that no litigant has a vested right in a particular remedy. En Banc [Ynares-Santiago] It is settled that a permanent appointment can be issued only "to a person who meets all the requirements for the position to which he is being appointed. including the appropriate eligibility prescribed. The appointment extended to him cannot be regarded as permanent even if it may be so designated. No. a transfer by the Supreme Court. of pending cases involving a review of decisions of the Office of the Ombudsman in administrative disciplinary actions to the Court of Appeals which shall now be vested with exclusive appellate jurisdiction thereover. Such right will have to depend on the nature of his appointment. who was declared not guilty of the charge. a career executive service officer may be transferred or reassigned from one position to another without losing his rank which follows him wherever he is transferred or reassigned. And being so. Appeals in Administrative Disciplinary Cases  CSC v. 2001. Thus. 29. Only the procedure by which the appeal is to be made or decided has been changed. This is so because it is not the right to appeal of an aggrieved party which is affected by the law. G. Roco. 1999. April 29. Nor the complainant 176 . which may be changed by substitution without impairing vested rights. In fact.

Preventive suspension pending investigation is not a penalty. he should be reinstated. the suspension will be lifted and the respondent will automatically be reinstated. as an aggrieved party. par. 177 . G. Consequently. No. 8(d) of P. On the other hand. 807. While the former may be imposed on a respondent during the investigation of the charges against him. Hence. there is no occasion for appeal. Civil Service Law. 292) and (2) preventive suspension pending appeal if the penalty imposed by the disciplining authority is suspension or dismissal and. who was merely a witness for the government. The Civil Service Act of 1959 (R. the Civil Service Commission has become the party adversely affected by such ruling. he should be reinstated with full pay for the period of the suspension. But although it is held that employees who are preventively suspended pending investigation are not entitled to the payment of their salaries even if they are exonerated. we overrule prior decisions holding that the Civil Service Law "does not contemplate a review of decisions exonerating officers or employees from administrative charges" enunciated in Paredes v.A. preventive suspension is not a penalty in itself. Civil Service Law. 207 SCRA 689. Civil Service Commission and Export Processing Zone Authority and more recently Del Castillo v. removal or dismissal from office" and not included are "cases where the penalty imposed is suspension for not more than thirty (30) days or fine in an amount not exceeding thirty days salary" or "when the respondent is exonerated of the charges. It is merely a measure of precaution so that the employee who is charged may be separated. no compensation was due for the period of preventive suspension pending investigation. Civil Service Commission. preventive suspension pending appeal is actually punitive although it is in effect subsequently considered illegal if respondent is exonerated and the administrative decision finding him guilty is reversed. Preventive suspension pending investigation x x x is not a penalty but only a means of enabling the disciplining authority to conduct an unhampered investigation. CA. en Banc [Mendoza] There are two kinds of preventive suspension of civil service employees who are charged with offenses punishable by removal or suspension: (1) preventive suspension pending investigation (Sec. EO No. March 31. after review. EO No. we now expressly abandon and overrule extant jurisprudence that "the phrase 'party adversely affected by the decision' refers to the government employee against whom the administrative case is filed for the purpose of disciplinary action which may take the form of suspension. Sr. 131012. CA. for obvious reasons. Civil Service Commission. Hence. v. 1992 [Romero] Imposed during the pendency of an administrative investigation. Mendez v.  Gloria v. It is a measure intended to enable the disciplining authority to investigate charges against respondent by preventing the latter from intimidating or in any way influencing witnesses against him. the latter is the penalty which may only be meted upon him at the termination of the investigation or the final disposition of the case. If after investigation respondent is found innocent of the charges and is exonerated. 4. However. Civil Service Commission. the respondent is exonerated (Section 47. If the investigation is not finished and a decision is not rendered within that period. Thus preventive suspension is distinct from the administrative penalty of removal from office such as the one mentioned in Sec." In other words. PREVENTIVE SUSPENSION  Beja. By this ruling.R. Civil Service Commission. transfer. 2260) providing for compensation in such a case once the respondent was exonerated was revised in 1975 and the provision on the payment of salaries during suspension was deleted. 292). which seriously prejudices the civil service system. No. No.D. Magpale v. 51. Suan. demotion in rank or salary. it may appeal the decision of the Court of Appeals to the Supreme Court. they are entitled to compensation for the period of their suspension pending appeal if eventually they are found innocent. 1999. Navarro v. from the scene of his alleged misfeasance while the same is being investigated.George P. April 21.

10. regardless of the branch of government in which they are employed. (Local Government Code of 1991). or (c) the respondent's continued stay in office may prejudice the case filed against him. The authority to conduct administrative investigation and to impose preventive suspension over elective provincial or city officials was at that time entrusted to the Minister of Local Government until it became concurrent with the Ombudsman upon the enactment of R. This is the clear import of Section 24 of R.A. Gozodadole (Vitug) [G. 108072. The Ombudsman can impose the 6-month preventive suspension to all public officials.A No. 7160. 6770. [Quisumbing] The power of the Office of the Ombudsman to preventively suspend an official subject to its administrative investigation is provided by specific provision of law. is the pivotal issue. Respondent local officials contend that the 6-month preventive suspension without pay under Section 24 of the Ombudsman Act is much too repugnant to the 60-day preventive suspension provided by Section 63 of the Local Government Code to even now maintain its application. Upon the other hand.(c) the gravity of the offense so warrants. who are under investigation. (Ombudsman Act of 1989). 6770. In order to justify the preventive suspension of a public official under Section 24 of R. specifically under Sections 21 and 24 thereof. No. whether elective or appointive. or (c) the respondent's continued stay in office would prejudice the case filed against him. 314 SCRA 207. Sept. The power to preventively suspend is available not only to the Ombudsman but also to the Deputy Ombudsman. 1999. (b) the evidence of culpability is strong.R. and (a) the charge against such officer or employee involves dishonesty. No. — The Ombudsman or his Deputy may preventively suspend any officer or employee under his authority pending an investigation. Mojica. no appointive official shall hold any other office or employment in the Government or any subdivision.A. No. (b) the charges would warrant removal from the service. members of Congress and the Judiciary. the evidence of guilt should be strong. PROHIBITIONS AND INHIBITIONS  Sec. 7.A. No elective official shall be eligible for appointment or designation in any capacity to any public office or position during his tenure. excepting of course those removable by impeachment. Art. 6770. 7160).A. has been divested of his country to conduct administrative investigation over local elective officials by virtue of the subsequent enactment of R. Unless otherwise allowed by law or by the primary functions of his position. 1995. to the extent of the common grant The Local Government Code of 1991 (R. Hagad v. in fine.  Garcia v. 1987 Constitution SECTION 7.] The determination of whether the Ombudsman under R. December 12. or (d) the continuance in office of the respondent could influence the witnesses or pose a threat to the safety and integrity of the records and other evidence. The two provisions govern differently. oppression or grave misconduct or neglect in the performance of duty. agency or 178 . We have previously interpreted the phrase "under his authority" to mean that the Ombudsman can preventively suspend all officials under investigation by his office. 6770 abovecited.A. the modification being only in the substitution of the Secretary (the Minister) of Local Government by the Office of the President.A No. in imposing the shorter period of sixty (60) days of preventive suspension prescribed in the Local Government Code of 1991 on an elective local official (at any time after the issues are joined). it would be enough that (a) there is reasonable ground to believe that the respondent has committed the act or acts complained of. (b) that charges should warrant removal from the service. if in his judgment the evidence of guilt is strong. 2nd Div. No. Under Section 24 of R. Preventive Suspension. oppression or grave misconduct or neglect in the performance of duty. and (a) the charge against the officer or employee should involve dishonestly. IX-B. did not effect a change from what already prevailed. 6770 — SECTION 24.

the intent of the framers of the Constitution was to impose a stricter prohibition on the President and his official family in so 179 . Vice-President. June 22. is that the prohibition is more strict with respect to elective officials. 7. or be financially interested in any contract with. the exemption allowed to appointive officials in the second paragraph cannot be extended to elective officials who are governed by the first paragraph. It was purposely sought by the drafters of the Constitution as shown in their deliberation. there may be a law that will allow them to hold other positions. Mr. unless otherwise provided in the Constitution itself…xxx Evidently.instrumentality thereof. Article IX-B already contains a blanket prohibition against the holding of multiple offices or employment in the government subsuming both elective and appointive public officials. unless otherwise provided in this Constitution. the first paragraph appears to be more stringent by not providing any exception to the rule against appointment or designation of an elective official to other government posts. 1987 Constitution SECTION 13. Yes.  Civil Liberties Union v. the Members of the Cabinet. or in any franchise. including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. 13. because in the case of appointive officials. including government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries. e. 7. IX-B. VII. MONSOD. was not accidental when drawn. including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. 13. Art. chairmen or heads of bureaus or offices. Sec. Drilon. and not without reason. or the Office of the Ombudsman." The distinction being clear. hold any other office or employment during their tenure. I suggest we make that difference. Vice-President. or instrumentality thereof. In other words. or as Secretaries. ignores the clear-out difference in the wording of the two (2) paragraphs of Sec. from this move as well as in the different phraseologies of the constitutional provisions in question. or special privilege granted by the Government or any subdivision. the President as head of the economic and planning agency. Art. 223 SCRA 568. The distinction between the first and second paragraphs of Sec. during said tenure. Art. They shall not. the Constitutional Commission should see it fit to formulate another provision. FOZ. directly or indirectly. thus — "MR. specifically prohibiting the President. what the Commissioner is saying. "MR. agency. participate in any business. of the Constitution.  Sec. The President. their deputies and assistants from holding any other office or employment during their tenure. a member of Congress who may be designated ex officio member of the Judicial and Bar Council. The spouse and relatives by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth civil degree of the President shall not during his tenure be appointed as members of the Constitutional Commissions. While the second paragraph authorizes holding of multiple offices by an appointive official when allowed by law or by the primary functions of his position. members of the Cabinet. the VicePresident. except as are particularly recognized in the Constitution itself. Executive Secretary [194 SCRA 317] What is indeed significant is the fact that although Section 7. They shall strictly avoid conflict of interest in the conduct of their office. there will be certain situations where the law should allow them to hold some other positions. because in the case of appointive officials. 1993.g. En Banc [Bellosillo] The view that an elective official may be appointed to another post if allowed by law or by the primary functions of his office.  Flores v. and. Presiding Officer. Undersecretaries. and their deputies or assistants shall not. IX-B. practice any other profession.. who may be appointed Member of the Cabinet. Article VII.

directly or indirectly. the Vice-President. the second sentence provides: "They shall not." An ex-officio member of a board is one who is a member by virtue of his title to a certain office. Article VII cannot possible refer to the broad exceptions provided under Section 7. and the generality of civil servants from the rank immediately below Assistant Secretary downwards. during said tenure. may hold any other office or position in the government during their tenure. In other words. 1987 Constitution SECTION 13. To reiterate. Vice-President." These sweeping. par.  Sec. Members of the Cabinet. Respondents' interpretation that Section 13 of Article VII admits of the exceptions found in Section 7. including governmentowned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. Article IX-B is meant to lay down the general rule applicable to all elective and appointive public officials and employees. agency or instrumentality thereof. 13. participate in any business. on the one hand. Sec. This being the case. or instrumentality thereof. including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. which prohibitions are not similarly imposed on other public officials or employees such as the Members of Congress. To construe said qualifying phrase as respondents would have us do. Members of the Cabinet. and without further warrant or appointment. while Section 13. while all other appointive officials in the civil service are allowed to hold other office or employment in the government during their tenure when such is allowed by law or by the primary functions of their positions. …xxx The prohibition imposed on the President and his official family is therefore all-embracing and covers both public and private office or employment…xxx Going further into Section 13. LGC  180 . No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may hold any other office or employment in the Government. or as a consequence of office. agency. Article VII is meant to be the exception applicable only to the President. the prohibition under Section 13. Article IX-B of the 1987 Constitution. Art. or be financially interested in any contract with. all-embracing prohibitions imposed on the President and his official family. 90. Section 7. their deputies and assistants may do so only when expressly authorized by the Constitution itself. their deputies and assistants with respect to holding other offices or employment in the government during their tenure. on the other. or special privilege granted by the Government or any subdivision. Neither shall he be appointed to any office which may have been created or the emoluments thereof increased during the term for which he was elected. but rather annexed to the official position. VI. members of the civil service in general and members of the armed forces. their deputies and assistants. by virtue of office. or in any franchise. the qualifying phrase "unless otherwise provided in this Constitution" in Section 13. members of the Cabinet." Ex-officio likewise denotes an "act done in an official character. Article VII. The term ex-officio means "from office. not expressly conferred upon the individual character. practice any other profession. (2) of Article IX-B would obliterate the distinction so carefully set by the framers of the Constitution as to when the high-ranking officials of the Executive Branch from the President to Assistant Secretary." It refers to an "authority derived from official character merely.far as holding other offices or employment in the government or elsewhere is concerned. are proof of the intent of the 1987 Constitution to treat the President and his official family as a class by itself and to impose upon said class stricter prohibitions…xxx Thus. and without any other appointment or authority than that conferred by the office. during his term without forfeiting his seat. Article VII is not to be interpreted as covering positions held without additional compensation in exofficio capacities as provided by law and as required by the primary functions of the concerned official's office. or any subdivision. would render nugatory and meaningless the manifest intent and purpose of the framers of the Constitution to impose a stricter prohibition on the President.

as well as any branch or instrumentality thereof and all government owned or controlled corporations. but it is a short list: (a) persons employed in a confidential capacity. Dacoycoy. etc. Thirdly. city and municipal mayors are prohibited from practicing their profession or engaging in any occupation other than the exercise of their functions as local chief executives. require the issuance of a new appointment to another position (or to the original position in case of reinstatement). must comply with the Implementing Rules including. re-employment. No. and d) person exercising immediate supervision over the appointee. and (d) members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines." The original appointment of a civil service employee and all subsequent personnel actions undertaken by or in respect of that employee such as promotion. reinstatement. one is guilty of nepotism if an appointment is issued in favor of a relative within the third civil degree of consanguinity or affinity of any of the following: a) appointing authority. of course. agency. (3) Collect any fee for their appearance in administrative proceedings involving the local government unit of which he is an official.  Debulgado v. or instrumentality of the government is the adverse party. 135805. Sept. it explicitly covers "all appointments". there is a list of exceptions set out in Section 59 itself. (c) physicians. The list does not contain words like "and other similar positions. En Banc [Pardo] Under the definition of nepotism. (c) Doctors of medicine may practice their profession even during official hours of work only on occasions of emergency: Provided. and (4) Use property and personnel of the government except when the sanggunian member concerned is defending the interest of the government. we believe that such 181 . b) recommending authority. To the extent that all personnel actions occurring after an original appointment. G. 1994) A textual examination of Section 59 at once reveals that the prohibition was cast in comprehensive and unqualified terms..SECTION 90. (b) teachers. there are four situations covered. — (a) All governors. 1999. Practice of Profession. transfer. c) chief of the bureau or office. provincial. April 29. the prohibition against nepotism in Rule XVIII. 26. or the person exercising immediate supervision over the appointee. Secondly. That the officials concerned do not derive monetary compensation therefrom. Clearly. To constitute a violation of the law. it is immaterial who the appointing or recommending authority is. (b) Sanggunian members may practice their professions. city and municipal governments. CSC (GR NO. engage in any occupation. it suffices that an appointment is extended or issued in favor of a relative within the third civil degree of consanguinity or affinity of the chief of the bureau or office. or teach in schools except during session hours: Provided. Firstly. That sanggunian members who are also members of the Bar shall not: (1) Appear as counsel before any court in any civil case wherein a local government unit or any office. The Law on Nepotism  CSC v. In the last two mentioned situations. 111471. The list has not been added to or subtracted from for the past thirty (30) years. Section 59 covers all appointments to the national. (2) Appear as counsel in any criminal case wherein an officer or employee of the national or local government is accused of an offense committed in relation to his office. without seeking to make any distinction between differing kinds or types of appointments.R.

E. then such reelection is considered a condonation of his past misdeeds. 10. including the statutory and regulatory prohibition against nepotism.E. G. His specious and tenuous distinction between appointment and designation is nothing more than either a ploy ingeniously conceived to circumvent the rigid rule on nepotism or a last-ditch maneuver to cushion the impact of its violation. may not be taken to mean the total exoneration of petitioner for whatever wrongdoing. since his re-election to office operates as a condonation of the officer's previous misconduct to the extent of cutting off the right to remove him therefor. Desierto. might have been committed in signing the subject contract. armed with such knowledge. appoint or set apart for a purpose or duty. including his past misconduct. March 2. and it is our considered view that he may not. TERMINATION OF OFFICIAL RELATIONS 182 . petitioner Estrada cannot demand as a condition sine qua non to his criminal prosecution before the Ombudsman that he be convicted in the impeachment proceedings.  Laurel V v. 2 nd Div. En Banc [Puno] This is in accord with our ruling in In Re: Saturnino Bermudez (145 SCRA 160 [1986]) that “incumbent Presidents are immune from suit or from being brought to court during the period of their incumbency and tenure” but not beyond. Thus. If. Sept. While petitioner can no longer be held administratively liable for signing the contract with F. 2001. The foregoing rule. this should not prejudice the filing of any case other than administrative against petitioner. however. Designation is also defined as "an appointment or assignment to a particular office". finds no application to criminal cases pending against petitioner for acts he may have committed during the failed coup." LIABILITIES OF PUBLIC OFFICERS Immunity from Suit of the President  Estrada v. if any. The Doctrine of Condonation  Aguinaldo v. because what cannot be done directly cannot be done indirectly. Zuellig was perfected on the date the contract was signed. 212 SCRA 768 [1992] The rule is that a public official cannot be removed for administrative misconduct committed during a prior term. It hardly matters that the deliveries under the contract are supposed to have been made months later. CSC. 314 SCRA 207. Mojica. Santos. G. any culpability petitioner may have in signing the contract already became extant on the day the contract was signed. No. The agreement between petitioner (representing Cebu City) and F. however. select.  Garcia v. 203 SCRA 195 "By legal contemplation. it still reelects him. Our ruling in this case. it is presumed that it did so with full knowledge of his life and character. the prohibitive mantle on nepotism would include designation. we have repeatedly held that a reelected local official may not be held administratively accountable for misconduct committed during his prior term of office. 146710-15. including stipulations now alleged to be prejudicial to the city government.R.appointment must comply with all applicable rules and prohibitions. The rule admits of no distinction between appointment and designation. petitioner already acceded to the terms of the contract. Nos. The ruling now is limited to the question of whether or not he may be held administratively liable therefor. Zuellig. 1999. [Quisumbing] In a number of cases.R. At that moment. The rationale for this holding is that when the electorate put him back into office. and "to designate" means "to indicate. Considering the peculiar circumstance that the impeachment process against the petitioner has been aborted and thereafter he lost the presidency." We cannot accept petitioner's view. during petitioner's prior term. 139043.

- Galarosa v. En Banc [Davide] The rule is settled that unless “holding over be expressly or impliedly prohibited. Nov. Resignation  Estrada v. En Banc [Puno] Resignation x x x is a factual question and its elements are beyond quibble: there must be an intent to resign and the intent must be coupled by acts of relinquishment (Gonzales v. The validity of a resignation is not governed by any formal requirement as to form.Expiration of Term  Term of Office Distinguished from Tenure of Incumbent Gaminde v. G. An incumbent of a primarily confidential position holds office at the pleasure of the appointing power. the office does not become vacant upon the expiration of the term if there is no successor elected and qualified to assume it. [Bellosillo] The concept of holdover when applied to a public officer implies that the office has a fixed term and the incumbent is holding onto the succeeding term. It is usually provided by law that officers elected or appointed for a fixed term shall remain in office not only for that term but until their successors have been elected and qualified. Valencia. 2000. from a failure to elect or a refusal or neglect to qualify.  The Hold-Over Doctrine - Lecaroz v. 146710-15. 142 SCRA 280). 2nd Div. When the pleasure turns into displeasure.R. 13 SCRA 591). Sandiganbayan. 183 . but the present incumbent will carry over until his successor is elected and qualified. 140335. the incumbent is not removed or dismissed from office — his term merely expires (Ingles vs. 2 SCRA 228 [1961]). No. The term of office is not affected by the hold-over. Hernandez. the purpose is to prevent a hiatus in the government pending the time when the successor may be chosen and inducted into office. that is important and controlling. Where this provision is found. for without it there must frequently be cases where. Absent an express or implied constitutional or statutory provision to the contrary. The tenure represents the term during which the incumbent actually holds the office. Nos. the incumbent may continue to hold over until someone else is elected and qualified to assume the office. G.R. Cuaderno. there is a settled distinction between “term” and “tenure. not the reason for it. 227 SCRA 728. March 2.” This rule is demanded by the “most obvious requirements of public policy. Desierto. and fixes the interval after which the several incumbents shall succeed one another. 13. It can be oral. 1999. because their term of office lasts only as long as confidence in them endures (Corpus vs. 1993. the office would be vacant and the public service entirely suspended. March 25. otherwise it is reasonable to assume that the law-making body favors the same. 26 SCRA 171). Dec. When that confidence is lost and officer holding the position is separated from the service. 2001. 305 SCRA 397. 11. an officer is entitled to stay in office until his successor is appointed or chosen and has qualified. Mutuc. The legislative intent of not allowing holdover must be clearly expressed or at least implied in the legislative enactment. The term means the time during which the officer may claim to hold office as of right.”  Term of Office of Persons holding Primarily Confidential Positions The tenure of officials holding primarily confidential positions ends upon loss of confidence.” Otherwise stated. even though it be beyond the term fixed by law. En Banc [Pardo] In the law of public officers. The tenure may be shorter than the term for reasons within or beyond the power of the incumbent.” “The term of an office must be distinguished from the tenure of the incumbent. It is the fact of loss of confidence. Santos. such cessation is not removal from office but merely an expiration of his/her term (Cadiente vs. COA.

Thus. Removal of an Officer  Unconsented Transfer - De Guzman. with the intention of terminating his possession and control thereof. a person holding a public office may abandon such office by non-user or acquiescence. Abandonment of Office  Canonizado v. It can be express. and with no willful desire or intention to abandon it.It can be written. However. Jan. Aguirre. abandonment is a voluntary relinquishment through nonuser. the public officer vacates it in deference to the requirements of a statute which is afterwards declared unconstitutional. and relinquish the office and the acceptance by competent and lawful authority. There must be a complete abandonment of duties of such continuance that the law will infer a relinquishment. two essential elements of abandonment: first. non-performance of the duties of an office does not constitute abandonment where such nonperformance results from temporary disability or from involuntary failure to perform. Such intention may be express or inferred from his own conduct. second. 6 Abandonment of duties is a voluntary act. an overt or "external" act by which the intention is carried into effect. 1998 It is the act of giving up or the act of an officer by which he declines his office and renounces the further right to use it. 284 SCRA 276. Clear intention to abandon should be manifested by the officer concerned. CA. an unreasonable delay by an officer illegally removed in taking steps to vindicate his rights may constitute an abandonment of the office. 129118. Catanduanes v. first. (b) an act of relinquishment. v. of the intention to surrender. it results from a complete abandonment of duties of such continuance that the law will infer a relinquishment. Indeed. G. an overt or “external” act by which the intention is carried into effect.R. it must be total and under such circumstances as clearly to indicate an absolute relinquishment. an intention to abandon and. Abandonment may also result from an acquiescence by the officer in his wrongful removal or discharge. 16. 15. 351 SCRA 659. it springs from and is accompanied by deliberation and freedom of choice. Catanduanes v. renounce. while desiring and intending to hold the office. after a summary removal. and (c) an acceptance by the proper authority. 1998 Abandonment of an office has been defined as the voluntary relinquishment of an office by the holder. abandonment of office is a species of resignation. COMELEC. Abandonment of an office is not wholly a matter of intention. No. En Banc [Purisima] 184 . there must be: (a) an intention to relinquish a part of the term. Feb. with the intention of terminating his possession and control thereof. such a surrender will not be deemed an abandonment and the officer may recover the office. The last one is required by reason of Article 238 of the Revised Penal Code. 284 SCRA 276. To constitute a complete and operative resignation from public office. an intention to abandon and second. express or implied. Generally speaking. it must be given legal effect. Jan. Where. As long as the resignation is clear. CA. there are two essential elements of abandonment. 2001. It can be implied. 16.  Sangguniang Bayan of San Andres. July 19. therefore. There are. It is an expression of the incumbent in some form.  Sangguniang Bayan of San Andres. while resignation in general is a formal relinquishment. Non-user refers to a neglect to use a right or privilege or to exercise an office. 2000. Therefore. the failure to perform the duties pertaining to the office must be with the officer’s actual or imputed intention to abandon and relinquish the office. for instance. In order to constitute abandonment of office. Jr. En Banc [GonzagaReyes] Abandonment of an office is the voluntary relinquishment of an office by the holder.

it may result in the loss of one's position through removal or abolition of an office. including the lines of control. or where claims of economy are belied by the existence of ample funds. no valid "abolition" takes place and whatever "abolition" is done. including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters. No officer or employee in the career service shall be removed except for a valid cause and after due notice and hearing. it must also pass the test of good faith. Naturally. It is hereby declared the policy of the State to protect the security of tenure of civil service officers and employees in the reorganization of the various agencies of the National Government and of local governments.As held in Sta. or abolition thereof by reason of economy or redundancy of functions. 1967. authority and responsibility between them. without sacrificing the need to promote morale. 19 SCRA 1002. or consolidate positions in order to meet the exigencies of the service. A valid cause for removal exists when. consolidation of offices. But where it is the law-making authority itself which furnishes the ground for the transfer of a class of employees. Section 3 of the Constitution. 6656 AN ACT TO PROTECT THE SECURITY OF TENURE OF CIVIL SERVICE OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GOVERNMENT REORGANIZATION SECTION 1.A. is void ab initio.to a particular station. 653 citing Ibanez v. What it seeks to prevent is capricious exercise of the power to dismiss. efficiency in the civil service pursuant to Article IX. a position has been abolished or rendered redundant or there is a need to merge. Mison (176 SCRA 84 [1989]): As a general rule. x x x" The guarantee of security of tenure under the Constitution is not a guarantee of perpetual employment. Such a rule does not pr[o]scribe a transfer carried out under a specific statute that empowers the head of an agency to periodically reassign the employees and officers in order to improve the service of the agency. B. "x x x the rule that outlaws unconsented transfers as anathema to security of tenure applies only to an officer who is appointed . no dismissal (in case of dismissal) or separation actually occurs because the position itself ceases to exist. if the "abolition" which is nothing else but a separation or removal. or other lawful causes allowed by the Civil Service Law. giving rise to a claim for reinstatement or reappointment by an aggrieved party: 185 .  R. Lopez (31 SCRA 637. security of tenure would not be a Chinese wall. The existence of any or some of the following circumstances may be considered as evidence of bad faith in the removals made as a result of reorganization. 1012 and Section 12 of the Tax Code). pursuant to a bona fide reorganization. However. state colleges and universities expressly authorized by law. It involves a reduction of personnel. Be that as it may. L-26558. is done for political reasons or purposely to defeat security of tenure. And in that case. a reorganization is carried out in "good faith" if it is for the purpose of economy or to make bureaucracy more efficient. divide. for a reorganization to be valid. SECTION 2. It only means that an employee cannot be dismissed (or transferred) from the service for causes other than those provided by law and after due process is accorded the employee. April 27.not merely assigned . no such capriciousness can be raised for so long as the remedy proposed to cure a perceived evil is germane to the purposes of the law. No. Maria v. In that event. 6656 REPUBLIC ACT NO. There is an invalid "abolition" as where there is merely a change of nomenclature of positions. Commission on Elections. Abolition of an Office  Reorganization Reorganization takes place when there is an alteration of the existing structure of government offices or units therein. laid down in Dario v. or otherwise not in good faith.

including temporary and casual employees who possess the necessary qualification requirements. a representative of the appointing authority. further That immediately upon approval of the staffing pattern of the department or agency concerned. SECTION 9. Officers and employees holding permanent appointments shall be given preference for appointment to the new positions in the approved staffing pattern comparable to their former position or in case there are not enough comparable positions. SECTION 8. The Committee shall consist of two (2) members appointed by the head of the department or agency. and two (2) members duly elected by the employees holding positions in the first and second levels of the career service: Provided.(a) Where there is a significant increase in the number of positions in the new staffing pattern of the department or agency concerned. No new employees shall be taken in until all permanent officers and employees have been appointed. In the separation of personnel pursuant to reorganization. Officers and employees holding permanent appointments shall be given preference for appointment in other agencies if they meet the qualification requirements of the positions therein. (c) Where incumbents are replaced by those less qualified in terms of status of appointment. SECTION 4. SECTION 3. Any of such officers and employees aggrieved by the appointments made may file an appeal with the appointing authority who shall make a decision within thirty (30) days from the filling thereof. there shall be created a Placement Committee in each appointments shall be given preference for appointment in the judicious selection and placement of personnel. length of service notwithstanding. (b) Casual employees with five (5) years or more of government service. performance and merit. that employee association shall also have a representative in the Committee: Provided. A list of the personnel appointed to the authorized positions in the approved staffing pattern shall be made known to all the officers and employees of the department or agency. in case there are still positions to be filled. 186 . primarily confidential or highly technical in nature. among which is the appropriate civil service eligibility. That if there is a registered employee association with a majority of the employees as members. such staffing pattern shall be made known to all officers and employees of the agency who shall be invited to apply for any of the positions authorized therein. SECTION 6. unless such positions are policy-determining. (b) Where an office is abolished and other performing substantially the same functions is created. SECTION 7. to positions next lower in rank. (d) Where there is a reclassification of offices in the department or agency concerned and the reclassified offices perform substantially the same function as the original offices. (e) Where the removal violates the order of separation provided in Section 3 hereof. and (d) Employees holding permanent appointments: Provided. who are least qualified in terms of performance and merit shall be laid first. SECTION 5. (c) Employees holding temporary appointments. In order that the best qualified and most deserving persons shall be appointed in any reorganization. An officer or employee who is still not satisfied with the decision of the appointing authority may further appeal within ten (10) days from the receipt thereof to the Civil Services Commission which shall render a decision thereon within thirty (30) days and whose decision shall be final and executory. Said application shall be considered by the Committee in the placement and selection of personnel. the following order of removal shall be followed: (a) Casual employees with less than five (5) years of government service. That those in the same category as enumerated above. All officers and employees who are found by the Civil Service Commission to have been separated in violation of the provisions of this Act. for permanent appointment to positions in the approved staffing pattern.

inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. 187 .00) or by imprisonment of not less than three(3) nor more than five (5) years or both such fine and imprisonment in the discretion of the Court. not for political or personal reasons.R. In the case of the 1987 reorganization of the executive branch. However. The rights and benefits under this Act shall be retroactive as of June 30. Guerrero v. All heads of department. no other part. The Civil Service Commission shall promulgate the necessary rules and regulations to implement the provisions of this Act. Unless also separated for cause. We hereby apply the principle enunciated in Cezar Z.  Canonizado v. Arizabal. 133132. as the word "abolished" denotes. Aguirre. in order for the abolition to be valid. shall upon conviction be punished by a fine not. En Banc [GonzagaReyes] The creation and abolition of public offices is primarily a legislative function.R. in this case. All laws. This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days from the date of its publication ion at least two (2) newspapers of general circulation. However. and suffer permanent disqualification to hold public office. The executive branch of the government shall implement reorganization schemes within a specified period of time authorized by law. all departments and agencies which are authorized by executive orders promulgated by the President to reorganize shall have ninety (90) days from the approval of this Act within which to implement their respective reorganization plans in accordance with the provisions of this Act. including failure to abide by the rules promulgated by the Civil Service Commission or to implement a Civil Service Commission reinstatement order. it must be made in good faith. section or provisions of this Act shall be held invalid or unconstitutional. who have been separated pursuant to reorganization shall. if entitled thereto. Such separation pay and retirement benefits shall have priority of payment out of the savings of the department or agency concerned. 1990. If any part.000. Thus. be paid the appropriate separation pay and retirement and other benefits under existing laws within ninety (90) days from the date of the effectivity of their separation or from the date of the receipt of the resolution of their appeals as the case may be: Provided. Alba. An abolition of office connotes an intention to do away with such office wholly and permanently. Hon. all officers and employees. G. No.shall be ordered reinstated or reappointed as the case may be without loss of seniority and shall be entitled to full pay for the period of separation. SECTION 12. No. commissions. SECTION 10. such as the lack of funds or in the interest of economy. This is because where the abolished office and the offices created in its place have similar functions. 1987. June 4. SECTION 11. SECTION 14. the abolition lacks good faith (Jose L. It is acknowledged that Congress may abolish any office it creates without impairing the officer's right to continue in the position held and that such power may be exercised for various reasons. the abolition is a legal nullity. rules and regulations or parts thereof. 81928. the renaming and restructuring of the PGH and its component units cannot give rise to a valid and bona fide abolition of the position of PGH Director. or in order to circumvent the constitutional security of tenure of civil service employees. section or provision thereof shall be affected thereby. Dario v. Those who are not entitled to said benefits shall be paid a separation gratuity in the amount equivalent to one (1) month salary for every year of service. Jan. SECTION 13. Rasul (200 SCRA 685 [1991]) we said: It is true that a valid and bona fide abolition of an office denies to the incumbent the right to security of tenure (De la Llana v. 186 SCRA 108 [1990]). agencies or offices who after the effectivity of this Act willfully violate any provision thereof. Where one office is abolished and replaced with another office vested with similar functions. 25. 112 SCRA 294 [1982]). That application for clearance has been filed and no action thereon has been made by the corresponding department or agency. Antonio V. Board of Regents v.P. SECTION 15. G. Hon. exceeding ten thousand pesos (P10. 2000. in U. bureaus.

it is untenable for petitioner to demand that he should first be impeached and then convicted before he can be prosecuted. COMELEC. the debates in the Constitutional Commission make it clear that when impeachment proceedings have become moot due to the resignation of the President. d) Municipal level: All punong barangay and sangguniang barangay members in the municipality. 188 . 5.  Initiation of Recall Process [Sec. Impeachment  Estrada v.R. 69." Since the Impeachment Court is now functus officio. Indeed. The plea if granted. Recall Recall is a mode of removal of a public officer by the people before the end of his term of office. c) Legislative District level: Where sangguniang panlalawigan members are elected by district.Salvador M. 146710-15. March 2. this does not mean however that the reorganization itself is properly made in accordance with law. Not undeservedly. 70. Executive Secretary. Oct. Such power has been held to be indispensable for the proper administration of public affairs. RA 7160]. En Banc [Puno])  By Whom Exercised By the registered voters of a local government unit to which the local elective official subject to such recall belongs [Sec. Oct. it is frequently described as a fundamental right of the people in a representative democracy. 227 SCRA 108. Such a submission has nothing to commend itself for it will place him in a better situation than a non-sitting President who has not been subjected to impeachment proceedings and yet can be the object of a criminal prosecution. (Garcia v. petitioner Estrada cannot demand as a condition sine qua non to his criminal prosecution before the Ombudsman that he be convicted in the impeachment proceedings. 2001. To be sure. 1997 While the President’s power to reorganize can not be denied. the power is implied in all governmental operations. 1993. 2001. 83 "Recognizing that the Impeachment Court is Functus Officio. the Senate passed Senate Resolution No. Composition a) Provincial level: All mayors. Desierto. Nos. all elective barangay officials in the district. The people's prerogative to remove a public officer is an incident of their sovereign power and in the absence of constitutional restraint. Well-settled is the rule that reorganization is regarded as valid provided it is pursued in good faith. En Banc [Puno] We reject his argument that he cannot be prosecuted for the reason that he must first be convicted in the impeachment proceedings.  Preparatory Recall Assembly. The impeachment trial of petitioner Estrada was aborted by the walkout of the prosecutors and by the events that led to his loss of the presidency. RA 7160] By a preparatory recall assembly or by the registered voters of the LGU. - Larin v. the proper criminal and civil cases may already be filed against him…xxx Considering the peculiar circumstance that the impeachment process against the petitioner has been aborted and thereafter he lost the presidency. all elective municipal officials in the district. 16. 280 SCRA 713. would put a perpetual bar against his prosecution. b) City level: All punong-barangay and sangguniang barangay members in the city. vice-mayors and sanggunian members of the municipalities and component cities. on February 7. G. Mison (176 SCRA 84 [1989]) that abolition which merely changes the nomenclature of positions is invalid and does not result in the removal of the incumbent. and in cases where sangguniang panglunsod members are elected by district.

Should the official sought to be recalled receive the highest number of votes. thus where the resolution was adopted without giving notice to all the members of the PRA. COMELEC. Art. V. No literacy. Angubong v. a citizen in order to be qualified to exercise his right to vote. COMELEC: The SC underscored the need for a petition signed by at least 25% of the total number of registered voters in the constituency in order to validly initiate a recall election. REGISTRATION OF VOTERS  Akbayan-Youth v. 74. under the provisions of Republic Act No. 8189. is obliged by law to register.A majority of all the PRA members may convene in session in a public place and initiate a recall proceeding against any elective official in the LGU concerned. and who shall have resided in the Philippines for at least one year and in the place wherein they propose to vote for at least six months immediately preceding the election. in addition to the minimum requirements set by the fundamental charter. Garcia v.” 189 .  Effectivity of Recall The recall of an elective local official shall be effective only upon the election and proclamation of a successor in the person of the candidate receiving the highest number of votes cast during the election on recall. the process of registration. the same is fatally flawed. Comelec: Notice to all members of the PRA is imperative. 1. c) No recall shall take place within one year from the date of the official’s assumption to office or one year immediately preceeding a regular local election. RA 7160] b) Any elective local official may be the subject of a recall election only once during his term of office for loss of confidence. means that the approaching local election must be one where the position of the official to be recalled is actually contested and to be filled by the electorate. LGC.  Initiation of recall by registered voters Recall of a provincial. city. 26. property. Specifically. 2001. Thus a where the petition is signed only by the petitioner and does not even bear the names of the citizens who have allegedly lost confidence in the public official. RA 7160]  Limitations on Recall [Sec. Mar. Angubong v. otherwise known as the “Voter’s Registration Act of 1996. then the petition should be dismissed. or other substantive requirement shall be imposed on the exercise of suffrage. 74. confidence is thereby affirmed. Suffrage may be exercised by all citizens of the Philippines not otherwise disqualified by law. ELECTION LAWS QUALIFICATIONS OF VOTERS  Sec. COMELEC: “Regular local election” referred to in Sec. municipal or barangay official may also be validly initiated upon petition of at least 25% of the total number of registered voters in the LGU concerned during the election in which the local official sought to be recalled was elected. 355 SCRA 318. En Banc [Buena] The right of a citizen to vote is necessarily conditioned upon certain procedural requirements he must undergo: among others. and he shall continue in office [Sec. 72. at present. 1987 Constitution SECTION 1. who are at least eighteen years of age.

which is to place through the assent of voters those most cognizant and sensitive to the needs of a particular district. En Banc [Mendoza] The place “where a party actually or constructively has his permanent home. his domicile. to the incidental yet generally important end. The Congress shall also design a procedure for the disabled and the illiterates to vote without the assistance of other persons. likewise. eventually intends to return and remain. 133944.R. Proceeding from the significance of registration as a necessary requisite to the right to vote. no matter where he may be found at any given time. Quirino (96 Phil. it enables the electorate to evaluate the office seekers’ qualifications and fitness for the job they aspire for. the Constitution or the law intends to prevent the possibility of a “stranger or newcomer unacquainted with the conditions and needs of a community and not identified with the latter from [seeking] an elective office to serve that community. En Banc [Panganiban] The Constitution and the law requires residence as a qualification for seeking and holding elective public office. G. Oct.” Establishing residence in a community 190 . potentials for growth and all matters vital to the welfare of their constituencies. 28. in order to give candidates the opportunity to be familiar with the needs.” where he.  Torayno. 2000. No. The manifest purpose of this deviation from the usual conceptions of residency in law as explained in Gallego v. While there is nothing wrong with the practice of establishing residence in a given area for meeting election law requirements. this nonetheless defeats the essence of representation. aspirations. may then enact laws to safeguard and regulate the act of voter’s registration for the ultimate purpose of conducting honest. orderly and peaceful election. i. in the exercise of its inherent police power. difficulties. V.Stated differently.. that even preelection activities could be performed by the duly constituted authorities in a realistic and orderly manner — one which is not indifferent and so far removed from the pressing order of the day and the prevalent circumstances of the times. the act of registration is an indispensable precondition to the right of suffrage. The Congress shall provide a system for securing the secrecy and sanctity of the ballot as well as a system for absentee voting by qualified Filipinos abroad. in Faypon v. COMELEC. Aug. 9.e. 337 SCRA 574. in requiring candidates to have a minimum period of residence in the area in which they seek to be elected. 294 [1954]). Vera is “to exclude strangers or newcomers unfamiliar with the conditions and needs of the community” from taking advantage of favorable circumstances existing in that community for electoral gain. Art. registration cannot and should not be denigrated to the lowly stature of a mere statutory requirement. Until then. Thus. if a candidate falls short of the period of residency mandated by law for him to qualify…x x x The fact that a person is registered as a voter in one district is not proof that he is not domiciled in another district. is that to which the Constitution refers when it speaks of residence for the purposes of election law. they shall be allowed to vote under existing laws and such rules as the Commission on Elections may promulgate to protect the secrecy of the ballot. Sr. 1999. For registration is part and parcel of the right to vote and an indispensable element in the election process. Thus. 1987 Constitution SECTION 2. COMELEC. THE MEANING AND PURPOSE OF RESIDENCY REQUIREMENT IN ELECTION LAW  Marcita Mamba Perez v. Generally. v.” Such provision is aimed at excluding outsiders “from taking advantage of favorable circumstances existing in that community for electoral gain. contrary to petitioners’ argument. the State undoubtedly. 2. this Court held that the registration of a voter in a place other than his residence of origin is not sufficient to consider him to have abandoned or lost his residence. ABSENTEE VOTING  Sec.

2000. THE HOLDING OF SYNCHRONIZED ELECTIONS  Osmena v. organizations. 1987 Constitution SECTION 2. 2[5]. Until then. city and municipal elective officials on the second Monday of November. they shall be allowed to vote under existing laws and such rules as the Commission on Elections may promulgate to protect the secrecy of the ballot. Art. from making copies thereof. Thus. the inevitable conclusion would be that Republic Act 7056 is clearly violative of the Constitution because it provides for the holding of a desynchronized election. Also proscribed is finding out the contents of the ballots cast by particular voters or disclosing those of disabled or illiterate voters who have been assisted. or from putting distinguishing marks thereon so as to be identified. be achieved merely through the voters’ verbal and confidential disclosure to a pollster of whom they have voted for. Stated differently. Those which seek to achieve their goals through violence or unlawful means. and "(b) An election of all provincial. Republic Act 7056 particularly Sections 1 and 2 thereof contravenes Article XVIII. the synchronization of the elections so that the process can be completed in the 1995 elections with the result that beginning 1995 there shall be only one (1) simultaneous regular elections for national and local elective officials every three (3) years. voters are prohibited from exhibiting the contents of their official ballots to other persons. This result cannot. for the purpose of assuring that the votes have been cast in accordance with the instructions of a third party. 2. Start of Synchronization — To start the process of synchronization of election in accordance with the policy hereinbefore declared there shall be held. COMELEC. after sufficient publication. twenty four (24) Senators and all elective Members of the Houses Representatives on the second Monday of May. With the clear mandate of the 1987 Constitution to hold synchronized (simultaneous) national and local elections in the second Monday of May. Religious denominations and sects shall not be registered. Jan. . The Congress shall provide a system for securing the secrecy and sanctity of the ballot as well as a system for absentee voting by qualified Filipinos abroad. G.R No. Sections 2 and 5 of the 1987 Constitution. must present their platform or program of government. En Banc [Panganiban] The reason behind the principle of ballot secrecy is to avoid vote buying through voter identification. Art. POLITICAL PARTIES  Sec. political parties. as much as practicable. . 1992.” PRINCIPLE OF BALLOT SECRECY  Sec. and accredit citizens' arms of the Commission on Elections.merely to meet an election law requirement defeats the purpose of representation: to elect through the assent of voters those most cognizant and sensitive to the needs of the community. V. 1992. This purpose is “best met by individuals who have either had actual residence in the area for a given period or who have been domiciled in the same area either by origin or by choice. The Congress shall also design a procedure for the disabled and the illiterates to vote without the assistance of other persons. 1992. COMELEC (July 30. 1991) Republic Act 7056 provides for two (2) separate elections in 1992 as follows: "Sec. to start. or refuse to 191 . "(a) An election for President and Vice-President of the Philippines. (5) Register. 133486.  ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation v. 1987 Constitution SECTION 2. Clearly. or coalitions which. The purpose of Republic Act 7056 is as stated in Section 1 thereof under the heading "Statement of Policy" — ". IX-C. what is forbidden is the association of voters with their respective votes. however. 2. in addition to other requirements. 28.

after notice and hearing. coalitions. organizations. Political party. when used in this Act. with amendments) THE LONE CANDIDATE LAW  R. when there is only one (1) qualified candidate for such position. June 6. Disqualification. the candidate referred to in the preceding paragraph shall assume office not earlier than the scheduled election day. 1971 EC. SECTION 2.uphold and adhere to this Constitution. Certificates of candidacy filed in violation hereof shall not be given due course. — Upon the expiration of the deadline for the filing of the certificates of candidacy in a special election called to fill a vacancy in an elective position other than for President and Vice President. fails to obtain at least ten percent of the votes cast in the constituency in which it nominated and supported a candidate or candidates in the election next following its registration shall. 60. 22. such petitions shall be deemed dismissed. No. 1997 REPUBLIC ACT NO. qualify it for subsequent accreditation.A. as much as practicable. Any registered political party that. the Commission shall decide petitions for disqualifications not later than election day. as provided for under Sections 69 and 78 of Batas Pambansa Bilang 881 also known as the Omnibus Election Code of the Philippines. and. Towards this end. and to entitle it to the rights and privileges herein granted to political parties. to wit: a) Any elective official who has resigned from his office by accepting an appointive office or for whatever reason 192 . Financial contributions from foreign governments and their agencies to political parties. — "Political party" or "party". SECTION 4. the lone candidate shall be proclaimed elected to the position by proper proclaiming body of the Commission on Elections without holding the special election upon certification by the Commission on Elections that he is the only candidate for the office and is thereby deemed elected.  Sec. the State shall ensure that. the following persons are disqualified to run in a special election called to fill the vacancy in an elective office. OEC SECTION 60. whenever the evidence of guilt is strong. Proclamation of a Lone Candidate. Declaration of Policy. — It is hereby declared the policy of the State to provide the people with adequate and constant governance and representation in public affairs. — In addition to the disqualifications mentioned in Sections 12 and 68 of the Omnibus Election Code and Section 40 of Republic Act No. singly or in coalition with others. when accepted. otherwise known as the Local Government Code. 8295 AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE PROCLAMATION OF A LONE CANDIDATE FOR ANY ELECTIVE OFFICE IN A SPECIAL ELECTION. — In the absence of any lawful ground to deny due course or cancel the certificate of candidacy in order to prevent such proclamation. To acquire juridical personality. SECTION 3. 7160. means an organized group of persons pursuing the same ideology. a political party shall first be duly registered with the Commission. (Sec. or candidates related to elections constitute interference in national affairs. be deemed to have forfeited such status as a registered political party in such constituency. shall be an additional ground for the cancellation of their registration with the Commission. Assumption of Office. AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES SECTION 1. in addition to other penalties that may be prescribed by law. or which are supported by any foreign government shall likewise be refused registration. each and every elective position in the executive and legislative branches of government is occupied at all times at the least of cost to government. political ideas or platforms of government and includes its branches and divisions. For this purpose. otherwise. 8295.

withdraw the same by submitting to the office concerned a written declaration under oath. particularly pertinent provisions of Republic Act Nos. harassment. Certificate of candidacy. punishment. — This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in two (2) national newspapers of general circulation. or any part thereof. — Any act of coercion. Violations of this provision shall be prosecuted and penalized in accordance with the provision of Section 264 of the Omnibus Election Code. repealed or modified accordingly. Implementing Authority. he shall not be eligible for any of them. intimidates or actually causes. provision of this Act. injury. prior to the election. or actually causing. SECTION 9. bribes. loss or disadvantage to any person or persons aspiring to become a candidate or that of the immediate member of his family. as amended. inflicting or producing violence. SECTION 8. intimidation. his honor or property that is meant to eliminate all other potential candidate. harasses. — If for any reason or reasons. including the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder inconsistent with the provisions of this Act. punishment. — No person shall be eligible for any elective public office unless he files a sworn certificate of candidacy within the period fixed herein. 73. promulgate rules and regulations necessary to carry out the purpose of this Act. SECTION 10. Separability Clause. SECTION 6. executive orders. directly or indirectly. damage. Election Offenses and Penalties. A person who has filed a certificate of candidacy may. the person who was filed more than one certificate of candidacy may declare under oath the office for which he desires to be eligible and cancel the certificate of candidacy for the other office or offices. torture. coerces. provision or portion is declared or held unconstitutional or invalid. — All laws. loss or disadvantage to discourage any other person or persons from filing a certificate of candidacy in order to eliminate all other potential candidate from running in a special election shall constitute as an election offense. No person shall be eligible for more than one office to be filled in the same election. or the application of such section. any section. SECTION 5. Prohibited Acts. and other election laws which are not in conflict with the provision herein provided. OEC SECTION 73. injury. in whole or in part. decrees. and b) Any person who. within fifteen (15) days from the effectivity of this Act. bribery. 193 .which he previously occupied but has caused to become vacant due to his resignation. threatens. terrorism. and if he files his certificate of candidacy for more than one office. threat. Repealing Clause. are hereby amended. before the expiration of the period for the filing of certificates of candidacy. However. damage. — The pertinent provisions of Batas Pambansa Bilang 881. otherwise known as the Omnibus Election Code of the Philippines. torture. shall remain in full force and effect and are hereby adopted as parts hereof. inflicts or produces any violence. Effectivity. Applicability. SECTION 7. — The Commission on Elections shall. 7160 and 7166. other parts or the remainder thereof which are not affected thereby shall continue to be in full force and effect. FILING OF CERTIFICATE OF CANDIDACY  Sec.

and officers and employees in government-owned or controlled corporations. election registrar or officer designated by the Commission or the board of election inspectors under the succeeding section shall have the ministerial duty to receive and acknowledge receipt of the certificate of candidacy. even those organized under the general laws on incorporation and therefore not having an original or legislative charter. 19. (Sec. Effect of Filing Certificate of Candidacy by Elective Officials. withdraw the same by submitting to the office concerned a written declaration under oath. 66. 19. 1993] Section 66 of the Omnibus Election Code applies to officers and employees in government-owned or controlled corporations. before the expiration of the period for the filing of certificates of candidacy. and even if they do not fall under the Civil Service Law but under the Labor Code. 77. as amended. shall be considered ipso facto resigned from his office upon the filing of his certificate of candidacy. In other words. 73. However. 26. and if he files his certificate of candidacy for more than one office. 1978 EC) EFFECT OF FILING OF CERTIFICATE OF CANDIDACY  Sec. NLRC [May 31.The filing or withdrawal of a certificate of candidacy shall not affect whatever civil. including active members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. 1978 EC) SUBSTITUTION OF CANDIDATES  Sec. OEC 194 . Candidates holding appointive office or positions. A person who has filed a certificate of candidacy may. prior to the election. whether national or local who has filed a certificate of candidacy for the same or any other office shall not be considered resigned from his office. (Sec. • PNOC-EDC v. The filing or withdrawal of a certificate of candidacy shall not affect whatever civil. OEC SECTION 66. — Any person holding a public appointive office or position. the person who was filed more than one certificate of candidacy may declare under oath the office for which he desires to be eligible and cancel the certificate of candidacy for the other office or offices. 1978 EC)  Sec. HSATIC WITHDRAWAL OF CERTIFICATE OF CANDIDACY  Sec. COMELEC Resolution No. — No person shall be eligible for any elective public office unless he files a sworn certificate of candidacy within the period fixed herein. OEC SECTION 73. 76. provincial election supervisor. 25. (Sec. Ministerial duty of receiving and acknowledging receipt. he shall not be eligible for any of them. OEC SECTION 76. criminal or administrative liabilities which a candidate may have incurred. — The Commission. criminal or administrative liabilities which a candidate may have incurred.  Sec. Section 66 constitutes just cause for termination of employment in addition to those set forth in the Labor Code. No person shall be eligible for more than one office to be filled in the same election. 3636 SECTION 26. — Any elective official. Certificate of candidacy.

1998 and later withdrew the same on March 31. or. In the meantime. Jr. disqualification or withdrawal of another. the official ballots shall provide spaces where the voters may write the name of the substitute candidates if they are voting for the latter: Provided. Jr. 1998. or found by the Commission of having (a) given money or other material consideration to influence. and certified by. Substitution of Candidates.A. Candidates in case of death. the same political party may file a certificate of candidacy to replace the candidate who died.SECTION 77. R. Abaya. filed his certificate of candidacy there was no more void to fill in as respondent Reyes."  Sec. July 28. 136351. however. withdrew or was disqualified. 134293. herein petitioner Recabo. (b) 195 .R. If a person was not a candidate. which envisions one candidate from a political party of each position. Assuming all three candidates were fielded-in by the same political party at the time petitioner Recabo. Jr. 9006 AN ACT TO ENHANCE THE HOLDING OF FREE. G. June 21. if the disqualified candidate did not have a valid and seasonably filed certificate of candidacy. he is and was not a candidate at all. For this purpose. PEACEFUL AND CREDIBLE ELECTIONS THROUGH FAIR ELECTION PRACTICES SECTION 12. COMELEC. an official candidate of a registered or accredited political party dies. That if the substitute candidate is of the same family name. 9006 REPUBLIC ACT NO. Jr. private respondent Reyes. No. En Banc [Gonzaga-Reyes] It will be recalled that the mother of herein petitioner filed her certificate of candidacy on March 25. only a person belonging to. the votes cast for the substituted candidates shall be considered as stray votes but shall not invalidate the whole ballot. a disqualified candidate may only be substituted if he had a valid certificate of candidacy in the first place because. in an action or protest in which he is a party is declared by final decision of a competent court guilty of. Verily. — If after the last day for the filing of certificates of candidacy. Disunity and discord amongst members of a political party should not be allowed to create a mockery of our electoral process. Jr. Disqualifications. G. — Any candidate who. En Banc [Melo] All told. this provision shall not apply. — In case of valid substitutions after the official ballots have been printed. 1999. 12. 28. 1999. 1998. withdrawal or disqualification should occur between the day before the election and mid-day of election day. 1978 EC) • Miranda v. withdraws or is disqualified for any cause. v. filed his certificate of candidacy on April 2. (Sec. No. 68. OEC SECTION 68. • Recabo. in the case of candidates to be voted for by the entire electorate of the country. HONEST. ORDERLY. induce or corrupt the voters or public officials performing electoral functions. there was no more vacancy to be substituted for. If the death. filed his certificate of candidacy on March 27. had already filed his certificate of candidacy as official candidate of LAKAS NUCD-UMDP. with the Commission. The substitute candidate nominated by the political party concerned may file his certificate of candidacy for the office affected in accordance with the preceding sections not later than mid-day of the day of the election. DISQUALIFICATION CASES BEFORE THE ELECTIONS  Sec. Thereafter.R. No. said certificate may be filed with any board of election inspectors in the political subdivision where he is a candidate. in substitution of his mother who had withdrawn earlier. 1998. he cannot be substituted under Section 77 of the Code.

k. En Banc [Melo] In the present case. 13. paragraphs d.R. subparagraph 6. 69. Respondent has not demonstrated any accomplishment/achievement in his twenty-six (26) years of existence as a person that would surely attract the electorate to choose him as their representative in government.601 registered voters.  Sec. 1999. shall be disqualified from continuing as a candidate. G. 298 SCRA 480. Petition to deny due course to or cancel a certificate of candidacy. OEC SECTION 78. not later than fifteen days before the election. 1978 EC)  • Bautista v. 78. and cc. Nuisance candidates. Respondent has not shown any. 1971 EC) Sec. e. (Sec. received or made any contribution prohibited under Sections 89. 96. 85. 86 and 261. or (e) violated any of Sections 80. or if he has been elected. refuse to give due course to or cancel a certificate of candidacy if it is shown that said certificate has been filed to put the election process in mockery or disrepute or to cause confusion among the voters by the similarity of the names of the registered candidates or by other circumstances or acts which clearly demonstrate that the candidate has no bona fide intention to run for the office for which the certificate of candidacy has been filed and thus prevent a faithful determination of the true will of the electorate.committed acts of terrorism to enhance his candidacy. 25. it may be concluded that the material misrepresentation contemplated by section 78 of the Code refer to qualifications for elective office. En Banc [Gonzaga-Reyes] Therefore. 83. but "Boboy" or "Boboy Tarugo". Aug. (d) solicited. a municipality with 104. unless said person has waived his status as permanent resident or immigrant of a foreign country in accordance with the residence requirement provided for in the election laws. OEC SECTION 69. motu proprio or upon a verified petition of an interested party. 95. The petition may be filed at any time not later than twenty-five days from the time of the filing of the certificate of candidacy and shall be decided. Elective public officials are respected leaders in the community. — A verified petition seeking to deny due course or to cancel a certificate of candidacy may be filed by the person exclusively on the ground that any material representation contained therein as required under Section 74 hereof is false. This only amplifies the fact that he has no bona fide intention to run for the position of municipal mayor of Navotas. 26. COMELEC. 135886. 1998. after due notice and hearing. thus preventing the determination of the choice and true will of the electorate. This Commission as the vanguard of the people in the determination of the chosen representative of the electorate in government will not be an instrument to subvert that choice. from holding the office. 97 and 104. No. v. (Sec. COMELEC. Two "EFRENS" and two "BAUTISTAS" — will necessarily confuse the voters and render worthless a vote for an 'Efren' or 'Bautista' during the appreciation of ballots. Nov. 196 . 16. (c) spent in his election campaign an amount in excess of that allowed by this Code. it has been established that respondent's known appellation or nickname is not "Efren" as stated in his Certificate of Candidacy. This conclusion is strengthened by the fact that the consequences imposed upon a candidate guilty of having made a false representation in his certificate of candidacy are grave — to prevent the candidate from running or. The circumstances in the case at bar warrant that respondent be declared a nuisance candidate. — The Commission may. Any person who is a permanent resident of or an immigrant to a foreign country shall not be qualified to run for any elective office under this Code. • Salcedo II v. Respondent's lack of financial means to support a campaign as an independent candidate is manifested by his inability to file his Income Tax Returns for calendar years 1995 and 1996.

G. through no fault of the person who discovers such misrepresentations and who would want the disqualification of the candidate committing the misrepresentation. a false representation under section 78 must consist of a "deliberate attempt to mislead. is not within the scope of the provision. may during the pendency thereof order the suspension of the proclamation of such candidate whenever the evidence of his guilt is strong. COMELEC acted with grave abuse of discretion in proceeding to disqualify petitioner from his reelected term of office in its second questioned Resolution on the ground that "it comes as a matter of course after his disqualification in SPA 197 . misinform. or hide a fact which would otherwise render a candidate ineligible.  Trinidad v.R. that there could indeed be a gap between the time of the discovery of the misrepresentation. it must be made with an intention to deceive the electorate as to one’s qualifications for public office.A. COMELEC. or to prosecute him for violation of the election laws. under Section 74 of the Code. by filing a petition for quo warranto against him. EFFECT OF DISQUALIFICATION CASES  Sec. from serving. Section 1 Rule 21 of the Comelec Rules of Procedure similarly provides that any voter contesting the election of any regional. upon motion of the complainant or any intervenor. En Banc [YnaresSantiago] With the complaint for disqualification of private respondent rendered moot and academic by the expiration of petitioner's term of office therein contested. 78 of the Code has lapsed) and the time when the proclamation of the results of the election is made. No. Aside from the requirement of materiality. inquiry. so that he could avail of a remedy against the misrepresenting candidate. 1999." In other words. the election laws do not leave him completely helpless as he has another chance to raise the disqualification of the candidate by filing a petition for quo warranto within ten (10) days from the proclamation of the results of the election. R. when not intended to mislead or deceive the public as to one’s identity. 135716. It is true that the discovery of false representation as to material facts required to be stated in a certificate of candidacy. If for any reason a candidate is not declared by final judgment before an election to be disqualified and he is voted for and receives the winning number of votes in such election. therefore. 6646 REPUBLIC ACT NO. The use of a surname. and the votes cast for him shall not be counted. the Court or Commission shall continue with the trial and hearing of the action. or protest and. 1992] If a person qualified to file a petition to disqualify a certain candidate fails to file the petition within the 25-day period prescribed by Section 78 of the Code for whatever reasons. as provided under Section 253 of the Code. Effect of Disqualification Case. Sept. 23. (when the discovery is made after the 25-day period under Sec. • Loong v. COMELEC [Dec. may be made only after the lapse of the 25-day period prescribed by Section 78 of the Code. It would seem. — Any candidate who has been declared by final judgment to be disqualified shall not be voted for. No. The petition may be filed within ten (10) days from the date the respondent is proclaimed (Section 2). that is. During this so-called "gap" the would-be petitioner (who would seek the disqualification of the candidate) is left with nothing to do except to wait for the proclamation of the results. It could not have been the intention of the law to deprive a person of such a basic and substantive political right to be voted for a public office upon just any innocuous mistake. 6646 AN ACT INTRODUCING ADDITIONAL REFORMS IN THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES SECTION 6. 6.if elected. provincial or city official on the ground of ineligibility or of disloyalty to the Republic of the Philippines may file a petition for quo warranto with the Electoral Contest Adjudication Department.

288 SCRA 76. in providing for the outright dismissal of the disqualification case which remains unresolved after the election. 6646 imperatively requires. We see no error in the COMELEC's rejection of private respondent's move to be declared as Mayor on account of petitioner's disqualification. he can no longer be removed if he is thereafter reelected for another term.. The word "shall" signifies that this requirement of the law is mandatory. or any matter raised under Sections 233. the issue had been rendered moot and academic by the expiration of petitioner's challenged term of office. — The following shall be proper issues that may be raised in a pre-proclamation controversy: (a) Illegal composition or proceedings of the board of canvassers. transmission. Issues that may be raised in pre-proclamation controversy. until judgment is rendered thereon. (b) The canvassed election returns are incomplete. Interpretative rulings of quasi-judicial bodies or administrative agencies must always be in perfect harmony with statutes and should be for the sole purpose of carrying their general provisions into effect.  Sec. The second placer is just that. Second. in case of a discrepancy between the basic law and an interpretative or administrative ruling. Thus. 1998 [Bellosillo] Clearly. In the latest ruling (Aquino v. Duavit in effect disallows RA No. OEC SECTION 243. 120265. said Resolution had not yet attained finality and could not effectively be held to have removed petitioner from his office. 235 and 236 in relation to the preparation. 95-213 promulgated after the 1998 election. or contain 198 . 243. of course. G. 234." While it is true that the first questioned Resolution was issued eight (8) days before the term of petitioner as Mayor expired. in turn. September 18. As held by the COMELEC. the basic law prevails. contain material defects. provides that the vice mayor concerned shall become the mayor. COMELEC.e. 11 The implication is that the COMELEC is left with no discretion but to proceed with the disqualification case even after the election. OEC SECTION 241. the conditions would have substantially changed. the legislative intent is that the COMELEC should continue the trial and hearing of the disqualification case to its conclusion. To begin with. the succession to the office of the mayor shall be in accordance with the provisions of the Local Government Code which. operating to impose a positive duty which must be enforced. He could not be considered the first among qualified candidates because in a field which excludes the disqualified candidate. — A pre-proclamation controversy refers to any question pertaining to or affecting the proceedings of the board of canvassers which may be raised by any candidate or by any registered political party or coalition of political parties before the board or directly with the Commission. a quasi-judicial body or an administrative agency for that matter cannot amend an act of Congress. receipt. Indeed. Silvestre v. We are not prepared to extrapolate the results under the circumstances. This amounts to a quasi-judicial legislation by the COMELEC which cannot be countenanced and is invalid for having been issued beyond the scope of its authority. By such interpretative or administrative rulings. COMELEC. PRE-PROCLAMATION CONTROVERSIES  Sec. removal cannot extend beyond the term during which the alleged misconduct was committed. He was repudiated by either a majority or plurality of voters.No. i. a second placer. Definition.R. If a public official is not removed before his term of office expires. March 25. even in law and jurisprudence."  Sunga v. appear to be tampered with or falsified. 1995) on the question. the scope of the law itself cannot be limited. private respondent cannot claim any right to the office. No. Hence. Indeed. He lost the elections. custody and appreciation of the election returns. this Court said: To simplistically assume that the second placer would have received the other votes would be to substitute our judgment for the mind of the voter. 241.

and election returns which appear to be regular on. 133842. 235 and 236 of this Code. Pre-proclamation Cases Not Allowed in Elections for President Vice-President. A no-vote for a particular candidate in election returns is but one strand in the web of circumstantial evidence that those election returns were prepared under "duress. a result which hardly commends itself. AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES SECTION 15. all questions affecting elections. R. The second sentence of Section 15 allows the filing of petitions for correction of manifest errors in the certificate of canvass or election returns even in elections for president. 2000 [Puno] The prohibition aims to avoid delay in the proclamation of the winner in the election. the utmost care being taken lest in penalizing the fraudulent and corrupt practices. Questions affecting the composition or proceedings of the board of canvassers may be initiated in the board or directly with the Commission in accordance with Section 19 hereof. the results of which materially affected the standing of the aggrieved candidate or candidates.R. 234. No. No. Senator. threats. Senator and Member of the House of Representatives. which indeed is called for. G.discrepancies in the same returns or in other authentic copies thereof as mentioned in Section 233. the bare fact that a candidate for public office received zero votes in one or two precincts can not adequately support a finding that the subject election returns are statistically improbable.  Sec. shall be specifically noticed in the minutes of their respective proceedings. force and intimidation. custody and appreciation of the election returns or the certificates of canvass. COMELEC. face. vicepresident and members of the House of Representatives for the simple reason that the correction of manifest error will not prolong the process of canvassing nor delay the proclamation of the winner in the election. and Member of the House of Representatives. The law. no pre-proclamation cases shall be allowed on matters relating to the preparation. AUTHORIZING APPROPRIATIONS THEREFOR.  Sandoval v. nonetheless. This rule is consistent with and complements the authority of the COMELEC under the Constitution to "enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an election. and (d) When substitute or fraudulent returns in controverted polling places were canvassed. or on the municipal certificates of canvass before the provincial board of canvassers or district boards of canvassers in Metro Manila Area. 2000. coercion.R. 26. No. COMELEC. their. or they are obviously manufactured or not authentic. Any objection on the election returns before the city or municipal board of canvassers. plebiscite. 15. 135613. Jan. or intimidation. This specially applies to the case at bar where respondent COMELEC's ruling is premised on questionable affidavits of private respondent's witnesses. except those involving the right to vote. 199 . as the case may be. referendum and recall" and its power to "decide. En Banc [Puno] Standing alone and without more. G. initiative." In the case of Una Kibad v. 7166 REPUBLIC ACT NO. transmission. which delay might result in a vacuum in these sensitive posts. VicePresident. innocent voters become disenfranchised. (c) The election returns were prepared under duress. However. provides an exception to the exception. receipt. March 9." The Doctrine of Statistical improbability  Velayo v. we warned that the doctrine on statistical improbability must be viewed restrictively. Comelec. — For purposes of the elections for President. 7166 AN ACT PROVIDING FOR SYNCHRONIZED NATIONAL AND LOCAL ELECTIONS AND FOR ELECTORAL REFORMS. this does not preclude the authority of the appropriate canvassing body motu propio or upon written complaint of an interested person to correct manifest errors in the certificate of canvass or election returns before it.A.

based on allegations of fraud. violence or analogous. 1994. 6. suspended or which resulted in a failure to elect but not later than thirty days after the cessation of the cause of such postponement or suspension of the election or failure to elect. call for the holding or continuation of the election not held.A. on account of force majeure. En Banc [Quisumbing] A prayer to declare failure of elections and a prayer to annul the election results x x x are actually of the same nature. — The postponement. The causes for the declaration of a failure of election may occur before or after the casting of votes or on the day of the election. regardless of the actual number of ballots cast. violence. terrorism. on the basis of a verified petition by any interested party and after due notice and hearing. second. (Sec. terrorism. 336 SCRA 701. suspended or which resulted in a failure to elect on a date reasonably close to the date of the election not held. Whether an action is for declaration of failure of elections or for annulment of election results. PETITION TO DECLARE FAILURE OF ELECTIONS OR ANNUL ELECTION RESULTS  Sec. fraud. 1978 EC)  Sec. the votes not cast would affect the result of the election. Jr. 7166 SECTION 4.  Banaga. even if there was voting. 7. and in any of such cases the failure or suspension of election would affect the result of the election. there is no provision in our election laws which requires that a majority of registered voters must cast their votes. Postponement. the special election shall be held simultaneously with the succeeding regular election. ELECTION PROTESTS AND QUO WARRANTO PROCEEDINGS 200 .  Mitmug v. the Omnibus Election Code denominates them similarly. even if less than 25% of the electorate in the questioned precincts cast their votes. All the law requires is that a winning candidate must be elected by a plurality of valid votes. Thus. the doctrine of statistical improbability involves a question of fact and a more prudential approach prohibits its determination ex parte. it must be accorded respect. COMELEC. no voting has taken place in the precinct or precincts on the date fixed by law or. two (2) conditions must concur: first. and. the same must still be respected. R. July 31. the Commission shall call and hold a special election to fill the vacancy not earlier than sixty (60) days nor longer than ninety (90) days after the occurrence of the vacancy. OEC SECTION 6. the election nevertheless results in failure to elect. Failure of election. or had been suspended before the hour fixed by law for the closing of the voting. if it can be determined. Feb.Moreover. After all. 230 SCRA 54. En Banc [Bellosillo] Before COMELEC can act on a verified petition seeking to declare a failure of election. the Commission shall. 4. 6 and 7 of the Omnibus Election Code shall be decided by the Commission sitting en banc by a majority vote of its members. 10. such election results in a failure to elect. — If. v. 2000. Failure of Election and Special Elections. or other analogous causes the election in any polling place has not been held on the date fixed. No. COMELEC. In case a permanent vacancy shall occur in the Senate or House of Representatives at least one (1) year before the expiration of the term. There can be failure of election in a political unit only if the will of the majority has been defiled and cannot be ascertained. or after the voting and during the preparation and the transmission of the election returns or in the custody or canvass thereof. declaration of failure of election and the calling of special elections as provided in Sections 5. But. in case of such vacancy in the Senate. However.

within 10 days after proc. COMELEC. but they may be extended if the grounds relied upon by the petition is: 1.R. 141952-53.within 30 days after proc. G.SET: w/in 15 days after proc.HRET: w/in 10 days after proc. En Banc [Quisumbing] A petition for quo warranto under the Omnibus Election Code raises in issue the disloyalty or ineligibility of the winning candidate. .Lack of citizenship of the proclaimed candidate. It is a proceeding to unseat the respondent from office but not necessarily to install the petitioner in his place. or 201 . EP & QW . or 2. Member of Congress (Senator/ Congressman) ~ CERTIORARI Rule 65 RC Supreme Court ~ NO APPEAL as Presidential SC is sole judge Electoral Tribunal ~ MOTION FOR RECON SET/HRET ~ NO APPEAL SET/HRET: Sole judge of EP EP & QW . Quo Warranto . Jr. v. Regional Provincial City/Comp. City Officials COMELEC ~ NO APPEAL ~ CERTIORARI Rule 65 RC Municipal officials RTC ~ APPEAL TO COMELEC ~ NO APPEAL from COMELEC decision ~ CERTIORARI Rule 65 RC Barangay officials MTC ~ APPEAL TO COMELEC ~ NO APPEAL from COMELEC decision ~ CERTIORARI Rule 65 RC These periods are MANDATORY. An election protest is a contest between the defeated and winning candidates on the ground of frauds or irregularities in the casting and counting of the ballots.within 10 days after proc.Disloyalty to the Republic of the Philippines  Dumayas. Nos.Jurisdiction in Election Protests and Quo Warranto Proceedings Who has Period to file Position jurisdiciton Remedy  Election Protest President & VP . 2001. April 20.

2-1396] Protestant seeks to be declared as the truly elected President up to 30 June 1998. after all. COMELEC. 1997 An election protest involves both the private interests of the rival candidates and the public interest in the final determination of the real choice of the electorate. It raises the question of who actually obtained the plurality of the legal votes and therefore is entitled to hold the office. the COMELEC First Division has no jurisdictional authority to entertain the belated answer with counter-protest much less pass upon and decide the issues raised therein. COMELEC. an election contest necessarily survives the death of the protestant or the protestee.in the preparation of the returns. It is worthy to note that as early as in the case of Arrieta vs. WHEN ELECTION PROTEST IS DEEMED ABANDONED  Miriam Defensor-Santiago v. Sept. 1997. the counter-protest of Espinosa was incorporated in his answer. Case 0001. An election contest. upon the death of the incumbent. ~ Who can file: ~ Who can file: Only a candidate running Any registered voter may for the same office may file a quo warranto file an election protest COUNTER-PROTESTS  Kho v. Feb. In the absence thereof. involves not merely conflicting private aspirations but is imbued with paramount public interests. this answer with counter-protest was filed only on June 15. But while the right to a public office is personal and exclusive to the public officer. QUO WARRANTO ELECTION PROTEST QUO WARRANTO ~ ISSUE: who really won ~ ISSUE: Whether or not the in the elections proclaimed candidate is ~ Grounds: qualified or disqualified Fraud. 7. The death of the protestant neither constitutes a ground for the dismissal of the contest nor ousts the trial court of its jurisdiction to decide the election contest.T. Apparently. It appears that Espinosa did not file a motion for extension of time within which to file his answer with counter-protest. 279 SCRA 463. thus. she was elected Senator for a term 202 . Ballot-snatching. Fidel Valdez Ramos [P. which was obviously late for four (4) days. As such. Intimidation. And as what was revealed. in which case it must be filed before the expiration of the extended time. Rodriguez. Threats Coercion. this Court had firmly settled the rule that the counter-protest must be filed within the period provided by law. En Banc [torres] It should be stressed that under the COMELEC Rules of Procedure. and for this reason. It is true that a public office is personal to the public officer and is not a property transmissible to his heirs upon death. Vote-buying. no heir of his may be allowed to continue holding his office in his place. EFFECT OF DEATH OF PARTY IN AN ELECTION PROTEST  De Castro v. etc. 267 SCRA 806. It has been said that a counter-protest is tantamount to a counterclaim in a civil action and may be presented as a part of the answer within the time he is required to answer the protest. In the case at bar. In the 8 May 1995 elections. 25. otherwise. there is no basis then for the COMELEC First Division to admit the belatedly filed answer with counter-protest. however.E. unless a motion for extension is granted. the forum loses its jurisdiction to entertain the belatedly filed counter-protest. an election protest is not purely personal and exclusive to the protestant or to the protestee such that after the death of either would oust the court of all authority to continue the protest proceedings. the protestee may incorporate in his answer a counter-protest. 1995. there is no question that the answer with counter-protest of Espinosa was filed outside the reglementary period provided for by law. ELECTION PROTEST vs.

terrorism. be deemed to have abandoned or waived her claim to the Presidency of the Republic. she has become a member of the legislative department of government impressed with the duty. except when they are used as a means to identify the voter.Threats. to fiscalize the executive. opt to fiscalize the executive until she herself becomes the executive. if accompanied by the first name or surname of the candidate.  The Idem Sonans Rule Same sound Rule.Transfer or detail of government official/EE without COMELEC approval COMELEC : Exclusive jurisdiction to investigate and prosecute RTC : Exclusive original jurisdiction to try and decide any criminal acitons or proceedings for violation of election laws MTC : offenses relating to failure to register or vote PRESCRIPTION PERIOD FOR ELECTION OFFENSES : 5 years from date of commission THE LAW OF PUBLIC CORPORATIONS THE POLITICAL AND TERRITORIAL SUBDIVISIONS OF THE STATE  Sec. since it has been rendered moot and academic by its abandonment or withdrawal by the Protestant as a consequence of her election and assumption of office as Senator and her discharge of the duties and functions thereof. [Majority decision. 1987 Constitution     203 . she will abandon the fiscalizing duty entrusted to her by the people. among others. She cannot. [PADILLA.Wagering upon the result of the election 3.if it is a marking. in fact.. IX. does not annul such vote. J. creation of new positions. As Senator. for as long as when it is pronounced it sounds like the name of the candidate.Vote-buying and vote-selling 2. she cannot have both within overlapping periods of time. in my considered view. It appears clear that the people (electorate) expect her to perform dutifully. dispositive portion] APPRECIATION OF BALLOTS  The Equity-of-the-Incumbent Rule If two or more candidates are running or the same office. and they bear the same first name. BP 881). in my view. the entire ballot is invalid. promotion. If the name of the candidate is misspelled by the voter. unless it can be considered as a marking-. intimidation. She must choose only one of the two (2) positions involved. use of fraudulent device and other forms of coercion 4. She should. it shall be counted in his favor. 1. the vote shall be appreciated in favor of the incumbent. creditably and successfully in the position of her last and most recent choice. at which point. 67.Appointment of new employee. Art. when she can run for the said office without relinquishing or forfeiting her seat as Senator (See Sec. Art.  The Description Personae Rule The use of nicknames and appellation of affection and friendship. at least until 30 June 1998. JURISDICTION OVER ELECTION OFFENSES  Election offenses 1. concurring and dissenting] DISMISS the instant election protest. granting salary increases 5. in which case the whole ballot is invalid. X. made the choice — becoming and qualifying as a Senator of the Republic from 30 June 1995 to 30 June 2001.ending on 30 June 2001. And she. surname or both and a voter in his ballot wrote only either of the two.

While the power to merge administrative regions is not expressly provided for in the Constitution. by law. subject to a plebiscite as set forth in Section 10 hereof. Art. 1987 Constitution) SECTION 15. cities. The territorial and political subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippines are the provinces. municipalities or barangays. The choice of the President as delegate is logical because the division of the country into regions is intended to facilitate not only the administration of local governments but also the direction of executive departments which the law requires should have regional offices. Congress merely followed the pattern set in previous legislation dating back to the initial organization of administrative regions in 1972. economic and social structures. 2000. [Puno] When R. municipalities. In conferring on the President the power "to merge [by administrative determination] the existing regions" following the establishment of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. Inc. It cannot be overemphasized that administrative regions are mere groupings of contiguous provinces for administrative purposes. en Banc [Cortes] Administrative regions are mere groupings of contiguous provinces for administrative purposes. COMELEC.SECTION 1. which all have political consequences on the right of people residing in those political units to vote and to be voted for. Bel-Air Village Association. The component cities and municipalities shall retain their basic autonomy and shall be entitled to their own local executives and legislative assemblies. create special metropolitan political subdivisions. and barangays. cities.  Chiongbian v. cities. cities. and other relevant characteristics within the framework of this Constitution and the national sovereignty as well as territorial integrity of the Republic of the Philippines. and geographical areas sharing common and distinctive historical and cultural heritage.  Autonomous Regions (Sec. 328 SCRA 836.  Administrative Regions  Abbas v. There shall be created autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and in the Cordilleras consisting of provinces. X. 15. They are not territorial and political subdivisions like provinces. 1987 Constitution) SECTION 11. X. municipalities and barangays. 10. Nov. There shall be autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras as hereinafter provided. 1st Div. 11. 1989. 245 SCRA 253 [1995] Thus the creation and subsequent reorganization of administrative regions have been by the President pursuant to authority granted to him by law.. municipalities. not for political representation. Orbos.A. 7924 took effect. The Congress may. No. 179 SCRA 287. not to administrative regions. The jurisdiction of the metropolitan authority that will hereby be created shall be limited to basic services requiring coordination. • MMDA v. Metropolitan Manila became a “special development and administrative region” and the MMDA a “special development authority” whose functions were “without prejudice to the 204 . March 27. Art. The regrouping of contiguous provinces is not even analogous to a redistricting or to the division or merger of local governments. it is a power which has traditionally been lodged with the President to facilitate the exercise of the power of general supervision over local governments…x x x There is no conflict between the power of the President to merge administrative regions with the constitutional provision requiring a plebiscite in the merger of local government units because the requirement of a plebiscite in a merger expressly applies only to provinces.  Special Metropolitan Political Subdivisions (Sec.

 Cordillera Broad Coalition v. 1990. There is decentralization of administration when the central government delegates administrative powers to political subdivisions in order to broaden the base of government and in the process to make local governments more responsive and accountable.” since in that event. The territorial and political subdivisions shall enjoy local autonomy. 1987 Constitution SECTION 25. COA. 7924. This was explicitly stated in the last Committee deliberations prior to the bill’s presentation to Congress…xxx It is thus beyond doubt that the MMDA is not a local government unit or a public corporation endowed with legislative power.autonomy of the affected local government units. Art. the Sangguniang Panlungsod of Makati City did not pass any ordinance or resolution ordering the opening of Neptune Street. X. the autonomy of local   Limbona v. acting through their respective legislative councils. R. II. In the case at bar. 29. Unlike the MMC. the President merely exercises supervisory authority. Art. the autonomous government becomes accountable not to the central authorities but to its constituency. 25. There is no grant of authority to enact ordinances and regulations for the general welfare of the inhabitants of the metropolis. The creation of a “special metropolitan political subdivision” requires the approval by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite in the political units directly affected. Decentralization of power. Feb. It is not even a “special metropolitan political subdivision” as contemplated in Section 11. 2. The President exercises general supervision over them. This emphasizes the administrative character of the MMDA. that possess legislative power and police power.” The character of the MMDA was clearly defined in the legislative debates enacting its charter…xxx Clearly. hence. 181 SCRA 495. its proposed opening by petitioner MMDA is illegal x x x. it relieves the central government of the burden of managing local affairs and enables it to concentrate on national concerns. decentralization of power amounts to “self-immolation. Article X of the Constitution. part of his function is to perform such other duties as may be assigned to him by the President. Sec. En Banc [Sarmiento] Autonomy is either decentralization of administration or decentralization of power. It is the local government units. No. Clearly then. 28.A. In that case. the MMC under P. involves an abdication of political power in favor of local government units declared autonomous.D. 170 SCRA 786. 1987 Constitution SECTION 2. En Banc [Cortes] 205 . the autonomous government is free to chart its own destiny and shape its own future with minimum intervention from central authorities. The power delegated to the MMDA is that given to the Metro Manila Council to promulgate administrative rules and regulations in the implementation of the MMDA’s functions. He has no control over their acts in the sense that he can substitute their judgments with his own. According to a constitutional author. Mangelin.A. 7924 was not submitted to the inhabitants of Metro Manila in a plebiscite. on the other hand. but only to ensure that local affairs are administered according to law. No. the MMDA is not a political unit of government. THE CONCEPT OF LOCAL AUTONOMY  Sec. At the same time. whereas in local government units. 1989. 824 is not the same entity as the MMDA under R. The State shall ensure governments. the MMDA has no power to enact ordinances for the welfare of the community. and ensure their fullest development as selfreliant communities and make them more effective partners in the pursuit of national development and social progress. No. In fact. Jan. The Chairman of the MMDA is not an official elected by the people. but appointed by the President with the rank and privileges of a cabinet member.

 Basco v. 162 SCRA 539). 3.. 15. the decentralization of government authority. 1996. it is the sole prerogative of the State to retain it or delegate it to local governments. It cannot therefore be violative but rather is consistent with the principle of local autonomy. What is settled is that the matter of regulating. responsibilities and resources. (emphasis supplied) As to what state powers should be "decentralized" and what may be delegated to local government units remains a matter of policy. It does not make local governments sovereign within the state or an "imperium in imperio. [Sec. family and property law jurisdiction in each of the autonomous regions. The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines. En Banc [Hermosisima] The principle of local autonomy under the 1987 Constitution simply means “decentralization. 197 SCRA 52. the principle of local autonomy under the 1987 Constitution simply means "decentralization" (III Records of the 1987 Constitutional Commission. authority. Art. PAGCOR. local governments can only be an intra sovereign subdivision of one sovereign nation. 436436.” Remaining to be an intra sovereign subdivision of one sovereign nation. the provision in the Constitution for an autonomous regional government with a basic structure consisting of an executive department and a legislative assembly and special courts with personal. its "exemption clause" remains as an exception to the exercise of the power of local governments to impose taxes and fees. In a unitary system of government. As such. is thereby deconcentrated. pp. Jr. First Ed. It is therefore a political question. such as the government under the Philippine Constitution. contemplates the grant of political autonomy and not just administrative autonomy to these regions. cast in more technical language. enabling especially the peripheral local government units to develop not only at their own pace and discretion but also with their own resources and assets.” the local government unit is autonomous in the sense that it is given more powers. 1991. and not as a subdivision of the State [Lidasan v. which concerns wisdom.The constitutional guarantee of local autonomy in the Constitution refers to the administrative autonomy of local government units or. Local government in such a system can only mean a measure of decentralization of the function of government.  Alvarez v. Thus. repealed or revoked" (Sec." "Local Government has been described as a political subdivision of a nation or state which is constituted by law and has substantial control of local affairs. 7160] Accordingly. 21 SCRA 496] PROPERTIES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS 206 .A. it shall exercise powers as a political subdivision of the National Government and as a corporate entity representing the inhabitants of its territory. however. 1987 Constitution). as cited in Bernas. R. taxing or otherwise dealing with gambling is a State concern and hence. (Citizens Alliance for Consumer Protection v. it cannot be an imperium in imperio. 1988. II. COMELEC. which is peculiar to the 1987 Constitution.” It does not make local governments sovereign within the state or an “imperium in imperio. it acts as a separate entity for its own purposes. Vol. to be an imperium in imperio. As such. p. the creation of autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras. it has dual functions. but not intended. Guingona. Jan. En Banc [Paras] The power of local government to "impose taxes and fees" is always subject to "limitations" which Congress may provide by law. XVIII. 374). 252 SCRA 695. Power which used to be highly centralized in Manila. Energy Regulatory Board. Since PD 1869 remains an "operative" law until "amended. On the other hand.. Besides. namely: 1) Public or governmental : It acts as an agent of the state for the government of the territory and the inhabitants 2) Private or proprietary : It acts as an agent of the community in the administration of local affairs. 31. DUAL NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Every local government unit created or organized [under the Local Government Code] is a body politic and corporate endowed with powers to be exercised by it in conformity with law. May 14.

safety.. which in essence are retrospective. 21 and aimed at giving "validity to acts done that would have been invalid under existing laws. if not indeed with greatest imperativeness.xxx The Executive Order issued by Acting Mayor Robles authorizing the use of Heroes del '96 Street as a vending area for stallholders who were granted licenses by the city government contravenes the general law that reserves city streets and roads for public use. Asistio. Under this administrative order. In the same manner that the failure of a public officer to question his ouster or the right of another to hold a position within one-year period can abrogate an action belatedly filed. 174 classified the Municipality of San Andres as a fifth class municipality after having surpassed the income requirement laid out in Republic Act No. Jr. CREATION. Dacanay v. It is doubtful whether such a pretext. Guingona. began and continued to exercise the powers and authority of a duly created local government unit. 353 creating the municipal district of San Andres was issued on 20 August 1959 but it was only after almost thirty (30) years. certain municipalities that comprised the municipal circuits organized under Administrative Order No. 1996. En Banc [Hermosisima] 207 . Congress did just that when it has incorporated Section 442(d) in the Code. must a quo warranto proceeding assailing the lawful authority of a political subdivision be timely raised. Curative laws. 1515. or on 05 June 1989. and later the Municipality. would succeed. The ruling could have sounded the call for a similar declaration of the unconstitutionality of Executive Order No." No pretension of unconstitutionality per se of Section 442(d) of the Local Government Code is preferred. the respondent city officials are under legal obligation to protect…. 353.. Executive Order No. 208 SCRA 404. Sr. Jan. Thus. Such leases or licenses are null and void for being contrary to law. 6. Jr. 353 but it was not to be the case. Created in 1959 by virtue of Executive Order No. 239 SCRA 11. En Banc [Grino-Aquino] As the stallholders pay fees to the City Government for the right to occupy portions of the public street. peace. 31. constituted as municipal circuits. The interests of a few should not prevail over the good of the greater number in the community whose health. the Municipality of San Andres had been covered by the 10th Municipal Circuit Court of San Francisco-San Andres for the province of Quezon. subject to the usual qualification against impairment of vested rights. good order and general welfare. MERGER AND ABOLITION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS  Municipality of San Narciso. as arteries of travel for vehicles and pedestrians. in the establishment of Municipal Circuit Trial Courts in the country. after more than five years as a municipal district.. On the contrary. Section 31 of Batas Pambansa Blg. The right of the public to use the city streets may not be bargained away through contract.. contrary to law. the City Government. Cdpr At the present time. as if existing laws have been complied with. In the meantime. issued by this Court pursuant to Presidential Decree No.  Alvarez v. en Banc [Vitug] Executive Order No. otherwise known as the Judiciary Reorganization Act of 1980. has been leasing portions of the streets to them. all doubts on the de jure standing of the municipality must be dispelled…xxx Equally significant is Section 442(d) of the Local Government Code to the effect that municipal districts "organized pursuant to presidential issuances or executive orders and which have their respective sets of elective municipal officials holding office at the time of the effectivity of (the) Code shall henceforth be considered as regular municipalities. Mayor Robles' Executive Order may not infringe upon the vested right of the public to use city streets for the purpose they were intended to serve: i. 1994. 537. 252 SCRA 695. dated 13 June 1978. DIVISION. Pelaez v. Public interest demands it. Dec. certain governmental acts all pointed to the State's recognition of the continued existence of the Municipality of San Andres. The power to create political subdivisions is a function of the legislature. even if made. Mendez. the Municipal District. Quezon v. 129. that the municipality of San Narciso finally decided to challenge the legality of the executive order. of San Andres. Auditor General was promulgated. on 24 December 1965." are validly accepted in this jurisdiction. 33.e. so also. the Municipality of San Andres had been in existence for more than six years when.

any uncertainty in the boundaries of local government units will sow costly conflicts in the exercise of governmental powers which ultimately will prejudice the people's welfare. Needless to state. Beyond these limits its acts are ultra vires. 8. 7675 as the same involved a change in their legislative district. Evidently. the inhabitants of San Juan were properly excluded from the said plebiscite as they had nothing to do with the change of status of neighboring Mandaluyong. Although a bill of local application like HB No. Logically. COMELEC. 8817 was filed on April 18. 8817. Oct. Precisely because territorial jurisdiction is an issue raised in the pending civil case. 10. what is contemplated by the phrase "political units directly affected. v. the claim of petitioners that Republic Act No. Thus. 8817 was filed in the House of Representatives first before SB No. The boundaries must be clear for they define the limits of the territorial jurisdiction of a local government unit.Petitioners assail the validity of Republic Act No. The contention is bereft of merit since the principal subject involved in the plebiscite was the conversion of Mandaluyong into a highly urbanized city. 8817 was thus precursive not only of the said Act in question but also of SB No.  Padilla. Abalos. Article X of the 1987 Constitution from its precursor. Isabela into an Independent Component City to be known as the City of Santiago. 242 SCRA 211. of the 1987 Constitution is perceptible under the circumstances attending the instant controversy. No violation of Section 24. 1243. Petitioners themselves cannot disavow their own admission that HB No. Article VI of the 1987 Constitution. 1994." mainly because the Act allegedly did not originate exclusively in the House of Representatives as mandated by Section 24. Section 3 of Article XI of the 1973 Constitution has not affected our ruling in Tan v." it means that residents of the political entity who would be economically dislocated by the separation of a portion thereof have a right to vote in said plebiscite. originate exclusively in the House of Representatives. a requisite for the creation of a barangay is for its territorial jurisdiction to be properly identified by metes and bounds or by more or less permanent natural boundaries. 1993. 1243. En Banc [Bidin] Petitioners contend that the people of San Juan should have been made to participate in the plebiscite on R. 1992. 7." is the plurality of political units which would participate in the plebiscite. It can legitimately exercise powers of government only within the limits of its territorial jurisdiction. Boundaries of Local Governments  Mariano. c. to define the territorial jurisdiction of the proposed barangays would only 208 . 8817 should. SB No. 1995. Sept. 7720. The matter of separate district representation was only ancillary thereto. The filing of HB No. Article VI. 1999. entitled.  Tobias v. Jr. Jr. This is the evil sought to be avoided by the Local Government Code in requiring that the land area of a local government unit must be spelled out in metes and bounds. 214 SCRA 735. 1243 was filed in the Senate. It stands to reason that when the law states that the plebiscite shall be conducted "in the political units directly affected. En Banc [YnaresSantiago] (Boundary Dispute) Indeed. 239 SCRA 106. Mar. COMELEC. is untenable because it cannot be denied that HB No. was the bill that initiated the legislative process that culminated in the enactment of Republic Act No. until and unless such issue is resolved with finality. 314 SCRA 179. "An Act Converting the Municipality of Santiago. Dec. Thus. 1993 while SB No. was passed in the Senate. HB No. those to be included in such political areas are the inhabitants of the 12 barangays of the proposed Municipality of Tulay-Na-Lupa as well as those living in the parent Municipality of Labo.A. Camarines Norte. No. 1243 was filed on May 19.  City of Pasig v. 7720. 7720 did not originate exclusively in the House of Representatives because a bill of the same import. by constitutional prescription. 19. with technical descriptions. COMELEC. En Banc [Puno] The importance of drawing with precise strokes the territorial boundaries of a local unit of government cannot be overemphasized. COMELEC. En Banc [Romero] The deletion of the phrase "unit or" in Section 10.

2000. POWERS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Police Power  MMDA v. approve resolutions and appropriate funds for the general welfare” of the inhabitants of Metro Manila. 7924 that empowers the MMDA or its Council “to enact ordinances. Not only that.xxx Therefore. resolutions or measures. non-governmental organizations and the private sector for the efficient and expeditious delivery of basic services in the vast metropolitan area. let alone legislative power. implementation. setting of policies. shows that the latter possessed greater powers which were not bestowed on the present MMDA…xxx The creation of the MMC also carried with it the creation of the Sangguniang Bayan. The MMDA is x x x a “development authority. safety. the MMDA is not the same entity as the MMC in Sangalang.A. should be annulled and set aside. 329 SCRA 314. No.A. 209 . preparation. regulation. the MMC which fully possessed legislative and police powers. considering the expenses entailed in the holding of plebiscites. and the power to pass ordinances or resolutions with penal sanctions were vested exclusively in the MMC…xxx Thus. Unlike the legislative bodies of the local government units. In the same vein. The issues raised by the Municipality of Cainta in its petition before the COMELEC against the holding of the plebiscite for the creation of Barangay Napico are still pending determination before the Antipolo Regional Trial Court…. Moreover. Whatever legislative powers the component cities and municipalities had were all subject to review and approval by the MMC…xxx  Acebedo Optical Company. No. Although the MMC is the forerunner of the present MMDA. the plebiscite held on March 15. there is no provision in R. 824. monitoring. management. [Puno] It will be noted that the powers of the MMDA are limited to the following acts: formulation. peace. the power to impose taxes and other levies.. 1st Div.e. Metropolitan Manila had a “central government. Bel-Air Village Association. 328 SCRA 836. March 31. installation of a system and administration. the plebiscite on the creation of Barangay Karangalan should be held in abeyance pending final resolution of the boundary dispute between the City of Pasig and the Municipality of Cainta by the Regional Trial Court of Antipolo City. an examination of Presidential Decree No. It was the MMC itself.” i.. pending final determination of whether or not the entire area of the proposed barangays are truly within the territorial jurisdiction of the City of Pasig…xxx Neither do we agree that merely because a plebiscite had already been held in the case of the proposed Barangay Napico. Pasig City. There is no syllable in R. 7924 that grants the MMDA police power. This was composed of the members of the component city and municipal councils. the petition of the Municipality of Cainta has already been rendered moot and academic. Even the Metro Manila Council has not been delegated any legislative power. morals. v. 2000. En Banc [Purisima] The scope of police power has been held to be so comprehensive as to encompass almost all matters affecting the health. people’s organizations. resolutions and measures recommended by the Sangguniang Bayan were subject to the MMC’s approval. order. Inc. that possessed legislative powers. The Sangguniang Bayan had the power to recommend to the MMC the adoption of ordinances. March 27. Inc. the charter of the MMC. Secondly. All its functions are administrative in nature and these are actually summed up in the charter itself x x x. All ordinances. we would be paving the way for potentially ultra vires acts of such barangays…xxx Moreover. however. 1997 to ratify the creation of Barangay Napico. coordination. barangay captains chosen by the MMC and sectoral representatives appointed by the President. the power to appropriate money.be an exercise in futility.” It is an agency created for the purpose of laying down policies and coordinating with the various national government agencies. CA. it is far more prudent to hold in abeyance the conduct of the same.

P. we here confirm that Congress retains control of the local government units although in significantly reduced degree now than under our previous Constitutions. Hence. which cannot defy its will or modify or violate it. which cannot now be withdrawn by mere statute. the national legislature is still the principal of the local government units. In the case under consideration. 1995 [Hermosisima] The power of the local government units to issue fishing privileges was clearly granted for revenue purposes. these ordinance are contrary to P.D.  Magtajas v. The authority. However. July 20. if exercised for a regulatory and not revenue-raising purpose. For all their praiseworthy motives. It is provided for by law. We hold that the power of PAGCOR to centralize and regulate all games of chance. It is a heresy to suggest that the local government units can undo the acts of Congress.comfort and convenience of the community. remains unimpaired. which devolved upon local government units to issue or grant such licenses or permits. This decree has the status of a statute that cannot be amended or nullified by a mere ordinance. Municipal governments are only agents of the national government. 7160 under the 210 . are one in saying that the imposition of said special conditions on petitioner's business permit is well within the authority of the City Mayor as a valid exercise of police power. from which they have derived their power in the first place. Police power is essentially regulatory in nature and the power to issue licenses or grant business permits. True. The issuance of business licenses and permits by a municipality or city is essentially regulatory in nature.D. of Republic Act No. there are certain notable innovations in the Constitution. The delegate cannot be superior to the principal or exercise powers higher than those of the latter. Without meaning to detract from that policy. the power to grant or issue licenses or business permits must always be exercised in accordance with law. Casino gambling is authorized by P. like the direct conferment on the local government units of the power to tax. Book II. Inc. This basic relationship between the national legislature and the local government units has not been enfeebled by the new provisions in the Constitution strengthening the policy of local autonomy.. 1869 and the public policy announced therein and are therefore ultra vires and void. on the other hand. The power to create still includes the power to destroy. Public respondents and private respondent SOPI. 3353 prohibiting the use of buildings for the operation of a casino and Ordinance No. CA. which empowers the local government units to prevent or suppress only those forms of gambling prohibited by law. 1994 The rationale of the requirement that the ordinances should not contravene a statute is obvious. 1869 has not been modified by the Local Government Code.D. This is evident from the fact that Section 149 of the New Local Government Code empowering local governments to issue fishing permits is embodied in Chapter 2. 234 SCRA 255. the business permit granted by respondent City Mayor to petitioner was burdened with several conditions. 251 SCRA 42.  LLDA v. Pryce Properties Corp. The power to grant still includes the power to withhold or recall. it was not competent for the Sangguniang Panlungsod of Cagayan de Oro City to enact Ordinance No. Petitioner agrees with the holding by the Court of Appeals that respondent City Mayor acted beyond his authority in imposing such special conditions in its permit as the same have no basis in the law or ordinance. however. Dec. By and large. 3375-93 prohibiting the operation of casinos. with utmost observance of the rights of all concerned to due process and equal protection of the law. is within the ambit of this power. 7. is essentially in the exercise of the police power of the state within the contemplation of the general welfare clause of the Local Government Code. 1869. Local councils exercise only delegated legislative powers conferred on them by Congress as the national lawmaking body. The authority of city mayors to issue or grant licenses and business permits is beyond cavil. and negate by mere ordinance the mandate of the statute. including casinos on land and sea within the territorial jurisdiction of the Philippines.

A. 7160. bar the State or its agent from thereafter complying with this requirement. 1998 [Panganiban] The principle of res judicata. in behalf of the LGU. the Authority has the exclusive jurisdiction to issue permits for the enjoyment of fishery privileges in Laguna de Bay to the exclusion of municipalities situated therein and the authority to exercise such powers as are by its charter vested on it. and subsequently exercising its power of eminent domain over the same property. as prescribed by law. July 20. Section 149 of Republic Act No. cannot bar the right of the State or its agents to expropriate private property. to exercise the power of eminent domain or pursue expropriation proceedings over a particular private property. the highest and most exact idea of property. or in the aggregate body of the people in their sovereign capacity.” Thus. 4850.P. which had provided that a mere resolution would enable an LGU to exercise eminent domain. While the principle of res judicata does not denigrate the right of the State to exercise eminent domain. as an inherent power of the State. Republic Act No. fishcages and other aqua-culture structures is for the purpose of effectively regulating and monitoring activities in the Laguna de Bay region (Section 2. the least limitable and the most demanding of all State powers including the power of taxation. The case of Province of Camarines Sur v. it does apply to specific issues decided in a previous case. purpose or welfare. which finds application in generally all cases and proceedings." On the other hand. 337. 2) The power of eminent domain is exercised for public use. "Specific Provisions On The Taxing And Other Revenue Raising Power of Local Government Units. has not repealed the provisions of the charter of the Laguna Lake Development Authority. A resolution that merely expresses the sentiment or opinion of the Municipal Council will not suffice. can “reach every form of property which the State might need for public use. it cannot. May a local government unit validly authorize an expropriation of private property through a mere resolution of its lawmaking body? Held: The Local Government Code expressly and clearly requires an ordinance or a local law for that purpose. Power of Eminent Domain  Municipality of Paranaque v. V. The very nature of eminent domain. 7160. Realty Corp. as amended. the previous Local Government Code. Executive Order No. Court of Appeals which held that a mere resolution may suffice to support the exercise of eminent domain by a local government unit is not in point because the applicable law at that time was B. and they have the right to resume the possession of the property whenever the public interest requires it. the present Local Government Code.heading. Notwithstanding the grant to individuals. the eminent domain. Accordingly. It does partake of the nature of police power which is the most pervasive. like police power. What are the requisites before a Local Government Unit can validly exercise the power of eminent domain? 1) An ordinance is enacted by the local legislative council authorizing the local chief executive. R. 927) and for lake quality control and management. Thus.M. a final judgment dismissing an expropriation suit on the ground that there was no prior offer precludes another suit raising the same issue. or for the benefit of the poor and the landless. remains in the government. the State or its authorized agent cannot be forever barred from exercising said right by reason alone of previous non-compliance with any legal requirement. otherwise known as the Local Government Code of 1991. For example..” All separate interests of individuals in property are held of the government under this tacit agreement or implied reservation. the charter of the Authority which embodies a valid exercise of police power should prevail over the Local Government Code of 1991 on matters affecting Laguna de Bay. the power of the Authority to grant permits for fishpens. 292 SCRA 678. explicitly required an ordinance for this purpose. In contrast. however. dictates that the right to exercise the power be absolute and unfettered even by a prior judgment or res judicata. The scope of eminent domain is plenary and. 211 .

Inc. Section 19 of the Code requires an ordinance.D. 1950). Thus. PAGCOR. the power to demand or collect license fees which is a consequence of the issuance of "licenses or permits" is no longer 212 . En Banc [Paras] The City of Manila. 870. Municipality of Caloocan.R. has long been revoked. Reyes. in the absence of a clear and express exemption from the payment of said fees. Article III of the Constitution. No.R. It is an indispensable attribute of sovereignty. G. Commissioner of Internal Revenue. v. 124 SCRA 121 [1983]). Its "power to tax" therefore must always yield to a legislative act which is superior having been passed upon by the state itself which has the "inherent power to tax" (b) The Charter of the City of Manila is subject to control by Congress. And if Congress can grant the City of Manila the power to tax certain matters. 771 and was vested exclusively on the National Government. Villanueva.  Basco v. who can make an exemption. City of Baguio. not a resolution. and other pertinent laws. Thus. it can also provide for exemptions or even take back the power. Congress. 5 SCRA 541). 4) A valid and definite offer has been previously made to the owner of the property sought to be expropriated. Rizal. march 14. No. G. It should be stressed that "municipal corporations are mere creatures of Congress" (Unson v. it is the law-making body. 28 Phil. City of Mandaluyong. The law in this case is clear and free from ambiguity. a power grounded in the primary duty of government to serve the common need and advance the general welfare…xxx In the present case. therefore. It is an ancient rule that exemptions from taxation are construed in strictissimi juris against the taxpayer and liberally in favor of the taxing authority (Esso Standard Eastern. ORDINANCE a) This is a law b) Permanent in nature c) 3rd reading is required in its enactment RESOLUTION a) Mere expression of the sentiment or opinion b) Temporary in nature c) No 3rd reading is required  Heirs of Alberto Suguitan v. 1991 [Paras] The trial court did not err in holding that "since the power to tax includes the power to exempt thereof which is essentially a legislative prerogative. 198 SCRA 82. has the power of control over Local governments (Hebron v. May 14. Acting Commissioner of Customs. Yriantes. Necessarily. 1991. 1957) which has the power to "create and abolish municipal corporations" due to its "general legislative powers" (Asuncion v. Lacson. 9124. City of Iloilo v. July 2. for the exercise of the power of eminent domain…xxx Power of Taxation  Philippine Petroleum Corp. 105 Phil. v. 83 Phil. 12 SCRA 62). 2000. 7909." The waiver partakes of the nature of an exemption. 3rd Div. 67. (c) The City of Manila's power to impose license fees on gambling. licenses or permits" was withdrawn by P. As early as 1975. Therefore. but said offer was not accepted.3) There is payment of just compensation. 7 SCRA 643). being a mere Municipal corporation has no inherent right to impose taxes (Icard v. 197 SCRA 52. the power of local governments to regulate gambling thru the grant of "franchise. it follows that a municipal mayor who is an executive officer may not unilaterally withdraw such an expression of a policy thru the enactment of a tax. June 3. Merdanillo v. 328 SCRA 137. only the National Government has the power to issue "licenses or permits" for the operation of gambling. Tax exemptions are looked upon with disfavor (Western Minolco Corp. the City of Mandaluyong seeks to exercise the power of eminent domain over petitioners' property by means of a resolution. in contravention of the first requisite. the waiver cannot be recognized. [Gonzaga-Reyes] Eminent domain is the right or power of a sovereign state to appropriate private property to particular uses to promote public welfare. 18 SCRA 488 [1966]). No. Santos v. v. "the Charter or statute must plainly show an intent to confer that power or the municipality cannot assume it" (Medina v. January 18. City of Baguio. and not an executive like the mayor. as required under Section 9. 337. As already stated. Municipality of Pililla. Orandia.

excise tax as follows: xxx xxx xxx (2) On all nonmetallic minerals and quarry resources. assessed and collected on minerals. because of the limitation provided by Section 133 of the Code in relation to Section 151 of the National Internal Revenue Code. net of excise tax and value-added tax. Mineral Products. tuff and rock phosphate. xxx xxx xxx A province may not. regardless of origin. 1998 [Romero] The tax imposed by the Province of Bulacan is an excise tax. volcanic cinders. xxx (B) xxx xxx xxx [Definition of Terms]. gravel. marble. the National Internal Revenue Code provides: Section 151. Thus. As to stones. whether extracted from public or private land. impose a tax on stones. — For purposes of this Section. basalt. — (A) Rates of Tax. sand. Basic Services and Facilities. or the values used by the Bureau of Customs in determining tariff and customs duties. PD 1869) it also exercises regulatory powers. or exercise of an activity. but not restricted to. therefore. They shall also discharge the functions and responsibilities of national agencies and offices devolved to them pursuant to this Code. PD 1869. however. Title II. Common Limitations on the Taxing Powers of Local Government Units. it may not do so. (d) Local governments have no power to tax instrumentalities of the National Government. LGC SECTION 17. — (a) Local government units shall endeavor to be self-reliant and shall continue exercising the powers and discharging the duties and functions currently vested upon them. however. 213 . That they contain no metal or metals or other valuable minerals in economically workable quantities. the exercise of the taxing powers of provinces. municipalities. Unfortunately for petitioners.  Province of Bulacan v. a tax of two percent (2%) based on the actual market value of the gross output thereof at the time of removal. 17. gravel. In addition to its corporate powers (Sec. It is clearly apparent from the above provision that the National Internal Revenue Code levies a tax on all quarry resources. fees or charges on petroleum products. granite. 3. being a tax upon the performance. Nov. and taxes. carrying on. earth and other quarry resources extracted from private land. sand. The province can. Devolved Powers to Local governments  Sec. All of its shares of stocks are owned by the National Government. Provided. in the case of importation. as the same are already taxed under the National Internal Revenue Code. mineral products and quarry resources. a province may not ordinarily impose taxes on stones. The Local Government Code provides: Section 133. cities. 7. the term — xxx xxx (4) Quarry resources shall mean any common stone or other common mineral substances as the Director of the Bureau of Mines and Geo-Sciences may declare to be quarry resources such as. levy excise taxes on articles already taxed by the National Internal Revenue Code.vested in the City of Manila. earth and other quarry resources. PAGCOR is a government owned or controlled corporation with an original charter. as amended. CA. in case of those locally extracted or produced. gravel. — There shall be levied. — Unless otherwise provided herein. and barangays shall not extend to the levy of the following: xxx xxx xxx (h) Excise taxes on articles enumerated under the National Internal Revenue Code. sand. marl. earth and other quarry resources extracted from public land because it is expressly empowered to do so under the Local Government Code. 299 SCRA 442.

public parks including freedom parks. corn. appropriate. multipurpose pavement. 214 . fruit tree. street children. cultural centers. (v) Maintenance of barangay roads and bridges and water supply systems. medical supplies. quality control of copra and improvement and development of local distribution channels. control and review of the DENR. (iv) Social welfare services which include programs and projects on child and youth welfare. beautification. and other sports facilities and equipment. and similar forest development projects. (vii) Municipal buildings. juvenile delinquents. sports center. health services which include the implementation of programs and projects on primary health care. implementation of community-based forestry projects which include integrated social forestry programs and similar projects. and victims of drug abuse. (iv) Maintenance of katarungang pambarangay. family and community welfare. beggars.Local government units shall likewise exercise such other powers and discharge such other functions and responsibilities as are necessary. and enforcement of fishery laws in municipal waters including the conservation of mangroves. (iii) Services and facilities related to general hygiene and sanitation. (vi) Infrastructure facilities such as multi-purpose hall. medicinal plant gardens. (b) Such basic services and facilities include. (vii) Information and reading center. the following: (1) For Barangay: (i) Agricultural support services which include planting materials distribution system and operation of farm produce collection and buying stations. but are not limited to. and maintenance of a public library. access to secondary and tertiary health services. (iii) Subject to the provisions of Title Five. (vi) Solid waste disposal system or environmental management system and services or facilities related to general hygiene and sanitation. and other seedling materials for aquaculture. and other kinds of seedling nurseries. or incidental to efficient and effective provisions of the basic services and facilities enumerated herein. preferably through cooperatives. coconut. management and control of communal forests with an area not exceeding fifty (50) square kilometers. purchase of medicines. establishment of tree parks. and solid waste collection. community-based rehabilitation programs for vagrants. and other similar facilities. plaza. and vegetable seed farms. demonstration farms. women's welfare. (ii) Health and social welfare services which include maintenance of barangay health center and day-care center. playgrounds. and family planning services. (2) For a Municipality: (i) Extension and on-site research services and facilities related to agriculture and fishery activities which include dispersal of livestock and poultry. scavengers. fingerlings. (ii) Pursuant to national policies and subject to supervision. welfare of the elderly and disabled persons. palay. greenbelts. and communicable and non-communicable disease control services. (v) Information services which include investments and job placement information systems. tax and marketing information systems. maternal and child care. nutrition services. where viable. water and soil resource utilization and conservation projects. livelihood and other pro-poor projects. and (viii) Satellite or public market. and other similar facilities. interbarangay irrigation system. Book I of this Code. and equipment needed to carry out the services herein enumerated.

(3) For a Province: (i) Agricultural extension and on-site research services and facilities which include the prevention and control of plant and animal pests and diseases. drainage and sewerage. (x) Upgrading and modernization of tax information and collection services through the use of computer hardware and software and other means. dairy farms. and the Home Development Mutual Fund (HDMF): Provided. and similar facilities. That national funds for these programs and projects shall be equitably allocated among the regions in proportion to the ratio of the homeless to the population. (vi) Provincial buildings. and mini-hydroelectric projects for local purposes. flood control. clinics. (ix) Public markets. and similar facilities. and (xii) Sites for police and fire stations and substations and municipal jail. smallscale mining law. (iii) Pursuant to national policies and subject to supervision. Book I of this Code. inter-municipal waterworks. relief operations. traffic signals and road signs. school buildings and other facilities for public elementary and secondary schools. but not limited to. and security services for such facilities. health centers and other health facilities necessary to carry out health services. municipal roads and bridges. and assistance in the organization of farmers and fishermen's cooperatives. small water impounding projects and other similar projects. livestock markets. (ix) Investment support services. as well as the transfer of appropriate technology. regulation and supervision of business concessions. including the acquisition of equipment. control and review of the DENR. (v) Social welfare services which include programs and projects on rebel returnees and evacuees. except those funded by the Social Security System (SSS). dikes. (x) Public cemetery. provincial jails. pollution control law. seawalls. (vii) Infrastructure facilities intended to service the needs of the residence of the province and which are funded out of provincial funds including. and 215 . (iv) Subject to the provisions of Title Five. 172 (GSIS). (ii) Industrial research and development services. as well as the transfer of appropriate technology. (viii) Programs and projects for low-cost housing and other mass dwellings. and artificial insemination centers. communal irrigation. freedom parks and other public assembly areas and similar facilities. Government Service Insurance System p. (xi) Inter-municipal telecommunications services. and other collective organizations. (xi) Tourism facilities and other tourist attractions. and irrigation systems. animal breeding stations. fish ports. spring development.(viii) Infrastructure facilities intended primarily to service the needs of the residents of the municipality and which are funded out of municipal funds including but not limited to. enforcement of forestry laws limited to communitybased forestry projects. provincial roads and bridges. reclamation projects. rainwater collectors and water supply systems. subject to national policy guidelines. drainage and sewerage. including access to credit financing. slaughterhouses and other municipal enterprises. and other laws on the protection of the environment. and flood control. and population development services. health services which include hospitals and other tertiary health services. artesian wells.

Personnel of said national agencies or offices shall be absorbed by the local government units to which they belong or in whose areas 216 . and other assets of these regional offices shall be distributed to the local government units in the region in accordance with the rules and regulations issued by the oversight committee created under this Code. (f) The national government or the next higher level of local government unit may provide or augment the basic services and facilities assigned to a lower level of local government unit when such services or facilities are not made available or. Any fund or resource available for the use of local government units shall be first allocated for the provision of basic services or facilities enumerated in subsection (b) hereof before applying the same for other purposes. and other assets and personnel of national agencies and offices corresponding to the devolved powers. functions. pertinent executive orders.(xii) Tourism development and promotion programs. the term "devolution" refers to the act by which the national government confers power and authority upon the various local government units to perform specific functions and responsibilities. (h) Regional offices of national agencies or offices whose functions are devolved to local government units as provided herein shall be phased out within one (1) year from the approval of this Code. are not covered under this Section. testing of materials. (i) The devolution contemplated in this Code shall include the transfer to local government units of the records. programs and services funded by the national government under the annual General Appropriations Act. (4) For a City: All the services and facilities of the municipality and province. (c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) hereof. Said national agencies and offices may establish such field units as may be necessary for monitoring purposes and providing technical assistance to local government units. and those wholly or partially funded from foreign sources. are inadequate to meet the requirements of its inhabitants. its instrumentalities and governmentowned or controlled corporations which are tasked by law to establish and maintain such services or facilities. public works and infrastructure projects and other facilities. and the procurement of equipment and materials at P170 from both foreign and local sources necessary for the provision of the foregoing services and facilities shall be undertaken by the local government unit concerned. (e) National agencies or offices concerned shall devolve to local government units the responsibility for the provision of basic services and facilities enumerated in this Section within six (6) months after the effectivity of this Code. unless otherwise provided in this Code. facilities. (g) The basic services and facilities hereinabove enumerated shall be funded from the share of local government units in the proceeds of national taxes and other local revenues and funding support from the national government. equipment. and responsibilities. except in those cases where the local government unit concerned is duly designated as the implementing agency for such projects. the following: (i) Adequate communication and transportation facilities. and in addition thereto. standards and guidelines. and services. specifications. based on national policies. other special laws. As used in this Code. equipment. The properties. programs. if made available. plans. (d) The designs.

A. tricycles in particular. "To regulate" means to fix. Nov. It has been the perception that local governments are in good position to achieve the end desired by the law-making body because of their proximity to the situation that can enable them to address that serious concern better than the national government…xxx The power over tricycles granted under Section 458(a)(3)(VI) of the Local Government Code to LGUs is the power to regulate their operation and to grant franchises for the operation thereof. "to register" means to record formally and exactly. A franchise is defined to be a special privilege to do certain things conferred by government on an individual or corporation. rules and regulations shall not be impaired: Provided. In fact. encumber. is aimed at curbing the alarming increase of accidents in national highways involving tricycles. 1994. local government units may. sell. or otherwise dispose of public economic enterprises owned by them in their proprietary capacity. and which does not belong to citizens generally of common right.  LTO v. salary or tenure. This can be gleaned from the explicit language of the statute itself. 29. and a "driver's license" is the certificate or license issued by the government which authorizes a person to operate a motor vehicle. by ordinance. En Banc [Narvasa] The participation by the City in negotiations for an amicable settlement of a pending litigation and its eventual execution of a compromise relative thereto. as well as the corresponding guidelines issued by the DOTC. method. or to subject to governing principles or laws. Power to Enter into Contracts  Osmena v. to adjust by rule. further. whose basic objectives are to achieve road safety by insuring the road worthiness of these motor vehicles and the competence of drivers prescribed by R. G. establish. 2000. City of Butuan. Clearly unaffected by the Local Government Code are the powers of the LTO under R. The devolution of the functions of the DOTC.they are assigned to the extent that it is administratively viable as determined by the said oversight committee: Provided. 3rd Div. That regional directors who are career executive service officers and other officers of similar rank in the said regional offices who cannot be absorbed by the local government unit shall be retained by the national government. lease. 20. Jan. 217 . Not insignificant is the rule that a statute must not be construed in isolation but must be taken in harmony with the extant body of laws. performed by the LTFRB. 238 SCRA 463. A. exercised pursuant to the police power of the State. or control. without any diminution of rank. to enroll. been devolved likewise to local government units? Held: Only the powers of the Land Transportation Franchising Regulatory Board (LTFRB) to regulate the operation of tricycles-for-hire and to grant franchises for the operation thereof have been devolved to local governments under the Local Government Code. Have the powers of the Land Transportation Office (LTO) to register. Costs may also be charged for the delivery of basic services or facilities enumerated in this Section. even the power of LGUs to regulate the operation of tricycles and to grant franchises for the operation thereof is still subject to the guidelines prescribed by the DOTC. 4136. 4136 requiring the registration of all kinds of motor vehicles “used or operated on or upon any public highway” in the country. to direct by rule or restriction. or established mode. COA. No. 131512. The exclusionary clause contained in the tax provisions of Section 133(1) of the Local Government Code must not be held to have had the effect of withdrawing the express power of LTO to cause the registration of all motor vehicles and the issuance of licenses for the driving thereof. as so aptly observed by the Solicitor General. to the LGUs. On the other hand. These functions of the LTO are essentially regulatory in nature. No. (j) To ensure the active participation of the private sector in local governance. or to enter precisely in a list or the like.R. [Vitug] LGUs indubitably now have the power to regulate the operation of tricyclesfor-hire and to grant franchises for the operation thereof. That the rights accorded to such personnel pursuant to civil service law. as well as to issue licenses for the driving thereof.

as a municipal corporation. and a compromise of a civil suit in which it is involved as a party. On the other hand. The Auditing Code of the Philippines (P. from that of the LGC of 1991 (RA 7160). 1445) further provides that no contract involving the expenditure of public funds shall be entered into unless there is an appropriation therefor and the proper accounting official of the agency concerned shall have certified to the officer entering into the obligation that funds have been duly appropriated for the purpose and the amount necessary to cover the proposed contract for the current fiscal year is available for expenditure on account thereof. 230 SCRA 585. A compromise is a bilateral act or transaction that it expressly acknowledged as a juridical agreement by the Civil Code and is therein dealt with in some detail. particularly the stipulation for the payment of P30. Clearly then. who. 3. [Ynares-Santiago] We must differentiate the provisions of the old Local Government code of 1983 (BP 337) which was then in force.  City of Quezon v. Mar. leaving or throwing of garbage” and to appropriate funds for such expenses. 1st Div. and which everyone of them prefers in the hope of gaining. 455 [vi])." The definition is reflective of the general concept of a compromise in other jurisdictions.00) as certified by the City Treasurer. adjust their difficulties by mutual consent in the same manner which they agree on. "A compromise. COA." That the City of Cebu complied with the relevant formalities contemplated by law can hardly be doubted. the contract entered into by the former Mayor Duterte was void from the very beginning since the agreed cost for the project (P8. The compromise agreement was submitted to its legislative council. the city council must provide fro the “depositing. Lexber Incorporated. Cebu City has the power to sue and be sued. as well as the obligation to pay just and valid claims against it. as "an agreement between two or more persons. owned or held in trust by.180.are indubitably within its authority and capacity as a public corporation. 1994 [Nocon] The Commission on Audit has the power. therefor cannot be imposed on the city mayor then since the two contacts were entered into before RA 7160 was even enacted.00 to the de la Cerna family. audit and settle all accounts pertaining to revenue and receipts of and expenditures or uses of funds and property. 354 SCRA 493. it is his bounden duty to so represent the city in all its business transactions. Hence. dated September 4. It cannot refuse to provide and appropriate public funds for such services which are very vital to the maintenance of cleanliness of the city and the good health of its inhabitants. In fact. not only recognized but even encouraged by law. or any of its subdivisions. is a perfectly legitimate transaction. for preventing or putting an end to a lawsuit. agencies or instrumentalities. 269 SCRA 34. REPRESENTATION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN LAWSUITS  Ramos v.920. by making reciprocal concessions. the Sangguniang Panlungsod. March 15.368. 2001. or pertaining to.000. 1986. neither does said law prohibit him fro entering into contracts unless and until funds are appropriated therefore. avoid a litigation or put an end to one already commenced." declares Article 2208 of said Code.419. This restriction. Mar. the Government. balanced by the danger of losing. authority and duty to examine. while the city mayor has no power to appropriate funds to support the contracts. (Emphasis added) Any contract entered into contrary to the foregoing requirements shall be VOID. 2. Under BP 337.D.00) was way beyond the appropriated amount (P5. CA. the contract was properly declared void and unforceable in COA's 2nd Indorsement. which now requires that the mayor’s representation of the city in its business transactions must be “upon authority of the sangguniang panlungsod orpursuant to law or ordinance (Sec.  Osmena v. Neither may it be disputed that since. it has the authority to settle or compromise suits. "is a contract whereby the parties. 1997 218 . which approved it conformably with its established rules and procedure.

policy-setting for the entire country still lies in the President and Congress. demand. 1998 [Romero] …xxx While it is true that the Provincial Governor can enter into contract and obligate the province only upon authority of the sangguniang panlalawigan. These exceptions are enumerated in the case of Alinsug vs. the Provincial Legal Officer. by constitutional fiat.The recent case of Municipality of Pililla. economic. July 19. CA. cause of action or subject matter of a suit to hearing. Thus. 132988. v. however. Such questions as what action or pleading to file. the sufficiency. Aguirre. The agreement and modus vivendi may have been signed by petitioner Roberto Pagdanganan. Negros Occidental. INTER-GOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS  Pimentel. as well as those affecting the competency of a witness. the President. is the head of the economic and planning agency of the government. In turn. San Carlos City. Neither may they do so even in collaboration with authorized government lawyers. when to rest the case. in the interest of substantial justice. 2000. With respect to such matters of ordinary judicial procedure. The agreement and modus vivendi signed by petitioners' counsel is binding upon petitioners. what are its formal requirements. primarily responsible for formulating and implementing continuing. trial. what should be the theory of the case.. even if it adversely affects a client's case. set in clear-cut terms the answer to the question of who may legally represent a municipality in a suit for or against it. provincial attorney. Only the provincial fiscal. Whatever decision an attorney makes on any of these procedural questions. even if the Sanggunian had not authorized the same. in his capacity as such. Rizal vs. But to enable the country to develop as a whole. Pryce Properties Corp. 336 SCRA 201. the attorney needs no special authority to bind his client. This is anchored on the principle that only accountable public officers may act for and in behalf of public entities and that public funds should not be expended to hire private lawyers… xxx Although a municipality may not hire a private lawyer to represent it in litigations. we hold that a municipality may adopt the work already performed in good faith by such private lawyer. Nov. 7. G. political and social development at the smaller political units are expected to propel social and economic growth and development. RTC. No. including autonomous regions. judgment and execution are within the exclusive control of the attorney. The purpose of the delegation is to make governance more directly responsive and effective at the local levels. Significantly. materiality or immateriality of certain evidence and the burden of proof are within the authority of the attorney to decide. the same is inapplicable to the case at bar. Jr. relevancy. It is a well-settled rule that all proceedings in court to enforce a remedy. the private lawyer's work cannot bind the municipality. Only in exceptional instances may a private attorney be hired by a municipality to represent it in lawsuits. coordinated and integrated social and economic 219 . which work is beneficial to it (1) provided that no injustice is thereby heaped on the adverse party and (2) provided further that no compensation in any guise is paid therefor by said municipality to the private lawyer. Br. 58. and municipal attorney should represent a municipality in its lawsuits. but it was also signed by Manuel Siayngco.  Province of Bulacan v. where and when to file it. Unless so expressly adopted. 299 SCRA 442. As we stated in Magtajas v. the national government has not completely relinquished all its powers over local governments. Local fiscal autonomy does not however rule out any manner of national government intervention by way of supervision. as Governor of the Province of Bulacan. without authorization from the sangguniang panlalawigan. to bring a claim. fiscal and otherwise. will generally bind a client. how may the claim or defense be proved. Only administrative powers over local affairs are delegated to political subdivisions. and as counsel of petitioners. the programs and policies effected locally must be integrated and coordinated towards a common national goal.R. Inc. what defenses to raise. Private lawyers may not represent municipalities on their own. in order to ensure that local programs. Court of Appeals. are consistent with national goals. determination.. limitation of issues being a procedural question falling within the exclusive authority of the attorney to decide. En Banc [Panganiban] Under the Philippine concept of local autonomy. municipal governments are still agents of the national government.

plans and programs for the entire country. The Secretary of the DILG. En Banc [Cruz] Section 187 authorizes the Secretary of Justice to review only the constitutionality or legality of the tax ordinance and. CA. 1997 220 . In lieu of the DILG Secretary. nor does he have the discretion to modify or replace them. the Disciplining Authority is the President of the Philippines. however. as far as practicable. When he alters or modifies or sets aside a tax ordinance. he may order the work done or re-done but only to conform to the prescribed rules. However. the formulation and the implementation of such policies and programs are subject to "consultations with the appropriate public agencies. If the rules are not observed. the Disciplining Authority may designate a Special Investigating Committee." Local budget plans and goals must also be harmonized. any adjustment in the allotment shall in no case be less than thirty percent (30%) of the collection of national internal revenue taxes of the third fiscal year preceding the current one. An officer in control lays down the rules in the doing of an act. and (3) the corresponding recommendation of the secretaries of the Department of Finance. Supervision does not cover such authority. various private sectors. May 20. and local government units. that is. This is explicit from A. 1994. It they are not followed. No. that was an act not of control but of mere supervision. He did not say that in his judgment it was a bad law. 1998 [Puno] Jurisdiction over administrative disciplinary actions against elective local officials is lodged in two authorities: the Disciplining Authority and the Investigating Authority. He has no judgment on this matter except to see to it that the rules are followed. As we see it. Feb. 4. Aug. The Secretary of the Interior and Local Government is the Investigating Authority. Furthermore.  Moday v. whether acting by himself or through the Executive Secretary. He may not prescribe his own manner for the doing of the act. who may act by himself or constitute an Investigating Committee. What he found only was that it was illegal. KAPUNAN: The interaction between the national government and the local government units is mandatory at the planning level. he may. In the opinion of the Court. Pursuant to these provisions. but he did not replace it with his own version of what the Code should be. All he did in reviewing the said measure was determine if the petitioners were performing their functions is accordance with law. in his discretion. under the Constitution. The supervisor or superintendent merely sees to it that the rules are followed. 23. Secretary Drilon did precisely this. if warranted. and Budget and Management. order the act undone or re-done by his subordinate or he may even decide to do it himself. 268 SCRA 586. is not the exclusive Investigating Authority. Lim. he is not also permitted to substitute his own judgment for the judgment of the local government that enacted the measure. 20."  Drilon v. but he himself does not lay down such rules. and no more nor less than this. Torres. with "national development goals and strategies in order to optimize the utilization of resources and to avoid duplication in the use of fiscal and physical resources.O. He did not pronounce the ordinance unwise or unreasonable as a basis for its annulment. 235 SCRA 135. with the prescribed procedure for the enactment of tax ordinances and the grant of powers to the city government under the Local Government Code. Local development plans must thus hew to "national policies and standards" as these are integrated into the regional development plans for submission to the National Economic Development Authority.  Joson v. Secretary Drilon did set aside the Manila Revenue Code. 290 SCRA 279. to revoke it on either or both of these grounds. (2) consultations with the presiding officers of the Senate and the House of Representatives and the presidents of the various local leagues. Interior and Local Government. and so performed an act not of control but of mere supervision.policies." The President cannot do so unilaterally. There are therefore several requisites before the President may interfere in local fiscal matters: (1) an unmanaged public sector deficit of the national government.

Although pertaining to a similar provision of law but different factual milieu then obtaining. adopting or updating of house rules would necessarily entail work beyond the day of the first regular session. or order invalid is when such resolution. or order must be premised specifically upon the fact that such resolution. the Sangguniang Panlalawigan was without the authority to disapprove Municipal Resolution No." Thus. 31. or order is outside the scope of the legal powers conferred by law. ordinance. the local council's hands were tied and could not act on any other matter? That would certainly be absurd for it would result in a hiatus and a paralysis in the local legislature's work which could not have been intended by the law. the Department of Justice ruled that the liga ng mga barangay is a government organization.The Sangguniang Panlalawigan's disapproval of Municipal Resolution No. solutions thereto. [GonzagaReyes] In Opinion No. Series of 1995. or order is 'beyond the powers conferred upon the council or president making the same. provincial and metropolitan political subdivision levels. BLG.' Absolutely no other ground is recognized by the law. A strictly legal question is before the provincial board in its consideration of a municipal resolution. ordinance. 311 SCRA 224. The provincial (board's) disapproval of any resolution. Fernandez. If a provincial board passes these limits. provincial chapters. The Local Government Code defines the liga ng mga barangay as an organization of all barangays for the primary purpose of determining the representation of the liga in the sanggunians. "The only ground upon which a provincial board may declare any municipal resolution. or order. and for ventilating. ordinance. Moreover. being an association. The duly elected presidents of highly urbanized cities. The municipal and city chapters of the liga shall be composed of the barangay representatives of the municipal and city barangays respectively. the Court's pronouncements in Velazco vs. Perforce.” There is nothing in the language thereof that restricts the matters to be taken up during the first regular session merely to the adoption or updating of the house rules. through proper and legal means. All that the law requires is that “on the first regular session x x x the sanggunian concerned shall adopt or update its existing rules or procedures. 337. ENACTMENT OF ORDINANCES  Malonzo v. as expressed in Section 153 of B. 1999. the Metropolitan Manila chapter and metropolitan political subdivision chapters shall constitute the National Liga ng mga Barangay. there is no such intent. 350 SCRA 732. Blas. Does this mean that prior thereto. But as it is. If it were the intent of Congress to limit the business of the local council to such matters.  Bito-Onon v.P. Jan. articulating and crystallizing issues affecting barangay government administration and securing. 4389 is an infirm action which does not render said resolution null and void. En Banc [Romero] On its first regular session. grants the Sangguniang Panlalawigan the power to declare a municipal resolution invalid on the sole ground that it is beyond the power of the Sangguniang Bayan or the Mayor to issue. ordinance. where we cited significant early jurisprudence. are applicable to the case at bar. league or union created by law or by authority of law. 337. it usurps the legislative functions of the municipal council or president. ordinance. The duly elected presidents of the component municipal and city chapters shall constitute the provincial chapter or the metropolitan political subdivision chapter. 41. Such has been the consistent course of executive authority. The liga shall have chapters at the municipal. 43-89 for the Municipality of Bunawan clearly Anuncio has the power to exercise the right of eminent domain and its Sangguniang Bayan the capacity to promulgate said resolution. The law. federation. Zamora. 2001. July 27. may the Sanggunian transact business other than the matter of adopting or updating its existing rules or procedure? Held: We cannot infer the mandate of the (Local Government) Code that no other business may be transacted on the first regular session except to take up the matter of adopting or updating rules. whose members are either appointed or elected government officials. then it would have done so in clear and unequivocal terms. Blg. 221 . 3rd Div. city.P. pursuant to the earlier-quoted Section 9 of B. 43-89 is valid and binding and could be used as lawful authority to petition for the condemnation of petitioners' property. it follows that Resolution No.

and no more nor less than this. In fact. Drilon v. He may not prescribe his own manner for the doing of the act. involves moral turpitude. Lim. as well as the corresponding guidelines issued by the DOTC. include such acts as are not of themselves immoral but whose illegality lies in their being positively prohibited. subsists and remains totally unaffected notwithstanding the grant 222 . He has no discretion on this matter. excessive. it would smack of control rather Have the powers of the Land Transportation Office (LTO) to register. En Banc [Cruz] An officer in control lays down the rules in the doing of an act. The supervisor or superintendent merely sees to it that the rules are followed. suffice it to say that the legal effect of probation is only to suspend the execution of the sentence. at any rate. he may. it is unjust." to wit: "It (moral turpitude) implies something immoral in itself. It must not be merely mala prohibita. 4. without the right to declare that. Aug. while crimes mala prohibita do not. Moral turpitude does not. This can be gleaned from the explicit language of the statute itself. The doing of the act itself. in his discretion. the Secretary of Justice is not given the same latitude under Section 187.xxx Petitioner contends that his probation had the effect of suspending the applicability of Section 40 (a) of the Local Government Code. No. COMELEC Not every criminal act.A. hence. he may order the work done or re-done but only to conform to the prescribed rules.. Supervision does not cover such authority. 4136 requiring the registration of all kinds of motor vehicles “used or operated on or upon any public highway” in the country. In the opinion of the Court. even the power of LGUs to regulate the operation of tricycles and to grant franchises for the operation thereof is still subject to the guidelines prescribed by the DOTC. the Court is guided by one of the general rules that crimes mala in se involve moral turpitude. excessive. Clearly unaffected by the Local Government Code are the powers of the LTO under R. and not its prohibition by statute fixes the moral turpitude. All he is permitted to do is ascertain the constitutionality or legality of the tax measure. is for the Supreme Court to determine. It is for this reason that "as to what crime involves moral turpitude. and so performed an act not of control but of mere supervision. 235 SCRA 135. He has no judgment on this matter except to see to it that the rules are followed. but he himself does not lay down such rules. nor does he have the discretion to modify or replace them. If the rules are not observed. In fact. the tax or fee levied was unjust. Flores. however. regardless of the fact that it is punishable by law or not. been devolved likewise to local government units? Held: Only the powers of the Land Transportation Franchising Regulatory Board (LTFRB) to regulate the operation of tricycles-for-hire and to grant franchises for the operation thereof have been devolved to local governments under the Local Government Code." In resolving the foregoing question. Secretary Drilon set aside the Manila Revenue Code only on two grounds. the inclusion therein of certain ultra vires provisions and non-compliance with the prescribed procedure in its enactment. That power was never questioned before this Court but. oppressive or confiscatory. These grounds affected the legality. however. not the wisdom or reasonableness of the tax measure. tricycles in particular. in his opinion. the rationale of which was set forth in "Zari v. in his opinion. That section allowed the Secretary of Finance to suspend the effectivity of a tax ordinance if. as well as to issue licenses for the driving thereof. but the act itself must be inherently immoral. Petitioner's conviction of fencing which we have heretofore declared as a crime of moral turpitude and thus falling squarely under the disqualification found in Section 40 (a). than mere supervision. to wit. Determination of these flaws would involve the exercise of judgment or discretion and not merely an examination of whether or not the requirements or limitations of the law had been observed.. VETO POWER OF LOCAL CHIEF EXECUTIVES DISQUALIFICATIONS UNDER SECTION 40 OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE  Dela Torre v. Secretary Drilon did precisely this. order the act undone or re-done by his subordinate or he may even decide to do it himself. 1994. It they are not followed. oppressive or confiscatory.

Rodriguez cannot be denied the Quezon Province gubernatorial post." Consequently. En Banc [Mendoza] To recapitulate. 7160." as appearing in Article 73 of the Rules and Regulations Implementing the Local Government Code of 1991. This new definition is unwarranted for nothing in the legislative debates has been shown to sustain it and the clear language of the law leaves no room for a reexamination of the meaning of the term. As Joaquin G. a judgment of conviction in a criminal case ipso facto attains finality when the accused applies for probation. July 24. who must. pointed out: "[D]ual citizenship is just a reality imposed on us because we have no control of the laws on citizenship of other countries. 243 SCRA 538.R. they elect Philippine citizenship to terminate their status as persons with dual citizenship considering that their condition is the unavoidable consequence of conflicting laws of different states. COMELEC. Jr. Clearly then. No. In his ponencia.A.  Mercado v. May 26. We recognize a child of a Filipino mother. be subject to strict process with respect to the termination of their status.R.A. the term limit for elective local officials must be taken to refer to the right to be elected as well as the right to serve in the same elective 223 . No. 3. G. April 18. Jr. §40(d) and in R.. i. otherwise known as the Local Government Code of 1991 enumerates those who are disqualified from running for any elective local position. for candidates with dual citizenship. v.A. 133495. Not being a "fugitive from justice" under this definition." Intent to evade on the part of a candidate must therefore be established by proof that there has already been a conviction or at least. upon the filing of their certificates of candidacy. "a person who has been convicted by final judgment. v. Justice Davide agrees and further submits that it also unreasonably expands the scope of the disqualification in the 1991 Local Government Code because it disqualifies all those who have been convicted by final judgment. after being charged. 7854. 295 SCRA 157. the phrase "dual citizenship" in R. But whether or not she is considered a citizen of another country is something completely beyond our control. No. persons with mere dual citizenship do not fall under this disqualification. §20 must be understood as referring to "dual allegiance. Bernas. among whom is a: (e) Fugitive from justice in criminal or nonpolitical cases here or abroad. one of the most perceptive members of the Constitutional Commission. it should suffice if. in including §5 in Article IV on citizenship. after being charged. 307 SCRA 630. G. 135083. petitioner's theory has no merit. regardless of the extent of the penalty imposed and of whether they have served or are serving their sentences or have evaded service of sentence by jumping bail or leaving for another country. should be understood according to the definition given in the MARQUEZ Decision. 259 SCRA 296. 1995 Section 40 of R."  Marquez. Manzano.of probation. LIMITATION ON TERM OF OFFICE OF LOCAL ELECTIVE OFFICIALS  Borja. Unlike those with dual allegiance. although it is not executory pending resolution of the application for probation. a charge has already been filed. No. the concern of the Constitutional Commission was not with dual citizens per se but with naturalized citizens who maintain their allegiance to their countries of origin even after their naturalization. Vitug finds the definition given to it by the Oversight Committee. 1998. to wit: "A 'fugitive from justice' includes not only those who flee after conviction to avoid punishment but likewise those who. Sept. 1996 To summarize. Mr. 1999 [Mendoza] Clearly. The definition thus disregards the true and accepted meaning of the word fugitive.e.  Rodriguez v. Justice Jose C. flee to avoid prosecution. COMELEC. No. Hence. COMELEC. In fact. The term "fugitive from justice" refers not only to those who flee after conviction to avoid punishment but also to those who. at the time of flight. therefore. the term "fugitive from justice" as a ground for the disqualification or ineligibility of a person seeking to run for any elective local position under Section 40(e) of the Local Government Code. as inordinate and an undue circumscription of the law. flee to avoid prosecution. 7160.

His assumption of office as mayor cannot be deemed to have been by reason of a valid election but by reason of a void proclamation. that the local official concerned has been elected three consecutive times and that he has fully served three consecutive terms. of the deceased mayor. 1999.. In the first case. Lonzanida did not serve a term as mayor of San Antonio. but he has not fully served three consecutive terms. His opponents' contention that Lonzanida should be deemed to have served one full term from May 1995-1998 because he served the greater portion of that term has no legal basis to support it. i. The case of vice-mayor C who becomes mayor by succession involves a total failure of the two conditions to concur for the purpose of applying Art. and second. X. It has been repeatedly held by the SC that a proclamation subsequently declared void is no proclamation at all and while a proclaimed candidate may assume office on the strength of the proclamation of the Board of Canvassers he is only a presumptive winner who assumes office subject to the final outcome of the election protest. §8. is he qualified to run again in the next election? Yes.position. If he is twice reelected after that. Suppose B is elected mayor and. En Banc [GonzagaReyes] The two requisites for the application of the three term rule was absent. Six months before the next election. Can he run again for mayor in the next election? Yes. the mayor is entitled to run for reelection because the two conditions for the application of the disqualification provisions have not concurred. LibLex Case No. because although he has already first served as mayor by succession and subsequently resigned from office before the full term expired. After a re-appreciation and revision of the contested ballots the COMELEC itself declared by final judgment that Lonzanida lost in the May 1995 mayoral elections and his previous proclamation as winner was declared null and void. Neither had he served the full term because he only continued the service. 224 . Consequently. §8. he must also have been elected to the same position for the same number of times before the disqualification can apply. In both cases. This point can be made clearer by considering the following cases or situations: Case No.  Lonzanida v. even if the local official is considered to have served three full terms notwithstanding his resignation before the end of the first term." Since A is only completing the service of the term for which the deceased and not he was elected. Under Art. Case No. COMELEC. he has not actually served three full terms in all for the purpose of applying the term limit. because he has served only two full terms successively. 3. The second sentence of the constitutional provision under scrutiny states. Lonzanida cannot be deemed to have served the May 1995 to 1998 term because he was ordered to vacate his post before the expiration of the term. voluntary renunciation of the office is not considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term only if the term is one "for which he was elected. that he has fully served three consecutive terms. In the second case. the fact remains that he has not been elected three times. 2. he resigns and is twice elected thereafter. interrupted by the death. His resignation constitutes an interruption of the full term. he did not fully serve the 1995-1998 mayoral term by reason of involuntary relinquishment of office. namely. X. First. July 28. Zambales from May 1995 to March 1998 because he was not duly elected to the post. A cannot be considered to have completed one term. Suppose he is twice elected after that term. Suppose A is a vice-mayor who becomes mayor by reason of the death of the incumbent. Lonzanida cannot be considered as having been duly elected to the post in the May 1995 elections. he merely assumed office as presumptive winner. the local official has been elected three consecutive times. Second. during his first term.e. which presumption was later overturned by the COMELEC when it decided with finality that Lonzanida lost in the May 1995 mayoral elections. it is not enough that an individual has served three consecutive terms in an elective local office. because he was not elected to the office of mayor in the first term but simply found himself thrust into it by operation of law. 1. can he run for one more term in the next election? Yes. he is twice suspended for misconduct for a total of 1 year. 311 SCRA 602. it disregards the second requisite for the application of the disqualification.

These constitutional and statutory provisions have two parts. 149736. the Constitution envisions a continuous and an uninterrupted service for three full terms before the proscription applies. what the Constitution prohibits is an immediate reelection for a fourth term following three consecutive terms. and (2) that he has served three consecutive full terms.  Socrates v. Lonzanida was not the duly elected mayor and that he did not hold office for the full term.e. No. 154512. not by voluntary renunciation but in compliance with the legal process of writ of execution issued by the COMELEC to that effect. a subsequent election like a recall election is no longer an immediate reelection after three consecutive terms." The clear intent of the framers of the Constitution to bar any attempt to circumvent the three-term limit by a voluntary renunciation of office and at the same time respect the people's choice and grant their elected official full service of a term is evident in this provision.R. 12. J. J. involuntary severance from office for any length of time short of the full term provided by law amounts to an interruption of continuity of service. joined by YNARES-SANTIAGO. i. hence. (1) that the elective local official concerned has been elected for three consecutive terms to the same local government position. He contended that as revealed by the records of the Constitutional Commission. The prohibited election refers to the next regular election for the same office following the end of the third consecutive term. Such involuntary severance from office is an interruption of continuity of service and thus. does not prohibit a subsequent reelection for a fourth term as long as the reelection is not immediately after the end of the third consecutive term. voted to dismiss the petition. First. however. En Banc [Carpio] This three-term limit rule is reiterated in Section 43 (b) of RA No. Nov. Lonzanida did not fully serve the 1995-1998 mayoral term.. two conditions must concur.  Mendoza v. Voluntary renunciation of a term does not cancel the renounced term in the computation of the three term limit. After three consecutive terms. The clear intent is that involuntary severance from office for any length of time interrupts continuity of service and prevents the service before and after the interruption from being joined together to form a continuous service or consecutive terms. conversely. Neither does the Constitution prohibit one barred from seeking immediate reelection to run in any other subsequent election involving the same term of office. is no longer covered by the prohibition for two reasons. The first part provides that an elective local official cannot serve for more than three consecutive terms. The debates in the Constitutional Commission evidently show that the prohibited election referred to by the framers of the Constitution is the immediate reelection after the third term.. full three-term limit…xxx In order that the three-consecutive term limit can apply.. December 17. his assumption of office from May 1995 to March 1998 cannot be counted as a term for purposes of computing the three term limit. Any subsequent election. like a recall election. not any other subsequent election. COMELEC. Therefore. not being a full term. G.R. an elective local official cannot seek immediate reelection for a fourth term. The second part states that voluntary renunciation of office for any length of time does not interrupt the continuity of service. otherwise known as the Local Government Code x x x. the intervening period constitutes an involuntary interruption in the continuity of service…xxx Clearly. Second. A recall election midway in the term following the third consecutive term is a subsequent election but not an immediate reelection after the third term. The clear intent is that only consecutive terms count in determining the three-term limit rule. albeit a voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be deemed to be an interruption in the 225 . 2002. 2002 VITUG. No. a recall term should not be counted or used as a basis for the disqualification whether served prior (as in this case) or subsequent (as in the Socrates case) to the nineyear. 7160. What the Constitution prohibits is a consecutive fourth term. The Constitution."Voluntary renunciation of office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of service for the full term for which he was elected. COMELEC G. In sum. Lonzanida vacated his post a few months before the next mayoral elections.

Since on May 14. No. August 10. is removed from office. during which respondent Leonardo B. the practice of law is more likely than others to relate to. in whose opinion QUISUMBING. the period from June 28. 2001. 102549. 355 SCRA 672. 147927. MENDOZA.” and that “[v]oluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he [is] elected. his election on that day was actually only his third term for the same position. 90-81 simply prescribe rules of conduct for public officials to avoid conflicts of interest between the discharge of their public duties and the private practice of their profession. should not be counted. Section 8. But who is the "local chief executive" referred? And which is the "Sanggunian concerned"? With respect to the first ("local chief executive"). it is because of all the professions. Section 90 of the Local Government Code does not discriminate against lawyers and doctors. 1998 (res. voluntarily resigns or is otherwise permanently incapacitated to discharge the functions of his office.] The Local Government Code and DLG Memorandum Circular No.R. with respect to vacancies in the 226 ." If there are some prohibitions that apply particularly to lawyers. 1995. G. dies. a term during which succession to a local elective office takes place or a recall election is held should not be counted in determining whether an elective local official has served more than three consecutive terms. in fact. engage in any occupation. Oct. 45 of the Local Government Code. What is crucial is the interpretation of Section 45(b) providing that “x x x only the nominee of the political party under which the Sanggunian member concerned has been elected and whose elevation to the position next higher in rank created the last vacancy in the Sanggunian shall be appointed in the manner hereinabove provided. Barba. J. Hence. Section 90 explicitly provides that sanggunian members "may practice their professions. joined.. PROHIBITION UNDER SECTION 90 OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE  Javellana v. or affect. En Banc [Mendoza] Since the vacancy in this case was created by a Sanggunian member who did not belong to any political party. 1994 to June 30. 6. fails to qualify. 133639. DILG. reuses to assume office. 1992. No. petitioners look to Sec. it excludes from the three-term limit interruptions in the continuity of service. The appointee shall come from the political party as that of the Sanggunian member who caused the vacancy…xxx”  Farinas v.). No. and Adormeo v.R. April 19. 45(a) for the answer and say that it is the governor. 4. a permanent vacancy arises when an elective official fills a higher vacant office. He argued that the Constitution does not prohibit elective local officials from serving for more than three consecutive terms because.. Arcos v. CA. Roman served as governor of Bataan by virtue of a recall election held in 1993. in accordance with the ruling in Borja. COMELEC.” The law evidently contemplates a continuous full three-year term before the proscription can apply. 2002. G. so long as such interruptions are not due to the voluntary renunciation of the office by the incumbent. 1st Div.R. COMELEC. (c) of Sec. COMELEC. 1996. Jr. the specific provision involved is par. [Kapunan] Under Section 44. the area of public service. 2001 respondent had previously served as governor of Bataan for only two consecutive terms (1995-1998 and 1998-2001). 295 SCRA 157 [1998]. COMELEC. of the Constitution is explicit that the “term of office of elective local officials x x x shall be three years” which phrase is forthwith followed by its mandate that “no such official shall serve for more than three consecutive terms. The constitutional provision does not appear to be all that imprecise for and in its application. in those instances where the law allows it. March 28. It applies to all provincial and municipal officials in the professions or engaged in any occupation. 256 SCRA 396. 311 SCRA 602 [1999]. v. [G. voted to dismiss the petition on the ground that. or teach in schools except during session hours. VACANCIES AND SUCCESSION IN THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT  Navarro v. Article X. J. Feb. Lonzanida v.continuity of the service for the full term for which he is elected.

There is only one rule governing appointments to the Sanggunian Barangay. Yet "local chief executive" cannot be applied to the punong barangay without rendering Sec. And why should a vacancy in the Sangguniang Panlalawigan be filled by a different authority (the governor. according to Sec. 50 and 63 provisions is appropriate not for the reason advanced by petitioners. 45(c). En Banc [YnaresSantiago] May an incumbent Vice-Governor. G. Sec. the power to investigate complaints against elective municipal officials is vested in the Sangguniang Panlalawigan. Perhaps "authorities concerned" would have been a more accurate generic phrase to use. Jr. 45 (c) must be understood as providing for the filling of vacancies created by members who do not belong to any political party. which would be the case if petitioners' view were to prevail.e. difficulty. the Sangguniang Panlalawigan. under this provision. Aguirre. to follow private respondents' interpretation would be to run into a similar. can appoint a replacement for a member of the Sangguniang Bayan who for one reason or another ceases from office for reason other than the expiration of his term. These provisions are in pari materia with Sec. 1999. Their reason is that under Sec. This event constitutes an “inability” on the part of the regular presiding officer (Vice-Governor) to preside during the SP sessions. For that matter. (a) and (b) must be read as providing for the filling of vacancies in the various Sanggunians when these vacancies are created as a result of the cessation from office (other than expiration of term) of members who belong to political parties. 134213. To be sure the President of the Philippines can not be referred to as "local chief executive" in Sec. 45(a)(3) meaningless. or the mayor with respect to vacancies in the Sangguniang Barangay. For Sec. not the Sangguniang Panlungsod or the Sangguniang Bayan.. July 20. the governor and the mayor in descending order the exercise of an executive power whether to appoint in order to fill vacancies in local officials. with the exception of the Sangguniang Barangay pars. This interpretation is inconsistent with the fact that in filling vacancies in the Sangguniang Barangay it is the Sangguniang Barangay which under Sec. Reference to Secs. interminably repeating the officials on whom the power to appoint is conferred. while concurrently the Acting Governor. Jr. if not greater. 45(a)(1). In other words.R. This is in keeping with the policy implicit in Sec. continue to preside over the sessions of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan (SP)? If no. It is the punong barangay. To repeat. 45(c) but it is apparent that the phrase is a misnomer and that the choice of this phrase was simply dictated by the need to avoid. with respect to a vacancy in the Sangguniang Bayan. For then there would never be any occasion when the mayor.Sangguniang Panlungsod of component cities and Sangguniang Bayan.. 45(a)(3) recommends the appointee. i. Such is not only consistent with but also appears to be the clear rationale of the new (Local Government) Code wherein the policy of performing dual functions in both offices has already been abandoned. for stylistic reasons. a vacancy created by a member who belongs to a political party must be filled by appointment by the President of the Philippines? With reference to the phrase "sanggunian concerned" in Sec. the Vice-governor cannot continue to simultaneously exercise the duties of the latter office. 45. since the nature of the duties of the Provincial Governor calls for a full-time occupant to discharge them. 45(a)(3). The continuity of the Acting Governor’s (Vice-Governor) powers as presiding officer of 227 . 45(c) should more properly be understood as referring to the Sanggunian in which the vacancy is created. No. but because implicit in these provisions is a policy to vest in the President. v. 45(a)(3) vests the power to fill vacancies in the Sangguniang Barangay in the mayor but the local chief executive of a barangay is not the mayor. according to this view) simply because the vacancy was created by a member who does not belong to a political party when. On the other hand. petitioners say it means. We think that the phrase "sanggunian concerned" in Sec. which thus calls for the operation of the remedy set in Article 49(b) of the Local Government Code – concerning the election of a temporary presiding officer. The reason is that members of the Sangguniang Barangay are not allowed to have party affiliations  Gamboa. who may preside in the meantime? Held: Being the acting governor. that the power to appoint implies the power to remove. Any vacancy therein caused by the cessation from office of a member must be made by the mayor upon the recommendation of that Sanggunian. the creation of a temporary vacancy in the office of the Governor creates a corresponding vacancy in the office of the Vice-Governor whenever the latter acts as Governor by virtue of such temporary vacancy. 61 of the Code.

v. and other appointive barangay officials. 2001. Feb. It is likely that the legislature did not intend this absurdity to follow from its enactment of the law. Under Section 49(b).  Alquizola. A complaint against an elective provincial or city official must be filed with the Office of the President. it was petitioner who acted in undue haste to remove the private respondents without regard for the simple requirements of due process of law. 3rd Div. the Rules of Court and the Administrative Code of 1987 apply in a suppletory character. the questioned dismissal from office of the barangay officials by the punong barangay without the concurrence of the majority of all the members of the Sangguniang Barangay cannot be legally justified. 132413. 23 entitled "Prescribing the Rules and Procedures on the Investigation of Administrative Disciplinary Cases Against Elective Local Officials of Provinces. Torres.O. “in the event of the inability of the regular presiding officer to preside at the sanggunian session. the barangay secretary. the power to appoint or replace the barangay treasurer. No. Rule V. Independent Component Cities. ADMINISTRATIVE DISCIPLINARY ACTIONS  Joson v. Without such conjoint action. 1999. 27. Highly Urbanized Cities. and Cities and Municipalities in Metropolitan Manila. While he argues that the appointing power has the sole authority to revoke said appointments. To rule otherwise could also create an absurd situation of the Sangguniang Barangay members refusing to give their approval to the replacements selected by the punong barangay who has unilaterally terminated the services of the incumbents." Thus." 35 In all matters not provided in A. 36 An administrative complaint against an erring elective official must be verified and filed with the proper government office. the power of appointment is to be exercised conjointly by the punong barangay and a majority of all the members of the sangguniang barangay. neither an appointment nor a replacement can be effectual. Section 9 of the Omnibus Implementing Regulations of the Revised Administrative Code specifically provides that "an appointment accepted by the appointee cannot be withdrawn or revoked by the appointing authority and shall remain in force and in effect until disapproved by the Commission. but only when such appointment and approval are proven to be in disregard of applicable provisions of the civil service law and regulations. Clearly.the SP is suspended so long as he is in such capacity. the barangay secretary. upon approval by a majority of all the members of the sangguniang barangay. there is no debate that he does not have blanket authority to do so.” APPOINTMENT AND REMOVAL OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS  De Rama v. G. There was no previous notice. and Administrative Order No. it is the CSC that is authorized to recall an appointment initially approved. much less a hearing accorded to the latter. [Vitug] May the Punong Barangay validly appoint or remove the barangay treasurer. 1998 [Puno] Administrative disciplinary proceedings against elective local officials are governed by the Local Government Code of 1991. Applying the rule that the power to appoint includes the power to remove. the members present and constituting a quorum shall elect from among themselves a temporary presiding officer. 95-01 which recalled the appointments of the private respondents. 353 SCRA 94. No. CA. En Banc [Ynares-Santiago] Petitioner admits that his very first official act upon assuming the position of town mayor was to issue Office Order No. he overstepped the bounds of his authority. 23. Aug. and other appointive barangay officials without the concurrence of the majority of all the members of the Sangguniang Barangay? Held: The Local Government Code explicitly vests on the punong barangay. Sr. May 20. A complaint against an elective municipal official must be filed with the Sangguniang 228 . 290 SCRA 279. In doing so.R. Ocol. Neither can he question the CSC's jurisdiction to affirm or revoke the recall. 28. the Rules and Regulations Implementing the Local Government Code of 1991. Verily.

This means that the people may petition or the Preparatory Recall Assembly may resolve to recall any local elective official without specifying any particular ground except loss of confidence. 127066. In the words of the Court. Former Senator Aquilino Pimentel. COMELEC. 1996. it is frequently described as a fundamental right of the people in a representative democracy. May 22. 257 SCRA 55. En Banc [Puno] The due process clause of the Constitution requiring notice as an element of fairness is inviolable and should always be considered part and parcel of every law in case of its silence. Jr. thus: “There is only one ground for recall of local government officials: loss of confidence. the requirement of notice is mandatory for it is indispensable in determining the collective wisdom of the members of the Preparatory Recall Assembly. Oct. Guingona. 227 SCRA 108. Commission on Elections. 1993. There is no need for them to bring up any charge of abuse or corruption against the local elective officials who are subject of any recall petition. 227 SCRA 108. 204 SCRA 464.. the Court ruled that ‘loss of confidence’ as a ground for recall is a political question.R. Assuming then that the findings and conclusions of the Office of the President in each of the subject four administrative cases are correct.. 1997. a major author of the subject law in his book The Local Government Code of 1991: The Key to National Development. although the aggregate thereof exceeded six months and the unexpired portion of the petitioners' term of office. The need for notice to all the members of the assembly is also imperative for these members represent the different sectors of the electorate of Bataan. viz. COMELEC. This provision sets the limits to the penalty of suspension. et al. to that extent is the sovereign voice of the people they represent nullified. it committed no grave abuse of discretion in imposing the penalty of suspension. The people's prerogative to remove a public officer is an incident of their sovereign power and in the absence of constitutional restraint.  Salalima v. No. The fact remains that the suspension imposed for each administrative offense did not exceed six months and there was an express provision that the successive service of the suspension should not exceed the unexpired portion of the term of office of the petitioners. COMELEC [G. any of the grounds for disciplinary action. Needless to stress. En Banc [Puno])  Garcia v. RECALL Recall is a mode of removal of a public officer by the people before the end of his term of office. 5. 472 (1991). And this Court is not prepared to rule that the suspension amounted to the petitioners' removal from office.Panlalawigan while that of a barangay official must be filed before the Sangguniang Panlungsod or Sangguniang Bayan. In the case of Evardone v. Oct. To the extent that they are not notified of the meeting of the assembly. the power is implied in all governmental operations. Its non-observance is fatal to the validity of the resolution to recall petitioner Garcia as Governor of the province of Bataan. stressed the same reason why the substantive content of a vote of lack of confidence is beyond any inquiry. Such power has been held to be indispensable for the proper administration of public affairs. Their term of office expired at noon of 30 June 1995. En Banc [Davide] An administrative offense means every act or conduct or omission which amounts to. 1993. (Garcia v. Not undeservedly.. Jr. it should not exceed six months or the unexpired portion of the term of office of the respondent for every administrative offense.] 229 .’”  Malonzo v. The resolution to recall should articulate the majority will of the members of the assembly but the majority will can be genuinely determined only after all the members of the assembly have been given a fair opportunity to express the will of their constituents. 'whether or not the electorate of the municipality of Sulat has lost confidence in the incumbent mayor is a political question. March 11. or constitutes.. 5.

74 refers to a process. 74 of the Local Government Code of 1991 which provides that “no recall shall take place within one (1) year x x x immediately preceding a regular local election” refers to one where the position of the official sought to be recalled is to be actually contested and filled by the electorate (Paras v. G. 1997 A petition for recall signed by just one person is in violation of the statutory 25% minimum requirement as to the number of signatures supporting any petition for recall. the recall was validly initiated outside the one-year prohibited period. exactly one year and a day after petitioner’s assumption of office.’ the process of recall began” and. as used in paragraph (b) of Sec. in contrast to the term “recall election” found in Sec. He claims that “when several barangay chairmen met and convened on May 19. G. The term “regular local election” under Sec. No. 1999." The Liga ng mga Barangay is undoubtedly an entity distinct from the Preparatory Recall Assembly. since May 29. and then proceeds to the filing of a recall resolution or petition with the COMELEC. G. 140560. En Banc [Mendoza] Does the word “Recall” in paragraph (b) of Section 74 of the Local Government Code include the convening of the Preparatory Recall Assembly and the filing by it of a recall resolution? Discuss. 69(d) of the Local Government Code of 1991 expressly provides that 'recall of any elective x x x municipal x x x official may also be validly initiated upon petition of at least twenty-five percent (25%) of the total number of registered voters in the local government unit concerned during the election in which the local official sought to be recalled was elected. 123169. No. “recall” refers to the election itself by means of which voters decide whether they should retain their local official or elect his replacement. Sec.  Claudio v. and voted in favor of the resolution calling for the recall of Mayor Malonzo. 1999. 74. March 5.R. Both petitioner Claudio and the COMELEC thus agree that the term “recall” as used in Sec. including the filing of the recall petition on July 2. were null and void. 74 (a). on the other hand. May 4.R. and that. followed by the taking of votes by the PRA on May 29. the Punong Barangays and Sangguniang Barangay members conveyed and voted as members of the Preparatory Recall Assembly of the City of Caloocan. and the holding of the election on the scheduled date. 1999 was less than a year after he had assumed office. the PRA was illegally convened and all proceedings held thereafter. It just so happens that the personalities representing the barangays in the Liga are the very members of the Preparatory Recall Assembly. 4. 2000. Nov. since the petition for recall in this case was filed on July 2. 74. and not as members of the Liga ng mga Barangay. 1996. 74 (b) refers to a process. maintains that the process of recall starts with the filing of the petition for recall and ends with the conduct of the recall election. the fixing of the date of the recall election.R. Comelec. the verification of such resolution or petition. 1996). 126576.' The law is plain and unequivocal as to what constitutes recall proceedings: only a petition of at least 25% of the total number of registered voters may validly initiate recall proceedings. Thus.The barangays are represented in the Liga by the barangay captains as provided under Section 492 of the Local Government Code. which obviously refers to an election. 1999 and unanimously resolved to initiate the recall. We can agree that recall is a process which begins with the convening of the preparatory recall assembly or the gathering of the signatures at least 25% of the registered voters of a local government unit. They disagree only as to when the process starts for purpose of the one-year limitation in paragraph (b) of Sec. the majority of whom met on July 7. However. after deliberation reported. No. in the record in accordance with the existing law.  Angubung v. COMELEC. The one-year time bar will not apply where the local official sought to be recalled is a Mayor and the approaching election is a barangay election. The COMELEC. 1999 for the purpose of adopting a resolution ‘to initiate the recall of Jovito Claudio as Mayor of Pasay City for loss of confidence. It also provides that the Kagawad may represent the barangay in the absence of the barangay chairman. 230 . Held: Petitioner contends that the term “recall” in Sec. COMELEC.

The specific purpose of the Preparatory Recall Assembly was to remove Amelita S. . Navarro as the elected Vice-Mayor of Santiago City since PRA Resolution No. Navarro for loss of confidence through a recall election to be set by the Commission on Election as provided for under Section 71 of the Local Government Code of 1991. succeeded to the position of City Mayor. the petitioner was placed beyond the reach of the effects of the PRA Resolution. thus." However. A perusal of the said Resolution reveals that the person subject of the recall process is a specific elective official in relation to her specific office. 2000. which leave no doubt that the purpose of the assembly was to recall petitioner as Vice Mayor for her official acts as Vice Mayor. 2) Because the purpose of the first limitation in paragraph (b) is to provide voters a sufficient basis for judging an elective local official. the petitioner when she is already the incumbent City Mayor is to deviate from the expressed will of the PRA. it is hereby resolved to invoke the rescission of the electoral mandate of the incumbent City Vice-Mayor Amelita S. The third paragraph of the resolution recounted "the official acts of City Vice Mayor Navarro that brought forth the loss of confidence in her capacity and fitness to discharge the duties and to perform the functions of her public office. One year after her assumption of office as Mayor will be October 11. the term “recall” in paragraph Sec 74(b) refers to the recall election and not to the preliminary proceedings to initiate recall – 1) Because Sec. Even if the Preparatory Recall Assembly were to reconvene to adopt another resolution for the recall of Amelita Navarro.  Afiado v. En Banc [De Leon] [When Recall Becomes Moot and Academic] …xxx As to whether or not Mayor Navarro can be the subject of recall election by virtue of Resolution No. and 3) Because to construe the limitation in paragraph (b) as including the initiation of recall proceedings would unduly curtail freedom of speech and of assembly guaranteed in the Constitution. Having." Clearly.To sum up.006 and to which we agree. The said resolution is replete with statements. 1999. 74 speaks of limitations on “recall” which. 2000 in EM No. Sept. 340 SCRA 600. then. To recall. the intent of the PRA as expressed in the said Resolution is to remove the petitioner as Vice Mayor for they already lost their confidence in her by reason of her official." There is no more allowable time in the light of that law within which to hold recall elections for that purpose. and final judging is not done until the day of the election. 1 dated July 12. the assembly "RESOLVED to invoke the rescission of the electoral mandate of the incumbent City Vice Mayor. We quote below the pertinent portion of the COMELEC's Resolution dated March 31. the same would still not prosper in view of Section 74 (b) of the Local Government Code of 1991 which provides that "No recall shall take place within one (1) year from the date of the official's assumption of office or one (1) year immediately preceding a regular election. . 69. 1 of the Preparatory Recall Assembly which was passed when she was still the elected City Vice-Mayor. Navarro assumed office as Mayor of Santiago City on October 11. 18. 1999 expressly states that ". Since the voters do not exercise such right except in an election. is a power which shall be exercised by the registered voters of a local government unit. the same has become moot and academic. the said PRA Resolution No. The title itself suggests that the recall is intended for the incumbent Vice Mayor of Santiago City. it is clear that the initiation of recall proceedings is not prohibited within the one-year period provided in paragraph (b). 2000 which is already within the one (1) year prohibited period immediately preceding the next regular election in May 2001. to wit: The assumption by legal succession of the petitioner as the new Mayor of Santiago City is a supervening event which rendered the recall proceeding against her moot and academic. 1 is no longer applicable to her inasmuch as she has already vacated the office of ViceMayor on October 11. The then Vice-Mayor Amelita S." And because of such acts. acts as such. this time as Mayor of Santiago City. 99. 1999 when she assumed the position of City Mayor of Santiago City. 231 . according to Sec. COMELEC.

like individuals. the settling of claims. In a situation however. treaties really limit or restrict the absoluteness of sovereignty. En Banc [Panganiban] By their inherent nature. national legislative enactments. exercising control over and capable of maintaining law and order within the territory. the regulation of commercial relations. Jan. they also commonly agree to limit the exercise of their otherwise absolute rights. 2000. Efforts should first be exerted to harmonize them.  Tanada v. Lantion. No. decrees that rules of international law are given equal standing with. After all. ELEMENTS OF STATE  People – a group of individuals. where the conflict is irreconcilable and a choice has to be made between a rule of international law and municipal law. the termination of war.   Territory – fixed portion of the earth’s surface occupied by the inhabitants. A casual gathering (stranded).  Secretary of Justice v. as applied in most countries. The doctrine of incorporation. The Philippines follows this doctrine. for example. Government – must be organized.R. 2 Article II of the Constitution states that the Philippines adopt the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land. Accordingly. treaties have been used to record agreements between States concerning such widely diverse matters as. the regulation of conduct of hostilities. or a society of pirates would not constitute a state. both statutes and treaties may be invalidated if they are in conflict with the Constitution. Article II of the Constitution. En Banc [Melo] Under the doctrine of incorporation. Thus. states. By their voluntary act.PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW THE DOCTRINE OF INCORPORATION The Doctrine of Incorporation means that the rules of international law form part of the law of the land and no legislative action is required to make them applicable to a country. so as to give effect to both since it is to be presumed that municipal law was enacted with proper regard for the generally accepted principles of international law in observance of the Incorporation Clause in Section 2. In states where the Constitution is the highest law of the land. rules of international law form part of the law of the land and no further legislative action is needed to make such rules applicable in the domestic sphere. both sexes. such as the Republic of the Philippines. The sovereignty of a state therefore cannot in fact and in reality be considered absolute. jurisprudence dictates that municipal law should be upheld by the municipal courts for the reason that such courts are organs of municipal law and are accordingly bound by it in all circumstances. The doctrine of incorporation is applied whenever municipal tribunals (or local courts) are confronted with situations in which there appears to be a conflict between a rule of international law and the provisions of the Constitution or statute of the local state. living together as community. but are not superior to. The fact that international law has been made part of the law of the land does not pertain to or imply the primacy of international law over national or municipal law in the municipal sphere. G. live with coequals. 272 SCRA 18 [1997]. the principle of lex posterior derogat priori takes effect – a treaty may repeal a statute and a statute may repeal a treaty. the laying down of rules governing conduct in peace and the establishment of international organizations. Angara. because Sec. and in pursuit of mutually covenanted objectives and benefits. 18. the formation of alliances. the lease of naval bases. nations may surrender some aspects of their state power in exchange for greater benefits granted by or derived from a convention or pact. 139465. It can be held internationally 232 . the sale or cession of territory. Certain restrictions enter into the picture: (1) limitations imposed by the very nature of membership in the family of nations and (2) limitations imposed by treaty stipulations. They must be sufficient in number to maintain and perpetuate themselves.

except laws on tions between treason. as by a revolution. the obligations of the replaced government are also completely assumed by the former.  Is Sovereignty Absolute? While sovereignty has traditionally been deemed absolute and allencompassing on the domestic level. The rule is that where the new government was organized by virtue of a constitutional reform duly ratified in a plebiscite.  Is it a Political Question?  Effect of Change in Government It is well settled that as far as the rights of the predecessor government are concerned. it may lawfully reject the purely personal or political obligations of the predecessor government but not those contracted by it in the ordinary course of official business. which are considered to be automatically part of our own laws.  Sovereignty – freedom from outside control in the conduct of its foreign (and internal) affairs. they are inherited in toto by the successor government. One of the oldest and most fundamental rules in international law is pacta sunt servanda – international agreements must be performed in good faith.authority. because the inhabitants treason is a breach & the state of allegiance to the sovereign. By the doctrine of incorporation. expressly or impliedly.responsible for the acts of the inhabitants.  Effect of Change in Sovereignty Non-political Political laws laws Suspended subject Not affectedto revival under a) Non political the laws are laws principle of jus intended postlimini upon the to govern the End of relations of occupation indiviJudicial decisions They are valid during the occupation & even beyond it. as a member of the family of nations. Regarding the obligations. which is duals as among automatiThis applies only cally annulled to themselves upon b) Political laws civilians & not to are the restoration of laws intended members of the to the legitimate armed forces. except those of political complexion. the country is bound by generally accepted principles of international law. govern the rela. it is however subject to restrictions and limitations voluntarily agreed to by the Philippines. The identity of the state is not affected by changes in government. Conversely. Principle of State Continuity  The The disappearance of any of the above-mentioned elements of statehood would cause the extinction of the State. but mere changes as to 233 . distinction is made according to the manner of the establishment of the new government. A state which has contracted valid international obligations is bound to make in its legislations such modifications as may be necessary to ensure the fulfillment of the obligations.

 De Jure Recognition – extended to a government fulfilling the requirements for recognition. bring about such extinction. there is no explicit provision in the Constitution which vests this power in any department. and indicates its willingness to deal with the entity as such under international law.  Recognition of Belligerency It is the formal acknowledgment by a third party of the existence of a state of war between the central government and a portion of that state. The recognition is generally provisional and limited to certain judicial relations.one or more of those elements would not necessarily. brings about full diplomatic intercourse and observance of diplomatic immunities. The recognition is relatively permanent. But since under the Constitution. it may be compelled once the elements of a state are established. the President is empowered to appoint and receive ambassadors and public ministers. Belligerency exists when a sizable portion of the territory of a state is under 234 . recognition is compulsory and legal.  Who has Authority to Recognize? It is a matter to be determined according to the municipal law of each state. The identity of a State in international law is also not affected by changes in government.  Declaratory School (Majority View) – recognition merely affirms an existing fact. under the Principle of State Continuity. In the Philippines. it does not bring about full diplomatic intercourse and does not give title to assets of the state held/situated abroad. whether brought about legally or illegally by revolution or coup d’ etat. a government or a belligerent community. and confers title to assets abroad. it is the Executive Department that is primarily endowed with the power to recognize foreign governments and States.  Recognition of Government The free act by which one or several states acknowledges that a person or a group of persons is capable of binding the state which they claim to represent and witness their intention to enter into relations with them. It is discretionary and political. THE QUESTION OF RECOGNITION  Recognition – the act by which a state acknowledges the existence of another state. as a rule. it is conceded that by implications.  The Estrada Doctrine – a policy of never issuing any declaration giving recognition to governments and of accepting whatever government is in effective control without raising the issue of recognition. like the possession by the state of the essential elements. recognition is generally considered as de jure.  Kinds of Recognition of Government  De Facto Recognition – extended by the recognizing state which believes that some of the requirements for recognition are absent. When there is no specific indication. Under this view.  Recognition of States  Constitutive School (Minority View) – recognition is the act which constitutes the entity into an international person.  Wilson or Tobar Doctrine – precludes recognition to any government coming into existence by revolutionary means so long as the freely elected representatives of the people thereof have not constitutionally reorganized the country.

however. “Discovery”. alone. or completely surrounded like Iceland.  Effects of Recognition of Belligerency Responsibility for acts of rebels resulting in injury to nationals of the recognizing state shall be shifted to the rebel government. d.  e. The increase in the land area of the State. have a political organization. Accretion. is place under the sovereignty of the claiming State. Cession may also be involuntary or forced. which forbade recognition of any government set up through external aggression.the fixed portion on the surface of the earth on which the State settles and over which it has supreme authority. Discovery and Occupation. through a treaty of sale or treaty of donation. In this connection. 235 . Cession may voluntary. c. or dismembered as in the case of the United States. so is the proclamation of neutrality by a third state. conquest was not considered a valid mode of acquiring territory. and willingness on the part of the rebels to observe the rules/customs of war. inasmuch as the UN Charter prohibits resort to threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State. are able to maintain such control. Thus. (2) Recognition may be either express or implied. Territory may also be acquired through continuous and uninterrupted possession over a long period of time. which speaks of uninterrupted possession going beyond memory. consider the Grotius doctrine of immemorial prescription.  The Terrestrial or Land Domain The land mass on which the people live. Territory not belonging to any State. it must be followed within a reasonable b. the legitimate government recognizing the rebels shall observe the laws of war in conducting hostilities.  Conditions of Recognition of Belligerency The usual conditions for the recognition of the status of belligerency are: organized civil government having control and supervision over the armed struggle. the proclamation by the parent state of a blockade of a port held by the rebels is implied recognition of belligerency. there is no rule of thumb as to the length of time needed for acquisition of territory through prescription.the effective control of an insurgent community which is seeking to establish a separate government and the insurgents are in de facto control of a portion of the territory and population. [Note: (1) Absence of any of the foregoing conditions will result merely in insurgency which is rarely recognized. and recognition is only provisional (for the duration of the armed struggle) and only for the purpose of the hostilities. under the Stimson Doctrine. either through natural means or artificially through human labor. serious and widespread struggle with the outcome uncertain. applied in the Polar region of the Arctic and Antartica. This mode of acquisition is no longer recognized. It may be integrate. and conduct themselves according to the laws of war. The Sector Principle. as in the case of Iran.] TERRITORIES OF STATES Territory . or terra nullius. or may be partly bounded by water like Burma. In international law. Modes of Acquiring Land Territory a. just like in civil law. or may consist of several islands like the Philippine archipelago. occupation of a substantial portion of the national territory. Conquest. Cession (by treaty). Prescription. third states recognizing the belligerency shall maintain neutrality. merely creates an inchoate right.

canals.  The Right of Innocent Passage – navigation through the territorial sea of a State for the purpose of traversing that sea without entering internal waters. without restriction.  The Internal Waters Bodies of water within the land mass. all the non-internal waters delineated by the latitudes and longitudes specified in Article III of the Treaty of Paris of December 10. or making for the high seas from internal waters. research.  The Right of Transit Passage  The 24-Nautical Miles Contiguous Zone – extends up to 12 nautical miles from the territorial sea. regardless of their breadth or dimension. must first take possession of the territory. Thereafter. are to be treated as internal waters. fishing. bays and straits. such as rivers. in its name or by its authority. The coastal State may exercise limited jurisdiction over the contiguous zone.  The Continental Shelf – comprises the sea-bed and the sub-soil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the continental margin. The Doctrine of Effective Occupation The nationals of the discovering state. to the use of all States for the purpose of navigation. are not territory of any particular State.  The High Seas – also treated as res communes or res nulius.  The Regime of the Territorial Sea Defined according to what we call historic right or treaty limits theory. mining. such as pursuit by pirates. fiscal. The UN Convention on the Law of Sea defines internal waters as all waters on the landward side of the baselines of the territorial sea. unseaworthiness of the vessel. between the United States. flight over them. or to a distance of 200 miles from the baselines from which the territorial sea is measured where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to that distance. All living and non-living resources found therein belong exclusively to the coastal state. immigration or sanitary laws. Arrival under stress or involuntary entrance may be due to lack of provisions. they must establish thereon an organization or government capable of making its laws respected. The traditional view is freedom of the high seas .  The Maritime or Fluvial Domain – consist of the bodies of water within the land mass and the waters adjacent to the coasts of the state up to a specified limit. They have been regarded by the rest of the world since Spain claimed them as such after its discovery of the Philippine Island in 1521 and such recognition has vested historic right in us as successor in interest. or of proceeding to internal waters. 1898. laying submarine cables and pipes. gulfs. Under the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea. between and connecting the island of the archipelago. etc. or other case of force majeure. as long as it is not prejudicial to the peace. to prevent infringement of customs. are territorial in character. 236 . to such territorial seas. good order or security of the coastal State.  The 200-Mile Exclusive Economic Zone – (patrimonial sea) extends 200 nautical miles from the coast or the baselines. the territorial sea has a uniform breadth of 12 miles measured from the low-water mark of the coast. and thus. lakes. inclement weather.they are open and available. According to this theory. of which the Philippines is a signatory.  The Archipelago Principle – The waters around.

Communique 86/8 [June 27. in fact. Thus. even political or economic. as may be necessary to resist any danger to its existence. 1986] Where the US was found guilty of intervention in the affairs of Nicaragua for sending troops to Nicaragua to aid the contras. including the use of force. nuclear weapons of mass destruction may not be placed in orbit around the earth.  The Question of Intervention Intervention may be defined as an act by which a state interferes with the domestic or foreign affairs of another state or states through the employment of force or threat of force. to be lawful. It is “the supreme power of the State to command and enforce obedience.” Independence – Also known as external sovereignty. by necessary implication. to an unlimited altitude but not including outer space. It signifies the freedom of the state to control its own foreign affairs. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF STATES IN INTERNATIONAL LAW The Right of Existence and Self-Defense By virtue of this right.  The Outer Space Treaty – outer space is free for exploration and use by all States. the state may take such measures. States have the right to launch satellites in orbit over the territorial air space of other State. or the contiguous zone of the coastal State.  The Outer Space – the rules governing the high seas apply also to outer space. The state must abstain from intervention. Such action being the exercise of an inherent right. The Right of Sovereignty and Independence Sovereignty – is the supreme. or of a third State.  The Aerial Domain – the airspace above the terrestrial domain and the maritime and fluvial domain of the state. the correlative duty of non-intervention. and it may be used exclusively for peaceful purposes. and it ceases as soon as the ship being pursued enters the territorial sea of its own. the pursuit must be continuous and unabated. in as much as there was no armed attack against the latter. These are the only two instances. the power to which. when the use of force is allowed under the Charter of the United Nations. Intervention is not sanctioned in international relations except only when it is exercised as an act of self-defense or when it is decreed by the Security Council as a preventive or enforcement action for the maintenance of international peace and security. USA. The Doctrine of Hot Pursuit – if an offense is committed by a foreign merchant vessel within the territorial waters of the coastal state. so too must it be prepared to respect their own independence.  Nicaragua v. the pursuit must have begun before the offending vessel has left the territorial waters. it cannot be annexed by any State. Such force may be physical or in the present state of world affairs. Note that protest or demand for rectification or 237 . all interests are practically subject and all wills subordinate. which is considered as res communes. However. and this is when such action is agreed upon in a treaty. The right of independence carries with it. Intervention may also be allowed when requested from fellow states or from the United Nations by the parties to a dispute or by a state beset by rebellion. legally speaking. Even as it expects its independence to be respected by other states. it does not depend for its validity on the previous recognition of the state asserting it or on the consent of other states. Some writers would add a third justification for intervention. uncontrollable power inherent in a state by which that state is governed. its own vessels may pursue the offending vessel into the open sea and upon capture bring it back to its territory for punishment.

Thus. through the Foreign Office. 148571. According to the Permanent Court of International Justice. no State may use or encourage the use of coercive measures of an economic or political character in order to force the sovereign will of another state and obtain from its advantages of any kind. The foregoing principle prohibits not only armed force but also any other form of interference or attempted threat against the personality of the State or against its political. En Banc [Panganiban] [Vitug. in the internal or external affairs of any other State. 302 [1924])  Government of the USA v. economic or cultural elements.  Intervention Under the UN Charter United Nations itself categorically binds itself not “to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state. the latter ceases to be a private cause. Accordingly. it is provided that “every State has the duty to refrain from intervention in the internal or external affairs of any other State. International Extradition. With the advent of easier and faster means of international travel. Private respondent can ask the Philippine government. 1. directly or indirectly.” (The Mavrommatis Palestine Concessions.R.  The Drago Doctrine This Doctrine was embodied in the Hague Convention of 1907 through the provision that the Contracting Powers agree not to have recourse to armed force for the recovery of contract debts claimed from the government of one country by the government of another country as being due to its nationals.. the flight of affluent criminals from one country to another for the purpose of committing crime and evading prosecution has become more frequent. 238 . refused to abide by the award of the arbitrator. Sept. a person who feels aggrieved by the acts of a foreign sovereign can ask his own government to espouse his cause through diplomatic channels. En Banc [Quiason] Under both Public International Law and Transnational Law. 1987 ed. World Court Reports 293.reparation does not compromise intervention. the Foreign Office shall first make a determination of the impact of its espousal on the relations between the Philippine government and the Holy See. 1 Hudson. respect for the rules of international law. Dec.N. in the person of its subjects. 24. prevented agreement on the compromise. 68) of a fugitive from one state to the other. 238 SCRA 524. Declaration of Rights and Duties of States. to espouse its claims against the Holy See. Purganan. Furthermore. No. the forerunner of the International Court of Justice: “By taking up the case of one of its subjects and by resorting to diplomatic action or international judicial proceedings on his behalf. Rosario. 1994. the act of President Clinton in discouraging Americans from investing in Burma was not considered as intervention. In the U. 2002.” SUBJECTS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW  The Holy See v. or having agreed thereto. for any reason whatever. Dissenting Opinion] Extradition treaties are entered into for the purpose of suppressing crime by facilitating the arrest and custodial transfer (Bassiouni. Once the Philippine government decides to espouse the claim. or having agreed to arbitrate. a State is in reality asserting its own rights – its right to ensure. under which intervention was permitted if the debtor state refused an offer to arbitrate the creditor’s claim. The force of this rule was later dissipated by the Porter Resolution. G. Of course. Its first task is to persuade the Philippine government to take up with the Holy See the validity of its claims. p. The Charter of the Organization of American States is more unequivocal with the statement that “no State or group of States has the right to intervene.

they are deemed to possess a species of international personality of their own. 1st Div. [Motion for Reconsideration] [Puno. p. 21) It is the only regular system that has been devised to return fugitives to the jurisdiction of a court competent to try them in accordance with municipal and international law (Id. p. p. in this era of globalization. 2001. DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR IMMUNITIES AND IMMUNITIES OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS PRIVILEGES AS WELL AS  Jeffrey Liang v. 125865. 67)…x x x Indeed. People. supra. Today. That signature signifies our full faith that the accused will be given. An extraditee. For its undesirable corollary is that sub-doctrine that an individual’s right in international law is near cipher. 2000.governments are adjusting their methods of dealing with criminals and crimes that transcend international boundaries. More pointedly. Permanent international commissions and administrative bodies have been created by the agreement of a considerable number of States for a variety of international purposes. but in international law as well. our duly authorized representative’s signature on an extradition treaty signifies our confidence in the capacity and willingness of the other state to protect the basic rights of the person sought to be extradited (See Bassiouni. he is bereft of rights. March 26.R. 512 [1910]). As such. the view that once commanded a consensus is that since a fugitive is a mere object and not a subject of international law. we cannot afford to be an isolationist state. The legal personality of these international organizations has been recognized not only in municipal law. We need to cooperate with other states in order to improve our chances of suppressing crime in our country. NLRC. G. Concurring Opinion] Courts cannot blindly adhere and take on its face the communication from the DFA that petitioner is covered by any immunity. No.” INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS  SEAFDEC-AQD v. G. and that both accept and trust. An extradition treaty presupposes that both parties thereto have examined. Translated in extradition law. [Motion for Reconsideration] [Puno. March 26. 2001.R. so it was held. otherwise. 546. 125865. Feb. and an expanding ring of international crimes and criminals. citing 221 US 508..” The Lawyers Review. p. all relevant and basic rights in the criminal proceedings that will take place therein. economic or social and mainly non-political. 14. 1st Div. 206 SCRA 283. they have distinct juridical personality independent of the municipal law of the State where they are situated. “a majority of nations in the world community have come to look upon extradition as the major effective instrument of international co-operation in the suppression of crime. In so far as they are autonomous and beyond the control of any one State. August 31. 1992 International organizations are institutions constituted by international agreement between two or more States to accomplish common goals. is a mere “object transported from one state to the other as an exercise of sovereign will of the two states involved.” (Bassiouni.  Jeffrey Liang v. 4). The Requesting State Will Accord Due Process to the Accused. Concurring Opinion] …xxx The higher rating given to human rights on the hierarchy of values necessarily led to the re-examination of the rightful place of the individual in international law. In receving ex parte the DFA’s advice and in motu proprio 239 . easier and faster international travel. or would have been directly attacked for its unconstitutionality. People. the treaty would not have been signed. “On Implementation of the RP-US Extradition Treaty. The DFA’s determination that a certain person is covered by immunity is only preliminary which has no binding effect in courts. No. Given the harshest eye is moss-covered doctrine that international law deals only with States and that individuals are not its subject. each other’s legal system and judicial process (Coquia. upon extradition to the requesting state.

182 SCRA 644 [1990]). JURISDICTIONAL ASSISTANCE Extradition  Wright v. 1994. and for the purpose of enforcing their respective municipal laws. the latter’s right to due process was violated. Rosario. The needed inquiry in what capacity petitioner was action at the time of the alleged utterances requires for its resolution evidentiary basis that has yet to be presented at the proper time. Dissenting Opinion] It is the “process by which persons charged with or convicted of crime against the law of a State and found in a foreign State are returned by the latter to the former for trial or punishment. NLRC. in accordance with the requested State's own interests.  Secretary of Justice v. The act of extraditing amounts to a "delivery by the State of a person accused or convicted of a crime. Aug. It applies to those who are merely charged with an offense but have not been brought to trial. Extradition is an intrusion into the territorial integrity of the host State and a delimitation of the sovereign power of the State within its own territory.. 2000. 1994 [Kapunan] A paramount principle of the law of extradition provides that a State may not surrender any individual for any offense not included in a treaty of extradition. States enter into treaties of extradition principally for the purpose of bringing fugitives of justice within the ambit of their laws. 18. 193 SCRA 282[1991]). which in this case is the Holy See. vs. even with a treaty rendered executory upon ratification by appropriate authorities. Since punishment of fugitive criminals is dependent mainly on the willingness of host State to apprehend them and revert them to the State where their offenses were committed.R. Lantion. Feb. with all the more reason should immunity be recognized as regards the sovereign itself. under conventions recognizing the right of nations to mutually agree to surrender individuals within their jurisdiction and control. (See U.e. does not impose an obligation to extradite on the requested State until the latter has made its own determination of the validity of the requesting State's demand. 1. jurisdiction over such fugitives and subsequent enforcement of penal laws can be effectively accomplished only by agreement between States through treaties of extradition. If this immunity is provided for a diplomatic envoy. Guinto. that it is immune from legal writs and processes issued by the tribunals of the country where it is found. It should be noted that due process is a right of the accused as much as it is of the prosecution. CA. 15. i. to another State within whose territorial jurisdiction. 206 SCRA 283. such subjection to local jurisdiction would impair the capacity of such body to discharge its responsibilities impartially on behalf of its member-states. No. it has been ruld that the mere invocation of the immunity clause does not ipso facto result in the dropping of the charges (Chavez vs. 139465. 235 SCRA 341. a diplomatic envoy is granted immunity from the civil and administrative jurisdiction of the receiving state over any real action relating to private immovable property situated in the territory of the receiving state which the envoy holds on behalf of the sending state for the purposes of the mission. The principles of international law recognize no right of extradition apart from that arising from treaty.S. to those who have been tried and 240 . Sandiganbayan. G. actual or constructive.dismissiong the two criminal cases without notice to the prosecution. Jan. At any rate. En Banc [Puno. 238 SCRA 524." As it is an act of "surrender" of an individual found in a sovereign State to another State which demands his surrender. En Banc [Quiason] In Article 31(a) of the Convention. it was committed and which asks for his surrender with a view to execute justice. This principle arises from the reality of extradition as a derogation of sovereignty.  The Holy See v. Pursuant to these principles. an act of extradition.  SEAFDEC-AQD v. besides. Dec. 14. 1992 One of the basic immunities of an international organization is immunity from local jurisdiction. The obvious reason for this is that the subjection of such an organization to the authority of the local courts would afford a convenient medium through which the host government may interfere in their operations or even influence or control its policies and decisions.

Hence. a criminal case requires proof beyond reasonable doubt for conviction while a fugitive may be ordered extradited “upon showing of the existence of a prima facie case. It is more akin. The proceedings are intended merely to assist the requesting state in bringing the accused – or the fugitive who has illegally escaped – back to its territory.”  Government of the USA v. No.R. An extradition proceeding is summary in natural while criminal proceedings involve a full-blown trial. Consequently. complies with the Extradition Treaty and Law.convicted and have subsequently escaped from custody. constitutional rights that are only relevant to determine the guilt or innocence of an accused cannot be invoked by an extraditee especially by one whose extradition papers are still undergoing evaluation. the rules of evidence in an extradition proceeding allow admission of evidence under less stringent standards. unlike in a criminal case where judgment becomes executory upon being rendered final. Xxx There are other differences between an extradition proceeding and a criminal proceeding. In terms of the quantum of evidence to be satisfied. The ultimate purpose of extradition proceedings is to determine whether the request expressed in the petition. It does not apply to persons merely suspected of having committed an offense but against whom no charge has been laid or to a person whose presence is desired as a witness or for obtaining or enforcing a civil judgment. an extradition case is not one in which the constitutional rights of the accused are necessarily available. In contradistinction to a criminal proceeding. 2. No. as well as in the ability and the willingness of the latter to grant basic rights to the accused in the pending criminal case therein. to a court’s request to police authorities for the arrest of the accused who is at large or has escaped detention or jumped bail. This we hold for the procedural due process required by a given set of circumstances “must begin with a determination of the precise nature of the government function involved as well as the private interest that has been affected by governmental action. 2002. the reasonable 241 . 24. so that the criminal process may proceed therein. Sept. and those who have been convicted in absentia. Oct. supported by its annexes and the evidence that may be adduced during the hearing of the petition. His guilt or innocence will be adjudged in the court of the state where he will be extradited. En Banc [Puno] An extradition proceeding is sui generis. 139465. As an extradition proceeding is not criminal in character and the evaluation stage in an extradition proceeding is not akin to a preliminary investigation. To begin with. the process of extradition does not involve the determination of the guilt or innocence of an accused. Purganan. It is not a criminal proceeding which will call into operation all the rights of an accused as guaranteed by the Bill of Rights. our courts may adjudge an individual extraditable but the President has the final discretion to extradite him.”  Secretary of Justice v. By nature then.” Finally. 17. G. En Banc [Panganiban] Ten Points to Consider in Extradition Proceedings As we draw to a close. Lantion. in an extradition proceeding. G. Having once escaped the jurisdiction of the requesting state. and whether the person sought is extraditable. the due process safeguards in the latter do not necessarily apply to the former. the Philippines is deemed to have reposed its trust in the reliability or soundness of the legal and judicial system of its treaty partner.R. if at all. as a rule. The United States adheres to a similar practice whereby the Secretary of State exercises wide discretion in balancing the equities of the case and the demands of the nation's foreign relations before making the ultimate decision to extradite. extradition proceedings are not equivalent to a criminal case in which guilt or innocence is determined. it is now time to summarize and stress these ten points: 1. By entering into an extradition treaty. 148571. 3. 2000.” The concept of due process is flexible for “not all situations calling for procedural safeguards call for the same kind of procedure.

If convinced that a prima facie case exists. goes to another State. and. On the other hand. After being taken into custody. the judge immediately issues a warrant for the arrest of the potential extraditee and summons him or her to answer and to appear at scheduled hearings on the petition. to expel him or deliver him up to the prosecuting State. while safeguarding basic individual rights. or to personally examine the affiants or witnesses. and (b) there exist special. In the absence of any international treaty stipulating the contrary. 10. frustrate. At present. it is subject to judicial discretion in the context of the peculiar facts of each case. humanitarian or compelling circumstances. available during the hearings on the petition and the answer is the full chance to be heard and to enjoy fundamental fairness that is compatible with the summary nature of extradition. whether it complies with the Extradition Treaty and Law. responsibility arising out of the presidential power to conduct foreign relations and to implement treaties. not a judicial. mock. A subsequent opportunity is sufficient due to the flight risk involved. 5. no State is by international law obliged to refuse admission into its territory to such a fugitive or. This Court will always remain a protector of human rights. it is just a privilege granted by a State to allow an alien escaping from the persecution of his country for political reasons remain and grant him asylum. Indeed. extradition proceedings should be conducted with all deliberate speed to determine compliance with the Extradition Treaty and Law. In extradition cases. the judge shall make a prima facie finding whether the petition is sufficient in form and substance. to avoid the legalistic contortions. 8. the Executive Department of government has broad discretion in its duty and power of implementation. lest these summary extradition proceedings become not only inutile but also sources of international embarrassment due to our inability to comply in good faith with a treaty partner’s simple request to return a fugitive. a bulwark of democracy and the conscience of society. We realize that extradition is essentially an executive. checkmate and defeat the quest for bilateral justice and international cooperation. But it is also well aware of the limitations of its authority and of the need for respect for the prerogatives of the other co-equal and co-independent organs of government. The right of asylum is not a right possessed by an alien to demand that a State protect him and grant him asylum. courts merely perform oversight functions and exercise review authority to prevent or excise grave abuse and tyranny. our country should not be converted into a dubious haven where fugitives and escapees can unreasonably delay. The magistrate has discretion to require the petitioner to submit further documentation. they have the burden of showing that (a) there is no flight risk and no danger to the community. 6. 9. and whether the person sought is extraditable. delays and “over-due process” every little step of the way. 7. At bottom. Due process does not always call for a prior opportunity to be heard. Refugees Any person who is outside the country of his nationality. 4. being prosecuted in his home State. They should not allow contortions. Since the applicants have a history of absconding. in case he has been admitted. the country of his former habitual residence. potential extraditees may apply for bail. mummify. under the principle of reciprocity as a special circumstance. The grounds used by the highest court in the requesting state for the grant of bail therein may be considered. Worse.prima facie presumption is that the person would escape again if given the opportunity. Immediately upon receipt of the petition for extradition and its supporting documents. delays and technicalities that may negate that purpose. bail is not a matter of right. Thus. a bastion of liberty. because he has or had well 242 . Potential extraditees are entitled to the rights to due process and to fundamental fairness. or if he has no nationality. Asylum Every foreign State can be at least a provisional asylum for any individual who.

No. Bayan v. THE LAW OF TREATIES A treaty is a formal agreement. nationality or political opinion and is unable or. Stateless Persons Are those persons who are not considered as nationals by any State under the operation of its law. It is rather a summary of the proceedings of a protracted conference which may have taken place over several years. The Most-Favored-Nation Clause The most-favored-nation treatment is that granted by one country to another not less favorable than that which has been or may be granted to the “most favored” among the countries. 309 SCRA 87. or was expressed during the negotiation. because of such fear. as the case may be. or. The documents contained therein are deemed adopted without need for ratification. S. En Banc [Buena] Ratification is generally held to be an executive act.. G. 272 SCRA 18 [1997]. [Gonzaga-Reyes] The purpose of a most favored nation clause is to grant to the contracting party treatment not less favorable than that which has been or may be granted to the "most favored" among other countries.  Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. undertaken by the head of state or of the government. 10. Johnson and Son.  Jus Cogens Is a peremptory norm of general international law accepted and recognized by the international community as whole as a norm from which no derogation is permitted and which can be modified only by a subsequent norm of general international law having the same character. which is entered into by states or entities possessing the treaty-making capacity. June 25. It is not the treaty itself. or (d) the intention of the State to sign the treaty subject to ratification appears from the full powers of its representative.  Tanada v.R. International law continues to make no distinction between treaties and executive agreements: they are equally binding obligations upon nations. if he has no nationality. as long as the functionaries have remained within their powers. for the purpose of regulating their mutual relations under the law of nations. through which the formal acceptance of the treaty is proclaimed. In international law. En Banc [Panganiban] What is a "protocol de cloture"? Will it require concurrence by the Senate? Held: A final act. Zamora. It will not require the concurrence of the Senate. 2000. religion.rounded fear of persecution by reason of his race. The consent of the State to be bound by a treaty is expressed by ratification when: (a) the treaty provides for such ratification. Oct. Angara. A State may provide in its domestic legislation the process of ratification of a treaty. Inc. The most favored nation clause is intended to establish the principle of equality of international treatment by providing that the citizens or subjects of the contracting nations may enjoy the privileges accorded by either party to those of the most favored nation 243 . 138570. conventions. is an instrument which records the winding up of the proceedings of a diplomatic conference and usually includes a reproduction of the texts of treaties. sometimes called protocol de cloture. there is no difference between treaties and executive agreements in their binding effect upon states concerned. (c) the representative of the State has signed the treaty subject to ratification. usually but not necessarily in writing. recommendations and other acts agreed upon and signed by the plenipotentiaries attending the conference. 1999.C. is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of the government of the country of his nationality. 3rd Div. to return to the country of his former habitual residence. (b) it is otherwise established that the negotiating States agreed that ratification should be required.

the doctrine constitutes an attempt to formulate a legal principle which would justify non-performance of a treaty obligation if the conditions with relation to which the parties contracted have changed so materially and so unexpectedly as to create a situation in which the exaction of performance would be unreasonable. Northwest Orient Airlines. the proper protection due to an alien who is a national of the latter state. in accordance with international law. June 23.” There are. To put an end to treaty obligations. 3. Willful disregard of a treaty is frowned upon by the society of nations and is likely to stigmatize the erring state. something more than substantial change in circumstances is needed. certain limitations to the application of the doctrine. The Pacta Sunt Servanda Rule It requires the performance in good faith of treaty obligations. with a statement of the reasons why compliance with the treaty is no longer required. 1992 According to Jessup. The vital change must have been unforeseen or unforeseeable and should have not been caused by the party invoking the doctrine.  Requisites    An act or omission in violation of international law Which is imputable to the state. What puts an end to a treaty us the “disappearance of the foundation upon which it rests. There is a necessity for a formal act of rejection. 272 SCRA 18 [1997]. 2. Angara. 210 SCRA 256. especially if the other contracting parties see fit to invoke the influence of world opinion as a means of enforcing compliance. as follows: 1. It cannot operate retroactively upon the provisions of a treaty already executed prior to the change in circumstances. The key element of this doctrine is the vital change in the condition of the contracting parties that they could not have foreseen at the time the treaty was concluded. according to the intention or will of the parties. It applies only to treaties of indefinite duration. It holds that the obligations of a treaty terminate when a change occurs in circumstances which existed at the time of the conclusion of the treaty and whose continuance formed. The parties must comply with their commitments under a treaty and cannot ignore or modify its provisions without the consent of the other signatories. “A treaty engagement is not a mere moral obligation but creates a legally binding obligation on the parties x x x. It involves the legal effect of changed conditions upon a treaty. and Which results in injury to the claimant state either directly or 244 . and 4. usually made by the head of state. THE DOCTRINE OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY TO ALIENS A state is under obligation to make reparation to another state for the failure to fulfill its primary obligation to afford. A state which has contracted valid international obligations is bound to make in its legislations such modifications as may be necessary to ensure the fulfillment of the obligations undertaken. Violations of treaties can lead to more drastic consequences. It must be invoked within a reasonable time.  Tanada v. En Banc [Panganiban] One of the oldest and most fundamental rules in international law is pacta sunt servanda – international agreements must be performed in good faith. including war. however. a condition of the continuing validity of the treaty.” The Rebus Sic Stantibus Rule (things remaining as they are)  Santos III v. The doctrine of rebus sic stantibus does not operate automatically to render the treaty inoperative.The essence of the principle is to allow the taxpayer in one state to avail of more liberal provisions granted in another tax treaty to which the country of residence of such taxpayer is also a party provided that the subject matter of taxation x x x is the same as that in the tax treaty under which the taxpayer is liable.

a conflict of legal views or interests between two persons. par. liability will attach immediately as their acts may not be effectively prevented or reversed under the Constitution and laws of the State. having done so unsuccessfully. Liability will attach to the state where its treatment of the alien falls below the international standard of justice or where it is remiss in according him the protection or redress that is warranted by the circumstance. fails to repair such injury. Even if the laws conform to the international standard of justice.  The Calvo Clause – a stipulation by which the alien waives or restricts his right to appeal to his own state in connection with any claim arising from the contract and agrees to limit himself to the remedies available under the laws of the local state. The Doctrine of Effective Nationality   Frivaldo v. The following are deemed legal disputes:     The interpretation of a treaty Any question of international law The existence of any fact which. Nevertheless. a Third State shall. would constitute a breach of an international obligation. 1989 Within a Third State. A disagreement or conflict has the character of an “international dispute” if it arises between two or more States. by private individuals. The doctrine of State responsibility is applied more frequently to tortuous rather than contractual liability because of the unwillingness of most States to act as “collection agencies” for their nationals entering into private agreements with or in foreign countries. COMELEC. it can be considered to have connived in effect in its commission. The rule is that where the international delinquency was committed by superior government officials or organs. June 23. of the nationalities which any such person possesses. 174 SCRA 245. the State will be held liable only if.indirectly through damage to a national.  Conditions for Enforcement of Claim      Nationality of claim Exhaustion of local remedies No waiver No unreasonable delay in filing claim No improper behavior by injured alien. if established. Under the “Optimal Clause” of the Statute of the International court of Justice (Article 36. the State may still be held liable if it does not make reasonable efforts to prevent injury to the alien or. Without prejudice to the application of its law in matters of personal status and of any convention in force. responsibility does not immediately attach to the State upon a showing of a failure to prevent or redress an injury to aliens. PACIFIC METHODS OF SETTLING INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES A dispute is defined as a disagreement on a point of law or fact. when the offense is committed by inferior government officials. like the Chief of State or the National Legislature. or more so. Distinction must be made between direct and indirect state responsibility. by reason of its indifference in preventing or punishing it. a person having more than one nationality shall be treated as if he had only one. 2). and The nature and extent of the reparation to be made for the breach of an international obligation 245 . However. recognize exclusively in its territory either the nationality of the country in which he is habitually and principally a resident or the nationality of the country with which in the circumstances he appears to be in fact most closely connected.

whereas in arbitration a legal obligation exists to comply with the award of the arbitrator.  Mediation It is the action of the third party in bringing the parties to a dispute together and helping them in a more or less informal way to find a basis for the settlement of their dispute.  Judicial Settlement It means settlement by a permanent international court of justice. It differs from enquiry in that the main object of the latter is to establish the facts in dispute and thereby prepare for a negotiated settlement. the main object is not only to elucidate the facts but to bring the parties to an agreement. Moreover. the parties submit only to arbitrators of their own choosing.  Compromis d’Arbitrage It is the agreement to arbitrate. while conciliation is essentially a bargaining process. This is the very essence of diplomacy. which. whereas the former. rules of procedure and sometimes even the law to be applied. the tribunals are usually ad hoc bodies appointed to deal with particular disputes or class of disputes and ceasing to exist when these are disposed of. attempts to conciliate differences.  Conciliation The process of settling disputes by referring them to commissions or other international bodies whose task is to elucidate the facts and make a report containing proposals. The compromis is the charter of the arbitral tribunal. The mediator does not have to concern himself with the merits of the dispute. the role of the mediator is a more active one. or have at least been given the opportunity of a free choice of arbitrators. the choice of the personnel of the court is. It differs from arbitration in that. By this method. however.  Good Offices A term applied to the attempt of third party to bring together the disputing States to effect a settlement of their disputes. in judicial settlement. Arbitration is a judicial process. Negotiation It is the legal and orderly administrative process by which governments. negotiations may result in a treaty or agreement being concluded or in an exchange of notes between the parties concerned. his task is to “encourage compromise rather than advise adherence to legal principles”  Arbitration International arbitration is a procedure for the settlement of disputes between States by a binding award on the basis of law and as the result of an undertaking voluntarily accepted. in the exercise of their unquestionable powers. offers his advice and in general. It usually defines the questions to be settled. adjust and settle their differences. If successful. In mediation. FORCIBLE MEASURES SHORT OF WAR 246 . whereas in arbitration. has no binding character. conduct their relations with one another and discuss. states the method by which the arbitrators are to be selected and their number. provides for the place or meeting. the parties seek a solution of their differences by direct exchange of views between themselves. the tribunal is a permanent body whose members have a secured period of tenure. for settlement. independent of the will of the parties to the dispute. The main distinction between arbitration and conciliation is that under the latter the parties are not bound to adopt the proposals for a settlement which are suggested to them. for he proposes a solution. while in arbitration. expenses. in accordance with judicial methods. in general.

while the former is resorted to for the purpose of settling a dispute or redressing a grievance without going to war. so long as it is not an internationally illegal act. Formerly. a breach of the peace. since no state of belligerency ensues between the blockader and the State against which the blockade is instituted. If these measures should prove inadequate. the Security council may take such action by air. which is now 0obsolete. Germany and Italy blockaded the coast of Venezuela with the object of compelling the Venezuelan government to honor its financial obligations.  Reprisal In a broad sense. but not internationally illegal act of one State against another in retaliation for the latter’s unfriendly or inequitable conduct. States used to grant “letters or marque or reprisals” to their subjects who could not obtain redress for injuries suffered abroad. They differ from retorsion in that reprisals consist of acts which would ordinarily be illegal. It is a form of self-help but must be distinguished from reprisals taken by belligerents in the form of a war. directly or indirectly. It is called “pacific” because no state of war exists between States concerned.  Situations of Armed Conflict 247 . sea or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security under Article 42. It need not take the form of retaliation in kind.  Pacific Blockade It is a naval operation carried out in time of peace whereby a State prevents access to or exit from particular ports or portions of the coast of another State for the purpose of compelling the latter to yield to certain demands made upon it by the blockading State. authorizing them to perform acts of self-help against the offending State or its nationals for the purpose of obtaining satisfaction for the wrong sustained. the acts which give rise to retorsion though obnoxious. i. and it may call upon the Members of the UN to apply such measures. Retorsion It consist of an unfriendly. On the other hand. Acts of reprisals may be performed by State organs only. Moreover. whereas retorsion consists of retaliatory conduct which is legitimate or is not in violation of international law. presupposes the existence of a state of war between the parties concerned. third States do not acquire the status of neutrals. known as “special reprisals”. while the latter is to compel a belligerent to observe or desist from violating the laws of warfare and. for the consequences of the illegal acts of another State. reprisals are generally resorted to by a State in consequence of an act or omission of another State which under international law constitutes an international delinquency. These enforcement provisions are brought into play only in the event that the Security council determines. Collective Measures under the UN charter Article 41 of the UN Charter provides that the Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed forces are to be employed to give effect to its decisions. do not amount to an international delinquency.. that there exist a “threat to the peace. THE LAWS OF WAR The Law of War consists of the rules of international law relating to the proper conduct of belligerents towards each other in the course of war. A notable case of pacific blockade occurred in 1902 when the combined fleets of Great Britain.e. This operation led to the formulation of the Drago Doctrine which would prelude any intervention for the purpose of collecting debts. usually resorted to by States in cases of unfair treatment of their citizens abroad. which has refused to make amends for such illegal conduct. In pacific blockade. therefore. denotes any kind of forcible or coercive measures whereby one State seeks to exercise a deterrent effect or to obtain redress or satisfaction. not contrary to public international law or to any treaty obligation. under Article 39. or an act of aggression”.

3. A declaration of war is a communication by one State to another informing the latter that the condition of peace between them has come to an end and condition of war has taken place. Protest lodge with the neural powers.  War is commenced either by: 1. 248 . By unilateral declaration by the victor. or 2. but those which are precisely intended to operate during the war are activated. without the conclusion of a formal treaty of peace. By treaty of peace.  Are the Laws of War Still Relevant? Sanctions of the Laws of War Observance of the rules of warfare by belligerents is secured through several means recognized by international law.  Effect of the Outbreak of War – The outbreak of war produces the following general effects: (1) The laws of peace cease to regulate the relations of the belligerents and are superseded by the laws of war. The treaty of peace is described as imposed where the decisive victory of one of the belligerents leads it to impose its will upon the other. finally and categorically. An ultimatum is a written communication by one State to another which formulates. 3.  How War Commenced – War is supposed to commence on the date specified in the declaration or on the date it is communicated to the enemy. which usually takes the form of a decree or presidential proclamation or a notice in the official qazette. A declaration of war. the demands to be fulfilled if forcible measures are to be averted. 2. 2. if the other party elects to treat the act of force as having been done with such intent. namely: 1. with a conditional declaration of war. (3) Treaties of a political nature are automatically cancelled.  How War Terminated War may be terminated in any of the following ways: 1. war commence upon the commission of an act of force by one party done animo belligorendi or even if that party had no such intent. An ultimatum. From the point of view off international law. Reprisals Punishment of war crimes committed by enemy soldiers and other enemy subjects. Compensation. giving reasons.  Jus Postliminy – the revival or reversion to the old laws and sovereignty of territory which has been under belligerent occupation once control of the belligerent occupant is lost over the territory affected. It may take the form of a negotiated treaty in cases where hostilities have ceased without either or the belligerents having such a decisive military advantage over the other as to be able to impose its will on the other.  Uti Possidetis – it allows retention of property or territory in the belligerent’s actual possession at the time of the cessation of hostilities. By simple cessation of hostilities. Third States are governed by the laws of neutrality in their dealings with the belligerents. 4. (2) Diplomatic and consular relations between the belligerents are terminated and their respective representatives are allowed to return to their own countries.

subject to return.: The United States is invoking its right to defend itself against an expected attack by Iraq with the use of its biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction. 51 says. 2003 issue of the Philippines Daily Inquirer)  Combatants Combatants are those who engage directly in the hostilities. When captured. that there must first be an “armed attack” before a state can exercise its inherent right of self-defense. reimbursement or other disposition after the war in accordance with the treaty of peace. Enemy private property may be sequestered. The second is when it is employed in the exercise of the inherent right of self-defense under conditions prescribed in Art. but Bush is probably invoking the modern view that a state does not have to wait until the potential enemy fires first. Ans. to which the aggression should be reported. subject to confiscation. It was the United States that made the “armed attack” first.: There are only two occasions when the use of force is allowed under the UN Charter. 2003 issue of the Philippines Daily Inquirer)  Will the subsequent discovery of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq after its invasion by the US justify the attack initiated by the latter? Ans. (4) Individuals are impressed with enemy character. Who are Combatants? 249 .Multipartite treaties dealing with technical or administrative matters are deemed merely suspended as between the belligerents. The warrant must first be issued before the search and seizure can be made. however. (5) Enemy public property found in territory of the other belligerent at the outbreak of hostilities is. Cruz. The cowboy from Texas says that outdrawing the foe who is about to shoot is an act of self-defense. in an article entitled “A New World Order” written in his column “Separate Opinion” published in the March 30. Iraq is now not only exercising its inherent right of self-defense as recognized by the UN Charter. (Justice Isagani A. Only the combatants may lawfully wage war and are thus subject to direct attack from the enemy. shall have taken the necessary measures to maintain international peace and security. legally speaking. The first is when it is authorized in pursuance of the enforcement action that may be decreed by the Security Council under Art.  State the occasions when the use of force may be allow