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Program on the Geopolitical Implications of Globalization and Transnational Security

Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition

Dr. Nayef R.F. Al-Rodhan Senior Scholar in Geostrategy and Director of the Program on the Geopolitical Implications of Globalization and Transnational Security Geneva Centre for Security Policy

Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Director Geneva Centre for Security Policy

June 19, 2006
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Dr. Nayef R.F. Al-Rodhan Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann

Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition

Abstract Many authors have attempted, with relative success, to define globalization in a variety of ways. Some claim that it cannot be done, others claim that it would constrain the meaning to do so, and still others have defied these two beliefs and have constructed a working definition. Despite differing opinions about developing a definition, all authors agree on one thing: that defining this term is anything but easy. This paper will attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing definitions of globalization and introduce our proposed definition: “Globalization is a process that encompasses the causes, course, and consequences of transnational and transcultural integration of human and non-human activities.”

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One question remains regarding the potential difficulty of trying to define this concept. It pertains to the increasing ease with which somebody on one side of the world can interact. Kumar rightly points out in his article “A Critical Methodology of Globalization: Politics of the 21st Century?”. it is a global process. relations. cultural background. Martin Khor. and others referring to regression. This. Furthermore. In 1995. Nayef R. It is also vital that these definitions be presented against the reality of the global situation. things moving closer. the reproduction.Dr. A. it cannot be expounded upon with certainty and be applicable to all people and in all situations. and cultures. The impact of globalization is vast. communities. the transfer of policies across borders. integration and cooperation.F. development and stability.” 1 Globalization encompasses all of these things. a revolution. as Vidya S. as well as the limitations involved in trying to do so: does this hinder discussions about globalization? Does the fact that globalization requires constant defining inhibit or undermine true academic debate about the geopolitical implications of this process before that debate even begins? All copyrights are reserved by the authors. or political. The definitions presented here reflect some of those viewpoints. of distances getting shorter. It is a concept that has been defined variously over the years. and ethnic and religious affiliation provide the background that determines how globalization is interpreted. this term brings with it a multitude of hidden agendas. with somebody on the other side of the world. Globalization involves economic integration. Al-Rodhan Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition Introduction Globalization is not a single concept that can be defined and encompassed within a set time frame. Concurrently. of course. and discourses of power. By its nature. colonialism. beyond the scope of this paper to assess the extent to which each of the statements captures reality. as the definitions that we present here indicate. Despite these challenges. a concept. stated that globalization: “is the process of world shrinkage. social. nor is it a process that can be defined clearly with a beginning and an end. President of the Third World Network 2 in Malaysia. to mutual benefit. referred to globalization as colonization. the transmission of knowledge. cultural stability. allows for a variety of viewpoints. in his book The Race to the Top: The Real Story of Globalization (2001). we look at issues surrounding the difficulties of defining globalization and discuss the benefits of doing so within the larger debate. globalization spans a multitude of disciplines. geographic location. Rather. 3 .” 3 These two different interpretations reflect different perspectives rooted in different world positions. It is. and “an establishment of the global market free from sociopolitical control. however. An individual’s political ideology. with some connotations referring to progress. social status. Swedish journalist Thomas Larsson. be they economic. and destabilization.

which is not what we intend to do in this article. as it may only be applicable to those that agree with this definition. Each approach has its strengths and weaknesses: more-general definitions tend to be allencompassing but more abstract. the new international division of labor. for discussions on the detailed implications of globalization. This means that he also needs to be cautious in claiming that some definitions come closer to reality than others. Al-Rodhan Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition This paper does not propose a definition that will be useful and acceptable to everyone. Kenichi Ohmae stated in 1992 that “globalization means the onset of the borderless world.” 6 His article focuses on the debate regarding the definition of such a term and what relation this has to reality. In reviewing current definitions. Kumar argues that “the debate about what to do about globalization is still very much a debate about what globalization is. while others are broad and inclusive. while more-specific definitions are better justified but narrower in scope. and leaders claim globalization actually is. Rather. a detailed definition would be suited to this type of discussion. the new competitive environment that accelerates these processes.” 4 This definition does not have positive or negative connotations but is vague and inclusive. This definition could be used as a basis for a working paper on a number of subjects. this can also be limiting. including technology. and just about any other issue that deals with overcoming traditional boundaries.” 5 This definition is more detailed and contributes more to the discussion. sociologists. Alternatively. this can also stall the debate about the implications of this type of globalization because a discussion about negative and positive connotations could lend itself to a paper and subsequent discussion all on its own without delving into deeper ramifications. and the internationalizing of the state… making states into agencies of the globalizing world. Nayef R. This definition is a bit too vague. As mentioned earlier. which we were able to use to develop our own definition. it is at once apparent that some are rather narrow and exclusive. Nor does it try to justify why one definition might be better than another. trade agreements. Despite this benefit. We have compiled a comprehensive list of definitions of globalization in order to provide a survey of what some academics. 4 . All copyrights are reserved by the authors.F. however. theorists. new migratory movements from South to North.Dr. Robert Cox provides a good example of this approach: “the characteristics of the globalization trend include the internationalizing of production. and we also propose a definition that we think might be broad enough to address most aspects of the process. politicians. Methodology This study provides a thorough overview of existing definitions of globalization. we suggest reviewing the definitions that are available in an attempt to truly understand this concept. For example. So how should one go about defining globalization? Some academics have determined that it is a useless task.

5 . Nayef R. It is understandable that a definition developed for a particular paper. It encompasses the causes.” wrote: “[a]ttitudes toward globalization depend. articles. if one is developed at all. would focus on the aspect in question in order to provide a benchmark for the remainder of the paper.” 7 In reviewing all of these definitions. the definitions presented here are broad and may be perceived in a variety of ways. It is a result of the transnational and transcultural integrations that have occurred globally throughout human history. However. the spread of bacteria and non-human diseases such as bird flu. who. in his article “The Globalization of Nothing. They appear in chronological order. and economies for hundreds of years. globalization is complex and multifaceted. and based on our knowledge of globalization as it is understood today. It is also important to include non-human activities.F. We gathered definitions from both academic and resource guides in an attempt to look for patterns and similarities. course. it is clear that the literature does not come any closer to an understanding of what globalization actually is. Rather.” In the development of our own definition of globalization. any definition that comes close to reflecting the reality of globalization must also be complex and multifaceted. This intermingling has transpired through activities that are both human and non-human in nature. as well as natural disasters such as All copyrights are reserved by the authors. on whether one gains or loses from it. among other things. Human activities encompass the linguistic. it is a process. research projects. Like the concept of globalization itself. Due to the complexity of the concept. Al-Rodhan Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition Results The results of our overview appear in a table later in this paper. cultural. Globalization is not an endpoint to be discussed and then forgotten. but others remain focused on one point or another. we found agreement with George Ritzer. and discussions usually remain focused on a single aspect of globalization in order to be able to provide some concrete solutions and recommendations. In general. a current that has been impacting communities. cultures. No matter what definition you adhere to.Dr. which incorporate. but are not limited to. we propose the following definition: “Globalization is a process that encompasses the causes. the course. economic. and consequences of transnational and transcultural integration of human and non-human activities. In our opinion. and political aspects of human life (along with many others) that are a part of the human and social sphere. it was vital to utilize a broad perspective in order for it to be brief yet as comprehensive as possible. which limits their scope (which is the purpose of their usage). most scholars realize the significance a definition can have. Therefore. Many of the definitions presented here are useful in a number of cases and disciplines. and the consequences of these integrations.

67 of them make some reference to the economic dimension either through market expansion or the selling of goods and services. Discussion This overview of current definitions of globalization can arguably leave one feeling more confused in the discourse than before. Many of these definitions do. security and stability. movement towards furthering. They are rarely confined to one or two lines. However. As all of these issues impact human and global security. it is safe to assume that the majority of definitions will encompass such aspects. So what conclusions might we draw from this overview? To what extent have the definitions helped us understand more fully the concept of globalization? Why should one engage in such a study? Globalization is evolutionary. an elaborate definition is more often the norm in addressing this issue. Therefore. as well as global. include other dimensions: quite often they involve political and social aspects as well. 8 The past decades have allowed for the creativity of humankind to develop the definitions that appear in this paper. however. This becomes more evident when assessing the various All copyrights are reserved by the authors. rather. When embraced in the context of our definition. at least in our representation. and hurricanes. However. economically. both to our benefit and also to our detriment. it is a process that influences each of us in a number of ways. 6 . consequently. Since the debate over globalization stems largely from the act of defining the concept. the definitions tend to be multifaceted and complex. it is important to see the progression of where the definitions have come from and how different connotations have emerged. earthquakes. This overview illustrates that many of the definitions refer to questions of economics: of the 114 definitions presented here. tend to lean toward the economic roots of the concept. This is illustrative of the complex nature of globalization: in attempting to determine how the impact of globalization is most felt. Similarly.F. Nayef R. this does indicate that notions of globalization. as a majority of our authors have written definitions that are lengthy. and. Al-Rodhan Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition tornadoes. whether politically. The abundance of definitions is clearly an indication of the varying opinions that have developed regarding this concept since it first appeared in Webster’s dictionary in 1961. In addition. it is a fluid process that is constantly changing with the development of human society. abundance does not necessarily indicate that with each new definition there has been marked improvement. individual. globalization can be understood in a way that allows for a greater appreciation of. it is our opinion that a truly comprehensive definition must address them. This appears to be universal. it is important to recognize that globalization is not a force that needs to be stopped. one frequently finds oneself debating aspects that are also multidimensional. or socially. tsunamis. rather.Dr.

The definition is a clear indication of what the author’s perspective is on where globalization has come from and. It allows for a balanced view of globalization in a way that can allow for a better understanding of where the term is All copyrights are reserved by the authors. By only having an abstract concept and nothing concrete. The future of globalization is one that no academic would venture to try to predict. continents and civilizations. we are able to see how the concept has been identified over the course of the approximately thirty years represented in Table 1. In this task. more importantly. Al-Rodhan Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition attempts at defining this idea. This paper argues that the perspective of the person who defines globalization shapes any definition thereof. If nothing else. This invites a definition of globalization as: ‘an historical process which engenders a significant shift in the spatial reach of networks and systems of social relations to transcontinental or interregional patterns of human organization. There are definitions presented in our table that are timeless. this is the case. points of origin and termination. axes. 7 . that in order to have a worthwhile debate on globalization. By analyzing what has been offered in attempts to express the meaning of such a complex idea. By exploring the various explanations and thoughts behind the idea that has come to be called globalization. what it will mean in geopolitical terms in the future. and varied relationships to institutional structures in different regions. but between global regions. Does this mean.F. Nayef R. By looking at the ways in which the definition has changed over the past 45 years. It implies that further elaboration would not be particularly useful. “globalization is a ‘world of things’ that have ‘different speeds. and there are those that indicate that globalization is a trend. there is no reference point. or societies. One could reflect on the impact of globalization for days without having a clear understanding of what in reality the term means. one can ascertain that the future will not give way to a simpler or a more refined means of arriving at a clearer conceptualization of the process. this overview of definitions has made it clear that globalization is many things to many different people. The fluidity of this concept makes concrete recommendations for a definition difficult. not simply across nation-states and national territorial boundaries.’” 10 The challenge of defining globalization is not going to disappear or lose importance anytime in the near future. Anthony McGrew’s elaboration of this concept illustrates this point: “globalization [is] a process which generates flows and connections. As Arjun Appadurai noted in 1996. the core of the discourse must be determined by the author.’” 9 This captures the complexity of globalization without actually defining it. it forces the issue to be simplified in one or two sentences. then.Dr. activity and the exercise of power. nations. a definition must be agreed upon at the outset? In a way.

It could be argued that the discussion that stems from the definition issue is in fact a vital part of the discourse itself. nor would there be the resources to pull together so many definitions. which in turn sheds further light on the globalization process and its many-sided impact on stability. and the debate is globalization. Sociologist Cesare Poppi contributes a thought in this regard: “The literature stemming from the debate on globalization has grown in the last decade beyond any individual’s capability of extracting a workable definition of the concept. there would be no need for a paper of this nature. the definitions do permit a comprehensive understanding of globalization that is extensive enough to allow us to see what lies at the core of the thoughts of those thinking about the concept in modern discourse. Despite this difficulty. 8 .” 11 The debate surrounding globalization is a large part of its lifeblood. All copyrights are reserved by the authors. Without it. even if it feels like an everlasting and futile task. Poppi is correct: globalization is the debate. its ambiguity. Searching for a definition thus does help renew focus on the policy challenges and responses needed. Conclusion The remaining questions center around the value that defining this concept adds to the globalization debate. Being unable to come up with a Webster’s-dictionary-style definition is part of what makes it an interesting point of departure for further discussion and study. globalization is the debate about it. The matter of defining globalization can be deemed useless because of its shifting nature. Perhaps. the meaning of the concept is self-evident. Nayef R. Al-Rodhan Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition rooted and where it might be headed in future research and policy work. its influence from the perspective from which one views it. the other is inconceivable. it can never fully be defined to the satisfaction of all who are impacted by its implications. As globalization exists at different times and means different things to different facets of society and the international system. But the attempt. In a sense. does contribute to the debate and does stimulate discussion about globalization.F. in another. it is vague and obscure as its reaches are wide and constantly shifting. Without one. more than any other concept.Dr.

p. 1998). Globalization. 1992). 8. 38. 730-731.’” (p. J. Issue 3. The Condition of Postmodernity (Oxford: Blackwell. Globalization and the Nation-State (London: Macmillan Press. p.” “ …all those processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single world society. 1974). p. as cited in Chi-yu Chang. The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Global Marketplace (London: HarperCollins. 1993).F. “Introduction”. p. 20. 8. 1989). “Coping with Globalization: The Need for Research Concerning the Local Response to Globalization in Developing Countries”.” “The critical point is that both sides of the coin of global cultural process today are products of the infinitely varied mutual contest of sameness and difference on a stage characterized by radical disjunctures between different sorts of global flows and the uncertain landscapes created in and through these disjunctures. 9. 1. Albrow and E. 87. 1990). p. 1998). as cited in RAWOO Netherlands Development Assistance Research Council. Nayef R. “Corporate Power and the Globalization Process”. Martin Albrow. pp. 87) “…globalization means the onset of the borderless world…” ”…refers both to the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole. 11. 64. J.). 14. Brinkman and J. Al-Rodhan Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition Table 1: Definitions of Globalization 1 (in chronological order) SOURCE Immanuel Wallerstein. No.Dr. Global Shift: The Internationalization of Economic Activity (London: Guilford Press. p. 8. September 2004. 9 . 1999). as cited in R. Knowledge and Society (London: Sage. DEFINITION “globalization represents the triumph of a capitalist world economy tied together by a global division of labour. Holton. Holton.” “…the compression of time and space. p. 730-752. Globalization and Modernity (London: Sage. Globalization and International Relations Theory (New York: Oxford University Press. 2002. 1990). Global Culture: Nationalism.” Arjun Appadurai.” “Globalization can thus be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa. 6. p. 1) … “‘the degree of interdependence and integration between national economies. as cited in R. in M. The Consequences of Modernity (Cambridge: Polity Press. David Harvey. p. as cited in R. 29. J. 1990).” 1 Whenever possible. “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy”. pp.). Publication No. 2000. All copyrights are reserved by the authors. 15. Asian EFL Journal. p. King (eds. Intra-Firm Trade (Paris: OECD. The Modern World System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century (New York: Academic Press. Peter Dicken. Globalization and the Nation-State (London: Macmillan Press. “How American Culture Correlates the Process of Globalization”. p. Kenichi Ohmae. 1992). 1998). Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture (London: Sage. 1992). Featherstone (ed. 308. as cited in I. as cited in R. citations were taken from original sources. Brinkman. International Journal of Social Economics. Clark. 7.” “…understood as the phenomenon by which markets and production in different countries are becoming increasingly interdependent due to the dynamics of trade in goods and services and the flows of capital and technology. OECD. “…globalization is ‘qualitatively different’ from internationalization… it represents ‘a more advanced and complex form of internationalization which implies a degree of functional integration between internationally dispersed economic activities. in M. Roland Robertson. Vol. Holton. Vol. Globalization and the Nation-State (London: Macmillan Press. Anthony Giddens.’” (p. p.

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2000.implies the weakening of state sovereignty and state structures. governments.” “As experienced from below. An Introduction to International Relations (New York: Oxford University Press. the dominant form of globalization means a historical transformation: in the economy. 20002005. O’Boyle.edu.richards/glossary/glossa ry. January/March 2000. “Trading Phobias: Governments.F.virgin. The Globalisation Syndrome.however the word is understood .htm. 2000). (London: Pine Forge Press. as cited in J.” All copyrights are reserved by the authors.net/brendan. Nayef R. “…a phenomenon by which economic agents in any given part of the world are much more affected by events elsewhere in the world. March 2000.). Melbourne. October 10. No. A Global nd Perspective. “Freedom and the Market (An Analysis of the Anti-globalisation Movement from the Perspective of the Theoretical Foundation of the Evaluation of the Dynamics of Capitalism by Palanyi. 14 . 95-118. The Globalization of World Politics. pp. 1999). Baylis and S.” “‘Globalization project’: an emerging vision of the world and its resources as a globally organized and managed free trade / free enterprise economy pursued by a largely unaccountable political and economic elite. 1-16. International Journal of Social Economics. see http://www. 46. Stuart Hall. Jan Aart Scholte. Pavis Lecture. This term combines two aspects of the work: internationalization (enabling the product to be used without language or culture barriers) and localization (translating and enabling the product for a specific locale). pp.globalizacija. Nikitin and John E. and marketing software products that are intended for worldwide distribution.au/Events/JBL/JBL00.Dr.” “…integration of national economies leading to the notion of a borderless global or planetary economy… an interwoven net of factories. A. labouring and farming populations. Hayek and Keynes)”. see http://www. 2000. p. of livelihoods and modes of existence. British Journal of Sociology. Quanto Financial Technology. (n. 2000). Transformation and Resistance (Princeton: Princeton University Press.htm. Brendan Richards. pp. a devaluation of a collectivity’s achievements… Globalization is emerging as a political response to the expansion of market power… [It] is a domain of knowledge. Anne Krueger. 2000).cit. “The process of developing. October 19. as cited in G. Scholte. 30. 2000. 86.equanto.” “A process in which activities are organised on a global not national scale. p. p. 14.” “Globalization . “Glossary”. p.com/glossary/g. 348. see http://www. p. 2003.” Pavel V. Globalization – A Critical Introduction (London: Macmillan Press. “Glossary – G”. “De-territorialization – or… the growth of ‘supraterritorial’ relations between people.gu. Walton Hall Campus of the Open University in Milton 13 Keynes. a loss in the degree of control exercised locally… and in culture. Gaburro and E. The Seventeenth Annual John Bonython Lecture. see http://www. Fall 2000.” Media Studies Learning Web. Development and Social Change. September 26. 1/2. Issue No. in politics.htm.htm. pp. Smith (eds.au/~davidt/cit3611/glossary. see http://freespace. The Forum for Social Economics. 1. “Software Internationalisation Glossary of Unicode Terms”.org.com/doc_en/e0013glo. J. “The Multicultural Question”. 51. manufacturing.html. 2 ed. Vol.” “…globalization is… the establishment of the global market free from sociopolitical control. in ways which involve some interdependence. Jha Avinash. 15. P.cis.’” (translated from German) “Tendency of integration of national capital markets.d. ”The Globalization of World Politics”. 2000). 12 “Die Globalisierung…global networking that has welded together previously disparate and isolated communities on this planet into mutual dependence and unity of ‘one world. fields and forests. Australia. “Norms for Evaluating Economic Globalization”. James H. Vol. 79-105. banks. “The Cosmopolitan Perspective: Sociology of the Second Age of Modernity”. Al-Rodhan Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition Emanuel Richter. Mittelman. NGOs and the Multilateral System”. 3. Elliott. p. and which are often instantaneous around the world.” Ulrich Beck. 115. McMichael. 6-7.). cities and transport spread over the surface of earth. Background to Globalisation (Bombay: Center for Education and Documentation. Griffith University. p.” “…it is a hegemonizing process in the proper Gramscian sense.

2001.ca/~rsexty/business1000/glossary/G. Jan Aart Scholte.” “[T]he key idea by which we understand the transition of human society into the third millennium. exchange. it must relativize itself. 2001.” Memorial University of Newfoundland. Malcolm Waters.to use Robertson’s term. Globalisation or Recolonisation (Pune: Elgar. nd nd “Globalization can be defined as the increasing interaction among and integration of diverse human societies in all important dimensions of their activities--economic. it does not imply that every corner of the planet must become Westernized and capitalist but rather that every set of social arrangements must establish its position in relation to the capitalist West . (London: Routledge. January 14.org/economicpolicy/globalization/. 2 ed. see http://www. p.htm. However. 9. Symploke. of distances getting shorter. and transformation. Basingstoke: Palgrave. consumption and trade of goods and assets that comprise the base of the international political economy. The Race to the Top: The Real Story of Globalization (US: Cato Institute.ucs. government authority. and the IMF”.” “…it is nothing but ‘recolonisation’ in a new garb. see http://www. An Introduction to International Relations (New York: Oxford University Press. It pertains to the increasing ease with which somebody on one side of the world can interact. (London: Routledge.globalizacija. “Globalization can be defined as a set of economic.” “[I]t is the process of world shrinkage. pp.). p. 2001). “The integration of the world economy. technological and political forces.Dr.” Jain Neeraj. things moving closer. Thomas Larsson. political. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). pp. The Foundation for Globalization Cooperation’s Second Globalization Forum. “…the intensification of worldwide social relations which.anthro.org/most/most_ar_part1c. 2001. 2001). The World Bank Group. in J. political and cultural structures and processes arising from the changing character of the production. p. Baylis and S. see http://www. Al-Rodhan Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition Eduardo Aninat. 1. see http://www1. Issue 1-2. 2001.wayne. technological. Malcolm Waters.F.unesco.” “Globalization – the growing integration of economies and societies around the world. Smith (eds. 15 . colonization and cultural replication. 2 ed. p.imf. The Coming of Globalization: Its Evolution and Contemporary Consequences (Houndmills. 2001).com/doc_en/e0013glo.htm. 2001). 2. United Nations Educational. speech by the Deputy Managing Director of the IMF. p.htm . The Globalization of World Politics. service. Globalization.” “…globalization refers to processes whereby many social relations become relatively delinked from territorial geography. pricing.globalizacija. Anthropology Department. so that human lives are increasingly played out in the world as a single place. to mutual benefit. MOST Annual Report 2001. “China Globalization.ht m. 2001.” “…a process of cross-cultural interaction. through economic. Robert Sexty. 9. see http://www. with somebody on the other side of the world. social.” “Globalization is the latest stage in a long accumulation of technological advance which has given human beings the ability to conduct their affairs across the world without reference to nationality. 15. “Canadian Business in the New Stakeholder Economy Glossary”. see http://www. “World Literature and Global Theory: Comparative Literature for the New Millennium”.” “…the integration of markets on a worldwide scale and could eventually mean worldwide standards or practices for product quality.” All copyrights are reserved by the authors. Robert Gilpin. April 4. Vol. social.” Richard Langhorne.pdf. p. 15-43. 2001). It is also bound up intrinsically with the pattern of capitalist development as it has ramified through political and cultural arenas.htm.org/external/np/speeches/2001/011401. link distant localities in such a way that distant events and powers penetrate local events.com/doc_en/e0013glo. see http://www. 364. 14-15. Globalization. Wayne State University. 6.worldbank. 2001). 6-7. Global Political Economy (Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. time of day or physical environment. and religious. Faculty of Business Administration.mun.” “Globalization is the direct consequence of the expansion of European culture across the planet via settlement. “The Globalization of World Politics”. Nayef R. cultural. and design. 2001). Vilashini Cooppan.edu/ant2100/GlossaryCultAnt.

p.” “…a process of creating a product or service that will be successful in many countries without modification. and. to describe the strictly political phenomenon of falling government-imposed barriers to international flows of goods. 16.htm#II. Critical Critique. Keohane. “2. Vol. There are also broader cultural. Wolf. cooperation. services. detection. George Soros. “Glossary”. 2004).” (italics in original) Bena Internet Publishing Services. Nayef R. pp. n. of the perduring challenge of modernization. exchange. 2002. “3. “…globalization describes a trend of increasing transnational flows and increasingly thick networks of interdependence.” “…development of global financial markets. 3. Power and Governance in a Partially Globalized World (London: Routledge. see http://www. 144.Dr. Zaki Laïdi. July 2002. services and capital that attracted special attention in the late 1990s. ideas. 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Berger and S.html. to describe the much broader political phenomenon of the global spread of marketoriented policies in both the domestic and international spheres. Robert O.imf. No. Brink Lindsey. On Globalization. “Globalization: Threat or Opportunity”. Also used to encompass a variety of other changes that were perceived to occur at about the same time.” “Globalization can be defined as a process by means of which most of the world's developed countries and some of the developing countries aim to improve inter alia the free flow of information. and capital. au fond. it is most likely to be a new phase of exactly the same underlying process of the capitalist production of space.org/external/np/exr/ib/2000/041200. a continuation. 62.umich. political and environmental dimensions of globalization that are not covered here. see http://www. and prosecution of criminals. Biblioteque: World Wide Society (BWW). the result of human innovation and technological progress. 16 . It refers to the increasing integration of economies around the world. Winter 2006.” “…globalization is. Globalization and Postcolonial Theory in the Age of Endless War”.” (italics in original) “…a process of intensifying social relations on a worldwide scale that results in an increasing disjunction between space and time. Huntington (eds. and trade between nations. see http://www. Inc. I do not think it unduly confusing to use the same word to mean three different things. 2002).org/feature/criminalbehavior. see http://www. this has been the great challenge of pluralism: the breakdown of taken-for-granted traditions and the opening up of multiple options for beliefs.

and a conception of that world as a fluid. Riverside Library. J. Depending on what you read. technology and capital throughout the world. the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank often generate large demonstrations. 1/2. M. citizenship. These agents change their location between national territories on the basis of opportunities for growth and profit. “Norms for Evaluating Economic Globalization”. University of California. Higher Education Consortia in Europe and Southeast Asia”. “Editors’ Summary”. 2004-2005. values.” “Globalization is the moment of mass migration.” “The process of making something worldwide in scope or application.cbe. “Global Opportunities and Institutional Embeddedness. and finance companies) working in different countries and serving the world market without a prevailing national base. services.uk/1/hi/programmes/working_lunch/guid es/glossary/1496844. “Modernism.c fm.edu/depts/acquisitions/YBP%20NSP%20GLO SSARY%20EXTERNAL%20revised6-02. see http://canadianeconomy. culture. ideology. 553. 2005. Al-Rodhan Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition Giuseppe Gaburro and Edward O’Boyle. p. banks.” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. politics. “Essay Contest Glossary”. see http://www. and dynamic whole. G. H. Poverty and Inequality (Brookings Institution. 10. BBC News. pp. No. multiculturalism. this increasingly interconnected global marketplace is either the best or the worst thing to happen. 2003.ca/logistics/g. politics. Modernism/Modernity. “By economic globalization we mean the practice of economic agents (business enterprises. University of Twente.pdf. products. “Used for transnational influences on culture. Although globalization is not a new development. “Culture and Globalization. and cosmopolitanism. Graham.html. 97. Vol. Collins and C. see http://www.ab. The Humanities in Ruins”. 2003. Nayef R. 3. especially in the area of telecommunications.utwente.” (italics in original) “…the movement across international borders of goods and factors of production. CR: The New Centennial Review. Imre Szeman. identity.ca/english/economy/globalizati on. economics. J. and capital. Graham (eds. Brookings Trade Forum. 11.F. p. 3. labour. April 15.” OECD.S. 30. norms.” Melba Cuddy-Keane. pp. massification. “Approval Plan Glossary”. They carry out their economic affairs as if the boundaries which define the nation-state do not exist.ucr. see http://schools. 95-118.p df. in S. “Channels From Globalization to Inequality: Productivity World Versus Factor World”. International Journal of Social Economics.” “The generalized expansion of international economic activity which includes increased international trade.nl/cheps/documenten/thesisbeerkens. its pace has increased with the advent of new technologies. 2004. Globalization. Collins and C. OECD Handbook on Economic Globalisation Indicators (OECD. Meetings of bodies such as G8.” “The term ‘globalisation’ has been widely used to describe the increasing internationalisation of financial markets and of markets for goods and services.” “Cultural globalization is distinguished by a consciousness of dwelling in the world. 2005. as cited in S. p. U. and increased creation of technology among countries. 94. labor. M. especially illustrating global patterns or trends. finance. Vol.. etc. All copyrights are reserved by the authors.org/econed/essay/topics/glossary05. p. or. Geopolitics.edu/press/books/chapter_1/brookings tradeforum2004. Vol.stm. solidarity) become disembedded from their spatial context (mainly the nation-state) due to the acceleration.co. 2005). Globalization is the increasing world-wide integration of markets for goods. 17 . xiv. No. 2004.. pp. growth of international investment (foreign investment) and international migration. “The world-wide interconnectedness between nation-states becomes supplemented by globalisation as a process in which basic social arrangements (like power. No. interconnected. “Financial Terms E-J”.” “The world is shrinking thanks to advancing technology. see http://lib. Calgary Board of Education. diffusion and expansion of transnational flows of people. markets.php. Globalization”.). Globalisation refers above all to a dynamic and multidimensional process of economic integration whereby national resources become more and more internationally mobile while national economies become increasingly interdependent. Media Services. The Canadian Government. services. rights.Dr. p. images and information. January 17. see http://minneapolisfed. 539-558. Beerkens.html. 2004). conflicted.brookings. “The term ‘globalization’ describes the increased mobility of goods. and they grow not because they are supported or protected by the nation-state but through their own efforts.” William Easterly. 2004. see http://news.gc. flexibilisation. 2.bbc. 91-115. 2003.

cas.” “Globalization can be defined as a historical stage of accelerated expansion of market capitalism. see http://www. 2005). 1. Occasional Papers on Globalization. globalisation is also viewed in terms of the revolutions in telecommunications. “Generally defined as the network of connections of organisations and peoples are across national. production. or manage domestic economic policy. Webster’s Online Dictionary. ideas. update processes. 18 .’ This has given transnational corporations power beyond nation-states. resource accessed March 21. translators. 2. the expansion of production by a firm to many countries around the world. No. consultants.cfm. 2006.html..stile. see http://www.coventry.e. Coventry University. 17 16 web Agricultural Trade Policies and Issues. Chadwick (eds. the use of a common language for scientific communication. Beech and S. technological. 2006. with simultaneous release in all markets. It has also been defined as a process by which nationality becomes increasingly irrelevant in global production and consumption. Vol.” Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA). set regulations. Al-Rodhan Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition Coventry Business School. “The increasing integration of world markets for goods. control balances of trade and exchange rates.htm.htm.ac. “Glossary” from J. and the imperatives of society’s mass demand for higher education…” “In the translation/localization business marketplace. Sometimes achieved by neutralizing the cultural elements. “Humanising Globalization”. 2006.agtrade. It is a fundamental transformation in societies because of the recent technological revolution which has led to a recombining of the economic and social forces on a new territorial dimension.org/glossary_search. i.uk/cbs/staff/beech/BOTM/Glos sary. Colours of Resistance.htm. and scientific trends that directly affect higher education and are largely inevitable in the contemporary world. superior global sites are those that enrich the cultural elements appropriately in each locale. “Glossary of Web Site Globalization Terminology”. web resource accessed March 21.org/definition/english/gl/globalisation. Altbach. geographic and cultural borders and boundaries. These global networks are creating a shrinking world where local differences and national boundaries are being subsumed into global identities. like the one experienced in the 19th century with the industrial revolution.org/English/news_e/sppl_e/sppl16_e. see http://colours." Philip G. see http://www. speech made on January 30.” All copyrights are reserved by the authors. Web site globalization means more than just making one web site respond to the different language and regional requirements of the browser. finance and transport that are key factors currently influencing the nature and pace of growth of tourism in developing nations.org/faq/definitions. 2006. The Business of Tourism Management (Prentice Hall Publisher. services. for full text see http://www. and has weakened any nation's ability to control corporate practices and flows of capital.websters-onlinedictionary.Dr. These phenomena include information technology in its various manifestations.” “It refers to international exchange or sharing of labour force. It has also weakened the ability of workers to fight for better wages and working conditions from fear that employers may relocate to other areas. University of South Florida.com/Glossary/GlobalGlossa ry.F. etc. and workflow are engineered to provide a comprehensive framework for cost-effective multilingual site development and maintenance . see http://www.usf. 2006. and capital.” “[T]he broad economic. Globalization includes the process by which site development. 2006. see http://www. Within the field of tourism. in particular. globalization of production. or the ‘global assembly line.” “Growth to a global or worldwide scale.html. “Globalization and the University: Realities in an Unequal World”.pdf.openinternetlexicon. Globalization Research Center. 15 “Globalization is a term used to refer to the expansion of economies beyond national borders.mahost. web resource accessed March 21.wto.incorporating overseas offices. products and services across borders.).html. 2005. January 13. web resource accessed March 21.edu/globalresearch/PDFs/Altbach. 14 Pascal Lamy. knowledge. Nayef R.org/nccq/glossary. it refers to the whole problem of making any product or service global. Open Internet Lexicon. see http://www.kwymca.

2006.uk/recruitmentcandidates/recruitment-glossary.ie/resources/glossary.com/sedotcom_home/help/help-glossary.” “A set of processes leading to the integration of economic. environmental interdependence of different places around the world. 2006.stanlake. web resource accessed March 21. 2006.no/terminology.com/wps/media/objects/213/218150/glo ssary.” “People around the globe are more connected to each other than ever before. International communication is commonplace.com/geo/4/agterms. resource accessed March 21. with strange bedfellows on all sides).” “[noun] Globalisation is the process of preparing software for use in any language and cultural environment either by designing it to be usable in this way or by adding facilities to existing software to facilitate subsequent localization.takebackwisconsin.investorwiz.nsf/WEBDocs/ Glossary. Ripon College.” Stanlake Search. while at the same time unique ethnic differences are being strengthened and local identities are being exerted. Information and money flow more quickly than ever. It is synonymous with Internationalisation. International travel is more frequent.hants. web resource accessed May 24. Prentice Hall.htm. deepening and speeding up of worldwide interconnectedness in all aspects of contemporary life. and the integration of national capital markets. Scottish Enterprise. Norwegian Language Technology. 26 “…an industry or corporation acting on a global scale with manufacturing bases in several countries. political. 25 24 23 22 “Development of extensive worldwide patterns of economic relationships between nations. Killenn. web resource accessed March 21. web resource accessed March 21. see http://wps. Texas. It describes the idea that the world is becoming a single global market.F.org/imstool/GEMI. causes and effects are hotly disputed. “Glossary: Economic Systems and Development”.uk/folders/gcse_revision_ guide/glossary/page_1. “Terminology”. political.prenhall. rather than individual continents or landscapes.htm. 2006. see http://www. see http://www. is considered as 'our home' and that some human activities can have a negative effect on people and environments far from their source or have an negative effect on the planet as a whole (UNESCO).” “The increasing economic.scottishenterprise. see http://hhhknights. Pearson Education.hsewebdepot. web resource accessed March 21. Nayef R.htm.HTML. E Marketing. Investor Wiz. see http://www. Al-Rodhan Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition Take Back Wisconsin.ht m.htm.bridgemary.wcit. see http://www. cultural.co. web resource accessed May 24. 2006. see http://www.” and Harker Heights High School.htm. Goods and services produced in one part of the world are increasingly available in all parts of the world.” web “…the movement toward markets or policies that transcend national borders.” SILK. “Glossary”. It describes the idea that cultures are blending and mixing and where cultural icons and values from dominant Northern cultures are being adopted in the South. “Important Concepts in Global Studies”.sch. see http://www. see http://www.’" “Tendency toward a worldwide investment and business environment. Nike and McDonalds. 2006.htm.bibliotekivest. USA. “Glossary”. page is published by Julie Kay Smithson. Washington Council on International Trade. web resource accessed May 24. demographic. It describes that idea that the planet as a whole. web resource accessed March 21. and social systems across geographical boundaries.php. 21 20 19 “Referring to the world economy and the world markets. 18 “A relatively new word that is commonly used to describe the ongoing.com/Documents/Glossary.org/tradeis/glossary. 2006.html. E. 2006. HSE Web Depot.” Bridgemary Community Sports College. see http://portal. multidimensional process of worldwide change.Dr.” “Globalisation is a more advanced form of internationalisation that implies a degree of functional integration between internationally dispersed economic activities.edu/academics/global/CONCEPTS. web resource accessed March 21. 2006. 2006. All copyrights are reserved by the authors. This phenomenon has been titled ‘globalisation. 2006.ripon.” “Globalization refers to [t]he widening. 2006. see http://www. including its nature. It describes the idea that time and space have been shrunk as a result of modern telecommunications technologies which allow almost instantaneous communication between people almost anywhere on the planet.com/glossary. (All aspects. see http://www. web resource accessed March 21.html. web resource accessed March 21. cultural.emarketing.g. 19 .

Monash Centre for Research in International Education. The public and organizations within the state are encouraged to submit any valuable articles. 6 st V. and to allow the public to ‘share’ in this information. Fall 2000.F. No.equanto. Baylis and S.agtrade. “The Globalization of World Politics”. 16 The definition that appears on this site was adopted from “Workinfonet. May 26-28. An Introduction to International Relations (New York: Oxford University Press.pdf. p. Vol. Appadurai.twnside. 1. but it originally appeared in Kenichi Ohmae. Gessner and A. 15. 1-16.takebackwisconsin. 2 See http://www. “Norms for Evaluating Economic Globalization”. See http://www. p. “Freedom and the Market (An Analysis of the Anti-globalisation Movement from the Perspective of the Theoretical Foundation of the Evaluation of the Dynamics of Capitalism by Palanyi.” which is inaccessible at this time. 1997). 18 From their webpage: “Take Back Wisconsin is an independent . No.html for further information. 2006. as cited in RAWOO Netherlands Development Assistance Research Council.htm. 9. available at http://www. Nayef R.org/. Publication No. Cox. p. n. Summer-Fall 2003.yorku.). University of Melbourne.gcsp. S. The Race to the Top: The Real Story of Globalization (U. The purpose is to provide a ‘Portal Depository’ of collected materials from around the state. Issue 2.open. “Interrogating ‘Newness’. Gaburro and E. 1998). 4.uk/socialsciences/sociology.S. The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Global Marketplace (London: HarperCollins. was published by the Pavis Centre.ch/e/publications/Globalisation/index. 1996). Vol. July 1. McGrew. 12 Quanto Financial Technology is “an international venture with the goal to create the premier center of competence in Financial Software in Romania. “The Multicultural Question”. or any materials which will help in the cause to Take Back Wisconsin. For more information. 190. 2003. as cited in J. 23.org/. 2001). 13 In 2001. Globalization and Postcolonial Theory in the Age of Endless War”. a paper by the same name. 15 From their website. “A Critical Methodology of Globalization: Politics of the 21 Century?”. Our goal is to reflect current Internet and Web usage in many countries. Kumar. 87-111. p. Australia.” References P. see http://colours. as well as remaking the common environment in which they are suited and they relate to each other. in V. A. It has potentially transformative effects within nations. 62. pp. 4 This quote is part of our definitions table. paper for International Symposium on Sources of Innovation in Multilateralism. and Globalization”. 1/2. 8 R. Issue 2. 95118.: Cato Institute. International Journal of Social Economics. 257.” “Globalization is a process that encompasses the causes. The Limits of Globalization: Cases and Arguments (London: Routledge. Anthony G. p. in Alan Scott (ed. “Coping with Globalization: The Need for Research Concerning the Local Response to Globalization in Developing Countries”. We aim to present the results on recent issues in a way that is understandable to a general audience. 1 20 . as cited in G. 10. The Globalization of World Politics.” For more information. “Colours of Resistance (COR) is a grassroots network of people who consciously work to develop anti-racist. Scholte. “Globalization as an Emergent Concept”. Al-Rodhan Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition Simon Marginson. 30. p. 87-111. Winter 2006. Elliott. E. pp. Centre for the Study of Higher Education. 14. 7 G. 1999). 137. S. the citation that appears here is active as of the date of publication. 2006. 10. Budak (eds. p. in J. p. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies. The dictionary will be open for all who are building multilingual web sites or single-language web sites. news releases. 98. Ritzer. Hayek and Keynes)”.F. pp. Monash University. see http://www. 14. in Alan Scott (ed. Lausanne. SAIS Review. 300. Kumar. see http://www. Vol. 2000.). “‘Globalization’ means the enhancement of the worldwide or pan-European spheres of action.ca/yorkint/global/conference/canada/pape rs/Simon-Marginson. 2003. Larsson.” For further information. pp. Nayef R. “Notes on Globalization and Higher Education.com/.com/.” Please see http://www.website. Ethnicity. 115. 87. 3 T. A.org. 14 “The Open Internet Lexicon (OIL) is an initiative to build a dictionary of Web terms (words and short phrases) in many languages. 126-161. 1994. “A Critical st Methodology of Globalization: Politics of the 21 Century?”. pp. course.openinternetlexicon. Modernity at Large: The Cultural Dimensions of Globalization (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.ac. C. “The Globalization of Nothing”. 10 Appears in our definitions table. p. Emerging Legal Certainty: Empirical Studies on the Globalization of Law (Ashgate: Dartmouth Publishing Company. as cited in V.). 11 C. 189-200. Vol. “Multilateralism and the Democratization of World Order”.org is to educate the interested public about current agricultural trade policy issues. V. However. p. A. 1997). “Wider Horizons with Larger Details: Subjectivity. pp. multiracial politics in the movement against global capitalism. 9 A.not for profit . Kilminster. The Limits of Globalization: Cases and Arguments (London: Routledge.” Please see http://www. p. p. “Global Legal Interaction and Present-Day Patterns of Globalization”. 20. “Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and A Proposed Definition”. Chowdhury. The Forum for Social Economics.mahost.). 2003. 2. 5 R. Al-Rodhan and Gérard Stoudmann. 17 From their webpage: “The purpose of Agtrade.com/index. Nikitin and J. letters. Poppi. and consequences of transnational and transcultural integration of human and non-human activities. No. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies. All copyrights are reserved by the authors. Cultural Critique. 1992). p. Geneva Centre for Security Policy. legislation. see http://www.Dr. 327.” The site is maintained by the Department of Agriculture Economics and Rural Sociology at Penn State University in cooperation with the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (IATRC). O’Boyle.sg/. as cited in K. correspondence. With Some Reference to the Case of Australia”. Smith (eds.

effective solutions that attracts the attention of your market and.scottishenterprise. 26 “SILK .htm for further information.” Please see http://www.” Please see http://www.” Please see http://www. please see http://portal. more importantly.gemi. 21 . 23 Investor Wiz is a webpage that offers a “fountain of information for novice investors.” Available at http://www. public sector and state government representatives. this is “Scotland’s main economic development agency.Dr.prenhall.stanlake. 20 According to their webpage.wcit.” For further information.” For more information. books on speech technology and general IT and delivery of services to the companies connected to the speech technology milieu at Tvildemoen in Voss. keeps it.html. 19 All copyrights are reserved by the authors. funded by the Scottish executive.investorwiz. 25 Washington Council on International Trade is a “private.htm?siblingtoggle=1.” For further information.is a new creation within library functions. consular groups and individuals.com/sedotcom_home/about_se.htm. The sector-specific part is concentrated to a digital resource on the internet about speech technology. Prentice Hall is “the world’s leading publisher of academic and reference books.com/index.org/.org/.uk/stanlake-profile/index. Al-Rodhan Ambassador Gérard Stoudmann Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition As explained on their webpage. Our business is focused on the recruitment needs of buy and sell-side firms in the financial markets and the technology / IT sector. in addition to be a research library. shareholder value and corporate citizenship. health & safety performance.bibliotekivest. please see http://www. non-profit. 24 HSE stands for Health. Nayef R.co. academia. We are both a sector-specific library and a public library. non-partisan association comprised of private sector businesses. see http://vig.ie/index. which states: “Business helping business improve environmental.emarketing. 22 “Stanlake Search was founded in 1990 as a specialist search and selection consultancy.” See http://www.html.F.no/about_us. 21 E Marketing is a company that “develop[s] online marketing programs that work hand-in-hand with [a company’s] offline marketing to give [your company] customer focussed. Safety and Environment and is part of the Global Environmental Management Initiative (GEMI).com/.