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In simple words, sampling consists of obtaining information from a portion of a larger group or an universe. Elements are selected in a manner that they yield almost all information about the whole universe, if and when selected according to some scientific principles and procedures.

y From the administrative point of view also sampling become easier problem of hiring the staff.y Helps to collect vital information more quickly and it helps to make estimates of the characteristics of the total population in a shorter time y Sampling cuts costs. Much of time and money is saved at each stage of research y Sampling techniques often increases the accuracy of the data. task of training and supervising will become easier . With small samples it become easier to check the accuracy of the data.

estimation of national income for the current year.y Sampling is not flexible in a situation where knowledge about each unit is needed. . y Reliability of information depends upon the representativeness of the sample of the total population y Most of the sampling techniques require the service of a sampling experts or statisticians. E.g.

Probability sampling techniques y Simple random sampling y Stratified random Non-probability sampling techniques y Accidental samples y Quota samples y Purposive samples sampling y Systematic sampling .

Among all the probability sampling procedures random sampling is the most basic and least complicated. the arrangement of conditions in such a manner that every item of the whole universe from which we are to select the sample shall have the same chance of being selected as any other item.Random sampling mean. .

y It involves listing all the elements in the population and assigning them consecutive numbers from 1 to n y Deciding upon the desired sample size y Using any method of selection. a certain number of elements from the list of elements 1 to n is selected y One can interview the people or measure the item designated by the sample elements .

The number of tickets drawn are equal to the sample size required.y Lottery method : here the no of all the elements in the universe are written on different pieces of papers of equal size. their numbers noted and corresponding individuals or objects are studied. Then the tickets are drawn at random . The process is thus designed to maintain objectivity and avoid any type of preference or bias towards any one unit. shape and colour which are then shuffled thoroughly . .

These numbers were written on several pages in unsystematic order.y Tippet s numbers : Tippet developed a list of 10.400set of numbers randomly. each set being four digits. who matriculated this year. Now if we want to select a sample of 30 students from a population of 5000 students of Tamil Nadu. For the purpose of selection through Tippet s method we have to follow the steps given below .

Number it. y Select any 30 numbers from any page of Tippet s list systematically. in this case we can take the roll number of students.y Prepare a complete list of universe. Every name has to be written in systematic order. Comparing our prepared list with these selected list we can select those persons who carry the same number. We can pick up the first two or first three or last two or last three digits of each of the 30 sets selected from the Tippet s list. .

. 237 0 748 3 056 0 524 6 275 4 914 3 664 1 399 1 952 4 154 5 Then the students carrying the numbers like 237. .etc would come under the sample.Suppose for the universe of 5000 students we decide to make selection on the basis of first three digits then the selection process can be..275.056.

For selection first a map of whole area is prepared. A transparent plate is made equivalent to the size of the map that consists of several squared holes in it which carry different numbers. . By random sampling method it is decided to which numbers are to be included in the sample. Then the grid is placed over the map and the areas that come under the holes carrying selected numbers are included in the sample. For example we have to select any number of districts from Indian states. The area is often divided into blocks.y Grid method : This method is applied in selection of areas.

Also known as patterned. as in records etc. This method is frequently used. population needs to be homogeneous. Prepare a list of all the elements in the universe and number them. Then from the list. every third/every 8th / or any other number in the like manner can be selected. direct and inexpensive. For this method. 2.1. . This list can be according to alphabetical order. because it is simple. serial or chain sampling.

. we call it as stratified random sampling.When the population is divided into different stratas or groups and then samples are selected from each stratum by simple random sampling procedure. Primary purpose of the stratified sampling method is to increase the representativeness of the sample without increasing the size of the sample on the basis of having greater knowledge of the population characteristics.

place of residence and so on. An estimate is made for each stratum separately. occupation. . income. y Elements are then selected from each stratum through simple random sampling method. no. of years of education. These estimates are combined to provide an estimate for the entire population. y Next step is to place every member of the population into its proper stratum as determined by the criteria used for stratification.y According to the nature of the problem relevant criteria are selected for stratification. race. sex. The possible stratifying criteria are age. religion. family.

in this method the no. In this method an equal no. irrespective of the size of the stratum in the universe. of samples to be drawn varies from stratum to stratum according to their size. y Proportionate stratified sampling: Here the cases are drawn from each stratum in the same proportion as they occur in the universe.y Disproportionate stratified sampling: Also known as equal size stratified sampling. . of cases are selected from each stratum. Therefore.

To apply the proportionate stratified sampling method we need to have a list of all the stratums. Then we would select a given percentage of people from each stratum. y Optimum allocation stratified sampling: In this design the object is to allocate parts of the total sample size to the various sample strata so that the strata with the larger variances receive the larger no of sample cases. We would also need to know the proportionate size in the total population. Since the size of the stratums vary the no of persons coming from each stratum in the sample on the basis of selection of a given percentage of people will also vary. .

Also that it does not assure that every element has a chance of being included. Accidental samples 2.A Non-Probability sampling is one in which one can not estimate beforehand the probability of each element being included in the sample. Purposive samples . Quota samples 3. The major forms of non-probability samples are 1.

Here one selects samples that fall to hand easily. whether in the class room. Suppose one is studying political socialization and political participation among the university and college students of Patna University and that his sample size in 100. But the chance of bias are also great. or in the student s common room or in the football field. and saves time and money. He would go to the University campus and would select the first 100 students whom he happen to meet. .It means selecting the units on the basis of easy approaches. Such type of sampling is easy to do.

living conditions. the relevant basis of stratification usually used are: age. religion and so on. . opinions. In studying peoples status. place of residence. an interviewer would need to contact a specified no of men and specified no of women. preference. attitudes. The required no of elements from each category are determined in the office ahead of time according to time according to the no of elements in each category. socio-economic status. education.In the quota sampling the interviewers are instructed to interview a specified no of persons from each category. from different religious or racial groups and so on. Thus. sex. a certain no of persons from different age categories. etc.

Defect with this method is that the researcher can easily make error in judging as to which cases are typical. The cases are judged as typical on the basis of the needs of the researcher. the purposive sampling is called judgment sample. The researcher tries his sample to match the universe in some of the important known characteristics. Since the selection of elements is based upon the judgment of the researcher. .In purposive sample one picks up the cases that are considered to be typical of the population in which one is interested.

Deep & Deep Publications (1993).y Devendra Takur. Research Methodology in Social Sciences. ch:5 .

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