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All praise is to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful and every grace of Allah is on His Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H), who is always a source of knowledge and guidance for humanity as a whole. It is a matter of great satisfaction and pleasure for us to present this project. This project report is a part of our Degree program which is done during fourth year of our studies. We chose Denim sector of Textile field as it is a Shinning, growing and challenging field. The entire contents of this report are based on our project in US DENIM. Our major emphasis has been on process, machine and product with the calculations involved. We have included in this project report the technical as well as the Mechanical aspects. We moved department wise covering various aspects. These days of Industrial training enhanced our spirit, courage and confidence. We also improved our presentation and technical skills. Even though every precaution has been taken, it may be possible that any mistake(s) is found. We will feel grateful, if it is intimate.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY
First of all we thank Almighty Allah who brought this moment in our life when we came in US DENIM for the project. It has been a great experience to work with all of you and we are feeling proud that we can say we have worked in US DENIM which is not only one of the best DENIM manufacturer & Exporters in Pakistan but also all over the world and where the management and the workers have demonstrated a very good performance in all areas of the business. US DENIM is a dynamic organization with professionals loving and professionals making setup. As it is said “Time Spent in Training is time Well-spent”. The golden time, which we spend here and the practical, conceptual and industry- related knowledge, which we gained here will be a milestone in our professional carrier. We would like to thanks US DENIM MANAGEMENT Mr. Asif (HR Manager US Denim) Mr. Haroon (Admin) Mr. Bilal Tariq (Production Manager) Mr. Faisal (MT) US APPAREL MANAGEMENT Mr. khurram (HR Manager US Apparel) Mr. Hanif Khan
We are grateful to our class advisor Mr. KASHIF MUNIR for arranging this project. We always remember the hospitality we received during our stay at the US DENIM. We are privileged to work with experienced personnel, who are the master of their skill and field. Their ever supporting behavior, kind advice, and professional approach taught us how to perform tough and critical tasks with utmost ease. We have very much enjoyed being amongst wonderful people. We wish each and every one everlasting progress, success and of course wish US DENIM a very prosperous future.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY
U S Denim Introduction . . . . . .. . . . . . ..….. . .…………..….. .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . .5
T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S
History Of Denim. . . . . .. . ………… . . . ………….. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ………... . .6 Types Of Denim…………………………………………………………….10 Introduction of Cotton………………..……………………... . . . . . ………….…….13 Yarn Manufacturing…………………..…………………..…. . . . . . …………….....14 Warping………………………………..………………..…….. . . . . . ……………....16 Warping in U S Denim……………………………………………………...19 Warping Plan………………………………………………………………...22 Dyeing………………………………….……………..…….…. . . . . . ………….......24 Sulphur Dye………………………………………………………………….25 Vat Dye……………………………..…….………………….....……...........30 Denim Dyeing……………………..…….……………………...….……......33 Rope Dyeing……………………..………….…………………...……….....38 Dyeing in U S Denim………………………………………………………..44 Rebeaming…………………………………...………………. . . . . . …….………...46 Sizing……………………………………………….…………. . . . . . ………….…...47 Weaver’s Beam……………………………...………………. . . . . . ……….……...48 Weaving……………….……………………...……….……. . . . . . ….……………..49 Air-Jet Weaving…………………..…………….…. . . . . . …….…..….....51 Weaving in U S Denim…………………..………. . . . . . ……..…..….....54 Finishing…………………………….…….………..………….…. . . . . . ………......56 Singeing…………………………………..…….…...................….…….....58 Mercerizing……………………………..…………...………….….………..62 Stenter…………………………………..……………………………..….....64 Sanforizing…………………………………………………………………...65 Inspection Department……………………..……………………. . . . . . …….…...68 Packing……………………………………..……………….……. . . . . . ……..…...70 Faults……………………………….……………………….…………. .. . . ……....71
. . . .93 Chemicals On Denim……………………………………………………. . . . .. …………. ……110 Mechanical Washes.…………………………………………………….75 Cutting Department………………………..…………………………………………. ... . . . . .... . .………………………………………. .132 Buttoning…………………………... .…. . ... .……………………………………………………………138 Glossary Of Denim……………………………………………………………………. . …………. . . . . . .……. .. . .. .…119 New Development in Denim Washes.. . . . . . …….……73 Store Room……………………………….. . .79 Stitching Department…………………. . .80 Types of Stitch……………………………………………. . . . . .………………83 Hems……………………………………………………….. . . .PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Contents ______________________________________________________________________________________________ U S Apparel Introduction………………..……………………………………………………. . .133 Pressing…………………………. . . .139 4 .129 Trimming…………………………. . ………. .. .. .. . .. ..………………………………………………. . . . . . .111 Chemical Washes.98 Denim Washing.……………………………………………………. ……. . . .. . ...……………………………………………. .……………………90 Wet processing………………. . ...137 Packing……………………. . . . .76 Embroidery Department…………………..136 Finishing…………………………. . . . . ... . ..……………………………………………... .. . .……………………………………………………. . . ………..……………………………………………………. …..……. . . . .
Punjab-Pakistan. We are responsible to our shareholders for a good return on investment. As corporate citizens we work towards achieving the best environmental and ethical practices.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY US Denim Mills is an upstart denim manufacturing company. on-time delivery and high quality. No of Employees more than 500 Established in 2005 Location Lahore. U S D E N I M WEAVING 5 . We see ourselves as the foremost source of innovative textile products for today's apparel world and are committed to delivering value to our customers in terms of product development.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY H I S T R Y O F D E N I M 6 .
he decided to take part and sent over to San Francisco in California. As so often happens fashions often emerge together in various parts of the world and are the result of the sudden availability of a new fabric. When talking about denim the name Levi´ s is one of the first to be mentioned. ideal for heavy laboring. twill weave. however: Levi found out that the gold diggers´ hard work in the mines made their clothes get worn out very quickly and he produced stout working trousers out of the sail cloth he had taken with him which 7 . a pick hammer and a bale of fabric out of brown sail cloth which was meant to put up a tent. jeans and denim history continues to baffle. however. It may well be that the fabric which was made in France also had a version made locally in England and was called by the same name of denim in the same way that Cheddar cheese is called cheddar all over the world. Levi´ s which stands for Levi Strauss is normally called the forefather of jeans. The members of the Strauss family were capable and skilful businessmen and ran a pedlary at that time. Denim was considered a hard wearing sturdy fabric. Certainly by the 19th century in England denim had a white warp and a navy woof (weft). He took with him a spade. When his great gold rush began in 1850. Now the question is: who has sewn the first jeans and where does the history of this „blue phenomenon” begin? Levi Strauss in the year 1860 In 1847. But we do know that the phrase denim jeans are thought to derive from several sources. A majority of source books suggest that denim derives from the English translation of the South of France French phrase 'serge de Nîmes'. cloth. No one is totally certain where the words come from.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY HISTROY OF DENIM: In fashion history. dye or technique. Denim fashion history is thus associated with Serge de Nimes. When tracing back the history of these trousers to its origins it is true that Levi Strauss played an important role concerning their development and distribution but he had also other inventive business partners. No one truly knows the perfect answer to where jeans began. at the age of 17 Levi Strauss left his Frankonian native country in Germany and emigrated to New York together with his family. The Serge de Nîmes was originally a wool silk mix. This did not happen. So Levi and his brother followed their parents´ footsteps and also became peddlers.
Once pop and film stars like Elvis Presley. since they reinforced the trousers again with metal rivets at the crossing point of the four seams at the crotch tip. however they got worn out at the crotch tip. For doing so. Since he was worried that his invention might be stolen he wanted to apply for a patent. however. When the trousers were applied as working trousers for cowboys. Levi Strauss. This patent was written down in 1873 and can thus be called the true year of birth. About 1947 denim made a break-away from work clothing image. At that time Genova was a flourishing place where cotton was exported all over the world. Although the working trousers out of Denim were stout they had a tendency to get worn out where the pockets were. Jacob Youphes mended the trousers with a needle and thread. The application of metal rivets for jeans is due to the Polish emigrant Jacob W. however he quickly learned the difference between the physical conductivity of cotton and metal. One day a customer inspired him to repair the torn off pockets with the help of rivets. he needed a financially strong partner. but by the 1940s they were considered leisure wear in America. Serge is the French Expression for combined twill and Nimes is the French town where the fabric comes from. jean brands old and new were worn universally in the 8 . Those wearing these trousers were then suddenly startled out of their sleep. The cowboys used to repair their meals at the campfire and then they spent the rest of the evening sitting round the campfire. Under the management of Levi Strauss the jeans were now produced in series. and Marlon Brando sported them they became desirable internationally in the 1950s and are associated with rock and roll and pop music. The fabric´s name Serge de Nimes was quickly turned into „Denim“in American colloquial language. At the end of the sixties of the 19th century he replaced the brown sail cloth by an indigo-dyed. The metal rivet at the crotch had to be removed quickly since the way of living of the cowboys had not been taken into consideration. also called Jacob Youphes. When he continued producing these trousers he used cheap cotton fabrics coming from Genova. For that reason he addressed the manufacturer of the trousers that he mended. Since the trousers were so stout not only the gold diggers liked them but which is not surprising in America? The cowboys appreciated them very much. The only thing missing were the famous metallic vets. By knowing very well the need for such a stout garment and thanks to the good cooperation with Jacob Youphes as well as his very good instinct for marketing Levi Strauss is still an important brand name in today’s textile industry. Mr.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY he called „half overalls“. Davis. wear resistant cotton fabric coming from France. When the cowboy approached the fire too much at night. This was no problem for Levi Strauss and Co. James Dean. Levi Strauss agreed and together they applied for a patent to strengthen the pockets of the trousers and Levi Strauss acquired a share of 50%. too. The name of this fabric was „Serge de Nimes“. Later in the 1960s. For many years jeans were only used as work wear clothes. chiefly in the area of sportswear and rainwear and an occasional appearance in high fashion collections as a "different-looking" evening dress. The name of the town of Genova was modified into „jeans” in the American slang. From then on Jacob Youphes made a lot of money out of repairing trousers. Jeans fashion history was truly made in the 1950s when film stars wore it in movies that the teenagers of the day followed with avid interest. By applying this indigo-dyed combined twill the first jeans out of Denim was almost born or better sewn.
cheap clothing for cowboys. All mills were basically running at capacity. 9 . imports of denim into Europe enjoyed penetration levels between 33% and 42%. Exports of Americanmade blue jeans grew. jackets. Stone washed jeans became a must. European textile industry saw in denim. basque corsets to jeweled cuffs. designer jeans with names like Gloria Vanderbilt. Part of a "back to nature" movement that emphasized ecology and the natural denim being a fabric created from a natural fiber was a primary factor. Since 1978 specialized denim manufacturers re established positions mainly in terms of quality. Substantial growth in overseas sales of American jeans and denim. bags. By the 1980s ripped. with relative little fashion styling. Since 1960 the jeans business has undergone an explosive transformation. Indigo denim first produced at Yarraville during 1965 on a narrow width Slasher dyeing machine designed and built on the area. The 1976/7 fashion element subsided in Europe and U.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY western world.S. Overseas manufacturers of jeans also grew.000. an opportunity to restructure itself into a more capital intensive high technology industry. Denim was hot yet again and used to make everything from footwear. and fur and feather decoration. Spreading of jeans fashions in the 1970’s and doubling of denim capacity in U. It was a period of worldwide shortage of denim when demand was substantially greater than capacity. blue-collar workers and penniless youth into a fashion conscious market for a widening mass of people of almost all ages. Production of indigo dyed denim started in Europe on an industrial level in 1972.led to the onslaught of imports. frayed and torn jeans were a normal sight.000 square meters of denim per annum are possible on this new Morrison dyeing Machine. In the 80s. Calvin Klein and Armani among so many fashion designers became the designer label jeans to be seen in. In 2000 designers were crystal beading and silver or gold spraying jeans amid tears. from a source of tough. Colored jeans from white through to pastels were also popular as were stonewashed blue jeans. From 1976 to 1979 U. Return to specialist jean manufacturer producing basic jeans. frayed slashes. The introduction of "baggy" jeans – originated in Italy where previous shortage led to youth wearing any size jeans available. But shades of blue are always loved and sometimes the darkest shade is high fashion and sometimes the most washed out faded pairs become the hottest. 1970 American youth adopted denim as their favorite fabric. This dyeing method has now been entirely replaced by the commissioning of the Morrison Rope Dyeing Machine on July 4th.S. thus becoming more competitive against imports from lower-cost countries. From 1972 to 1976 capacities grew from approximately 20 million square meters to 130 million. Dyeing capacity 15 to 16.S. 1980. By the 1990s black jeans were very popular for a while and jeans in general were seen a lot in the early 1990s. Colored jeans of all shades made an appearance.
Typically. These looms weave fabric with one continuous cross thread (the weft) that is passed back and forth all the way down the length of the bolt. With dry denim. The word "selvage" comes from the phrase "self-edge" and denotes denim made on old-style shuttle looms. SELVAGE DENIM Selvage denim (also called selvedge denim) is a type of denim which forms a clean natural edge that does not unravel. This creates what many enthusiasts feel to be a more natural. you can now get it in a variety of materials. To facilitate the natural distressing process. Today. Denim’s unique look comes from the rich indigo blue in one shade or another woven together with white threads to give the “depth” that people associate with denim. including blends that give you the same wonderful look of 100% cotton denim with some great additional features. as opposed to washed denim. Selvage is desirable because the edge can’t fray like lower grade denims that have 10 . non-dry denim is sometimes artificially "distressed" to achieve a worn-in look. Although selvage denim is not completely synonymous with unwashed denim. some denims no longer have indigo. is a denim fabric that is not washed after being dyed during its production. Most denim is washed after being crafted into an article of clothing in order to make it softer and to eliminate any shrinkage which could cause an item to not fit after the owner washes it. DRY DENIM Dry or raw denim. producing denims in a rainbow of shades. Much of the appeal of dry denim lies in the fact that with time the fabric will fade in a manner similar to factory distressed denim. the selvage edges will be located along the outseam of the pants. but other colors with the white opposing threads. or "fade". though it is not a necessity for fading. some wearers of dry denim will often abstain from washing their jeans for more than six months. such fading is affected by the body of the person who wears the jeans and the activities of their daily life. As the weft loops back into the edge of the denim it creates this “self-edge” or Selvage. dry denim represents a small niche in the overall market. In addition to being washed. Predominantly found in premium denim lines. the presence of selvage typically implies that the denim used is a higher quality. It typically starts out as the dark blue color pictured here. making it visible when cuffs are worn. unique look than pre-distressed denim.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY TYPES OF DENIM While the original denim was a 100% cotton serge material. however. Dry denim can be identified by its lack of a wash. It is commonly presented in the unwashed or raw state.
Multiple dips create a deep dark indigo blue. Stretch denim jeans are one of the fastest growing segments of the women’s market for jeans manufacturers. Here are some of the newer types of denim on the market: STRETCH DENIM is usually about 98% cotton and 2% Spandex for a bit of that forgiving stretch we all love. brown. can be seen. The dye is allowed to oxidize before the next dip. When the cuff is turned up the two selvage edges. It is especially desirable because the material will fade in the creases and folds of the jeans. and red (red is the most common). Raw selvage is material that has not been washed once undergoing the dying process. To maximize yield. This process is known as whiskering. The selvage edge is usually stiched with colored thread: green. Synthetic dyeing techniques along with post-dye treatments were introduced to control shrink and twist. white. yellow. yet lighter and less durable.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY separate wefts which leave an open edge that must be stitched. where the denim is sewn together. In response to increased demand for jeans in the 1950's. Shuttle looming is a more time-consuming weaving process that produces denim of a tighter weave resulting in a heavier weight fabric that lasts. Most selvage jeans today are dyed with synthetic indigo. This blend gives you wonderful ease of movement and at the same time some support for those “trouble spots” you aren’t so fond of around the hips or thighs. Loop dying machines feed a rope of cotton yarn through vats of indigo dye and then back out. Shuttle looms weave a more narrow piece of fabric. 11 . and thus a longer piece of fabric is required to make a pair of jeans (approximately 3 yards). but natural indigo dye is available in smaller niche denim labels. American denim manufacturers replaced the old shuttle style looms with modern projectile looms. Fabric mills used these colors to differentiate between fabrics. The new looms produced fabric faster and wider (60inches or wider). traditional jean makers use the fabric all the way to the selvage edge.
It isn’t as strong as cotton. These usually appeal to a slightly older market. so it has to be blended with this stronger material in order to stand up as a denim material.” RAMIE COTTON DENIM blends are found in a variety of combinations.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY POLY DENIM blends appeal to those who like the look of denim but prefer polyester blends that wash and dry quickly and are lighter weight and a bit dressier. but are also finding favor for pantsuits. when the look is meant to be “dressy but casual. with a wide price variance. 12 . Ramie is a plant fiber usually added because it reduces wrinkling and adds a silky luster to the fabric. however. etc.
8 5.0 Above 1.8 0.0 5.0 Description Uncommon Immature Mature Very Mature Very Low Low Average High Very High Short Medium Long Extra Long Fiber Strength (1/8 in.10 1.8-1.7 6.8-7. gauge strength in grams/tex) 20 and Below 21-25 26-29 30-32 32 and above Very Weak Weak Base Strong Very Strong 13 .7 0.99-1.6 Fiber Fineness Fineness (millitex) Below 135 135-175 175-200 200-230 Above 230 Description Very Fine Fine Average Coarse Very Coarse Fiber Maturity Maturity Ration Below 0.6 Above 7.9-6.26 Above 1.7-0.26 Uniformity Index Below 77 77-79 80-82 83-85 Above 85 Very Low Low Low High Very High Fiber Elongation (%) Below 5. COTTON PROPERTIES Length & Uniformity Upper Half Mean Length Below 0.99 0.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY COTTON The botanical name of cotton is Gossypium.0-5.11-1.
The spinning frames automatically doff bobbins full of yarn and send them to package winding. This technology enables ACG to impart various slub patterns into an OpenEnd yarn. also known as Faux Ring Spun yarn. Individual fibers are laid down in the groove of a fast spinning rotor and twisted into yarn. the spinning frames receive Roving via a transit system from the roving machine. Opening begins with baled cotton fiber being separated into small tufts. traveler speeds and spindle speeds controls the amount of twist in the yarn. Yarn is formed from cotton fibers that are twisted together after being drafted by passing between three steel rolls and three rubber rolls. to the Cards. After the cotton fibers are spun into yarn. For Ring Spinning. A blend of cotton fibers is made on each opening line. ACG also has the capacity to produce Amsler Open-End yarn. Denim made from this type of yarn has yarn character and surface interest that cannot be achieved with traditional Open-End yarn. the sliver must pass through an additional process called Roving. 14 . The major functions of Carding are to remove foreign matter and short fibers. The size and quality of each yarn end are monitored by the Barco Profile System to ensure uniformity. Cotton Fibers are formed into a yarn by centrifugal action in Open. In Ring Spinning. uniform sliver from six card slivers. they have another robot that automatically doffs (removes full packages) and starts up a new package. The relationship between roll speeds. however. through additional cleaning and blending machines. The additional blending. form the cotton into a web and convert the web into a rope-like form known as a sliver. The Open End Spinning Machines have robots on each side which automatically pieces up (repairs broken ends). and PCCA's unique computer blending software produces optimal yarn strength. Ends down levels and production information are gathered by the Uster Ring Expert System. paralleling of fibers and cleaning in this process produces a sliver for Open End and Ring Spinning. The yarn then is wrapped on a bobbin as it spins on a spindle by use of a traveler.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY YARN MANUFACTURING The initial stage of denim production is Opening and Blending. These bales are selected using USDA High Volume Instrument (HVI) data.End Spinning. On a different track. Cotton is delivered by air suction from the Opening and Blending lines. The drawing process produces a single. the yarn is wound into a large package.
62 rotors/mc.7 % Installed Efficiency 90 90 % waste 0.4 DrawFrame 15 .25 12.53 6 90 10800 9308 0.6 3.87 7 90 10800 9308 1.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY BALANCING OF A SPINNING LINE FOR DENIM MANUFACTURING Count 6 7 Production Required per day (kg) 8763 14235 Auto Coro Average Speed 70000 75000 TM 5 4.401 prod/day required 8763 14235 rotors 473 868 machines 1. 240 240 production /month in tonnes 263 427 Count Speed/mt/min Installed n% Production /day Hank Delivered Production Required per day Passages % waste m/c required Cards Doffer dia/ inch Doffer rpm installed effe.97 3. % waste hank delivered tension draft production/hr in kg produc daykg production required Machines required Blowroom Lines efficiency Production/day prod required/day lines required 6 700 70 3788 0 8789 1 0.77 7 27 51 85% 5% 0.515 16.1 2 43 1036 14378 13.2 Prod/rotor/day 18.32 6 27 51 85% 5% 0.6 2.1 2 43 1036 8842 8.86 7 700 70 3788 0 14292 1 0.2 0.8 TPI 12.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY W A R P I N G 16 .
INDIRECT OR SECTIONAL WARPING In Indirect warping. There are four types of warping. Each section has multiple ends that are traversed together slowly during winding along the length of the section to form the angle. 17 . the yarns are withdrawn from the single-end yarn packages on the creel and directly wound on a beam. Warp yarn is wound on the beam in sections. warping is transferring many yarns from a creel of single-end packages forming a parallel sheet of yarns wound onto a beam or a section beam. This process is called beaming. These smaller beams are combined later at the slashing stage to produce the weaver’s beam. the last section on the beam will have a tapered end that will make the whole yarn on the beam stable. It is also called band warping or drum warping. starting with the tapered end of the beam. b) It can also be used to make smaller. Direct warping is used in two ways: a) It can be used to directly produce the weaver’s beam in a single operation. Due to the geometry of the yarn sections. The warp beam that is installed on weaving machine is called the weaver’s beam. Draw Warping DIRECT WARPING In direct warping. Indirect or Sectional Warping 3. This is suitable for strong yarns that do not require sizing and when the number of warps on the warp beam is relatively small.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY WARPING In general terms. A weaver’s beam can contain several thousand ends and for different reasons it is rarely produced in one operation. a section beam is produce first. Ball Warping 4. The same length of yarn is wound on each section. intermediate beams called warper’s beams. The section beam is tapered at one end. It is important that each layer on the beam contain the same number of yarns. Direct Warping 2. This is also called direct beaming. which are as follows 1.
After the dyeing process. the tow is separated and wound on a beam. This stage is also called long chain beaming or re-beaming. before slashing. BALL WARPING Ball Warping is mainly used in manufacturing of denim fabrics. It is used for weaving of thermoplastic yarns. This process is called rebeaming. end to end. The warp yarns are wound on a ball beam in the form of a tow for indigo dyeing. 18 .PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY After all the sections on the beam are wound completely. DRAW WARPING Draw Warping is combining the drawing of filament yarns with heat setting and warping processes to achieve uniform stretching and heating for improved dye uniformity. then the yarn on the beam is wound on to a regular beam with flanges.
0-75 GPE tension range. COMPONENTS OF MACHINE • • • • • • CREEL LEASING STAND TURN-AROUND ROLL TURN-AROUND STAND BALL WARPER Dual MOTOR DRIVE CREEL: Custom designed to meet package dimensions.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY WARPING IN US DENIM: In US Denim ball warping is used. R &D department inspects the cones which is converted in beams of required length and forwarded to dyeing section. with individual post-post calibration. Two creels have capacity of 420 cones each weather one creel has a capacity of 540 cones. Integrated Motion Sensor with 25 19 . Electromagnetic Tension Control with individual post adjustment. end count requirements and available space. There are three creel machines of GRIFFIN. The department is connected with dyeing section directly and working 24 hrs.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY millisecond response time. LEASING STAND: Semi-Automatic lease insertion at programmable intervals with ertical oscillation to reduce wear. Drop Wire Stopmotion System. is machined from thermoplastic to reduce weight and improve durability thus eliminating routine maintenance. end count confirmation. and recurring break indication for same package. OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT: Automatic Traveling Cleaner. The hold down arms provide programmable hold down pressure and are used in loading and doffing the beam. Sheet Vacuum System (SVS). end break indicator. TURN-AROUND ROLL: Provides additional length to the yarn path (in sheet form) to allow for recovery of lost or broken ends and reduces rolling in the trumpet at the end of the traverse stroke. Manual Post/Disc Tensions. 20 . The trumpet carrier. The Griffin Director is a PC based drive and control system that completely automates the operation of the machine. including AC vector drive/motors. BALL WARPER: The Ball Warper is capable of producing a 1220mm width ball with diameters up to 1524mm (60”) and safe operating speeds up to 500 mpm. Customer support is provided through modem communication 24/7 by Griffin technicians. Drive Rolls are rubber covered for maximum durability and are coupled to Dual Caliper Disc Brakes for quick stopping. Inside loading/outside running creel design. DUAL MOTOR DRIVE: utilizes the latest drive technologies. Operator interface is by 380mm Touchscreen. high strength polyurethane timing belts and heavy duty beveled gearboxes. The guide wheel has a pneumatic disk brake for controlled stops. TURN-AROUND STAND: Constructed of heavy duty steel with an aluminum flanged 300mm diameter x 125mm wide guide wheel. which has no bearings.
Example: with reversible package. which supports beam. There are three types of tension in warping i. with unrolling draw off. Then the yarn comes to the winding zone or headstock. Less space is consumed. catcher tension. and with traveling package. Example: reversible frames. rod tension. Extra yarn is then removed through cutting. V-creel has a low range of package change. Suitable for high speed yarn warping. which are removed through an anti static device. More time consumable because of low speed. In indirect warping. with fixed package frames. The yarn from the cones is unwounded and passes from rod by cross wound. Combs straighten the yarns towards pressure drum. No need of yarn guide Provide uniform yarn tension across the whole beam. Less time consumable. Sensors sense any type of yarn breakage and in case of yarn breakage knotting is done. Similarly if cones are finished on one frame side then trolley system of cone changing is used in this way chains rotates the whole frame of empty side and new filled side of frame is forwarded again knotting is done between the new cones yarn and already winded yarn. More space is consumed. a constant speed drive is generally required to provide approximately uniform yarn speed on the surface of the beam. Then the yarn is wounded on beam in this way for a required length if beam is changed after one filling of beam then knotting of yarns is made. with package trucks. Needs proper yarn guides. holed by a catcher guided to the tensioning zone when cone rotates anticlockwise. Static charges due to friction of yarns on metal surface cause static charges. Surface friction drive and variable speed drive is commonly used to attain the uniform yarn speed.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY COMPARISON OF H AND V CREEL H-CREEL Parallel warping is used for sectional warping as well as for direct warping. Suitable for comparatively low speed warping. V-CREEL V-creel is used for only in direct warping. No free yarn from creel to the warping machine because proper yarn guides are required. Free yarn run from creel to the warping machine. Provide low tension on whole beam. with swiveling package frames. H-creel has a wide range of package change system. reversible frames with automatic knotter. and sacker tension. PROCEDURE OF WARPING: The creel stand has maximum capacity of five cones per stand. and yarns in an alignment so that each and every yarn end can wound separately.e. 21 . Magnetic tensioner is used for yarn tension.
of ends x no. No. of beams = total no. of cones in bag Cone wt = 100 / 16 = 6. of ends = 1080 No. of beams Length / Beam = 47600 / 7 = 6800 m / beam 22 .25 x 10 x 768. of ends on each = ? Length per beam = ? No.1 Length of yarn on one cone = 6. 6 beams of 617 ends and 1 beam of 618 ends Length / Beam = length of yarn on one cone / no. The total no.25 lbs Length of yarn on one cone = cone wt. 7 warper's beams i. of Bags of 100 lbs = ? Plan for one Creel Then.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY WARPING PLAN The warper gets the required no of ends and the number of beams from the weaving department and then he made the warping plan that how to complete that task whether on one creel or on more no. = bag wt. of cones in one bag = 16 No. of beam = 4 Count = 10/s No.e. Some examples are given below to show the concept of warping plans using one creel and two creels. of creels.1 = 48006 m lessen the length up to 1 % because of variation in yarn length among different cones length of yarn on one cone = 47600 m no. In lbs x count x 768. / no. of ends on the weavers beam = 1080 x 4 = 4320 ends Cone wt. For example. of ends 617 x 6 = 3702 618 x 1 = 618 4320 ends so. of warper's beams with no. If.
of beams = 4 Count = 10/s No. of ends on warper beam / no.1 = 31952 m lessen the length up to 1 % because of variation in yarn length among different cones length of yarn on one cone = 51600 m no. 8 warper’s beams 0f 570 ends each No. 23 . of creels No. of ends = 1140 No. of cones in one bag = 24 No. of ends x no. of ends on each = ? Length per beam = ? No.1 Length of yarn on one cone = 4. / no. of beams = total no. of warper’s beam / no. of beams per creel Length / Beam = 31600 / 4 = 7950 m / beam Bags required = No.16x 10 x 768. of cones in one bag Bags required = 570 X 2 / 24 = 48 bags approx. For example. In lbs x count x 768. No. of cones in bag Cone wt = 100 / 24 = 4. If. of creels / no.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Bags required = No. of Bags of 100 lbs = ? Plan for two Creel The total no. of warper's beams with no. of ends on warper beam X no. of cones in one bag Bags required = 618 / 16 = 39 bags approx. of beams per creel = 8 / 2 = 4 Length / Beam = length of yarn on one cone / no.16 lbs Length of yarn on one cone = cone wt. of ends on the weavers beam = 1140 x 4 = 4560 ends Cone wt. of beams per creel = no. = bag wt. of ends 570 x 8 = 4560 ends so.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY R O P E D Y E I N G 24 .
They have good to excellent wash fastness and good light fastness in dark shades.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY DYEING Dyeing is a process in which we impart colour to the fabric. As a class. the sulphur dyes are not resistant to chlorine containing bleaches. Dyes use for Denim • Sulphur Dyes • Vat Dyes SULPHUR DYES: Sulphur dyes are widely used on cotton mainly because they are economical to use. Dyeing is mainly depends on the type of fabric. A major objective of the fixation step is normally to ensure that the coloured textile exhibits satisfactory fastness to subsequent treatment in aqueous wash liquors. Light fastness of pale shades is poor. The dye solution or dispersion is almost always in an aqueous medium. structure of fabric and the properties of dyes. Sulphur dyes are usually dull in shade since the molecular structures are complex. Chemical nature of sulphur dyes Partial chemical structures involved in dyeing with sulphur dyes Dyeing with sulphur dyes of various types 25 . All commercial textile dyeing processes take place by the application of a solution or a dispersion of the dyes to the textile material followed by some type of fixation process.
Polysulphides in the leuco dyebath prevent premature oxidation of the dye and reduce the tendency to bronziness of deep dyeings of blues. or in portions during dyeing. copper fittings must be avoided. brown and maroon. and by poor rinsing and soaping after dyeing. to promote exhaustion. They are now being used more widely in jet machines. since the leuco dyes only have low to moderate substantivity for cellulose. however. It can be minimised by thorough washing after dyeing before the oxidation of the leuco dye. This is a consequence of the formation of sulphuric acid from oxidation of the sulphur dye in the fibres. by using short dyeing times so that there is inadequate time for dye penetration into the fibres. The dyeings can then be subsequently treated to produce the faded worn look by removing the surface colour. The leuco dye is then added slowly and. an abundance of blacks. by a final alkaline rinsing with soda ash solution. An anionic product such as phosphated 2ethylhexanol is suitable. as well as to ‘bottom’ or ‘top’ Indigo dyed cotton warps. some salt may be added initially. The light fastness varies from moderate to good in heavy shades. They are commonly used for the continuous dyeing of corduroy. An addition of a sequestrant such as EDTA avoids precipitation of the leuco thiolate by calcium and magnesium ions. sulphur dyes are irreplaceable. There are. when black. The fastness to wet processes and to crocking can be varied almost as required to satisfy the demand for the faded look so popular for denim. yellows and browns. Dyeings with sulphur dyes cannot be bleached with hypochlorite. Sulphur dyes are used in cotton dyeing for woven goods using jig dyeing machines and also in continuous dyeing. the leuco dye oxidised and the dyeing is soaped as for a conventional vat dye. A major characteristic of sulphur dyes is the poor fastness to chlorine. dull shades on cellulosic materials. 26 . Sulphur dyes are also used for dyeing denim olive. rather than the traditional Indigo blue. On a world basis. blue and dull olive green shades are needed.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SULPHUR AND LEUCO SULPHUR DYES ON COTTON: Sulphur dyes have the dullest range of colours of all dye classes but are relatively inexpensive. and deep brown. There are few green sulphur dyes and no true reds. The bath may then be set at 40 ° with some sodium C polysulphide . DYEING METHOD: Initially the goods are wet out in the bath. these dyes are readily distinguished from other cotton dyes by their dark. Such tendering is avoided by dichromate oxidation of the leuco dye. To ‘bottom’ or ‘top’ means that a sulphur dye is applied either before or after the Indigo. After dyeing the goods are rinsed. blues. it can be further improved by resin finishing. nonsubstantive complexes with the leuco thiols. Since the dyeing liquor contains appreciable amounts of sulphide. which distinguishes them from most quinone vat dyes. Cotton dyed with some sulphur blacks becomes tendered on storing under warm humid conditions. dull colours and the bleaching that occurs when a dyeing is spotted with hypochlorite and allowed to dry. navies and blacks. If wetting or penetrating agents are used these should be of the anionic type since non-ionic surfactants form stable. They are used to dye medium to deep. Although cellulosic goods dyed with sulphur dyes usually have good washing fastness. This is achieved by allowing premature oxidation of the leuco dye during dyeing. There are several excellent blacks giving dyeings with good wet fastness properties. with good washing and satisfactory light fastness at reasonable cost. sulphur dyes constitute one of the major dye classes. In fact. and by resin finishing. In fact.
They do not give good exhaustion in heavy shades and the use of a low liquor ratio is recommended. This increases the water solubility. sodium sulphoxyate-formaldehyde or sulphide and sodium carbonate. particularly in the presence of salts. DYEING WITH SOLUBLE SULPHUR DYES: Large amounts of such dyes are sold in liquid form. They usually have low substantivity for 27 . Even sulphur blacks oxidised with peroxides tend to be bluer. weakly alkaline solution. it has long been common practice to use a standing bath. The water soluble leuco dyes are completely in solution and contain far less insoluble matter than a sulphur dye powder. Watersoluble reduced leuco dyes. Dyeing is often conducted at the boil but this decreases the degree of exhaustion. Fabrics for use inside rubber articles should not be copper treated. This prevents it sticking to the goods. The best washing fastness is obtained by oxidation of the leuco dye with sodium dichromate and acetic acid. They are of two types –1. Sodium dichromate. but some leuco dyes (redbrowns) are not oxidised by these agents. Some yellowbrown dyes are treated with copper sulphate to improve light fastness but theeffect is lost on washing. POST-DYEING TREATMENTS: After dyeing. to improve the light fastness. This is beneficial in package dyeing. so that stripping in a fresh reducing bath is not easy. decreases the wet fastness and results in staining of other goods during washing. good rinsing before oxidation helps reduce bronziness and poor rubbing fastness by removing loosely adhering surface leuco dye solution before oxidation precipitates the insoluble pigment. The use of chromium salts is now declining because of their adverse environmental impact. hydrogen peroxide. Some blues are over-oxidised. Some leuco dyes can be oxidised in air. the leuco dye in the fibres is oxidised to the insoluble pigment. others need chemical oxidation. solubilised sulphur dyes – the former being far more important. lighter and somewhat less fast to washing. and-2.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Sulphur dyes usually have acceptable substantivity. For popular shades such as black. Low sulphide leuco dyes require more salt and no polysulphide. but this tends to lower the washing fastness. They often still require a small addition of sodium sulphide or another reducing agent. particularly in North America. It requires a small amount of metavanadate ion (VO3 –) as catalyst. probably by oxidation of the disulphide links between the heteroaromatic units to form ionic sulphinate and sulphonate groups. dyeings with sulphur dyes are often topped with the much brighter basic dyes. This is a dye bath that is re-used for subsequent dyeings after addition of more reduced dye. the bath exhaustion is less but penetration of the leuco dye into the fibres is better than at lower temperatures. The actual dyeing temperature can vary. Once the rinsing is completed. Some dyeings are treated with copper sulphate. Sodium bromate (NaBrO3) is now more widely used as an oxidant. or with this and sodium dichromate. or sodium percarbonate or perborate are used in warm. The peroxy compounds used for vat dyes can be used for sulphur dyes. Sulphur dyes require less salt than reactive dyes and usually have reasonable exhaustion. Any free sulphur that tends to accumulate is dissolved by addition of sodium sulphite to give thiosulphate. and in some cases the wet fastness. The sulphur dye pigment acts as a mordant for the cationic dyes. These liquids contain the stabilised leuco dye. Because of their dull colours. Dyeings with sulphur dyes may also be shaded with some sulphide stable direct dyes. The solubilised sulphur dyes are thiosulphate esters prepared from the leuco thiols with sodium sulphite . At higher temperatures around the boil.
padding and pad–jig applications. steaming. and the usual aftertreatment sequence. EXAMPLES OF IMPORTANT COMMERCIAL SULPHUR DYES 28 . followed by intermediate drying. This involves padding with the sulphur dye suspension or solution.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY cellulose and are useful for package. oxidising and soaping. For black dyes tending to produce sulphuric acid by oxidation on storage. a final soda ash rinse may be added. steaming is carried out in air-free saturated steam. with three groups of wash boxes for rinsing. Padding may take place at up to 80 ° to reduce the substantivity of the leuco dye for the C cotton fibres. As for other vat dyes. In some instances better appearances result using a two-pad method. padding with sodium sulphide solution. Reduction is necessary before or during dyeing and the usual aftertreatments are needed. Then the dyeing is rinsed at 40–60 ° and oxidised with sodium C bromate plus metavanadate catalyst at pH 4 in the presence of acetic acid. In the remaining wash boxes. CONTINUOUS DYEING WITH SULPHUR DYES: Sulphur dyes are used for continuous dyeing of cotton goods using a pad–steam– wash process. the best possible soaping and rinsing is done. This reduces the problems of selective absorption and the resulting initial colour tailing that it causes.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY
Vat dyes are mainly applied on cellulosic fibres, but some can be applied to protein fibres. They usually have outstanding colour-fastness properties. Vat dyes are more expensive and difficult to apply than other classes for cellulose such as directs, sulphurs, and reactive. Indigo is a special case in the vat dye class. Indigo is attractive for its pleasing blue colour and for the unique fading characteristics of garment dyed with it. Vat dyes are characterized by the presence of a keto group. Vat dyes in keto form are water insoluble pigments. CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION OF QUINONE VAT DYES
CI Vat Red 42 (1); leuco compound formed by reduction (2); vat acid formed by protonation of the anionic leuco derivative (3); CI Vat Blue 4 (4)
Reducing vat dyes with hydros
THE SUBSTANTIVITY AND DYEING CHARACTERISTICS OF VAT DYES FOR CELLULOSIC FIBRES BASIC STEPS IN THE DYEING PROCESS: The dyeing of cellulosic materials with quinone vat dyes follows a four-step sequence: (1) Preparation of the vat containing the leuco forms of the dyes; (2) Dyeing of the material, in which the fibres absorb the water-soluble leuco compound; (3) Oxidation of the absorbed leuco compound back to the parent pigment inside the fibres; (4) Soaping of the dyed material to remove pigment loosely adhering to the fibre surfaces and to develop the true shade and fastness properties. DYEING WITH INDIGO AND INDIGOID VAT DYES: Natural Indigo was rapidly displaced from the market once the synthetic product became available. The quality of natural Indigo was quite variable because of the presence of other coloured impurities. The fastness properties of Indigo dyeings are not up to the standards expected from the vat dye class as a whole. It is, however, the appearance of faded Indigo in denim that is so fashionable today. After dyeing, various wet processes, such as stone washing, deliberately enhance this faded effect. Indigo builds up primarily on the cotton fibre surface. This is one reason for the somewhat inferior fastness properties of Indigo compared to quinone vat dyes. APPLICATION OF INDIGO TO COTTON: Dyeing cotton yarn for blue jeans is an important use of Indigo. In a typical batch operation, concentrated reduced Indigo is added to a dyebath from which oxygen has been removed with little alkaline hydros. The goods are entered and fully immersed to avoid oxidation. After about 15 min at 20–25 ° the goods are removed and well C, squeezed before air oxidation. Indigo does not exhaust well because of its limited substantivity for cotton, not surprising considering its small molecular size . Deep shades must be built up by repeated dipping in the dyebath after each oxidation. The use of too concentrated a dyebath is not effective for deep shades as it results in poor rubbing fastness. Some salt may be added to aid exhaustion. After dyeing, the goods are well soaped. The final dyed material may be aftertreated to produce a faded, worn look. Continuous methods are used for dyeing ball warps, warp beams and piece goods with Indigo. This is usually carried out in a series of 4–6 wash boxes with upper and lower rollers and nips at the exits. The goods are threaded through each box and may be skyed at the mid-point. The first box is used to wet out the material. In subsequent boxes, the goods are immersed in the leuco Indigo solution for 10–30 s at a linear speed of about 25 m min–1, squeezed and skyed for 2 min to oxidize the leuco dye to Indigo. The boxes are 31
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY fed with a stock vat of leuco Indigo and the liquor in the boxes is circulated to maintain constant dyeing conditions. they can also be used for wool dyeing. The preparation of a solution of a leuco vat dye requires care and time. solubilised vat dyes are generally only suitable for pale shades. These dyes are preprepared sulphate esters of the leuco vat acid. Since they can be used in solutions close to neutrality. and so on. Indigoid vat dyes give much paler yellow to brown leuco compound solutions. Unfortunately. the goods are rinsed or hydroextracted to remove superficial dye solution. Compared to the anthraquinone type vat dyes. The use of these dyes was never widespread and has declined in recent times. These include chlorinated and brominated indigo and thioindigo dyes in which the nitrogen atoms of Indigo are partially or totally replaced by sulphur atoms. its charge is localised in the sulphate groups whereas that of the phenolate ion is delocalised. Cotton absorbs these dyes directly from a neutral or slightly alkaline solution but they are not very substantive even in the presence of added salt. there are a number of other important indigo and thioindigo derivatives used for dyeing cellulosic fibres. 32 . Later solubilised leuco dyes derived from quinone vat dyes were marketed. The solubilised vat dyes avoid these problems. INDIGOID VAT DYES: Besides Indigo itself. Cotton therefore repels a leuco sulphate ester molecule more strongly than the normal leuco compound. the goods are soaped as in the case of normal vat dyeing. They are not particularly competitive because of their high cost. After dyeing. SOLUBILISED VAT DYES: The solubilised vat dyes provided a means of avoiding the difficult vatting process required for quinone and indigoid vat dyes. Several rinsing and washing boxes complete the process. and protection of the solution from excessive exposure to air. the dyeing and oxidation conditions for each dye vary so it is important to follow the supplier’s instructions. and the vat dye pigment is developed in the fibre by oxidation with sodium persulphate or acidified sodium nitrite solution. The vatting process is also slower and requires less alkali. The first product of this type was that derived from Indigo . The low substantivity of the leuco sulphate esters avoids the problems of the high strike of leuco vat dyes. Because of their limited substantivity. After neutralising with dilute soda ash solution. The dyeing has the same fastness properties as one prepared from the original vatted pigment. This process of several dips and oxidations is then repeated in a second series of boxes. Although a leuco sulphate ester has the same negative charge as the normal leuco dye.
These stoppages would in turn cause large shade variations. When cotton yarn is dyed with indigo. However. 33 . the dyeing process had to be stopped. It was first mentioned in a book 13 BC. because of which the outer layer of warp yarn is coated with indigo. dyeing temperature and necessary chemicals used in the process. as each yarn had to take the tension of being pulled through these processes virtually on its own). Indigo dye is the most popular choice as it has good depth of shade and suitable rubbing and washing fastness. the warp yarns or ends were put through the dye bath side by side to form a sheet of yarn. This gives the denim garment a unique ‘faded look’ and a rich blue shade after repeated use and wash. Indigo belongs to the category of waterinsoluble dyestuffs. reactive dyes are used and fixed with hot caustic soda solution.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY DENIM DYEING:The classical jeans was produced out of indigo-dyed Denim fabric. at that time the name Indian blue indicated the country the color came from. The yarns applied for weaving must be of high quality: a high fiber for strength. Special attention shall be paid here to Indigo. The dyeing process is mainly influenced by the dyestuff characteristics. for the weft yarn the fineness ranges are mainly 75 to 120 tex. Originally. The development of OE(open end) yarns – by applying smaller rotors with a spinning speed of up to 200 m/min – has led to the application of OE rotor yarns both for warp and weft. regularity as well as a small part of shortstapled cotton fibers belong to the basic features of the denim yarn. Indigo. The yarns applied for Denim were exclusively produced on ring spinning machines in former times. For regular jeans qualities the warp yarns are spun in a fineness of 50 to 90 tex. which passed continuously through several dye baths. It is said to have been used for dyeing in India and China 2000 years BC already. sulphur and indanthrene are mainly used in the dyeing process. Two methods are applicable for continuous dyeing with indanthrene dyes: rapid dyeing and vat dyeing. and the core of the yarn remains undyed. squeeze rollers or airing sequences. The yarns would be then mended. If Denim is made out of Tencel or Modal especially for jeans shirts the finenesses are up to 25 tex. While processing the basic colored denim. The special character of this fabric – only the warp thread is dyed – makes it necessary to carry out dyeing in yarn form. and the yarn breaks would show up as bad faults in the fabric. it leaves a ring-dyeing effect. or else it would lead to very bad tangling. the „king of dyestuffs“since it plays an important role in obtaining the jeans effect. if there were breaks in the yarn (and there would be. Now. an infinitely more efficient system has been introduced.
The reason for doing so was to transform the Indigo into its water insoluble form again by air oxidation. Only the leaves were used for good qualities whereas the leaves together with the stalks were applied for normal qualities.) This plant came to Europe in the 16th century via India and gradually replaced the woad which was one of the most important dyeing plants up to this time. In a vat filled with water and partially with human fermented urine as alkali donor stems and leaves were exposed to a putrefactive process. Then the liquid standing above was drained and what was left was a thin mash which was dried in the open air and was put on the market in pressed or in powder form 34 . In a last step the water-insoluble dyestuff particles could then deposit on the bottom of a stationary vat.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY The Indigo plant is used for preparing Indigo (Indigo tinctoria L. When this process was over the whole mass was filled into a liquid where the fermented mass was stirred with poles. During this putrefactive process hydrogen was created by means of micro-organisms which. transformed the dyestuff contained in the Indigo plant into a watersoluble form. as a reduction agent.
INDIGO REDUCTION C16H10O2N2 + Na2S2O4 + 4NaOH .PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY As shown in figure trading form of Indigo at that time. When looking at these methods one can easily imagine that the reduction of Indigo was considered to be an evil-smelling trade. In practice this is nowadays carried out with sodium dithionite or hydroxiacetone in the alkaline range. C16H10O2N2Na2 + 2Na2SO3 + 2H2O OXIDATION REACTION Na2S2O4 + O2 + 2NaOH . 9 cm length of edges and 163 g in weight. A few years later this synthetic dyestuff replaced the indigo coming from British-India almost completely. approx. In order to be able to apply it on cotton it must be transformed into a water-soluble form.und Sodafabrik“in Ludwigshafen -hich is nowadays called BASF . In the year 1897 the “Badische Anilin. As was already mentioned Indigo is a dyestuff insoluble in water. In 1880 Adolf von Baeyer succeeded in carrying out the first synthetic production of Indigo. Na2SO4 + Na2SO3 + H2O + C16H10O2N2Na2 + ½ O2 + H2O + Sodium Hydrosulfide C16H10O2N2 + 2NaOH 35 . 4). Similar to the former production of Indigo this is done by reducing the dyestuff (ill.was able to carry out an industrial-scale production of the Indigo dyestuff for the first time.
Nowadays. normally in rope form. Indigo sample dyer as very clearly visible on the above picture. yarn dyeing with indigo is done continuously. Here the various dyeing processes with different concentrations of chemicals as well as the subsequent yarn sizing exert an influence on the quality and the appearance of the ready fabric. 36 . at the bottom side of the rope the water-soluble Leuco form of the indigo is yellowish and on the side of the rope oxidized with air the indigo blue can be seen again.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Fiber cross-section of a yarn dyed with Indigo This is Fiber cross-section of a yarn dyed with Indigo simplified description of the reduction/oxidation of Indigo In former times dyeing with Indigo was carried out in wood or metal vats.
8 seconds so flow rate will be 38. allow to cool it for 2/3 hours f. Caustic Required= 90 kg Hydro Required= 80 kg INDIGO CALCULATIONS For 12 ropes. If pH is fluctuating.stirring) d.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY HOW TO MAKE INDIGO SOLUTION In a tank of 1000 liters: a.54*1000) kg= 5000 kg at 24 m/min.8 kg of Indigo 5000 kg of yarn needs --> 90 kg of dye at 100 gpl 100 gms of dye = 1 lit of solution 90 kg of dye = 900 litres 900 litres should be completed in 583. if (<11.2) then caustic is added.7 then hydro is added (2-3 kg). add setamol ws--> 4 g/l (stirring) ( dispersing solution) c. of 344 ends of 14000 m length of 7s count.3 min at 1. a lot of 14000 m will be completed in 14000/24 = 583.8 % shade -see the indigo calculations.8% shade 100 kg of yarn needs--> 1. Make the solution to 1000 l by adding water. Add hydrosulphide ( As reducing agent) g. if it is > 11. add caustic soda --> stirring ( for solubilising and pH) e.8 seconds / litre Similarly flow rate of caustic and hydro can be determined Hydro is taken around 100 gpl caustic is taken around 90 to 100 gpl 37 . take 400 litres of water (soft) b. Add 100 kg of Indigo ( at 1.6)/(7*840*36*2.3/900= 38.3 min 1 litre would be completed in = 583. For 100 kg of Indigo. wt of yarn = (12*344*14000*100*453. at 24 m/min.
12 to 36 cables are led side by side.80 m. The dyeing methods described here do not allow a total penetration of the dyestuff during the short dyeing time and give the desired and necessary ring dyeing important for the jeans effect. The warps are added to the sizing machine. wetted. There are nevertheless variations with 3 to 8 dyeing vats.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY There are three processes in the practice for continuous dyeing: 1) Rope Dyeing 2) Slasher Or Sheet Dyeing 3) Loop Dyeing ROPE DYEING: Indigo Rope Dyeing When dyeing according to the rope dyeing or cable dyeing method. dyed and dried after the dyeing process on cylinders and put into cans.15 000 m length. On the continuous dyeing installation. PVA. sized and then led together to warp depending on the total numbers of threads. normally. Size of the dyeing unit is between 60 . this method has proven to be very good through obtaining an optimum indigo dyeing. ENTERING FEEDING 38 . In practice. The disadvantage compared to other methods is that yarn breakages do occur more often. CMC and acrylate sizes are used besides starch-containing products. this is already visible by the machine sequences and is necessary to stabilize the warp thread against the high mechanical stress while the weft thread is being fed. 6 dyeing vats are in use. The sizing process follows the dyeing process of the yarn. However it is important that the cables have a constant tension in order to avoid warp stripes. Then the cables are dissolved to warps on the long chain beamer.350 . For sizing the warp.400 warp threads are bound on the ball warper to very thick cables of 10000 .
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY DYEING AIR TIMING DRYING DELIVERY 39 .
It varies from 15-22 seconds. Concentration of Hydrosulphite It is measured by vatometer. or by redox potential of dye bath which should be from -730 mV to -860 mV.5gpl .5 gpl to 2. Caustic Soda or pH value Should be from 11. It sqeeze rolls are too hard then there are chances of slippage and uneven yarn tension. If squeeze rollers are too soft then shading will occur. Squeeze Pressure High pressure will lead to lower wet pick up and result in lesser color and better penetration. High pH or Caustic Concentration --> Redder and lighter Low pH or caustic concentration --> greener and darker Dipping Time Longer the dipping time.5 3.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY PROCESS CONTROL OF ROPE DYEING FOR DENIM 1. squeeze pressure is 5-10 tonnes. 40 . 2. Hardness of squeeze roller is about 70-75 deg. wet pick up is as low as 60%. shores.. It should be from 1. At rope dyeing. Surface of the squeeze rolls should be ground twice a year. ie. Dye concentration in Dye bath it is measured by spectrophotometer.5-12. It should be in g/l Guidelines High Indigo Concentration --> Shade is greener and lighter Low Indigo Concentration --> Shade is dull and Red. better will be the penetration and lesser will be the ring dyeing effect.
dye penetration will be less and wash down characteristics are also poor.1 HCl) to pH 7.5 gms Effect of pH At pH of 10. place under continuous agitation and insert the electrodes of a pH meter caliberated at pH 7. At pH higher than this. Longer airing time results in high tension on the yarn and subsequent processes will become difficult. Alkalanity in Dye Bath Liquor Pipet 10. Hydro in Dye bath Liquor Add 2 ml of 37% HCHO to 150 ml beaker. Add 2 ml of dye range liquor .0 (ml = A) calculate g/l of NaOH = A *0. Drying Insufficient or unevenly dried yarns will result in poor rebeaming Calculation of Replenishing Dye feed/min Conc.0 with standard buffer solution. there will be formation of more monophenolate ions.0 ml of vat liquor into 100ml of distilled water in a 150 ml beaker. as strike rate of the dye to the yarn bundle is very high.5 to 11. and wash down activities will be very good. Testing 1. which lead to higher color yield.5.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Airing Time it should be 60-75 seconds. Add 6 ml of 41 . of stock vat is g/l= 90 range speed in yards/min=25 count = 7s totoal ends = 4100 Wt of yarn dyed /min= (4100*25*1000)/(7*840*202)= 7924 gms shade desired = 2% Amount of dye to be replenished/min= 158.40 2. Titrate with tenth normal HCl ( 0.
Darkish Red: increase Hydro 3. On the other side.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY 25% glacial acetic acid solution prepared by diluting 1 part acid with 3 parts water. Red Tinge: reduce addition of NaOH.046 N ( prepared by diluting 460 ml of 0. increase slightly Na2S2O3 2. proportion of hydrosulphite should be around 1. vat. Reaction Time At very short reaction time. Dark Green: Increase Caustic 42 .046N of Iodine Importance of High Concentration of Free Hydrosulphite The clearest shades with minimum reddish streaks are observed at by relatively high conc. an adequate liquor exchange ( i. In addition to this the time available for diffusion of dyestuff until oxidation commences is too short. the amount of unreduced dyestuff by oxidation at the upper level of the liquor and through activiation of unfixed dyestuff. To ensure an even and good depth of dye penetration by dyeing in several passages. the amount of chemicals consumed and replaced by fresh addition of reduced indigo) is not assured. resulting in higher shades.3 to 1. of hydrosulphite. A reaction time exceeding 60 seconds should be avoided as the amount of dyestuff again get reduced and released may again supersede that of additionally take up dye stuff. at a speed of 20m/min for a reaciton time of 10 seconds. Under these circumstances a reddish bronze like shade results due to dispersion of not reduced dyestuff in the yarn. Addition of chemicals 1. the leuco indigo is less dissolved and thereby adheres to a greater extent to the fibres. the whole quantity of the liquor should be circulated 2-3 times every hour. The min. for each vat (eg. Light Greenish: decrease Hydro 4.1 N Iodine to one liter ) solution until the color changes from emarald green to bluish purple.3 meters). Add 2 ml of starch/KI indicator. Softening Agent: 8 g/lit Drying: Rest humidity should be 30% and then sized. With lack of hydrosulphite furthermore. the reaction time should be 20-30 sec. Also to avoid the lack of hydrosulphite or Indigo at certain places in the immersion. Titrate with 0. This has a negative influence on dyeing and depth of dye penetration. with lack of hydrosulphite. the immersion path should be maximum 3. Add ml of water. G/l of hydro= mo fo 0. gets separated from the fibrous material would constantly rise as the reducing agent for creating leucoform would be missing.e.5 gpl in case of rope dyeing and 3-4 gpl in case of sheet dyeing.
to make it neutral wil add acetic acid. Caustinc Soda --> 10 gpl--> reducing agent 4. Temperature 90 deg. Wetting agent--> 2gpl 5.c 5th and 6th Wash Box: Hot Wash 7th wash Box: Here softner is added at 25 gpl. It is cationic softener with pH 4. Free Sulphur 2. the yarn strength is reduced by 15% as compared to Indigo. This is added to prevent the oxidation of of Sulphide solution. Now at acidic pH reaction is much faster. On a yarn sulphur is of two types : 1. The solution contains the following: 1. one can add tiny tinge of sulpher blue--> 20gpl) in III. cel. As during oxidation of sulphur. 250 gpl 2nd Wash Tank: Hot Wash 3rd Wash Tank: Cold Wash In 1st and 2nd dye bath take sulphur color 6-8% on the weight of the yarn sheet. But as it acts on neutral pH (=7) and after cold bath the solution is slightly alkaline. Na2S--> reducing agent: It is added to increase its reducing power 3. It will always remain in reduced form ( Alos if the shade is slightly greyish. So we add only a small amount of softener (25 gpl) as against that in indigo which is 100gpl. strength is reduced by 10%.5. solubalised sulphur color: 150 gpl 2. Reacted Sulphur. 7th and 8th Dye Bath: Cold Wash Wash Box Number 4: Here washing is done with detergent and soda ash at 60-70 deg.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY PROCESS OF DYEING OF SULPHUR COLOR: 1st Wash tank: mercerisation by taking 22% NaOH ie.5 to 6. 3rd Point Over all during sulphur dyeing and storing. The free sulphur will react with moisture in the atmosphere to form: H2O + S --> H2SO4 Which tenders the yarn. Antioxident Sulphide ( Glucose paste--> 5gpl). H2O2 acts as an oxidising agent. oxidising action of H2O2 will be similar to the bleaching action. Acs in alkaline pH. 43 . which may cause tendering in the fabric. then we can taken in 4th dye bath little Na2S+Caustic to reduce the free sulphur. IV and V dye bath--> cold wash in 6th dye bath. We take H2O2(30%)+Acetic Acid(2:1 by weight). 4th point If ball formation takes place of sulphur dyed warp at loom shed.
Rope opening is avoided After dyeing the warp sheet is dried on the same machine in continuous process by drying cylinders and then sizing is done on the same machine and after drying it is wound on a weaver beam Depth of shade is not good In Slasher dyeing productivity is less but it is feasible for short lots. 44 . Morrison has more than 200 Rope Dyeing systems installed the world over. There are two working shifts in the department each of 12 hours a day. After sizing they are dried and assembled on the weaving beam.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY DIFFERERENCE BETWEEN SLASHER AND ROPE DYEING ROPE DYEING SLASHER Warp yarns are assembled on the ball Warp yarns are directly wound on a beam warper to form a rope. in the form of a sheet. The ends are spread out on long chain beamer Or on a rebeamer. The sheet dyeing machine is smaller than a rope dyeing machine. Good depth of shade is achieved In rope dyeing we have very high productivity but the limitation is that it is very expensive for short lots. The immersion and oxidation times are much shorter Owing to the paralleled warp threads. The Inspected Lots are then transferred to the ReBeaming section for further processing. making it the globally recognized "first quality" method of indigo dyeing is the world. Ropes are drawn through dyeing range Dyeing is done in sheet form side by side. and the yarn sheet is wound onto warp beams. which means that the prime costs are lower Warp sheet entanglement is a danger DYEING IN US DENIM: The Rope Dyeing section is equipped with Morrison's Rope Dyeing Range. the wetting process is shorter and a wetting trough may be adequate. It can run for fine yarns too Rebeaming is not required and sizing is done after dyeing. Setting up or stabilization of the dye baths is affected faster. Dyed Lots are inspected at US Denim's in-house Dyeing Lab to ensure the fabric shade as per customer requirements. The oxidation time is greater for fixation The wetting time is greater and so dye is applied uniformly The rope dyeing machine is much expensive than Slasher. After dyeing they are dried on a drum drier and deposited in cans. These beams are then taken to sizing. Dyeing department is present on first floor. It can only run for coarse yarn as the tension on rope breaks the yarn Time consuming processes are rebeaming and then sizing As the dye bath is less exposed to air so dye is affected less.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY MORRISON'S ROPE DYEING RANGE Features:Custom designed Indigo Rope Range for maximum flexibility with minimum waste Dyes multiple yarn weights with multiple dye classes Runs short or long production lots with light or heavy depths of shade Pretreatment consists of counter flow scour / wash boxes Mercerizing adds improved dye affinity. luster. strength & fashion effects Multiple dips of indigo & oxidation time in the skier section for shade depths Multiple wash boxes for rinsing & chemical application Coilers lay ropes into drums in a pattern that facilitates Re-beaming operation 45 .
dyed yarn is rebeamed. This is also called warper beam.25 tax (1800's)] yarn processing capabilities High energy efficiency by utilizing AC generated power Tension-controlled motors in creel to drive the size box & head end motors Greater yarn stability through fluted rolls Precise tension control Individual beam tension control in the creel via load cell tension rolls & AC tension controlled motors Machine Layout 46 .PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY RE-BEAMING After rope dyeing. Features Heavyweight [66 tax (G 75's)] to lightweight [2.
a protective coating of polymeric film forming agent (size) is applied to the warp yarns prior to weaving. this process is called slashing or sizing.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY SIZING Although the quality and characteristics of the warp yarns coming out of the winding.manual or fully automatic 47 . SIZING MACHINE Brand Make Quantity Germany 01 Features Modern control systems for reproducible quality and efficient handling Individual drives & precise measuring systems Pre-wetting technology significantly reduces size & increases weaving efficiency Precise sizing control Perfect beams for better weaving results Reproducible size preparation . Cylinder drying is done using steam heated hot rolls called the drying cylinders. they are still not good enough for the weaving process for most of the yarns. smooth and elastic or extensible to certain degree. To achieve these properties on the warp yarns. The weaving process requires the warp yarns to be strong. DRYING ZONE:After the size box the yarns go through the dryer section. The main purposes of slashing are as follows: To increase the strength of the yarns To reduce the yarn hairiness that would cause problems in weaving process To increase the abrasion resistance of the yarn against other yarns and various machine elements To reduce fluff and fly during the weaving process for high speed weaving machines. The cylinders are coated with Teflon to prevent sticking of the yarns on the cylinders. warping and dyeing processes are quite good. The wet yarns are dried by using cylinder drying.
TRANSPORTATION OF BEAMS:After the winding of dyed warp beams the form the head stock the samples of the yarn are taken to laboratory for testing and then it is transported to the weaving department. A pressing roller is pressing the warp yarn for uniform tension winding. A guide roller guides the yarns to the weaver’s beam. 48 . A pressing roller is pressing the warp yarn for uniform tension winding.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY WEAVER’S BEAM:The yarns are wound on to weaver’s beam at the headstock.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY W E A V I N G 49 .
Weaving is an art that has been practiced for thousands of years. right from the simplest handloom to the most sophisticated loom. 50 . Over the years. The earliest application of weaving dates back to the Egyptian civilization. and basket weave.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY WEAVING The process of producing a fabric by interlacing warp and weft threads is known as weaving. The immediate derivatives of these three structures are warp rib. As of today. BASIC WEAVE DESIGNS There are three basic weaves: 1) Plain weave 2) Twill weave 3) Satin Weave Most of the other weaves are derived from these three basic weaves. filling rib. there is a wide range of looms being used. The machine used for weaving is known as weaving machine or loom. both the process as well as the machine has undergone phenomenal changes.
Air-jet system utilizes a multiple nozzle systems and a profiled reed. The relay nozzles provide the high air velocity across the weave shed. but I am sure the principles can be applied on other airjet looms also: 51 . I have included the damages observed on Tsudakoma looms. which provide the initial acceleration. Here are some of the common fabric defects and their troubleshooting as observed on Denim weaving Airjet looms. the filling is fed into the reed tunnel via tandem and main nozzles. Upon release of the filling yarn by the stopper. Profiled reed provides guidance for the air and separates the filling yarn from the warp yarn. The classification is as follows: LOOM SHATTLE SHATTLE-LESS Air-Jet Rapier Projectile Water-Jet AIR-JET WEAVING: Air-jet weaving is a type of weaving in which the filling yarn is inserted into the warp shed with compressed air.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Classification of Weaving Machines: Weaving machines are classified according to their filling insertion mechanism. Yarn is drawn from a filing supply package by the filing feeder and each pick is measured for the filling insertion by means of a stopper.
Check ELO timing 7. 8. RH/LH selvedge should run on last ring of the temple. Check fringe length 8. Serrated bars should be thoroughly cleaned with petrol/thinner 3. 6. Check press roll spring tension 10.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY a. Check take up gear and take up belt condition 9. Check all serrated bars are not in loose contact at the clamp 2. Check catch cord drawing in and its position 2. Binding of Leno Yarn b. Check pressure of AGS 2. Dropper sensitivity to be checked 4. Check condition and position of weft rubber stopper. Check catch cord end drawing in position 5. Air pressure of all nozzles 3. Check LHS cutter timing 9. Check position and condition of rubber stopper 10. Remove fluff from the serrated bars 6. 52 . 7. clamper condition and beam bearing 5. Reed dent gap opposite to stretch nozzle. Check beam gear and beam drive pinion 4. Check nozzle jet timing 4. Check leakage of air pipes 3. d. Check Air pressure 2. Check AGS piston 3. Check all warp ends are tight enough 13. Ensure that each warp end is attached with one drop pin. WEFT PATTI 1. Heald frame side play to check 9. Check individual subnozzles for blowing 12. The machine should not be stopped for long duration c. BENT PICK 1. 5. Check tension lever rod freeness and shock absorber position 8. 6. H1 Feeler head condition to check for any damage etc. WEFT FLOAT 1. Electric connection at the cable with clamp should be checked. Check stretch nozzle position against reed dent gap. MISSING END / CHIRA 1. Check stretch nozzle timing and position 5. Check heald frame height and shed crossing timing 7. Check proper winding of weft turn on FDP 11. Check beam bearing bush. Heald Frame height and shed crossing 4.
e. TORN OR HOLE AT THE TEMPLE 1. Check that temple cover is face to face with temple bracket 2. Ensure that temple bracket are fitted firmly on temple bar 3. Check heald frame height and shed crossing timing. 4. Check warp tension 5. Check bottom guide bar setting 6. Check press roll spring tension f. ABRASION MARK 1. Check position of warp stop motion separator 2. check cross ends 3. Check freeness of heald wires. 4. Check emery roll for any cuts etc. 5. Check freeness of temple rings 6. Check smoothness of temple covers 7. Bottom guide bar position and condition to be checked 8. Check reed-dent spacing g. NOZZLE MARK 1. check sub nozzle angle and height 2. Check scratches at tip of sub nozzle 3. Sub nozzles should be parallel 4. Check Reed dents h. JIRKY/ MISSING PICK 1. Check working of H1/ H2 feeler 2. Check feeler timing in I-board 3. Check setting of FU-203 (sensitivity of H1 and H2 feelers) 4. Clean H1 and H2 Feeler head i. TIGHT ENDS 1. Check that ends should be parallel 2. Remove entanglement of warp ends 3. Check that sticky ends of selvedge should not run in the body. j. OIL DAGHI 1. Check that no oily fluff is stuck to the warp sheet 2. Check that no oily fluff is stuck to the emery roll or pressure roll. k. BAD SELVEDGE 1. Check leno stop motion 2. check proper RH cutter setting 3. Check continuous working of batching winder
WEAVING IN US DENIM
In US DENIM weaving is carried out through air Jet looms. Like some other departments weaving department is running 24 hours a day and meeting the sales requirements. Weaving department is playing a leading role in denim manufacturing at of denim at US DENIM. Air jet weaving is a type of weaving in which the filling yarn is inserted into the warp shed with compressed air. Air jet weaving utilizing a multiple nozzles system and profile reed. Yarn is drawn from a filling supply package by the filling feeder and each pick is measured for the filling insertion by means of a stopper. Upon release of the filling yarn by the stopper, the filling is fed into the reed tunnel via tandem and main nozzles. The tandem and the main nozzle combination provide the initial acceleration, where the relay nozzles provide the high air velocity across the weave shed. Profile reed provides guidance for the air and separates the filling yarn from the warp. A cutter is used to cut the yarn when the insertion is completed. Air jet machine has an extremely high insertion rate .Due to its exceptional performance, air jet machines are used primarily for the economical production of standard fabrics, covering a wide range of styles. Meanwhile, more and more special fabric segments are covered: heavy cotton fabrics such as denim, terry fabrics, glass fabrics, etc. The advantages of air jet weaving machines are: • High productivity. • Low initial outlay. • High filling insertion rates. • Simple operation and reduced hazard because of few moving parts. • Reduced space requirements. • Low noise and vibration levels • Low spare parts requirement. • Reliability and minimum maintenance. After the tandem and main nozzles are turned on, yarn is released from the clamp (stopper).When all the coils of the particular pick have been pulled off the feeder, the stopper closes the yarn decelerates and then will be beaten into the fabric. Thereafter, the air is turned off and the pick is cut to complete the cycle.
Brand Make Total looms PICANOL Belgium 86 looms
Fast, simple width changes & symmetrical width reduction Modular feature equipped to fit a superstructure Newly designed relay nozzles & valves for highest performance Split frame for style change in less than 30 minutes Optimized insertion preparation for up to eight colors or yarn types Standard design for cam, dobby and jacquard motions Warp beam and cloth roll can be changed quickly without tools
TRANSPORTATION FROM WEAVING
A doff of required length according to Let off of the loom and quality of the fabric is removed from the loom and transported to the finishing department 55
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY F I N I S H I N G 56 .
• Compacting (Shrink-proofing) • Calendaring • Raising (Napping.g.padding. In case of fabric the finishing treatment often take place as a separate operation after dyeing. and is then passed between rollers to squeeze out as much as possible of the treating solutions before being dried and finally cured. tends to be avoided unless absolutely necessary. These are mostly value added processes. These can include properties relating to visual effect.” The term finishing covers all those treatments that serve to impart to the textile the desired end-use properties. smoothness. in the form of an aqueous solution/dispersion. is applied by means of padding techniques. Washing as final step. In more than 80% of cases the finishing liquor. softening treatment). handle and special characteristics such as waterproofing and nonflammability.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY FINISHING OF DENIM “A process done to fibers. residual shrinkage and hand are examples of the properties that can be altered by mechanical finishing. chemicals other than lubricants are seldom used. Fabric luster. texture and performance. The dry fabric is passed through the finishing bath containing all the required ingredients. Following are some of the Finishes: • Flat finish (singeing – mercerizing. yarns and fabric causing them to change in appearance.sanforizing) • Regular finish (singeing –padding.sanforizing) • Coating 57 . Finishing treatment is done to achieve the ultimate customer requirements. Some finishing treatments are more typical for certain types of fibers like easy care finishes for cotton antistatic treatment for synthetic fibers and mothproofing and anti-felt treatments for wool. Finishing may involve • Mechanical Finish • Chemical Finish MECHANICAL FINISHING: Mechanical Finishing is defined as any operation performed to improve fabric appearance or function by physical manipulation. Steam or water may accompany the physical manipulation. however. softness. Sueding) • Shearing • Polishing • Corduroy Cutting CHEMICAL FINISHING: Among chemical treatments one can further distinguish between treatments that involve a chemical reaction of the finishing agent with the fiber and the chemical treatments where this is not necessary (e.
is achieved only if the fabric is impregnated with desizing liquor immediately after singeing. The denim must be preshrunk to prevent the finished garment from shrinking after washing. 6. Fabrics which have not been singed soil more easily than singed fabrics. The risk of pilling. The burning-off of protruding fiber ends which are not firmly bound into the yarns results in clean surface which allows the structure of fabric to be clearly seen. 2. washing and sanforizing are done according to end use of fabric. REASONS FOR SINGEING: Common reasons for singeing include: 1. especially with synthetic fibers. The machine consists of entry end. singed to burn off the hair-like fibers. skewing. Textiles are first and foremost singed in order to improve their wear and end use properties. 58 . WORKING IN FININSHING DEPARTMENT OF US DENIM: It is divided in to following main sections: Batcher formation Singeing Mercerizing (chemical treatment) Stenter Sanforizing Finishing is done according to the customer` s requirement and as per profit of the organization. Singeing process facilitates and speeds up desizing. A closely singed fabric is essential for printing fine intricate patterns. The risk of skitter dyeing with singed piece dyed articles in dark shades is considerably reduced as randomly protruding fibres cause a diffuse reflection of light. 4. however. drying. shrinking machine. Singeing. folding or batching. The fabric is often chemical treated with size. The basic denim compressive shrinking range is used in the factory that has most denim finishing in a separate denim finishing range. 5. is extremely low in case of singed fabric. Washing a piece of unfinished fabric and measuring the normal shrinkage that occurs determine the amount of shrinking needed. DENIM FINISHING: The finishing of denim fabric is accomplished for several purposes. SINGEING Singeing means burning off loose fibers sticking out of textile goods. Parameters of the finishing are set by testing under the supervision of the finishing department. wetting agent and lubricants. The fabric is brushed to remove the loose lint.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY FINISHING IN US DENIM US DENIM finishing department is a well-established modern section with a suitable range of the finishing processes required for denim. During finishing the fabric is skewed to prevent the garments from skewing after fabrication. This effect. 7. 3.
One cleaning step in front of the singer. Dust. Fabric heavily vibrates due to the beating bars. Indirect singeing After singeing DIRECT SINGEING is the most popular procedure. It is a type of direct singeing in which fabric is exposed to direct flame in such a way that it only burns the protruding fibers at the surface not the fabric. Infrared beams are burning the loose fibers. SEQUENCE OF SINGEING The singeing process contains three steps: 1. fibres and other residues get loosened and are extracted. 1. GAS SINGEING. fibers sticking to the surface get lifted by the brush segments presenting it in such a way that they easily can be singed-off. speed controls the singeing effect. Important for both techniques: when the machine stops. The indirect singeing works with highly heated ceramic modules. The singeing itself and 3. too. 2. Direct singeing 2. The first cleaning should contain brushing and beating units to achieve the best output.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY FABRIC BEFORE AND AFTER SINGEING Before singeing TYPES OF SINGEING Singeing can be classified into two types: 1. 59 . The cleaning step afterwards. Gas singeing machine along with burner also equipped with cooling rollers to cool down the fabric and brushing zone in front and after singer. Pre-cleaning: Well prepared and cleaned fabric is a pre-condition for good singeing. the fabric is moved from the metal and the flame stops. The fabric passes either glowing metal with contact (mainly for pile fabric) or a direct gas flame.
g. 60 . The heart of any singeing machine are the burners. Singeing: It is of utmost importance since if proper control is done here it leads to very severe damage to the fabric. Cleaning after singeing is as well of importance. Post cleaning: A second cleaning after the singeing unit ensures that ashes and other products resulting from singeing are separated from the system.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY 2.. Burner should be such that it gives oxidizing flame so that there are no soot marks on fabric. SINGEING PARAMETERS: Fabric speed (m/min) Flame intensity (mbar) Fabric temperature (C) Singeing positions Burner fabric distance (mm) SINGEING FAULTS Common singeing faults are as follows: Uneven singeing effect across the fabric width along the fabric length in the form of horizontal and/ or vertical steps Thermal damage of the fabric or individual fibre types within the fabrics e. together with the supply and control units for the gas-air mixture. formation of beads of molten material in polyester. The essential conditions to prevent fabric damage and singeing faults are: a) A high energy flame (mechanical and thermal) to burn polyester with any residue b) A uniformly hot and hard flame to prevent singeing marks c) Machine design that minimizes flame/fabric contact time and keeps thermal energy away from the ground as much as possible to avoid thermal effects. Oxidizing flame or blue flame is only possible if there is proper mixing of the fuels [Normally it is mixture of air and oxygen (3:1) 3. impregnating liquor remains cleaner and reduced amount of dust in the following process steps.
approx 22m cloth content Batcher at exit 61 .PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY SINGEING MACHINE IN US DENIM: In US Denim one Singeing machine of OSTHOFF is installed. 15 mbar Pressure both side adjustment Desizing Compartment.Goller Desizing Year 1997-98 Fabric Width 103" / 2600mm Roller Width 108" / 2800mm Rotation Stations: Hydraulic Rotation Station Motorized Rotary Total 14 points Machine Configuration Batcher / Plaited Stack Singeing Compartment. 5/6 Top and Bottom Roller. 2 Burners. Manufacturer: Osthoff Singeing .
Pre washing is done in order to remove the excess pretreatment chemical from the warp sheet. Once the sheet is washed by hot water and then cold water. If they remain inside the sheet than it will cause the fibers to loose and also dyeing will not occur uniformly. Clod washing is done after hot washing in order to reduce the temperature of the warp sheet. 15-18° is ideal temperature for mercerization or maximum C room temperature. Furthermore as a rule. Pressure on these rollers is adjusted according to the tensile strength of the warp sheet with the help of load cells. any irregularities have a direct effect on the dyeing or print. Squeezing rollers are provided at the end of each bath to remove the excess liquor from the sheet. PRE-WASHING: After mercerization pre-washing of the warp sheet is done. These rollers also drive the warp sheet. 62 .e. The result of inadequate mercerizing are: unleveled dyeing reduced color fastness properties ending or cross shading varying dimensional stability inadequate coverage of dead or immature cotton alkali marks SEMI-MERCERIZATION: Sometimes when we are in need of light shades than mercerization is done on a small scale by applying less caustic to the warp sheet. Advantages of Mercerization: improves dye uptake up to 40% permanent luster is obtained improves tensile strength dimensional stability dead cotton coverage less pilling effect The advantages of mercerization are considerable. the color fastness and uniform appearance of goods are also improved. The increase in the dye uptake capacity results in deep shades and expensive dyes savings can be achieved. pH should be in alkaline range Since mercerization affects the dyeing properties. Concentration of NaOH is very important 29-30° Bome of NaOH Cold water is used i.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY MERCIRIZATION It is the process by which natural twist / convolutions are open by the help of concentrated alkali under tension conditions. It is a treatment which makes the cellulose start to swell at a certain alkali concentration.
cloth content in mercerizing machine 30-35m.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY MERCERIZING MACHINE IN U S DENIM Manufacturer: Goller Year 1997-1998 Refurbished in 2004 Fabric Width 70" / 1800mm Roller Width 79" / 2000mm Dwell Time in the mercerizing section 35 second Speed 45 m/min Mercerizing Section 18 pairs of rollers.35m No of Washing Compartment 5 Cloth Content 22 x 5 = 110 meters Can Dryers 12 Machine Configuration > Batcher / Plaited Stack > Scray > Wet on Wet Mercerizing Arrangement (trough and padder) > Mercerizing Section (Chiller option included) > Stabilizing Section > 1 Modified Turbo Washing Compartment with 2 suction sloth. 22m cloth > 4 Normal Goller Washing Compartment 22 meter cloth > Drying Cans > Scray > Batcher 63 . cloth content in stabilizing machine 30. Stabilizing Section 18 pair of rollers.
Infra-red drying is used for both curing and drying. Air is circulated above and below the fabric. Stenter ALKAN Year 2001 Location Turkey w/width 2400mm. It is used as either a stand alone piece of equipment or as a pre-dryer to increase drying rates and hence fabric speed through a stenter. It is a very versatile piece of equipment. diathermic oil heating. air cooling at the exit.pins clips chain ( Combi) 6 chambers. and with integrated heat recovery and environmental abatement systems. before being exhausted to atmosphere. entrance and exit on big roll or folder. chemical finishing and heat setting and curing.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY STENTER:The stenter is a gas fired oven. 64 . collector at the entrance. Modern stenters are designed with improved air circulation. which helps to improve drying performance. with the fabric passing through on a chain drive. held in place by either clips or pins. As well as for drying processes. Horizontal. Squising padder with 2 cylinders with impregnation tank. the stenter is used for pulling fabric to width. Corino electronic weftstraightener.
CONTROLLED COMPRESSIVE SHRINKAGE PROCESS The internationally well-known and most important shrinking process today dates back more than 70 years. A full width sample is wash-tested according to the test method. the average person knows it as SANFORIZED. The purpose of the process is to shrink fabrics in such a way that textiles made up of these fabrics do not shrink during washing. After the lengthwise and widthwise shrinkage has been determined. The process is a purely mechanical treatment without any addition of chemicals. Monforts Sanforizing Range Manufacturer: Monforts Year 1997-98 Fabric Width 1800mm Roller Width 2000mm Shrinking Cylinder 640 mm Moisturizing Unit Monforts Palmer Unit 2 meter Rollin Rubber Belt 65 .PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY SANFORIZING OBJECTIVE OF SANFORIZING The sole objective of sanforizing is to control the length wise shrinkage of fabric. The amount of potential wash shrinkage must be determined prior to shrinking. the compressive shrinkage machine can be adjusted accordingly. Though the correct expression for this process is Controlled Compressive Shrinkage. The maximum percentage of shrinkage depends on fabric construction and quality but controlled according to the customer specifications. The Sanforized label means dimensional stability for garments made up of Sanforized labelled fabrics.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY MACHINE CONFIGURATION > Batcher / Plaited Stack > Scray > Moisturizing Unit from Monforts and Steaming Can > Shrinking Unit Rollin Belts > Palmer Unit > Scray > Batcher 66 .
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY I N S P E C T I O N D E P A R T M E N T 67 .
NON REMOVABLE DEFECTS Those defects which cannot be removed by mending and these are count in fabric grading. SLUBS It is the collection of the threads at the surface of the fabric. 68 . Defective fabric pieces are rejected and sold as seconds and relatively minor defective points are marked clearly using stickers to alert cutters Defects • Removable defects • Non-Removable defects REMOVABLE DEFECTS Removable defects are those defects which are removed by washing and by cutting. Similarly fibers present in the form of bunch at the fabric are called slubs. It seems like that the beating is not done properly. These are: JALA In warp and weft direction there is a gap. HOLE When fabric passes through temple it produces holes on the fabric due to its wiry surface. This defect is removed by combing. Defects are: OIL STAINS When fabric gets spots of oil lubrication from any part. CRACKS During weaving when m/c stops and again starts running then there is a gap between the two wefts. every single yard of the denim goes through inspection department and rated by a point count system to ensure that quality is up to standard before packing. PATTI It is the dark color or thick weft lines in the fabric.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY INSPECTION Quality is ultimate concern. it looks like that some warps or wefts are missed.
KNOT It comes due to knotting of broken warp end. 69 . A GRADE FABRIC If 30 points come in meter fabric it is considered as A grade fabric. FINGER MARK It comes when a person touches the warp ends. BROKEN PICK If the double or thick yarn is inserted 1/4 or ½ width of the fabric then it is known as cut or broken pick. COARSE END It comes when warp end is coarse. MISS PICK If the weft yarn is missing from any place of fabric then it is known as miss pick. WRONG DENTING When more yarns are passed through dents. STARTING MARKS That mark which is due to the beating motion of the loom is called starting mark. It is somewhat emboss and occur at the full length of the fabric. CREASE MARK Creases occur due to improper finishing. B GRADE FABRIC If more than 30 points comes in fabric then it is considered as B grade fabric. TIGHT END When warp end becomes tight due to tension in dyeing.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY DOUBLE PICK The two or more threads are inserted at the same place. BROKEN END When the warp end is broken. REED MARKS The lines are formed on the fabric due to reed movement and this defect is called reed marks.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY PACKAGING In the packaging section. Shipping marks are also printed on the packaging using computerized ERP labeling software. P A C K I N G 70 . fully inspected A-Grade fabric is packed as bale or roll according to customer requirements.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY FAULTS OF WARPING FAULTS IN MACHINE: • Stop motion does not work on creel and on warping drum as a result broken ends are not traceable for knotting. • If the accumulator do not work properly than the machine is stopped. Which causes entanglement of warp sheet as pressure is not properly distributed • Faults in dosing system can cause serious problem of shade variation. • If speed of the machine is kept greater than the yarn‘s bearable strength 71 . • Tension supplied if varied it causes breakages or loosening in yarn. • If speed of warper increase than yarn sheet may break FAULTS IN RAW MATREIAL • Neps • Long thick places (in case of non slub yarn) • Short thick places (in case of non slub yarn) • Thin places • Weak places • Count variation • Hairiness FAULTS IN PRODUCT: • Misalignment of yarn sheet if the yarn sheet is not properly adjusted • Uneven package density • Too soft package winding • Package could not be in uniform density FAULTS OF DYEING FAULTS IN MACHINE: • Leakage of steam in drying cylinders • Wear and tear of rollers if bearing is jammed • Improper working of load cell on squeezing roller. • Brake could be inefficient. • If comb do not move properly then there is a chance of cutting of comb due to friction with yarn. then thermal damages occur due to abrasion. • Sprockets are jammed. • Chain breakages • If frictional drum should not be kept in a polished state.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY FAULTS IN RAW MATERIAL: The main causes of the dye ability variations in yarn are: • Immature fibres • Dead fibres • Vegetable matter or other foreign matter • Wrong twist • Bad splice • Neps • Count variations SIZING FAULTS • Pressure rolls do not work properly • Squeezing rollers do not work properly WEAVING FAULTS • Dropper will not fall • Sensors do not work properly • Problem in electrical panel • Problem in electronic card • Wear and tear of temple • If dust comes in nozzles • Improper working of solenoid valves 72 .
73 . Embroidery. We are fully capacitated to handle any volume orders.) Ltd. Stitching. European and UK retail stores and mail order companies in Europe have counted on our quality. Cutting. Is the foremost garment manufacturing company of Pakistan with 3 Factories and more than 30 years of experience behind its back. Weaving. Washing /Special effects and Packing are all dealt with in house according to “ISO-9001:2000” and “WRAP” certified standards. For many years major US.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY US Apparel & Textiles (Pvt. making US Apparel & Textiles a fully vertical and specialized textile company.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY C U S T O M E R S 74 .
US apparel has invested in an impressive warehouse facility stocks up to 1. stitching threads and labels.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY STORAGE: U S D E N I M S T O R E R O O M Instead of relying on a single in-house fabric source. 75 . the material management store at U S Apparel stocks bulk button.2 million meters of fabric at all times. In addition to this. we also keep spare key machines for stand by purposes. U S Apparels stores fabric in latest “fabric storage racks” The total storage capacity is more than one million meters for fabrics alone. plus a host of garments related accessories acquired from the renowned world wide suppliers.
C U T T I N G D E P A R T M E N T 76 . We have also invigorated our cutting department with the addition of the most modern GERBER fully automatic fabric spreader and vacuum tables.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY CUTTING DEPARTMENT To retain its flexibility U S Apparel has evolved systems to provide optimal services to broad spectrum of multi product based customers.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY PATTERN MAKING 77 .
utilizing Gerber's high-efficiency vacuum hold-down system.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Gerber Automatic Cutting Machine The GERBER S-91 high-ply cutter provides users with benefits of speed. flexibility. and accuracy . ideal for heavy duty materials such as denim.in addition to saving fabric and labor. high quality cutting. Up to 76 mm (3 inches) of compressed fabric can be consistently and accurately cut. The S-91 is the most reliable cutter for highvolume. 78 . which automatically accommodates for blade deflection and variable knife-speed control. Cutting precision is assured with features such as automatic knife sharpening and Knife Intelligence.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Embroidery Machine E M B R O I D E R Y D E P A R T M E N T Tajima (Japan) Place of origin: China Model No: TLC-602/612/620/624/902/906/908 Payment Terms: T/T.000sets/year 79 . D/P Supply Ability: 1. L/C.
plus the most advance computer aided SMV production management system.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY STITCHING DEPARTMENT S T I T C H I N G D E P A R T M E N T One of the biggest reasons of U S Apparel’s success has been its commitment to invest in the future while not forgetting the tried and tested. Today U S Apparel is a fine blend of traditional yet optimized production techniques. 80 . U S Apparel is unique in its size and scale in the comparison to other companies considering its multidimensional approach.
ease of operation. such as high-speed stitching performance 5. plants for creating the 21st century fashion. and reliability. the machine flexibly responds to various kinds of materials and produces beautiful seams of consistent quality. which perfectly matches clothing. the machine head provides the operator with a comfortable work environment. By thoroughly investigating and modifying the sewing mechanisms in order to achieve low-tension sewing. (DDL-87007: 5. Thanks to its low vibration and low noise feature. The optimum-balance and highly rigid machine head were created using the latest 3DCAD design technology.500rpm. from the highly evaluated previous JUKI lockstitch machines. the distance from the machine arm to the needle on the front of the machine head is sufficiently wide to allow easy handling of the sewing material. The machine inherits the desirable features.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY STITCHING MACHINE Juki DDL-8700 High-speed Single Needle Straight Lockstitch Industrial Sewing Machine with Table and Motor Juki DDL-8700 High-speed Single Needle Straight Lockstitch Industrial Sewing Machine with Table and Motor Product Details JUKI DDL8700 is a newly designed unique lockstitch machine. 81 . In addition.000rpm) Sewing mechanism that demonstrates outstanding responsiveness to materials to be sewn. extreme stitching performance.
the machine is provided with a mounting seat for attachment to improve workability while replacing the attachment and increasing the durability of the machine bed surface. a light-touch stitch dial. such as incorporation of an eccentric pin that is used to adjust the feed dog. the burden on the operator is lightened. and productivity is further increased. and other easy-tooperate functions. The machine has easy-to-operate functions to achieve improved operability. In addition. Enhanced maintainability is ensured by the improved machine head.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Maintainability was improved. By providing a presser foot with a higher lift (13mm). 82 . a throat plate with marker grooves that can be used as guide for seam allowance.
etc. cat or herringbone. none being left in the finished garment. overcast. It is also used as a guide for sewing.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY SEWING Good sewing. French knots. Plain stitches • • • • • • • • basting. the running and back stitch. The satin stitch Plain stitches (1) Basting proper is used only in the preparation of work to hold the stuff and lining. coral or briar. lightness of touch which holds the work without apparently touching it. feather stitching. thus giving to the finished garment a fresh look–all these are important considerations. back stitch. half back stitch. or any two or more parts of the work together while it is being stitched. running. well finished ends and corners. chain. hemstitching. overhand or whipping stitch. and Blind or slip stitch Ornamental stitches • • • • • • • • • • outline. good pressing. blanket or loop. 83 . feather. button hole Cross stitch. hemming.
The stitches should be very carefully taken. Begin at the right-hand end of the work. and continue until the whole length of the material is basted. 2. 4. passing the needle through the material or materials from the upper side. except that it is more often used to hold together temporarily edges of material that are later to be permanently sewed together. 40 or 50 with a 5 or 6 needle. use No. Always knot the end of the thread. Uneven Basting 1. 3. Take a stitch underneath the exact length you want all succeeding stitches to be and bring needle up again through the material. Even basting is used for marking purposes and for very particular fastenings. 84 . Place the needle again through the material at the same distance from where the thread came through as the stitch underneath is. For all ordinary purposes make your stitch about one-half inch long. Uneven basting is used for very much the same purpose as even basting. such as important seams. It is used most commonly in turning hems.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Even Basting 1. Take another stitch the same length as the one previous.
gathering. It is not used for any seams that have to bear great strain. 85 .. but instead of taking a long stitch underneath. 3. (4) The half-back stitch is made by taking one stitch and placing the needle half way back. ruffles. tucking. (3) The running and back stitch is made by taking a few running stitches. flounces.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY 2. but for joining seams in this material. drawing out the needle and making a back stitch over the last running stitch to strengthen the seam. but to take the stitches even on both sides. with as free wrist motion as possible. gauging. run or shake the needle through the material. (2) Running is closely related to basting. make a long stitch on top and a short one underneath. as shown in the illustration. Care must be taken not to hold the side next the worker too full and not to miss the under material. and so on. bringing it out once the length of the last stitch. are used for drawing up the fullness of skirts. with the back of the thimble on the eye of the needle. etc. Bring the thread out and draw it over about an inch before taking another short stitch. making cords. The running stitch is used for these. etc. The appearance on the right side will be of regular space as in the running stitch. take a short one of about one-quarter of an inch. The motion of the hand should come from the elbow joint. making the stitches follow each other without any space between. then bringing it out twice the length of the stitch and placing the needle half way back each time from where the last stitch ended.. then placing the needle back into the last stitch. Begin in the same way as you did for even basting. (5) The back stitch is made by placing the needle back to the last stitch. Gathering. The stitches are usually of equal length on both sides. casing. Then. into a given space. This is used in all places that are to bear great strain. etc. Take one stitch in the seam and hold the goods between the thumb and first finger of each hand. In other words.
The beauty of this stitch depends upon its regularity and in always keeping the thread on the same side of the needle. sewing lace and insertion. like Oversewing may be worked from right to left or from left to right. Take a long stitch on the surface. overhand back over the last few stitches. the right side of the goods being in. to join folded edges or selvages. and a short back stitch on the under side of the material. placing the pins at right angles to the edge. but leave the knot end of the thread and sew it in with the first stitches. whipping. The effect of the under or wrong side of the mate-rial is exactly that of an ordinary back stitch. (7) Overcasting is a slanting stitch used to keep raw edges from ravelling. The pieces for an overhand seam should be pinned carefully. This stitch.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY (6) Overhanding. Do not use a knot to begin sewing. (8) The hem stitch and blind or slip stitch will be considered under hems. oversewing. ORNAMENTAL STITCHES Never use a knot in any embroidery. with the needle pointing towards the chest in the line to be covered. top sewing are one and the same–small stitches taken over edges. and for sewing carpet strips together. but start by running a few stitches along the line which is to be covered. for sewing bands on gathers. To finish off the seam. The folded edges or selvages are placed together. carrying the thread on top of the seam. 86 . (2) The chain stitch when perfectly done should look like the stitch made by a singlethread machine. (1) The outline stitch is the simplest of all embroidery stitches.
used to ornament the edge of blankets.stitch is a variation of the cat stitch. It is used to finish flannel seams and hems. and canvas facings and featherbone. (3) The cat stitch or herringbone stitch is an alternate slanting back stitch. the needle being placed first to the right and then to the left. Like the feather stitch. the cat stitch is worked -fromthe worker. the edge of the material being held towards the worker. The needle is inserted in the last loop for the next stitch. the outline and chain stitches were used for filling as well. as in a buttonhole. is worked from left to right. but in old embroidery. This stitch must be worked evenly to be effective. etc. Start with three or four running stitches along the edge so the line of stitching will cover them. being careful not to draw the thread too tightly over the edge of the flannel.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY This stitch is made by taking the thread toward the worker. making a loop. Instead of pointing the needle towards the chest. the stitch is taken parallel with the chest. in millinery– in fact. draw it towards you down over the thread. Insert the needle the desired width from the edge. opened seams.. fasten down linings. The chain stitch is used in modern embroidery as an outline and for darning. 87 . It is used for about the same purposes as the cat stitch. Indian. the chain stitch is worked towards the worker. They are found in Persian. and Italian Renaissance work. and before the needle is drawn out of the cloth the thread is held by the thumb under the point of the needle. The -catch. As with the outline stitch. Fasten the thread by taking running stitches under the last blanket stitch on the wrong side. (4) Blanket or loop stitch. this stitch is one of the most useful in sewing. and for finishing the edge of stockinet or web material.
The number of threads drawn and the number in a cluster must be determined by the coarseness or fineness of the material. Rubbing the cloth along the line of threads to be drawn will make the drawing easier if the cloth is sized. double. The thread should always be carried under the needle as in a buttonhole stitch. etc. by making them close or separated. After the threads are drawn.of the needle under the point from right to left and drawing the needle perpendicularly from the cloth. taking up a cluster of threads bring the thread under the needle to form a buttonhole stitch or make a simple stitch in the edge of the fold. Insert the needle into the edge of the hem and material. The simplest method is of taking a small back stitch. it may be padded or worked flat and the stitches may be taken a distance apart or near together. The first step in hemstitching is the drawing of threads. They are always made towards the worker. and triple feather or coral stitches may be made very ornamental and are used in all kinds of sewing and on all materials. and as a filling-in stitch. (8) The embroidery buttonhole stitch has many possibilities and many variations. Place the needle back of the knot and bring the point out in the place where the next knot is to be made. 88 . in initials. centers of flowers. There are several methods of hemstitching. bringing the thread from the -eye. (7) French knots are used in connection with other stitches for borders enclosed in outline and chain stitches. the stitches being taken alternately to the right and left of the line of the design. but the results are about the same. It is worked from left to right instead of from right to left as in a buttonhole.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY (5) Single. The design may be varied by taking the stitches diagonally or straight. The size of the thread will determine the size of the knot. just the reverse of the buttonhole. (6) Hemstitching is used for ornament in making hems and tucks. the greater number being drawn and taken in fine material. the hem is turned and basted even with the lowest edge of the drawn space. The thread from the work is carried under the point of the needle from left to right. This stitch is used on flannel and in embroidery of all kinds.
If done on a flat. smooth surface. This stitch is used for marking table linen. canvas. or any open-meshed material. it will be necessary to work over canvas. make the under side very neat by running the thread under the stitches already made. underwear. (10) The satin stitch is an over and over stitch and is used on materials of all kinds for marking linen. instead of taking a long stitch when beginning in another part of the letter or design. If the first ground stitches are made from left to right. etc. The canvas should be well basted on the material. from bottom towards the top. the cross stitches should be made from right to left from the top towards the bottom. 89 . scrim. The stitches should always run the same way.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY (9) The cross stitch is worked on linen.on a line with the warp threads of the material on which the pattern is worked. When marking linen and unlined work. the warp threads of the canvas lying -perfectly straight. and embroidery designs. All the ground stitches run one way and the cross stitches in the opposite way. afterwards drawing out the canvas threads.
90 . Plus. it took less than 30 minutes. In white work the stitches should be fine. the needle should take up only the edge to be hemmed down and just enough to hold on the cloth or lining. I found this fabulously perfect way to hem jeans on the Cavaricci site. Sewing Hems In sewing the hem. which has since been taken down. This method keeps the original hem in tact and is especially helpful now that all jeans are made to be 34 inches long for mammoth supermodels. so here’s the lowdown. showing as little as possible.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY HEMS A hem is a fold of goods twice folded to protect a raw edge.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY A couple notes: It’s best to do one leg at a time. Also. Sometimes. 91 . you might want your hem a bit longer . Also.) Step 2: Cuff the jeans. if you generally wear high heels. so as not to have too much undoing to do in case something goes awry. one leg will be a bit shorter or longer than the other before you hem. I wanted to take two inches off my hem. taking care to measure each time you pin. or a certain height of heel. Make sure that the stitching lines up at each seam. so I measured one inch out from the original hem line and pinned.it should fall an inch to a half inch above the floor at your heel.) Step 3: Pin around the rest of the cuff. (Hems should fall just below the bottom of your ankle. Step 1: Decide how much length you would like to take off. Divide that number in half. (Do not include the distance from the hem to the end of the jean in your calculations. it’s good to know the length that you want each leg to be. Mind the seams while you’re pinning.
or the side farthest from the bottom of the jean. 92 . Turn the leg right side out and press the new seam flat. You want to place your needle and continue sewing right next to the original hem. Be sure you don’t sew through both front and back sides of the jeans (making it so that the foot hole is sewn shut)! You can either cut the excess off. revealing the old hem. leaving about a half inch for fraying. Stitch on the right side of the hem. Sew all the way around the cuff. or iron the extra material in.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Step 4: It’s time to stitch.
Spanish and Far Eastern equipment allows U S Apparel to provide its customers an almost infinite range of garment washing/dyeing facility. The electric mix of Italian. Computerized control over wash process allows U S Apparel to give consistent wash quality in long running or repetitive production requirements.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY WET PROCESSING: U S Apparel has one of the most modern garment wet processing facility in the country. Wet process department performance is further cemented with the support of extensive computerized database and a well equipped laboratory. W E T P R O C E S S I N G 93 .
The software. tensel treatment etc). bleaching and other washing treatments on garments of different materials (cotton. such us stone washing. viscose. allows to manage and to control all the functions of the machine as well as the process operations. linen. They have variable speed and are equipped with an industrial B&R PC and a PLC Mod. Particularly indicated for the treatment of jeans. G1 420 LS EV1 Made in Italy Patented 94 .PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY WASHING MACHINE Machines suitable for all types of washing processes. and in particular the “Wash program”. they are supplied with baskets provided with special beaters. PP 200. entirely worked out by Tonello’s engineers. It is possible to store up to 500 recipes (with 200 steps/each). speeding up the process and guaranteeing at the same time uniformity in the treatment and softness to the denim fabric.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Technical Data Cylinder Volume Cylinder Dimensions Variable Speed Installed Power Dimensions Height Width Depth Weight G1 420 LS EV1 4180 l Ø1890x1490 mm 0/110 rpm 17 kW 2600 mm 2940 mm 3100 mm 4400 kg Tupesa Tumble Dryer Steam heated dryer 95 .
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL SHEET Commonly used chemicals 1 2 3 4 DESIZER ABS( ECOZ) RAP ENZYME VALUMAX A 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 ' 18 DENELITE SILICON ! BLEACH SODIUM > SODA ASH ]j CAUSTIC I HYDROGEN ACETIC ASID ISPS LYOGIN SALT STONE SOFTNER ORANGE 2 GL GOLDEN YELLOW RED REDBA ORANGE RSN BLACK NF BROWN AGL BROWN RBL LEECO DRLMAREN RED CL5B VAVYCL YELLOW CL 2R KMNO4 1 96 .
T R.T 1500gms 1500Ltr 700 Ltr 55 C 5 6 7 Simple Rinsel lOOOLtr lOOOLtr 2 min 2 min 5 min 2 min 2 min R.kg.T 13 14 15 2 min 2 min 5 min Softning Softner Orange LSN Brown AGL 2Ltr 2. s 550+505 Light Wash Total Qty (pcs): Light Blue 140 PCS Total Weight (kg): 110kg Process & Standards: SrNo Porcess Chemical Name Desizer RAP Weight gm.T 8 9 10 11 12 Bleach Per/Sample lOOOLtr 1000 Ltr 50 C 2 min 5 min R. 1000ml 1000ml 400ml Water Level • Time Itrs Minutes 800 Llr Temp "C" 60 C PH L. SYSTEM OF WASHING Process Recipe Sheet Date: Article no Wash type Color 30/5/2008 Customer Levi.R 1 Desiring 10 min Ni 2 3 4 Simple Rinse 1 Simple Rinse2 Enzyming Enzyme RAP lOOOLtr lOOOLtr 2 min 2 min 70 min R.T Sodium 2.T R.5kg 800 Ltr 1000 Ltr lOOOLtr R.T R.T Simple Rinse2 Soda Simple rinsel Simple Rinse2 Bleaching Simple Rinse Neutral Simple Rinsel Simple Rinse2 Soda Ash 1 kg 1000 Ltr lOOOLtr lOOOLtr 50 C R.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY US APPAREL & TEXTILES (PVT)Ltd.T R.2 gms 2Ltr 700 Ltr 50 C 97 .T R.
DMDHEU − White pigment − Can be applied by brush. Anti-depositing agent − Prevents “back staining” of fabric by loose indigo during washing − Improves contrast in denim − Used in stone wash step 3. White pigment • Can be applied by brush. money and energy as added to final rinse − Gives used and worn out effect 4. Anti creasing agent − Provides fabric to fabric lubrication − Prevents formation of crack marks and streaks − Minimizes abrasion and gives strength 5. Wrinkle formation − Creating smooth and permanent wrinkle − Cross linking concept − Ex. Indigofix AXN 2. spray or screen • Then cured at 150ºC • Washed and treated with softener 98 . spray or screen − Then cured at 150ºC − Washed and treated with softener 6. Bleach fast Indigo − Value addition to denim − Retains indigo on certain parts − Kind of resist effect − Chemical applied by brush. Dye stuffs with softener − To carry dyeing and softening in one step − Soft and supple hand − Saves time.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY CHEMICALS ON DENIMS 1. cured at 150ºC − Ex.
sp.Pas at 23 ° (LVT. PROPERTIES Viscosity Approx.0 g/cm3 at 20° C. Quantity 4g/l Chemical nature Mixture of sequestering agents and surfactants. the C C contents should be used up quickly. Physical form yellowish.5 – 2. Oxidative desizing Removal of fiber impurities. low-foaming wetting agent and detergent with emulsifying and extractive action for mobilising and removing cotton impurities in pretreatment processes.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY ANTI BACK STAINING AGENT(Kieralon_ F-ALB) Multifunctional. and in caustic soda of up to 250 g/l NaOH 100% at room temperature. Containers should be closed tightly after use. acids. Tolerances are given in the product specification. 50min-1) C Freezing point Approx. Between the range of 90-130 g/l of NaOH 100%. Shelf life Keralon F-ALB can be kept in the original sealed containers at temperatures between 0 ° and 35 ° for at least 24 months. Action Low-foaming wetting agent and detergent with emulsifying and extractive action for mobilising and removing cotton impurities. 1. Desizing Softening hard water and extracting catalytic substances. please note the homogeneous gap. clear liquid. APPLICATION Washing Extraction of hard-water salts and pectins. Improves the stabilizing action of conventional peroxide stabilizers. 60 m. Once containers have been opened. Kieralon F-ALB is stable to hard water.5 ( 100 g/l in water) The values given are approximate. Bleaching Prevention of precipitation of alkaline earth carbonate. –5 ° C Density Approx. Stability In the concentrations at which it is normally employed. Note: no adverse effect on enzyme activity when pH is adjusted to 6-7 Boiling-off Removal of fiber impurities. pH Approx. 1. 1. 99 . removal of degraded size. reductive and oxidative bleaching agents. For preventing deposits. Solubility Soluble in cold water.
combination steamer. Steaming temperature: approx.ALB 1 g/l Leophen® FR-M (pH 6 – 7 ) Impregnation temperature: 60 .2 g/l Soda Temperature: 70 – 95 ° C Desizing … g/l Luzyme MT 2 -.80 ° C Liquor pick-up: approx.g. 100% for Co approx. 100% for Co approx. 100 ° C Steaming time: 5 – 20 min (e. Recipes Notes on formulating liquors: Kieralon F-ALB should be stirred into the liquor. combination steamer. Washing 1 -. 100 ° C Steaming time: 5 – 20 minutes (e. inactivating catalytic substances. Scouring Improvement in handle and absorbency with shortened pretreatment methods. 70% for PES/Co dwell time: approx. improves the stabilizing action of conventional peroxide stabilizer.3 g/l common salt 2 -.g.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Cold bleaching Softening hard water.ALB Impregnation temperature: 20 .70 ° C Liquor pick-up: approx.50 g/l NaOH 100% 3 -.3 g/l Kieralon F-ALB 0. 4 – 5 hours Boiling-off 30 -. U-box) 100 .5 g/l Kieralon F. 70% for PES/Co. 70% for PES/Co Steaming temperature: approx.25 -. U-box) Oxidative desizing/boiling-off 30 – 50 g/l NaOH 100% 2 – 3 g/l Persulphate 3 – 5 g/l Kieralon F-ALB Impregnation temperature: 20 – 40 ° C Liquor pick-up: approx.5 g/l Kieralon F. 100% for Co approx.
20 – 40 ° C Liquor pick-up: approx. U-box) Cold bleaching with Hydrogen peroxide 40 – 50 ml/l hydrogen peroxide 35% 10 – 25 g/l NaOH 100% (7 – 15 g/l sodium silicate 38 ° Bé) 8 – 12 g/l Prestogen PL 3 g/l persulphate 3 – 5 g/l Kieralon F-ALB 1 g/l Leophen FR-M Impregnation temperature: approx. 100% for Co approx.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Bleaching with Hydrogen peroxide 1. 100% for Co approx. 70% for PES/Co Dwell time: 16 – 24 hours Scouring 2 g/kg Lufibrol® MSD 1 – 2 g/kg Kieralon F-ALB Temperature: 80 – 95 ° C 101 . 100 ° C Steaming time: 15 – 20 min (e. Bleaching of desized and alkaline-pretreated fabrics 20 – 50 ml/l hydrogen peroxide 35% 4 –5 g/l NaOH 100% 8 – 12 ml/l Prestogen® PL 2 –4 ml/l Kieralon F-ALB Impregnation temperature: approx.g. 70% for PES/Co Steaming temperature: approx. combination steamer. 20 ° C Liquor pick-up: approx.
Storage When stored correctly. detergency and practically no retarding effect on vat and disperse dyes. in sealed containers. In the oxidation of vat dyes. Quantity 2g/l Nature Sodium salt of a condensation product of naphthalenesulphonic acid and formaldehyde. mobile liquid. hard water and electrolytes and retains its high efficiency even under HT dyeing conditions. Setamol® BL prevents filteringout of the insoluble dye pigment.16 g/cm3 at 20 oC pH approx 9-10 (10% solution) Solubility Infinitely soluble in water Boiling point From approx. Compatibility Because it is anionic. It prevents agglomeration and improves the solubility of many dyes. Setamol® BL has no wetting action or. which if formed in the bath by oxidation of the residual vat dye.g. but not under alkaline conditions. precipitation may occur in neutral or acid liquors. alkalis. anionic. PROPERTIES Density approx. The product has affinity for animal fibres and polyamide. Peregal® P. Setamol® BL has good compatibility with all anionic and nonionic products. 100 oC Stability Setamol® BL is stable to acids. In combination with cationic auxiliaries. especially in acid liquors. Setamol® BL has a shelf life of upto 24 months. which contain only a small amount of dispersing agent. Physical form Brown. Vat dyes Setamol® BL is ued to improve the stability of stock vats and when vatting is carried out in a long liqour. Application Setamol® BL can be added direct to the dye liquor. Action Setamol® BL improves the stability of dye dispersions. e. 102 . An addition of Setamol® BL is definitely recommended when vatting highly concentrated powder and paste-type dyes.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY DISPERSING AGENT(SETAMOL_ BL) All purpose liquid dye dispersing agent. 1.
soft-stream machines and jets 1-3 ml/l in beam and yarn-dyeing machines 1. Setamol BL® prevents the precipitation of loose dye and the consequent risk of stains when dyeing is carried out by the two-bath process.3 ml/I Anthrasol dyes Because of its good dispersing action. winches or circulating-liquor machines. One-bath process : 1-3 ml/I Setamol® BL Two bath process : 1. 103 .g. acetate. triacetate and polyester. e. The amounts used are largely dependent on the liqour ratio.5-5 ml/l in jigs 3-6 ml/I Setamol® BL prevents agglomeration of the residual dye particles in the liquor when the dyebath is cooled down. The product is used both in the continuous dyeing procedure and during development in jigs.g. under HT conditions (120-140 oC). e. and thus ensures good rubbing fastness. It also retains its full efficiency. with disperse dyes.6 ml/l In the oxidation bath : 1.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Amounts used: Stock vat : 5-30 ml/I Long liquor : 5.5-5 ml/I Setamol® BL Disperse dyes Setamol® BL is widely used as a dispersing agent in the dyeing of manmade fibres.: in winches. Napthol As dyes 3-6 ml/I Setamol® BL is added to stabilize Naphtol AS padding baths. even in acid liquors.
These concern industrial safety. Viscosity (25 ° Approx. 20 % in water Physical form Slightly hazy. The product must not be stored together with strong bases.5 Temperature 35° to 40° C C Application on cold conditions Properties Nature 20 % aqueous solution of poly(hexamethylenebiguanide hydrochloride). from 25 ° may reduce the shelf life. PHMB Structural formula with n = 16 (average value) CAS name Poly(hexamethylenbiguanide) hydrochloride.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY ANTIMICROBIAL FINISHING OF CELLULOSIC FIBER MATERIALS (DENIM) Product description REPUTEX 201 is a product for the durable antimicrobial finishing of cellulosic fiber materials. It should be protected from temperatures below 0 ° and above 40 ° C C. odorless low-viscosity liquid Storage REPUTEX 20 has a shelf life of approx. 2 years when stored at a pH of 6 – 8 and a temperature of 25 ° Storing the product at temperatures that differ significantly C. hypochlorites or strong oxidizing agents. The product should be stored in the original sealed C containers. 5 mPa · s C) pH (25 ° Approx.04 g/cm3 C) 104 . Tolerances are given in the product specification. which very effectively inhibits the growth of odor-causing and pathogenic microorganisms. It contains the active substance PHMB. Product specification The values below are approximate. special rules must be applied when handling REPUTEX 20 and using it in the textile industry. 1. 6 – 8 C) Density (25 ° Approx. For Denim Ph 6 to 6. safe disposal and appropriate treatment of waste water. colorless. As with all biologically active substances.
Minimum inhibition concentrations Method: microtitration in nutrient solution (MICs) of REPUTEX 20 APPLICATION Application in the textile industry REPUTEX 20 can be used in the textile industry to produce a durable finish on cellulosic textiles such as cotton. * REPUTEX 20 therefore does not bond to protein fibers such as wool and silk or synthetic fibers such as nylon. It has a very high binding affinity for cellulosic fiber materials. Precipitated by strong alkalis and complex phosphates. such as some optical brighteners. Action PHMB. cotton blends with a cellulosic component of over 35 %. 105 . Antimicrobial properties Examples of pathogenic microorganisms whose growth can be effectively controlled with REPUTEX 20 (for example. outstanding wash fastness and an extremely low tendency to migrate. REPUTEX 20 contains high-molecular-weight PHMB. 6 to 9. rayon. the active substance in REPUTEX 20. whose positively charged functional groups bind firmly to negatively charged cellulosic molecules*. Not compatible with chlorine bleaching agents. preventing associated quality defects and ensuring that the finished textiles are permanently fresh and hygienic. Application Can be applied to cellulosic fibers at a pH of approx. 102 ° C Flash point Nonflammable (when heated to boiling point) Dispersibility in aqueous systems Readily dispersible in all proportions Compatibility Not compatible in solution with anionic products. They cannot be used to derive recommendations on the use of the product in the medical or public health sectors. This ensures that the antimicrobial effect of REPUTEX 20 is entirely limited to the treated fiber material. During finishing. Please note that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) only show the activity spectrum of REPUTEX 20 and are not the actual application concentrations for textiles. those that cause skin infections associated with body odor) are listed below. was optimized especially for finishing textiles. and viscose rayon blended fibers. the cationic biocide binds to the fibers where it produces its effect by inhibiting the growth of odor-causing microorganisms. polyester and polypropylene.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Boiling point Approx.
e. the following graph shows the absorbing power of viscose for REPUTEX 20 at various pH values: Spray application The product should be sprayed on only if the methods described above cannot be employed. Optimum bonding between the textile substrate and the active substance is achieved in the 6 – 9 pH range. Sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium carbonate can also be used. REPUTEX 20 can be applied as a dilute aqueous solution by standard finishing processes such as padding and the exhaust method. 106 . g. printing or dyeing. bed linen • Cloths • Nonwovens • Upholstery cloth • Technical textiles Application REPUTEX 20 is applied after pretreatment. By way of example.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Fields of application Finishing with REPUTEX 20 is suitable for the following textile applications: • Garments • Towels. pH dependence The affinity of REPUTEX 20 for cellulosic fibers is strongly pH dependent. Before application of the product on bleached cotton. the buffer should not be added too quickly. The equipment used must be closed and appropriately secured to avoid exposure of personnel to REPUTEX 20 spray mist. g. Glass pH electrodes do not give reliable measurements in the presence of REPUTEX 20. in the case of loose cellulosic fibers or certain nonwovens. e. Subsequent curing at high temperature of largely cellulosic substrates finished with REPUTEX 20 is unnecessary. To prevent foam formation. optical brightening (compatibility test required!). The pH is set with sodium hydroxide. it should first be ensured that any bleach residues present are quantitatively removed from the fabric. The pH of REPUTEX 20 liquors should be tested with indicator paper or test strips. Application by spraying is also possible but appropriate precautions must be taken and the equipment used must be enclosed to avoid exposure of personnel to spray mist. viscose and rayon.
C).5) and temperature (45 to 65 deg. Flexibility in finish Versatile looks and finish can be achieved by varying the dosage and process parameters. Softness Significantly softens cellulosic fabric/ garment with reduced strength loss.5 to 6. Low Colour Bleeding Exhibits low colour bleeding properties when compared to regular acid cellulases. 107 . Odour Mild fermentation odour pH 4.9 SPECIAL FEATURES: Clean Finish More effectively removes fuzz and cotton pill balls from fabric/ garment compared to most other acid cellulases. Natural Look Yields permanent softness and luster to the fabric / garment and improves the general look FINOZYME AX is active at a broad range of pH (3.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY BIO-POLISHING ENZYME FINOZYME AX is specially designed for application in superior BioFinishing Process and Denim washing of all cellulosic fabrics both woven and knits. The cutting effect is very obvious.5 – 4. CHARACTERISTICS: Appearance Amber coloured clear and viscous liquid.
8 6.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY 1. best at 4.5 : 1 to 10:1 30 to 60 minutes 108 .5 – 5. BioFinishing Process: FINOZYME AX hydrolyses the microfibrils of fabric/ garment thereby effectively removing fuzz/ pill ball and imparts a smoother and polished appearance to surface of fabric/ garment.5% . In fabric processing follow the minimum F/L ratio recommended by equipment manufacturer.5% -2% owg FINOZYME fuzz balls and fuzziness when run for 15 to 20 minutes. FINOZYME AX can be applied on any wet processing step in the garment Finishing Process process. 2) Softening : FINOZYME AX effectively softens fabrics/ garments made up of cellulose and its blends imparting a silky soft permanent finish.0. PARAMETERS OPERATIONAL RANGES Temperature 50 – 60 deg. AX has been found effective in the removal of 4) Denim Washing : Effective desizing is required for efficient denim washing. 3) Fuzz/ Pill Ball Removal : Using the above process parameters 0. thereby offering an approximate of 25% saving in dosage or time. Optional: FINOZYME AX can be applied after preparation/ bleaching.3% on weight of garment 30 to 60 minutes FINOZYME AX Time For drum washers try to maintain a low garment liquor ratio for best results. Unlike many BioFinishing Process Cellulases FINOZYME AX can run at 60 deg. PARAMETERS Temperature PH FINOZYME AX Time OPERATIONAL RANGES 50 – 55° best at 52° C. However.5 – 5. either as a separate process or in conjuction with garment Dyeing Process (more suitable with bifunctional reactive dyes).0. fabrics/ garments may also be processed after Dyeing Process.C.C PH 4. C 4. with FINOZYME AX bio-Finishing Process . best at 4.8 Liquid ratio to goods Fabric 8:1 to 15:1 Garment 6:1 to 10:1 0.
C) detergent wash. APPLICATION OF RESIN ON GARMENTS There are two methods of resin applications on the garment 1) Dipping method 2) Spray method 1) DIPPING METHOD Recipe: Fixapret F-ECO 125 g/l to 150 g/l Condensol FM 25 g/l to 32 g/l Perapret F-PEB 60 g/l to 70 g/l Softeners: Silicon softener 15 g/l to 20 g/l (depends on finish) Non-ionic softener 15 g/l to 20 g/l 2) SPRAY METHOD Recipe: Perapret PU-New 80 g/l to 100 g/l ( for spray finish) 109 .PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY FINOZYME AX can also be used with pumice stones. Removal of loose stains: Follow-up enzyme process with a hot (60 – 70 deg. Can be optional if followed up by bleaching.
as opposed to washed denim. BASIC WASHES IN DENIM FABRIC DENIM WASHING Denim washing is the aesthetic finish given to the denim fabric to enhance the appeal and to provide strength. however. 110 . Dry denim. is a denim fabric that is not washed after being dyed during its production. such fading is affected by the body of the person who wears the jeans and the activities of their daily life. unique look than pre-distressed denim. Much of the appeal of dry denim lies in the fact that with time the fabric will fade in a manner similar to that which artificially distressed denim attempts to replicate. This creates what many feel to be a more natural.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY EFFECTS: The company is able to offer garments from all kind of exotic washing techniques like Sand Blasting/ Brushing to most basic stone wash. With dry denim.
removing some dye particles from the surfaces of the yarn.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY DENIM WASHES ARE OF TWO TYPES: 1. The process is quite expensive and requires high capital investment. Pumice stones give the additional effect of a faded or worn look as it abrades the surface of the jeans like sandpaper. hardness. Chemical washes .Enzyme wash . freshly dyed jeans are loaded into large washing machines and tumbled with pumice stones to achieve a soft hand and desirable look. 111 .Microsanding 2.Acid wash MECHANICAL WASHES STONE WASH: In the process of stone washing. size shape and porosity make these stones multifunctional.Denim bleaching . Mechanical washes . Variations in composition.Stone wash .
= 0. Stones can be reused until they completely disintegrate or washed down the drain. 112 . softer stones would be used for light weight fabrics and more delicate items. /fabric wt.5 to 3 /1 It depends on the degree of abrasion needed to achieve the desired result. It should be noted that large.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Selection of stone Stone should be selected of the proper hardness. Smaller. shape. and size for the particular end product. hard stones last longer and may be suited for heavy weight fabrics only. Stone wt.
Quality of the abrasion process is difficult to control Outcome of a load of jeans is never uniform. .Stones may turn into powder during the process of making the garment grayish in color and rough too . BACK STAINING OR RE-DEPOSITION: The dye removed from denim material after the treatment with cellulose or by a conventional washing process may cause "back staining” or "redeposition”. REMEDY OF BACK STAINING --.Metal buttons and rivets on the jeans in the washing machines get abraded. .Back staining and re deposition.This reduces quality of the products and life of equipment. and increases production costs.Stone may lead the harm to the machine parts 113 .Intermediate replacement of wash liquor. . LIMITATIONS OF STONE WASHING: .Increase in labor to remove dust from finished garments. . .Provides rougher feel than enzyme wash .PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY PROBLEMS CAUSED BY STONES: . resulting in less contrast between blue and white threads. Re-coloration of blue threads and blue coloration of white threads.The process is non-selective.Adding dispersion/suspension agent to wash cycle.Using alkaline detergent like sodium per borate with optical brightener as after wash. . .Water pollution during disposal of used liquor.Damage to wash machineries and garment due to stone to machine and machine to stone abrasion . . little percentage always getting ruined by too much abrasion.
material to liquor ratio and load of garments. energy and environment. Stone wash effect is one of the oldest but highly demanded washing effects. seam and body. The degree of colour fading depends on the garment to stone ratio. time. volcanic rocks or pumice stones are added to the garments during washing as abradant.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY STONEWASH EFFECT: In traditional washing process. because of varying degree of abrasion in the area such as waistband. Normally after desizing. which can be overcome by using new enzyme based washing technology. stone wash process starts with pumice stone addition in rotary drum type garment washer. This technology also helps to conserve water. MICROSANDING There are 3 ways for this technique: • Sandblasting • Machine sanding • Hand sanding or hand brushing 114 . pocket. Stone wash process gives “used” look or “vintage” on the garments. Process time varies from 60-120 mins. There are many limitations and drawbacks associated with stone washing process. washing time. Due to ring dyeing and heavy abrasion fading is more apparent but less uniform. size of stones.
Flat surfaces (tables. some mechanical processes have been developed. raising. abraded look or used look. . emeresing.Any number of designs could be created by special techniques. These are based on mechanical abrasion by which the indigo can be removed. sometimes flat.It is purely mechanical process.Various templates can be used to create a 3D effect. not using any chemicals.It is a water free process therefore no drying required. . sometimes 'seated') . .Variety of distressed or abraded looks possible. 115 .PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Used in various ways: . peaching and brushing. powdered or other form through a nozzle at very high speed and pressure onto specific areas of the garment surface to be treated to give the desired distressed/ abraded/used look.On the dummy (inflatable dummies. Some of these processes are sueding. sometimes standing. ironing boards) . . MECHANICAL ABRASION To give worn out effect. SAND BLASTING Sand blasting technique is based on blasting an abrasive material in granular.
ecological and environmental friendly. .Control on the abrasion .All are dry process. hand sanding and abrasive rods.Also used for 'knee whiskers' (whiskers on the sides of knees) and 'honeycombs' (crease marks on the back of the knee) 116 .Crease lines around the crotch. sandblasting.Economical.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Advantages of these processes: . machine sanding.Different look on the garment can be achieved.Industrially done with laser. .Also known as ‘Cat's Whiskers’ . Other Mechanical washing Whiskering Shot gun denim Water jet fading Super stone wash Ice wash Thermo denim Laser technology finish WHISKERING . . .
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY WATERJET FADING . LASER TECHNOLOGY . . it is pollution free. . images. . clarity of patterns. and softness of the resulting fabric are related to the type of dye in the fabric and the amount and manner of fluid impact energy applied to the fabric.Also called spray painting in denims. . . chances of human error are slim. up to six hours or more.This technique has relatively high cost. . SUPER STONEWASH . text or even pictures. texture. durability of denim garment.It is water free fading of denim.Hydrojet treatment is used for enhancing the surface finish.Being an automatic system. .The degree of colour washout.Hydroject treatment involves exposing one or both surfaces of the garment through hydrojet nozzles. .Prolonged stonewashing. 117 .It is a computer controlled process for denim fading.This technique enables patterns to be created such as lines and/or dots.As this process is not involved with any chemical.
with or without bleach − Gives an old and worn look 118 . A lightweight fabric (either plain. The glue comes off after washing and the trousers look like they've been lined VINTAGE − Applies heavy stonewashing or a cellulose enzyme wash. fancy or colored) is glued to the denim.Ice washing in denim fabrics is done to remove more than half the dye during washing THERMO-DENIM Also called double denim.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY ICE WASH .
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL WASHES DENIM BLEACH In this process a strong oxidative bleaching agent such as sodium hypochlorite or KMnO4 is added during the washing with or without stone addition. Care should be taken for the bleached goods so that they should be adequately antichlored or after washed with peroxide to minimize yellowing. It is preferable to have strong bleach with short treatment time. Materials should be carefully sorted before processing for color uniformity. temperature and treatment time. Discoloration produced is usually more apparent depending on strength of the bleach liquor quantity. Process cycle: 119 .
Required antichlor treatment. In case of hypochlorite bleaching Lycra containing product affects adversely by loosing the tear and tensile strength. and pass into the effluent where they cause severe environmental pollution. The product is so specialised on indigo that it does not attack any other dyes.e. difficult to reach the same level of bleaching in repeated runs. it may cause damage to cellulose resulting in severe strength losses and/or breaks or pinholes at the seam. etc. Problem of yellowing is very frequent due to residual chlorine. Advantages • • • • New Laccase based bleaching technique only affects the indigo and natural raw white of weft yarn is retained. Finally the process is based on enzyme so no risk of environmental pollution and harmful effluent discharge. which is not implicitly achieved with hypochlorite bleaching. giving the woven fabric a darker shade. Laccases open up the door to bleach Lycra containing denim without loosing the strength of the fabric. Chlorinated organic substances occur as abundant products in bleaching. 120 . Due to harshness of chemical. When desired level of bleaching reached the time span available to stop the bleaching is very narrow. pocket. Harmful to human health and causes corrosion to stainless steel.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Limitations • • • • • Process is difficult to control i.
Simple process handling and minimum effluent problem. Cellulase attacks primarily on the surface of the cellulose fibre. Fancy colour-flenced surface can be obtained without or a partial use of stone. Use of softener can be avoided or minimised. Environmental friendly treatment. 121 .PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY ENZYME WASH • • Cellulase enzymes are natural proteins which are used in denim garment processing to get stone wash look on to the denim garments without using stones or by reducing the use of pumice stone. Can be applied on cellulose and its blend. Prevents tendency of pilling after relatively short period of wear. Cellulase enzyme is classified into two classes: • • Acid Cellulase: It works best in the pH range of 4. Better feel to touch and increased gloss or luster.5-5. Advantage of enzyme washing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Soft handle and attractive clean appearance is obtained without severe damage to the surface of yarn. It allows more loading of the garment into machines. More reproducible effect can be obtained. Puckering effect can also be obtained. labour intensive operation of stone removal is not required. Easy handling of floor and severs as messy sludge of stones does not interfere. Less damage to seam edges and badges. Due to absence of stone.5 and exhibit optimum activity at 50. leaving the interior of the fibre as it is. by removing the indigo present in the surface layer of fibre. Due to mild condition of treatment process is less corrosive. Neutral cellulase: It works best at pH 6 however its activity is not adversely affected in the range of ph 6-8 and show maximum activity at 55 C. Homogenous abrasion of the garments. Wear and tear of equipment is minimum due to absence of stone.
It is done by tumbling the garments with pumice stones presoaked in a solution of sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate for localized bleaching resulting in a non uniform sharp blue/white contrast. In this wash the color contrast of the denim fabric can be enhanced by optical brightening. The advantage of this process is that it saves water as addition of water is not required. Process cycle
Limitations of acid wash: - Acid washed, indigo dyed denim has a tendency to yellow after wet processing. - The major cause is residual manganese due to incomplete neutralization, washing or rinsing. Remedy: - Manganese is effectively removed during laundering with addition of ethelene-diamine-tetraacetic acid as chelating agent. - Acid washing jeans avoided some of problems of stone wash, but came with added dangers, expenses, and pollution.
Other chemical washes:
• Rinse wash • Cellulase wash • Ozone fading • Snow wash • Salt water denim • Flat finish • Over dye • Sun washing • Super dark stone RINSE WASH - Chemically bleaching jeans so that the color fades away - Breaks down the fibers of jeans and creates white streaks or spots on denim - Gives a unique rugged look, also called snow wash - Earlier involved the use of pumice stone - Presently process involves spraying chemical and removing it immediately - Come in colors like blue, black, green, brown, grey etc.
CELLULASE WASH - This is done to achieve a wash down appearance without the use of stones or with reduced quantities of stones. - Cellulase enzymes are selective only to the cellulose and will not degrade starch. - Under certain conditions, their ability to react with cellulose (cotton) will result in surface fiber removal (weight loss). - This will give the garments a washed appearance and soft hand.
Factors influencing cellulase performance - pH - Temperature - Time - Dose - Mechanical action OZONE FADING: - By using this technique, the garment can be bleached. - Bleaching of denim garment is done in washing machine with ozone dissolved in water. - Denim garments can also be bleached or faded by using ozone gas in closed chamber. - In the presence of UV light, there is an interaction between the hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen and oxygen that causes release of ozone. - Indigo dyestuff tends to fade or turn yellow due to ozone reaction.
The advantages associated with this process are: - Color removal is possible without losing strength. - This method is very simple and environmentally friendly because after ozonized water can easily be deozonized by UV radiation. FLAT FINISH: It is a special process done to impart fabric with an even wash down effect and very clean surface. Originally liquid ammonia was used, but now use mercerization plus calendering processes to achieve the flat surface. Mercerization swells up the cotton fibers and allows the calendering to press flat the surface. They consider this as an imitation process to the use of ammonia, which is toxic and not allowed in commercial use in most countries laundering,
Looks as if the sun faded the fabric SUPER DARK STONE .Also can be applied with spray gun or paintbrush for local coloring SUNWASHING .Most often used is a 'yellowy' overdye to create a 'dirty' look .PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY OVERDYE .Commercial term for an extra dark indigo color .Dyeing over the fabric or jeans to add another tone of color .A very light shade by bleaching and stoning .Results from a double-dyeing technique 125 .
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY SNOW WASH DENIM Denim treated with a variation of acid wash that imparts bright white highlights.giving washed look 126 . QUICK WASH DENIM • Aims at minimizing wash cycle time • Results in more economical washes and solving many other washing problems faced by launderes during fashion wash cycles • The yarns are ring dyed using indigo giving 25 to 30% less fixed dye to obtain a given shade • During wash cycle.indigo dye can be removed quickly.
2.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Advantages of quick wash denim 1. 127 . Streaks develop in garments after washing process due to differences in dye concentration of denim fabrics are avoided using a modified alkali-ph controlled system giving uniformity of shade. Lesser enzymes and oxidising agent used 5. Back staining is minimised due to less concentration of of indigo dye in the wash liqour. 4. Amount of indigo dye required is less thus making it an economical process 3. Time required for washing is 20-30% less than that required for conventional denim. Environment friendly process 6.
giving washed look at shorter washing cycle. in case of ice wash where we remove more than half the dye during washing. less usage of chemicals. effluent load. there are different depth of indigo on denim. chemical consumption. different varieties of denim fabric are available. low water consumption. less time and retaining fabric strength. These fabrics require minimum application of softener at the garment stage.e. Now the denim fabric is also available in tinted form which saves processors time and risk. which is time consuming. DIFFERENT COLOUR DEPTH FABRIC: To cut processing time.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY SELECTION OF DENIM FABRIC The right selection of fabric can help minimize the cost of treatment and to solve environment related issues. GRAINY LOOK DENIM: Different chemicals and processes are used to get grain look on the denim garments. effluent load. To meet this requirement special denim fabric has been developed which gives grainy look after processing of denim garment. indigo dye can be removed quickly. garment processor is using an additional process of tinting/ overdyeing. This results in more economical washes i. which are having inherent softness. one can use lighter shade fabric which will help to cut the process time. SOFT FEEL DENIM: To meet such requirement. To meet this requirement special denim fabric has been developed which offers flat look after washing. TINTED DENIM: With increase in demand of tinted/ overdyed look on garment. FLAT LOOK DENIM: Different chemicals and processes are used to get flatter look on the denim garments. It consumes large quantity of water and chemicals. 128 . minimum damage to fabric and minimum use of chemical. It will help garment processor to process garment more economically and with minimum faults. For example. It is also associated with the risk of patches and unevenness on garments. so that during wash cycle. QUICK WASH DENIM: Quick wash denim fabric is dyed with modified technique of dyeing.
thus avoiding the need for photolites of serigraphy cleaning. OZONE FADING: By using this technique. The novelty of this system is that • • • • • It is water free fading of denim. which expands the beam. a mask is used to give the desired shape that is to be applied on the fabric. and other characteristics of denim garment. 129 . Being an automatic system. This technique enables patterns to be created such as lines and/or dots. The machine is very simple and compact. It is an ecological and economical process. extremely safe and reliable. chances of human error are slim. Denim garments can also be bleached or faded by using ozone gas in closed chamber. It can create local abrasion and fabric breaks. used look effect. Bleaching of denim garment is done in washing machine with ozone dissolved in water. therefore requires very low maintenance and cleaning. text or even pictures.This method is very simple and environmentally friendly because after laundering. The duration of exposure determines the final effect on the fabric. The laser projects through a lens system. the garment can be bleached.The advantages associated with this process are: . In one version of this concept. The design is electronically translated on the fabric. moustache with excellent reproducibility and higher productivity. ozonized water can easily be deozonized by UV radiation. WATERJET FADING: Hydrojet treatment has been developed for patterning and/or enhancing the surface finish. texture. images. . Hydroject treatment generally involves exposing one or both surfaces of the garment through hydrojet nozzles.Colour removal is possible without losing strength. durability. This beam is passed through the shaped mask that comprises an aperture of the desired shape and is then deflected by a mirror to strike the textile substrate.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY NEW DEVELOPMENTS TOWARDS ECONOMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL DENIM PROCESSING USE OF LASER TECHNOLOGY It is a computer controlled process for denim fading.
Particularly good results are obtained with blue indigo dyed denim. or excessive warp shrinkage. 130 .PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY The degree of colour washout. the technique can be used as economical and environmental friendly denim processing.Less time consuming . clarity of patterns. and softness of the resulting fabric are related to the type of dye in the fabric and the amount and manner of fluid impact energy applied to the fabric.No adverse effect on fabric strength. loss of fabric strength or durability. it is pollution free. - It a water free process therefore zero effluent discharge. Color washout of dye in the striped areas produces a faded effect without blurring.Easy to use .Different designs are possible . As this process is not involved with any chemical. . By using water recycling system. This can be done by using robotic spraying gun or by manual spray and followed by curing of the garment. SPRAY TECHNIQUES This technique is based on spraying the chemicals or pigments to get different effect on the garments.
rubber or Portland cement. plastic. This process consumes large quantity of water and chemical.Less process time to achieve tinted look.As stone discharge of the process is very less. The basic limitation of a garment processor is the higher installation cost associated with such technique. . . WASTE WATER SOLUTION As the municipal discharge criteria are restrictive and cost of water high. To make this process economical and ecologically friendly.Less water consumption. This is not true over dyeing but merely gives the impression of a change in overall colour of the fabric. . The advantages of using such type of products are: . synthetic stones have been developed. By using this new technique.All major problems associated with the use of volcanic grade pumice stone can be overcome. . .Durability of such product is much higher and can be used repeatedly from 50-300 cycle depending upon type of synthetic stone. some novel colour based enzymes have been introduced in the market.Less energy consumption. therefore making process is economical and ecological. These are made of abrasive material such as silicate. garment has been lightly coloured in order to give the final denim appearance a slight shift. .Reproducibility of washing is manageable.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY SINGLE BATH STONE WASHING AND TINTING TECHNIQUE Tinting of denim garment is usually done after the stone wash process. Many techniques are readily available for a processor to treat waste water.No extra chemical required therefore making process more economical. .Less chance of patches or unevenness Alternate of pumice stone To overcome the shortcoming of pumice stones.Less damage of machine and garments. . . producers will need to reuse the waste water. tinting and stone washing effect can be achieved in a single bath. In this. 131 .
In U S Apparel manual trimming is carried out which is mostly done by women.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY TRIMMING: After washing. T R I M M I N G 132 . broken threads are removed by trimming.
To finish the high quality product that has come through all the stages from cutting. B U T T O N I N G 133 . sewing and wet process. We have machines from Pessani (Italy) for laser guided accurate buttoning process. no expense has been spared to equip this process by using the latest technology available in the international market.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY BUTTONING Pressing is as important as any other process in garment development.
sew the button on diagonally. To determine the buttonhole size. or think about how to make them work together. • • • • • • • • 134 . Look for a translucent style that allows the fabric color to influence the button’s final appearance. Make sure the weight of the button and the weight of the fabric are compatible. Square buttons are measured on the diagonal and appear smaller than a round button of the same diameter. or if the fabric is not strong enough for the repeated stress of buttoning/unbuttoning. Thick edge highly domed and ball buttons will require much larger buttonholes. be careful of delicate surface fabric with irregular finish buttons. Add 1/16" to the resulting length. wrap a narrow strip of paper or non-stretch string or twill tape around the button at its greatest vertical circumference (thickness). Make sure the fabric texture and button texture are compatible. but make a test buttonhole to confirm. If an especially large buttonhole is required. Is that where you want to draw attention? If your choice is a square button and you don’t want excess buttonhole stitching exposed. Sizes included in our button selections are also the base diameters. Think about the placement. Button sizes included in the pattern notion lists are the base diameters. Single or high-contrast buttons call attention to themselves. but they also can disappear or look small or insignificant if they have no outer definition. not absolutes. not the buttonhole size. Flatten the loop. Button sizes included in pattern notion lists are only suggestions. Transparent buttons solve color-matching problems. Hold it securely and slip the button out. consider sewing the button on top of the buttonhole and using snap or hook fasteners underneath. That’s the buttonhole size.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Button Advice • • Choose your buttons before making buttonholes or loops. However there may be design elements that restrict the size choice.
Repeated stress or pushing a toolarge button through a tight buttonhole is a primary reason for losing buttons. Is the buttonhole flexible? Stiff? Fully clipped? If the original button is flat or has a thin edge. knowing the size of the buttonhole is more helpful than having the original button. use a smaller lift device. Remove the "lift". inappropriate size buttons are often on ready-to-wear clothing. The resulting thread shank will be firm and resistant to wear by friction. 7. a size 1 knitting needle. Thread the needle and knot the ends of the thread together. button and around the "lift". small "lift" between the button and fabric and between the threads. 6. a round toothpick. ending with the needle between the fabric and the button. End by passing the needle and thread through the cross of the "figure-8" and end with a pass over the final thread loop. Stitch top to bottom to top. 3 or 4 times around the thread strands to create a shank.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY HOW TO SEW BUTTONS ON TO STAY 1. • • • • 135 . 5. 3. Start stitching with the knot on the surface where the button will be. It will allow flexibility and not pull the fabric. and back to the bottom. Wax the thread in both directions. through the button. Wrap the needle and thread "figure-8" style. 2. Make 3 to 4 thread passes through the fabric. Never force a button through the buttonhole. The knot will end up under the button. Place a smooth. Cut thread 20-24" long. Unfortunately. or a finishing nail. Try using a T-pin. you will need to look at a smaller diameter if your replacement choice is higher or has a thick edge. Use buttonhole twist thread for coats and jackets. good quality hand sewing thread for other garments.) 4. (If you are attaching a shank button. REPLACEMENT BUTTON TIPS (OR SIZE DOES MATTER!) • When replacing buttons on a completed garment.
electronic safety head guard device .PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY PRESSING Automatic topper presses and auto body presses are used with a combination of manual and auto steam irons from MACPI.04 locking of the plate: unstable . steamheated shapes. movable and steaming head fitted on an arm having a lever mouvement.adjustable pressing pressure and sponging height .555. P R E S S I N G BRAND: (MACPI) Electropneumatic pressing machine with manual / automatic control.555.05 locking of the plate: stable Feeding: 1+N~50Hz 230 V 136 . Complete with: . Fixed buck.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY FINISHING US Apparel has one of the most modern garment wet processing facility in the country. The company is able to offer garments from all kinds of exotic washing techniques like Sand Blasting/Brushing to most basic stone wash. 137 . The electric mix of Italian. Spanish and Far Eastern equipment allows U S Apparel to provide its customers an almost infinite range of garment washing/dyeing facility. Wet process department performance is further cemented with the support of extensive computerized database and a well equipped laboratory. F I N I S H I N G Computerized control over wash process allows U S Apparel to give consistent wash quality in long running or repetitive production requirements.
PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY PACKING: P A C K I N G 138 .
mainly in the finishing of fabrics and garments. Crocking A term used to describe how dye rubs off fabric on skin or other fabric. Carding The process in which raw cotton is separated and cleaned to make a sliver. providing the well-known textile that withstands high temperatures. Ginning The process in which seeds are removed from picked cotton. The quality of cotton is determined by the length of fibres. serge de Nîmes. Dual Ring Spun The process in which both the warp and weft threads are made of ring-spun yarn. Double Needle A common seam on jeans where two stitches run parallel to each other for reinforcement. the longer the fibres. this plant turns from white to purple. Crosshatch Mixing uneven yarns in both the weft and warped directions to create a unique type of denim that shows a square grid-like pattern in the weave. Defoliant A chemical that causes plants' leaves to drop off earlier. producing the familiar diagonal ribbing identifiable on the reverse of the fabric distinguishing denim from cotton duck. in which the weft passes under two or more warp fibers. Dips What fabric or yarn are called when dipped in dye. Enzyme Wash A more environmentally sound way to create a stone wash. Bleach A chemical used to make denim fade. Enzymes Proteins that speed up chemical processes. Five Pocket Jeans Most frequent design for denim: two back pockets. Finishing The overall processes performed on a garment giving it its unique look. Bartak Stitching that reinforces places on jeans such as flies and pocket openings. organic proteins are used to eat away at the indigo. Cotton After blooming. the higher the quality. Denim The word denim is believed to be a derivative of the French term. and increases in strength when wet. two front pockets and a coin pocket inside the right front pocket. used to speed up the harvesting process of cotton. They are used in textile processing. Acid Wash The finish that gives indigo jeans sharp contrasts by soaking pumice stones in chlorine and letting the stones create the contrast. 139 . accepts dyes well.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY GLOSIERY OF DENIM Abrasion The process of making garments look worn and aged by scraping or rubbing the surface of the fabric causing abrasion. It creates a much softer and textured hand than regular (single) ring-spun denim. a rugged cotton twill textile.
Ring Dyeing Describes a quality unique to indigo dye in which only the outer ring of the fibers in the yarn is dyed while the inner core remains white. sandblasting. Loop Dyed One of three major industrial methods of dyeing indigo yarn. Laser treatments are used exclusively in the upper end of the denim market and are considered a more environmentally acceptable process than the traditional methods of finishing. Laundry A facility that takes unwashed jeans and processes them. Indigo A blue dye obtained from indigo plants. i. making it a very high quality. this stone is used in the process of stone-washing apparel. left-hand twill fabrics are woven from single piled yarns in the warp. Jean Possibly derived from the French work "genes". when indigo yarn comes out of the dip and joins oxygen. which was in short supply and high demand. It is essential in creating commercial denim and has become as important as fabric development. It is the basis of a novel type of elastomeric fiber known generically as spandex. finishing. Pumice Stone Lightweight and strong.e. Indigo's inherent features are good colorfastness to water and light and a continual fading. has developed dramatically in the last few years as a textile treatment with laser finishes. Open-End Spinning A spinning process in which individual fibers are fed into a high-speed rotor shaped like a cup where they begin to accumulate. Used with automated Tonello machines. 140 . Pima Cotton Originally grown in the 1900's in Peru. Oxidation In denim manufacturing. stone wash. initially used by the military. lasers can be directed vertically or horizontally and used to create both specific detailing or a textured all-over effect. Pigment Dyes Dye that lack the ability to grab onto the fibers and must be held to the fabric with resins. The yarns produced using this method are not as strong as the ring-spun yarns of the same size. Left-Hand Twill A weave in which the grain lines run from the top left-hand corner of the fabric towards the bottom right. Overdye A dying process in which additional color is applied to create a different shade or cast on the garment. Polyurethane Provides a chemical resistance in the washing and dyeing process in order to achieve the desired denim wash/ color. The chemical structure was synthetically produced in 1987. Usually in piece-dyed fabrics. Laser technology. etc. penetrating the fibre. it was first used to describe the type of pant worn by Genoan sailors. This allows the blue color in jeans to always look irregular and individual. They often have a softer hand feel to them after washing. The frequency of the laser is set to erode the indigo surface in order to either alter the color or burn through the cloth. Pima Cotton is known for its long fibres. It is a man-made fiber (segmented polyurethane) able to stretch at least 100% and snap back like natural rubber. luxurious cotton.early 1970's in place of indigo. who harvested this particular type of cotton. Pima Cotton was brought to America and got its name from the Pima Indians.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Hand The term used to describe how denim feels. Padazoic A dye used in the late 1960's .
either by hand or by automated robot. Sea Island Cotton Known for its silky feel and lustre. Selvage The edge of a fabric that is woven so that it will not fray or ravel. and most modern jeans are now 14 ounces. Early jeans were nine-ounce Levi’s. This is known as Sulphur Bottom Dyeing. increasing to 10-ounce in 1927. The more subtle and sophistocated effects are hand-applied to individual areas. Sanforization: A process which shrinks and stabilizes cloth before it is cut. whereas on the larger modern weaving machines the weft yarn is cut on every pick. creating what is called a fringe selvage. The washer is first loaded with stones and fabric. Slasher Dyeing One of the three main methods of dyeing indigo yarn Spinning A process used to create yarn or thread where short fibres are twisted together. one of the best cotton fibres. Sanding Process that makes the surface of a garment soft by rubbing aggressively with paper containing small loose grains of worn rock. Overdyeing and tinting is carried out in giant washing machines. Sanforization was invented by Sanford L. Whiskering Term used to describe a denim that has a fading of the ridges in creases in the crotch area and back of the knees giving the appearance of aged denim. worn hand. Most denim companies followed suit. and tumble-dried. Rivet A metal accessory that is used for reinforcement of stress points as well as nonfunctional ornamentation. 141 . Cluett and patented in 1928. These yarns will be used to weave into cloth or used in sewing. River Washing The process that creates a naturally aged look by combining pumice stones and cellulose enzymes.PROJECT REPORT_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ PRESTON UNIVERSITY Ring Spinning The process that creates unique surface characteristics in a garment by feeding individual fibers into the end of the yarn while in its twisting zone producing an irregular authentic vintage look. where a dirty or stained effect is achieved via the use of a pigment dye. The longer the denim and stones are rotated the lighter the color becomes and more contrast occurs. Weight: Denim is traditionally graded by its weight per yard of fabric at a 29-inch width. Spraying & Staining: Spraying color can be added at various stages in the finishing cycle. it’s dyed indigo. The effect adds to the aged look of a garment by introducting stained areas. Warp: Yarn that runs parallel to selvedge. softness and character to jeans. The second stage introduces the enzymes and tumbled together to give denim a vintage. The denim is then rinsed. Old 28 to 30 inch shuttle looms produce denim where selvages are closed. Longer fibres like silk are not spun. Lee Cowboy Pants were introduced in the much heavier 13-ounce weight. In denim. Stone Washing Process that physically removes color and adds contrast using pumice stones. Weft The un-dyed crosswise filling yarns used in denim weave. Sulphur Bottoms: Many manufacturers apply a sulphur dye before the customary indigo dye. apart from Levi who still produced “shrink to fit” denim for three decades following. Ring-spun yarns add strength. These appear more “natural” following laundry treatment. It can be used to create a grey or yellow “vintage” cast. softened. color contrast or blotched tints.
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