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Prof. T. I. Eldho ,, Department of Civil Engineering, Prof. T. I. Eldho
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay/ India.
• India’s Water Resources
• Watershed Development & Modelling • Integrated Watershed Management • Water Conservation & Harvesting • Successful Case Study
Integrated Water Resources Development and Management: IWRDM. Integration of - River basin resources- surface and ground. - Demands - consumptive and non-consumptive, and supplies. - Facilities - mega to micro. - Human and eco-systems. - S&T and engineering with social, economic, synergic needs.
INDIA’S LAND RESOURCE, IRRIGATION AND FOOD PRODUCTION
• India has 2% of world’s land, 4% of freshwater, 16% of population, and 10% of its cattle. • Geographical area = 329 Mha of which 47% (142 Mha) is cultivated, 23% forested, 7% under non-agri use, 23% waste. • Per capita availability of land 50 years ago was 0.9 ha, could be only 0. 14 ha in 2050. • Out of cultivated area, 37% is irrigated which produces 55% food; 63% is rain-fed producing 45% of 200 M t of food. • In 50 years (ultimate), proportion could be 50:50 producing 75:25 of 500 M t of required food.
SOME INFERENCES FROM RIVER BASIN STATISTICS • Himalayan Rivers Water: 300 utilizable, 1200 BCM available. • Himalayan large dams presently store 80 BCM. New dams under consideration could store 90 BCM. • Peninsular Rivers Water: 400 utilizable, 700 BCM available. • Peninsular large dams presently store 160 BCM. New dams under consideration could store 45 BCM. • In all, large dams presently store 240 BCM. New dams under consideration could store 135 BCM. Total storage thus could be 375 BCM only.
WITHDRAWAL OF WATER- 2050, AVAILABILITY
India’s Yearly Requirement in 2050 (Km3 = BCM) • For growing food and feed at 420 to 500 million tonnes = 628 to 807 BCM • Drinking water plus domestic and municipal use for rural population at 150 lpcd and for urban population at 220 lpcd = 90 to 110 BCM •Hydropower and other energy generation = 63 to 70 BCM •Industrial use = 81 to 103 BCM •Navigational use = 15 BCM •Loss of water by evaporation from reservoirs = 76 BCM •Environment and ecology = 20 BCM Total Availability 970 to 1200 BCM 1100 to 1400 BCM
Where does the water come from? •New dams - inter-basin transfer •Groundwater - underdeveloped •Demand Management •Water savings - increase in efficiency, reduce evaporation. •Water productivity - increases in crop per drop •Trade (virtual water), import food.
Part 2: Watershed
Limited water resources,more demand.
Development & Modelling
Watershed is the basic scientific unit. Need for proper planning and
management. Integrated watershed development approach Digital revolution Recent advances in watershed modelling - use of computer models,
Watershed Characteristics. Hydrology of watershed.
Watershed (ha) 50,000-2,00,000 10,000-50,000 1,000-10,000 100-1,000 10-100 Classification Watershed Sub-watershed Milli- watershed Micro-watershed Mini-watershed
WATERSHED Development … Parameters of Watershed
• Size •Shape •Physiography •Climate •Drainage •Land use •Vegetation •Geology and Soils •Hydrology •Hydrogeology •Socioeconomics
WATERSHED MODELLING …
Watershed modelling steps 1. Formulation 2. Calibration/verification 3. Application Watershed model constitutes 1. Input function 2. Output function 3. Transform function
WATERSHED MODELLING …
Percolation Groundwater Storage
Baseflow Channel Processes
Fig Flowchart of simple watershed model (McCuen, 1989)
WATERSHED MODELLING …
General Classification of Models
Broadly classified into three types Black Box Models: These models describe mathematically the relation between rainfall and surface runoff without describing the physical process by which they are related. e.g. Unit Hydrograph approach Lumped models: These models occupy an intermediate position between the distributed models and Black Box Models. e.g. Stanford Watershed Model Distributed Models: These models are based on complex physical theory, i.e. based on the solution of unsteady flow equations.
Part 3: Integrated Watershed Management
• Large water resources development projects in India have adverse socio-economic and environmental consequences. consequences • The failure of such projects, contributed to indebtedness, indebtedness raising economic pressure and jeopardising future development. • Indiscriminate expansion of marginal lands and over-utilisation of existing water resources for irrigation. • Traditional water harvesting systems have suffered sever neglect.
• This type of development not only called into question • the adequacy of water resources schemes but triggered the urgent • search for more effective and appropriate management strategies. • Major response to follow “Integrated Watershed Management Approach”.
Concepts and Principles of IWM
Objectives: Water has multiples uses and must be managed in an integrated way. Water should be managed at the lowest appropriate level. Water allocation should take account of the interests of all who are affected. Water should be recognised and treated as an economic good. Strategies: A long term, viable sustainable future for basin stake holders. Equitable access to water resources for water users. The application of principles of demand management for efficient utilisation. Prevention of further environmental degradation (short term) and the restoration of degraded resources (long term). . Implementation Programs: Comprise an overall strategy that clearly defines the management objectives, a delivery mechanisms and a monitoring schedule that evaluates program performance. Recognise that the development of water resources may require research, to assess the resource base through modelling and development of DSS, and to determine the linkage between water resources and the impacts on environment, socio-economy. Ensure that mechanisms and policies are established that enables long term support.
Integrated Watershed Approach
IWM is the process of planning and implementing water and natural resources …… an emphasis on integrating the bio-physical, socio-economic and institutional aspects.
Socio-economic, water conservation, participation Public Participation
Socio-economic with water conservation
Watershed development program
Social issues are addressed through involvement of women and minority. Community led water users groups have led the implementation efforts.
Public participation planning, design, implementation
Mainly water conservation
•The four engineering and management tools for effective and sustainable development of water resources in semi-arid rural India: • Appropriate technologies • Decentralised development system • Catchment based water resources planning • Management information system •In past the efforts were more on the soil conservation and taking measures on the land where as we used to neglect the welfare of the land users. • For sustainable watershed management there is need to integrate the social and economic development together with soil and water conservation
IWA – Modeling through Advanced Technologies
Part 4: Water Conservation & Harvesting
Total water management for sustainable development?.
Important step for solutions to issues of water and environmental conservation is to change people's attitudes and habits Conserve water because it is right thing to do!.
What you can do to conserve water?
Use only as much water as you require. Close the taps well after use. While brushing or other use, do not leave the tap running, open it only when you require it. See that there are no leaking taps. Use a washing machine that does not consume too much water. Do not leave the taps running while washing dishes and clothes.
Install small shower heads to reduce the flow of the water. Water in which the vegetables & fruits have been washed - use to water the flowers & plants. At the end of the day if you have water left in your water bottle do not throw it away, pour it over some plants.
Re-use water as much as possible Change in attitude & habits for water conservation Every drop counts!!!
Rain Water Harvesting?.
• Rain Water Harvesting RWH- process of collecting, conveying & storing water from rainfall in an area – for beneficial use. • Storage – in tanks, reservoirs, underground storagegroundwater • Hydrological Cycle
Rain Water Harvesting?.
• RWH - yield copious amounts of water. For an average rainfall of 1,000mm, approximately four million litres of rainwater can be collected in a year in an acre of land (4,047 m2), post-evaporation. •As RWH - neither energy-intensive nor labourintensive •It can be a cost-effective alternative to other wateraccruing methods. • With the water table falling rapidly, & concrete surfaces and landfill dumps taking the place of water bodies, RWH is the most reliable solution for augmenting groundwater level to attain self-sufficiency
RWH – Methodologies
• Roof Rain Water Harvesting • Land based Rain Water Harvesting • Watershed based Rain Water harvesting • For Urban & Industrial Environment – • Roof & Land based RWH • Public, Private, Office & Industrial buildings • Pavements, Lawns, Gardens & other open spaces
Rain Water Harvesting– Advantages
1.Provides self-sufficiency to water supply 2.Reduces the cost for pumping of ground water 3.Provides high quality water, soft and low in minerals 4.Improves the quality of ground water through dilution when recharged 5.Reduces soil erosion & flooding in urban areas 6.The rooftop rain water harvesting is less expensive & easy to construct, operate and maintain 7. In desert, RWH only relief 8. In saline or coastal areas & Islands, rain water provides good quality water
Part 5: Successful Case Study
Catchment Area = 1800 km2
Jhabua Watershed: Case Study
Madhya Pradesh ( INDIA ), ~ altitude of 380 m to 540 m. Area – 1800 sq.km Highly undulating, sparsely distributed forest cover. ~ 57% arable land including cultivable fellow and ~ 18% notified as forest land. Average rainfall ~ 750 mm per annum.
~ 20-30 events during June-September ~ Classified as drought prone region. Moisture deficit during January to May months each year.
Jhabua watershed: Case study
Major crops: Maize, Cotton, Peanuts, Soyabeans; Gram, Black beans, Oil seeds.
Predominantly tribal population, 92% engaged in agriculture. ~ high seasonal migration ~ economically one of the most backward district
Yearly rainfall departure from the mean for rainfall station Jhabua
Seasonal rainfall departure are extremely variable.
•Subsistence of rain-fed mono-cropping farming system with low agriculture productivity •Undulating topography and soil erosion due to overgrazing causing degradation of land. •High pressure of population on the agriculture land leading to substantial poverty causing immigration. •Absence of decentralized water resources and basic infrastructure facilities. •Degradation of forestry land due to absence of community involvement in protection of the forest.
Planning & Implementation
A Three step IWMA model approach
1. Resources Mapping Information System
2. Appropriate Technology 3. Management Information System
Resources mapping: Ground water dynamics
Total alluvium area= 18.5 km2 Channel porosity = 20% Depth of wetting front = 4.0 m
Total storage capacity = 14.8 x106 m3.
Resources mapping: Surface water storage
Total number of reservoirs = 144 Storage capacity = 81.3 x 106 m3
Reservoir in main channel Reservoir in main channel
Water conservation and groundwater recharge techniques
Water harvesting cum supplementary irrigation techniques in Jhabua
Water conservation interventions includes contour trenches, gully plugging, vegetative and field bunding, percolation tanks. Overall land treatment against potential area is varying between 40-60%.
Type of land ownership for soil and water conservation measures
65% Contour bunding Staggered trenching Gully plugging Level terraces
30% Private land Fallow land Forest land
Techniques of soil and water conservation measures
Joint Forest Management Redevelopment of forest is essential for catering socioeconomics needs of the people and ecological needs of the region. Forest committees are formed for forest protection and part of area is made available for grazing on rotation basis. Implementing agencies promoted the concept of “Social Fencing” people protecting the forest and grazing land.
Community participation and local capacity building Development of new village level institutions and local capacity building. Operation & maintenance of structures, regulation of financial matters, and conflict resolution.
Success interventions reside in integration of appropriate technical and managerial measures. measures People’s participation in the entire process are most important. The benefits of water harvesting and water conservation definitely reached. Efficient utilisation of funds, only 10-15% spent on non-project costs. Thus, IWM approach may be characterised by •Community management built on existing social structure, structure •Project management drawn from village level organisations, organisations •Joint forest management with community participation, •Self-help water user groups and community based banking institutions. Limitation: 100% drought proofing for every water use can not be achieved.
Concluding Remarks The integrated watershed management approach have the following major components: • Promote sustainable economic development through optimum utilisation of natural resources and local capacity building. • Restore ecological balance through community participation and cost affordable technologies for easy acceptance. • Improving living conditions of the poorer through more equitable resources distribution and greater access to income generating activities.
Concluding Remarks • About 2-4 meter water level increase is observed in selected wells. • Watershed management can easily cope with climate change impacts.
• The benefits of water harvesting and water conservation not only for drinking water security but also for agriculture definitely reached. •Efficient utilisation of funds as only 10-15% of the total budget spent on non-project costs.
• Water security through IWM
Dr. T. I. Eldho Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India, 400 076. Email: email@example.com Phone: (022) – 25767339; Fax: 25767302
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