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# AP Physics B

2011
Ryan O’Shea
Chapter Outlines
College Physics, 7th Ed. by Serway/Faughn
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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea

Chapter 1: Introduction
Thursday, September 02, 2010
9:12 PM

## Ryan O'Shea 11B

 Introduction
o Mechanics
 3 most fundamental quantities:
 Length (L)
 Mass (M)
 Time (T)
 All other physical quantities can be constructed from these three.
o 1.1 Standards of Length, Mass, and Time
 1960 - international committee agreed:
 SI (Système International) - standard system of units for the fundamental quantities of science
 Length = meter
 Mass = kilogram
 Time = second
-6
10 Micro- µ
-3
10 Milli- m
-2
10 Centi- c
-1
10 Deci- d
1
10 Deka- da
3
10 Kilo- k
6
10 Mega- M
 Length
 Don't need to know definition of meter
 Mass
 The SI unit of mass, the kilogram, is defined as the mass of a specific platinum-iridium alloy
cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Sèvres, France
 Time
 Don't need to know definition of second
o 1.2 The Building Blocks of Matter
 Greek atomos means "not sliceable" → atom, once believed to be smallest, ultimate particle, but since
found to be a composite of more elementary particles
 Proton - nature's fundamental carrier of positive charge
 Number of protons determines elements
 Neutron - has no charge and has mass about equal to that of a proton
 Acts as glue to hold nucleus together
 Quarks - six particles thought to make up protons, neutrons, and more
 up, down, strange, charm, bottom, top
o 1.3 Dimensional Analysis
 dimension denotes the physical nature of a quantity
 In physics, often necessary either to derive a mathematical expression or equation or to check its
correctness:
 dimensional analysis - makes use of the fact that dimensions can be treated as algebraic
quantities
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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea
o 1.4 Un
ncertainty in Measuremen nt and Significcant Figures
 siignificant fig
gure is a reliaably known digit
d (other thhan a zero useed to locate a decimal poinnt)
 in mulltiplying (div viding) two or
o more quan ntities, the nu
umber of sign nificant figurres in the
final product
p (quottient) is the same
s as the nnumber of siggnificant figuures in the leeast accurate
of the factors being g combined, where least accurate meaans having th he lowest nuumber of
signifiicant figures
 when numbers are e added (subttracted), the n number of deecimal placess in the resullt should
equal the smallest number of decimal
d placees of any termm in the sum (difference)
o 1.5 Co
onversion of Units
U
 Units
U can be trreated as algeebraic quantitties that can ""cancel" eachh other.
 Make a fraction witth the converrsion that willl cancel the u units we don't want, and m multiply the
on by the quaantity in questtion:
fractio
.
 28.0 28.0 1.74 10
0
.
 1.74
4 10 60.0 60.0 62.2 mi/h
h
o 1.6 Esstimates and Order-of-Mag
O gnitude Calcu ulations
 orrder-of-magn nitude estimaate - approxim mate value off a quantity
 withinn about a factor of 10
 ~
o 1.7 Cooordinate Sysstems
 Cartesian
C coordinate systeem (aka rectaangular coorddinate system m)
 fixed reference
r poinnt O, called th
he origin
 set of specified axes, or directionns, with an apppropriate sccale and labels on the axess
 instrucctions on labeeling a point in space relattive to the orrigin and axess
 (x,y)
 pllane polar co
oordinates (r,,θ)

( measured counter-clocckwise
 angle (θ)
o 1.8 Trrigonometry

 siin θ

 co
os θ

 ta
an θ

 Py
ythagorean theorem
t - sid
des of right trriangle
2 2 2
 x +y =r

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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea

## Chapter 2: Motion in 1 Dimension

Tuesday, September 07, 2010
8:15 PM
Ryan O'Shea 11B

o Dynamics - study of motion and of physical concepts such as force and mass
o Kinematics - part of dynamics that describes motion without regard to its causes
o geocentric model - Earth is center of universe; accepted by Aristotle, Ptolemy
o heliocentric model - Earth and other planets revolve in circular orbits around the Sun
 2.1 Displacement
o frame of reference - choice of coordinate axes that defines the starting point for measuring any quantity
o displacement of an object (∆x) - its change in position
 ∆x ≡ xf - xi
o vector quantity - is characterized by having both a magnitude and a direction

o scalar quantity - has only magnitude, not direction
 2.2 Velocity
o speed = scalar, velocity = vector

o average speed -

o average velocity - vector quantity, = displacement (∆x) / time (∆x)
 ̅
o curved path vs. straight path to same point = higher avg speed, lower avg velocity
o Graphical Interpretation of Velocity
 position vs. time graph - plots positions of points an object moves as a function of time elapsed
 average velocity of object during the time interval ∆t = slope of straight line joining the initial
and final points on a graph of the object's position vs. time
 if direction or speed changes, avg velocity may be unique between any two points
o Instantaneous Velocity
 speed and direction at a particular instant in time
 instantaneous velocity v = limit of average velocity as the time interval (∆t) becomes infinitesimally
small
 lim →
 Slope of line tangent to position vs. time curve at "a given time" is defined to be the
instantaneous velocity at that time.
 Instantaneous speed = magnitude of instantaneous velocity
 2.3 Acceleration
o acceleration - changing of an object's velocity with time
o average acceleration during time interval (∆t) = change in velocity (∆v) divided by ∆t

 ≡
2
 meter per second per second (m/s )
o acceleration is a vector quantity
o When the object's velocity and acceleration are in the same direction, the speed of the object increases with
time. When the object's velocity and acceleration are opposite in direction, the speed of the object decreases
with time.
o Instantaneous Acceleration
 instantaneous acceleration a = limit of the average acceleration as the time interval goes to zero

 ≡ lim∆ → ∆
 velocity vs. time graph - plots velocity of an object against time

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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea
 instantaneous acceleration of an object at a given time equals the slope of the tangent to the velocity
vs. time graph at that time
 2.4 Motion Diagrams
o motion diagram - representation of a moving object at successive time intervals, w/ velocity and
acceleration vectors sketched at each position, red for velocity vectors and violet for acceleration vectors
 Active Figure 2.12
 2.5 One-Dimensional Motion With Constant Acceleration
o constant acceleration - instantaneous acceleration = average acceleration over entire time interval
o ti = 0, tf = arbitrary t, vi = v0, vf = v at arbitrary time t
 (for constant a)
 or, v = v0 + at (for constant a)
 constant acceleration changes velocity by constant a
o in constant acceleration, avg velocity = mean of initial velocity and final velocity
 (for constant a)
o displacement of object as a function of time: ∆ ̅ (for constant a)
 or, ∆ (for constant a)
o substitute for v: ∆ t (for constant a)
 or, ∆ (for constant a)
o area under the graph of v versus t for any object is equal to the displacement ∆x of the object
o ∆ (for constant a)
or, 2 ∆ (for constant a)
o Equations for Motion in a Straight Line Under Constant Acceleration
Equation Information Given By Equation
v = v0 + at Velocity as a function of time
vf = vi + at
1 Displacement as a function of time

2
2 ∆ Velocity as a function of displacement
Note: Motion is along the x-axis. At t = 0, the velocity of the particle is v0.
 2.6 Freely Falling Objects
o free fall - when air resistance is negligible
o freely falling object - any object moving freely under the influence of gravity alone, regardless of its initial
motion
o free-fall acceleration - magnitude is denoted by g
 g decreases with increasing altitude
 varies slightly with latitude
2
 at Earth's surface, g = 9.80m/s

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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea

Cha
apter 3: Vectors & 2-Dim
mensional Motion
n
Mond day, Septembe
er 13, 2010
6:48 P
PM

##  3.1 Vectors And

A Their Properties
 vector - has both diirection & size
o A
 Equalitty of Two Veectors
o same
s magnitu
ude and directtion
o must
m carry the same units (velocity plus displacemen nt doesn't maake sense)
o Triangle
 Draw ve ector A & vecctor B on coo
ordinate planee
 draw ve ector B startin
ng on the end
d of vector A
 resultan nt vector - veector connectting start of A & end of B
 commuttative
 Negative of a Vectoor
o same
s magnitu
ude, opposite directions
o A A 0
o B subtracted from
f A = negative of B + A
o A B A B
 Multip
plying or Dividing a Vecto or by a Scalarr
o Vector
V / scalar = vector
o multiply
m magn nitude, same direction
 opposite e direction if multiplied by
y negative
 3.2 Componeents of a Vecttor
 components - proje ections of vector along axees of rectanguular coordinaate system
 x & y components
c are
a vectors alo ong respectivve axes matchhing up with the vector

 Relatio
ons between components
c
o Ax = A cosθ
o Ay = A sinθ
o A2 = Ax2 + Ay2
o tanθ = Ax / Ay
 only corrrect 1/2 the time
t - when vector
v is in 1sst or 4th quaddrant, otherw
gebraically
o R A B
Rx = Ax + Bx

Ry = Ay + By

 3.3 Displacem
ment, Velocitty, & Accelerration in 2 Diimensions
 displaccement = chaange in positioon vector
o ∆ ≡
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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea
o meters
 average velocity during time interval ∆t = displacement / ∆t

o ≡

o meters per second
 instantaneous velocity = limit of avg velocity as ∆t goes to 0

o ≡ lim
∆ → ∆
o meters per second
 average acceleration during time interval ∆t = change in velocity / ∆t

o ≡

o meters per second per second
 instantaneous acceleration = limit of its average acceleration vector as ∆t goes to 0

o ≡ lim
∆ → ∆
o meters per second per second
 3.4 Motion in 2 Dimensions
 projectile motion - special case of 2D motion
o horizontal and vertical motions are completely independent of each other
o initial velocity now has two components
 where θ0 - projection angle,
 v0x = v0 cosθ0 | v0y = v0 sinθ0
 2D Kinematics Formulas
o
Dimension Formula
x vx = v0x + axt
1 2
x ∆x = v0xt + ( /2)axt
2 2
x vx = v0x + 2ax∆x
y vy = v0y + ayt
1 2
y ∆y = v0yt + ( /2)ayt
2 2
y vy = v0y + 2ay∆y
o v0x = v0 cosθ0 | v0y = v0 sinθ0
o Projectile motion is special case of these formulas
 in projectile motion, ax = 0 (if air resistance is negligible), so vx remains constant
 for x-motion, 1st 2 formulas can be simplified
a. vx = v0x = vo cosθ0 = constant
b. ∆x = v0xt = (v0 cosθ0)t
 in projectile motion, ay = -g
 for y-motion,
a. vy = v0 sinθ0 - gt
1 2
b. ∆y = (v0 sinθ0)t - ( /2)gt
2 2
c. jvy = (v0 sinθ0) - 2g∆y
 3.5 Relative Velocity
 measurements of velocity depend on the reference frame of the observer
o aka coordinate system
o stationary frame of reference vs. moving frame or reference
o notation: A = Car A, B = Car B, E = observer stationed on Earth
 = position of Car A as measured by E (in a coordinate system fixed w/ respect to Earth)
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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea
 = position of Car B as measured by E
 = position of Car A as measured by observer in Car B

## Chapter 4: The Laws of Motion

Monday, September 20, 2010
9:06 PM
Ryan O'Shea 11B

Laws of Motion
 force - a push or pull on an object (vector)
 contact forces - result from physical contact between two objects
 field forces - forces that occur in a field and are not caused by physical contact
 Fundamental Forces
a. Strong Force - holds nuclei together
b. Electromagnetic Force
c. Weak Force - arises in certain radioactive decay processes
d. Gravity (weakest)
 4.2 Newton's First Law
o an object moves with a velocity that is constant in magnitude and direction, unless acted on by a
nonzero net force
o net force - vector sum of all external forces exerted on the object
o Mass and Inertia
 inertia - tendency of object to continue in original state of motion
 mass - measure of the object's resistance to changes in its motion due to a force
 4.3 Newton's Second Law
o acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force acting upon it
o acceleration of object is inversely proportional to its mass
o the acceleration a of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely
proportional to its mass
o
 a = acceleration
 m = mass
 ΣF = sum of all forces
o Units of Force & Mass
 newton - force (SI)
2
 1 N ≡ 1 kg x m/s
 pound - force (customary)
 1 N = 0.225 lb
o The Gravitational Force
 gravitational force - mutual force of atraction between any two objects in the Universe
 Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every particle in the Universe attracts every other
particle with a force that is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the particles and
inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
 r = distance

 universal gravitation constant
-11 2 2
 G = 6.67 × 10 N·m /kg
o Weight
 magnitude of the gravitational force acting on an object of mass m near Earth's surface
 g = acc of gravity
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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea
w = mg
Newtons
 4.4 Newton's Third Law
o forces in nature always exist in pairs
o If object 1 and object 2 interact, the force F exerted by object 1 on object 2 is equal in magnitude but
opposite in direction to the force F exerted by object 2 on object 1
o action & reaction force always act on different objects
o Earth exerts force F on all objects, so any stationary object exerts force F′ on Earth, ground exerts normal
force n upward on object, which exerts force n′ on ground
 F F′
 n n′
 4.5 Applications of Newton's Laws
o tension - magnitude of force exerted along a rope, is constant at all points in the rope
o free-body diagram - shows all forces acting on an object
o Objects in Equilibrium
 objects either at rest or moving with constant velocity

 4.6 Forces of Friction
o friction - resistance encountered by an object as it interacts with its surroundings
o static friction - when friction stops an object from moving, static friction opposite & equal to the force
being exerted on the object
 f
o kinetic friction - friction force for an object in motion
 f
o magnitude of the force of static friction between any two surfaces in contact

 µs - dimensionless constant called the coefficient of static friction
 n - magnitude of normal force exerted by one surface on the other
 impending motion - when object is on verge of slipping
o magnitude of the force of kinetic friction acting between two surfaces

 µf - dimensionless constant called the coefficient of kinetic friction

Chapter 5: Energy
Monday, October 04, 2010
6:01 PM

##  mechanical energy - sum of kinetic energy & potential energy

o kinetic energy - energy associated w/ motion
o potential energy - energy associated with position
 5.1 Work
o work is done only if an object is moved through some displacement while a force is applied to it
o W = F∆x
 work done by constant force F
 F & ∆x point in same direction
o unit: joule (J) = newton · meter
 english = foot-pound
o work is scalar
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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea
o when force is in different direction than displacement, force must be split into two components
 one parallel, one perpendicular - only the force parallel does work
 W ≡ (F cos θ) ∆x
 θ - angle between force and displacement vectors
 joules
o often requires two objects
o Work and Dissipative Forces
 frictional work is extremely important in everyday life
 5.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem
o instead of using Newton's second law, relate speed of an object to the net work done on it by external forces
1
o
o Kinetic Energy (KE)
 ≡
 Work-Energy Theorem
 Wnet = KEf - KEi = ∆KE
 change in kinetic energy due entirely to change in object's speed
 Conservative & Nonconservative Forces
 conservative force - (e.g. gravity) diver fights gravity to climb diving platform, but regains that
energy in Kinetic Energy on the way down
 a force is conservative if the work it does moving an object between two points is the
same no matter what path is taken
 nonconservative force - generally dissipative, which means it tends to randomly disperse the
energy of bodies on which it acts (in the form of heat or sound)
 friction is nonconservative
 Work-Energy Theorem in terms of conservative/nonconservative forces:
 Wnc + Wc = ∆KE
 net work is the sum of C &NC forces
 potential energy - the work which conservative forces do, a quantity that depends only on the
beginning and end points of a curve, not the path taken
 5.3 Gravitational Potential Energy
o potential energy is a property of a system, rather than a single object, because it's due to the physical
position in space relative a center of force
 system - collection of objects interacting via forces or other processes that are internal to the system
o Gravitational Work and Potential Energy
 gravitational potential energy of a system consisting of the Earth and an object of mass m near
Earth's surface:
 PE ≡ mgy
 y = vertical position of mass relative to surface of Earth
 work done by gravity is negative of change in gravitational potential energy
 only differences in potential energy matter
 Wg = –(PEf – PEi) = –(mgyf – mgyi)
 Wnc = (KEf –KEi) + (PEf – PEi)
o Reference Levels for Gravitational Potential Energy
 need to choose location at which gravitational potential energy is zero (y = 0)
 arbitrary because important quantity is difference in potantial energy
o Gravity and the Conservation of Mechanical Energy
 when a physical quantity is conserved the numeric value of the quantity remains the same
throughout the physical process
 sum of kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy remains constant at all times and hence
is a conserved quantity
 KEi + PEi = KEf + PEf
 E = total mechanical energy
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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea
 E = KE + PE
 total mechanical energy is conserved (stays the same all the time)
 5.4 Spring Potential Energy
o spring force is conservative
o Hooke's Law
 Fs = -kx
 x = displacement; k = constant of proportionality
 Fs is a restoring force - tends to exert force opposite to displacement of its end; tends to restore
whatever is attached to original position
o elastic potential energy - stored in spring - work done by a spring during motion
 negative of work done by the spring
 ≡
 5.5 Systems and Energy Conservation
o Wnc = (KEf + PEf) - (KEi + PEi)
o internal energy - of a system, is related to its temperature
o Energy Transfer
 Work - transfers energy to a system by displacing it with an applied force
 Heat - transferring energy through microscopic collisions between atoms or molecules
 Mechanical waves - transfer energy by creating a disturbance that propagates through air or another
medium
 Electrical transmission - transfers energy through electrical currents
 Electromagnetic radiation - transfers energy in the form of electromagnetic waves
o Conservation of Energy in General
 conservation of energy - energy is conserved: it can't be created or destroyed, only transferred from
one for into another
 5.6 Power
o power - the rate of energy transfer with time
o average power:

o SI Unit: watt (Joules/second); English - horsepower

o ̅
∆ ∆
o Energy and Power in a Vertical Jump
 center of mass (CM) - point in the body at which all the mass may be considered to be concentrated
 5.7 Work Done By a Varying Force
o the work done by a variable force acting on an object tht undergoes a displacement is equal to the area
under the graph of Fx versus x

## Chapter 6: Momentum & Collision

Saturday, October 16, 2010
6:16 PM
Ryan O'Shea 11B

 Conservation of momentum - the more momentum an object has, the more force has to be applied to stop it in a
given time
 6.1 Momentum & Impulse
o the linear momentum of an object = product of mass & velocity
 ≡
 SI Unit: kg · m/s
o Newton's Second Law of Motion:
∆ ∆ ∆

∆ ∆ ∆
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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea
o Impulse = Force × Time
 ≡ ∆
o impulse-momentum theorem - the impulse of the force acting on an object equals the change in
momentum of the object
 special case: for single constant forces:

 kg · m/s
o the magnitude of the impulse delivered by a force during a time interval is equal to the area under the
force vs. time graph
 ∆ ∆
 6.2 Conservation of Momentum
o sum of momenta in a system is always the same (conserved)
o Forces F21 & F12 are opposites:
o 2
o Law of Conservation of Momentum - when no net external force acts on a system, the total momentum of
the system remains constant in time
o recoil - result of action, reaction, and exchange of momemtum
 6.3 Collisions
o inelastic collision - momentum is conserved; kinetic energy is not
 perfectly inelastic - objects collide and stick together
o elastic collision - momentum & kinetic energy are conserved
o Perfectly Inelastic Collisions

o Elastic Collisions
 Momentum is conserved:

 Kinetic Energy is conserved:

 simplified to:

 6.4 Glancing Collisions
o Law of Conservation of Momentum can be broken into components
 x-component: m1v1ix + m2v2ix = m1v1fx + m2v2fx
 y-component: m1v1iy + m2v2iy = m1v1fy + m2v2fy
o e.g. Glancing collision: object 1 moves at angle θ to the horizontal; object 2 moves at angle φ to horizontal
 x-component: m1v1i + 0 = m1v1f cosθ - m2v2f cosφ
 y-component: 0 + 0 = m1v1f sinθ - m2v2f sinφ
o If collision is elastic, we can write another equation for conservation of energy:

 6.5 Rocket Propulsion
o thrust - force exerted on a rocket by ejected exhaust gases
 M + ∆m = mass of rocket + mass of fuel
 (M + ∆m)v = momentum of rocket
 ve = exhaust speed, relative to rocket
 v - ve = exhaust speed, relative to earth
∆ ∆
 Instantaneous thrust = Ma = M =
∆ ∆

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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea

## Chapter 7: Rotational Motion & Law of Gravity

Tuesday, October 26, 2010
12:38 AM
Ryan O'Shea 11B

##  7.1 Angular Speed & Acceleration

 θ= =
 θ - angular position - alalogous to linear position x
 ∆θ - angular displacement
o Angular Speed
 average angular speed

 ≡

 instantaneous angular speed

 ≡ lim∆ → ∆
o Angular Acceleration
 average angular acceleration

 ≡

2
 instantaneous angular acceleration

 ≡ lim∆ → ∆
o every portion of a rigid object has equal angular speed & acceleration
 7.2 Rotational Motion Under Constant Angular Acceleration
o Formulas of Rotational Kinematics:

 ∆
 2 ∆
 7.3 Relations Between Angular and Linear
o direction of the velocity of a point P traveling along arc is tangent to the circular path
o tangential speed - magnitude of velocity of point traveling along circular arc
 vt = rω
o tangential acceleration
 at = rα
 7.4 Centripetal Acceleration
o acceleration vector always pointing toward center of a circle
o
o total accelration - (after subracting acceleration of slowing down)

o Angular Quantities are Vectors
 right-hand rule - vector ω (velocity) points out of page when rotation is counter-clockwise; into when
rotation is clockwise
o Forces Causing Centripetal Acceleration
 Net centripetal force in terms of centripetal acceleration

##  7.5 Newtonian Gravitation

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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea
o
-11 -1 3 -2
 Constant of Universal Gravitation G = 6.67 × 10 kg m s
 inverse-square law - varies as one over the square of the separation of the particles
o the gravitational force exerted by a uniform sphere on a particle outside the sphere is the same as the force
exerted if the entire mass of the sphere were concentrated at its center
o Gravitational Potential Energy Revisited

 ME - Mass of Earth; RE - Radius of Earth
 Joules
o Escape Speed
 escape speed - speed required to escape an object's gravitational pull
 on Earth, 11.2 km/s

##  7.6 Kepler's Laws

o geocentric vs. heliocentric models
 Geocentric - Claudius Ptolemy
 Heliocentric - Nicolaus Copernicus
o Kepler's Laws:
 All planets move in illiptical orbits with the Sun at one of the focal points.
 A line drawn from the Sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals.
 The square of the orbital period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the average distance from
the planet to the Sun.
 period (T)- time required for one revolution of planet (year)

 Ms - mass of planet
 KS - constant:
 2.97 10

## Chapter 8: Rotational Equilibrium and Rotational Dynamics

Thursday, October 28, 2010
6:42 PM

## Ryan O'Shea 11B

 8.1 Torque
o Forces cause accelerations, torques cause angular accelerations
o Forces:
 Magnitude
 Position
 Direction
o Definition of Torque
 F is force acting on object; r is position vector from center of rotation to point of application of force
F
 τ = rF
 N·m
 rate of rotation of an object doesn't change, unless the object is acted on by a net torque
 for torque on angle, calculate component perpendicular to position vector
 τ = rF sin θ

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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea
 lever arm - perpendicular distance from axis of rotation to line drawn along the direction of
the force
 d = r sin θ
 value of τ depends on chosen axis of rotation
 8.2 Torque & 2 Conditions for Equilibrium
o 2 conditions for Equilibrium
 net external force must be zero: ∑
 net external torque must be zero: ∑
 8.3 The Center of Gravity
o center of gravity - place on object where effect on the rotation of the object is the same as that of the
individual particles
∑ ∑ ∑
 | |
∑ ∑ ∑
o center of gravity of homogeneous, symmetric object is on the axis of symmetry
 8.5 Relationship between Torque & Angular Acceleration
o τ = mr2α
2
 mr - moment of inertia of object of mass m
o Torque on a Rotating Object
 moment of inertia - ≡ ∑
 ∑ ∑
 angular acceleration of an extended rigid object is proportional to the net torque acting on it
o More on the Moment of Inertia
 moment of inertia of a composite object about some axis is just the sum of the moments of inertia of
the object's components
 moment of inertia of a system depends on how the mass is distributed and on the location of the axis
of rotation
 8.6 Rotational Kinetic Energy
o
o e.g. ball rolling down ramp, has:
 gravitational potential energy PEg
 translational kinetic energy KEt
 rotational kinetic energy KEr
o LOCOE can apply here too
 8.7 Angular Momentum
o angular momentum
 ≡
o rotational analog of Newton's second law

 ∑

o Conservation of Angular Momentum
 when no net torque is acting on system, angular momentum is conserved
 Li = Lf
 neutron star - extremely dense sphere of matter, rotating rapidly
 Important equations:
o v = rω
o a = rα
o d = rθ

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## Chapter 9: Solids & Fluids

Thursday, November 04, 2010
7:17 PM

##  9.1 States of Matter

o 4 states of matter:
 Solid
 elasticity - when external forces are removed, solids return to their original shape and size
 crystalline solid - atoms have ordered structure
 amorphous solid - atoms are arranged almost randomly
 Liquid
 Gas
 Plasma
 collection of free, electrically charged particles (negatively charged electrons and positively
charged ions in equal amounts)
o dark matter - might make up 90% of the matter in the universe
 9.2 The Deformation of Solids
o stress - force per unit area causing a deformation
o strain - measure of the amount of deformation
o stress is proportional to strain
o elastic modulus - proportionality constant
o stress = elastic modulus × strain
o Young's Modulus: Elasticity in Length
 tensile stress - ratio of magnitude of external force to cross-sectional area A
 applied force is perpendicular to cross-sectional area
 SI Unit: Pascal (Pa)
 1 Pa ≡ 1

 tensile strain - ratio of change in length ∆L to the original length L0
 relating tensile stress to tensile strain:

 Young's Modulus (Y) - constant of proportionality
 elastic limit - material subjected to stress beyond this limit ordinarily doesn't return to its original
length after force is removed
 ultimate strength - greatest stress substance can withstand without breaking
 breaking point
 for brittle materials, just beyond ultimate strength
 for ductile materials, material thins and stretches at lower stress level before breaking
o Shear Modulus: Elasticity of Shape
 shear stress - ratio of magnitude of parallel force to the area A of the face being sheared
 e.g. rectangular prism being forced into parallelogram
 applied force is parallel to the cross-sectional area

 shear strain - ratio , where ∆x is the horizontal distance the sheared face moves and h is the height
of the object
 relating shear stress to shear strain

 shear modulus (S) - Pascals
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o Bulk Modulus: Volume Elasticity
 volume stress ∆P is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the change in the applied force ∆F to the
surface area A
 in fluids, called pressure
 relating volume stress to volume strain

 ∆
B is bulk modulus
 reciprocal of bulk modulus is compressibility
 9.3 Density and Pressure
o density ρ of an object having uniform composition is defined as its mass M divided by volume V:
 ≡
 SI unit:
3
o specific gravity - ratio of density to density of water at 4°C (1.0 × 10 )
o pressure P is force F exerted perpendicular to a given surface of area A divided by A
 ≡
 SI unit: Pa
 9.4 Variation of Pressure with Depth
o when fluid is at rest in a container, all portions of the fluid must be in static equilibrium
 all points at the same depth must be at the same pressure
o P2 = P1 + ρg(y1 – y2)
o P = P0 + ρgh
 Pressure P at a depth h below the surface of a liquid open to the atmosphere is greater than
atmospheric pressure by the amount ρgh
o Pascal's Principle
 A change in pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every point of
the fluid and to the walls of the container.
 9.5 Pressure Measurements
o P - absolute pressure
o P – P0 - gauge pressure
o if P is greater than atmospheric pressure, h is positive
o barometer - invented by Evangelista Torricelli
o one atmosphere (atm) - pressure equivalent of a column of mercury that is exactly 0.76m in height at 0°C
5
 P0 = 1.013 × 10 Pa = 1 atm
 9.6 Buoyant Forces and Archimedes's Principle
o Archimedes's Principle
 any object completely or partially submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force with magnitude
equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
o buoyant force - partial upward support provided by water to any object placed in it
 B = ρfluidVfluidg
 Vfluid - volume of displaced fluid
 Totally Submerged Object
 B = ρfluidVobjg
 Floating Object
 B = ρfluidVobjg

 9.7 Fluids in Motion
o 2 types of water movement:
 streamline/laminar - every particle that passes a particular point moves along exactly the same
smooth path followed by previous particles passing by that point
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 path called a streamline
 turbulent - flow of fluid becomes irregular above certain velocity or under any conditions that can
cause abrupt changes in velocity
 eddy currents
o viscosity - degree of internal friction in the fluid
o Ideal Fluid
 nonviscous - no internal friction
 incompressible - density is constant
 motion is steady - velocity, density, & pressure at each point in the fluid don't change w/ time
 moves without turbulence
o Equation of Continuity
 fluid flowing through a tube: mass is conserved and flow is steady
 Equation of continuity

 Av - flow rate (volume/unit time)
 Av is constant equivalent to fact that volume of fluid that enters one end of the tube in a
given time interval equals the volume of the fluid leaving the tube in the same interval,
assuming that the fluid is incompressible and there are no leaks
o Bernoulli's Equation
 is a consequence of energy conservation on an ideal fluid

 sum of pressure P, kinetic energy per unit volume , and potential energy per unit volume
ρgy has the same value at all points along a streamline
 Venturi Tube - horizontal tube, moves from large cross-sectional area to smaller mouth, to measure
speed of fluid flow
 swiftly moving fluids exert less pressure than do slowly moving fluids

## Chapter 10: Thermal Physics

Monday, November 15, 2010
7:52 PM

## Ryan O'Shea 11B

 thermal physics - study of termperature, heat, and how they affect matter
 10.1 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
o thermal contact - when energy can be exchanged between 2 objects
o thermal equilibrium - if 2 objects are in thermal contact and there is no net energy exchange (same
temperature)
o heat - exchange of energy between two objects because of differences in their temperatures
 thermometer - device calibrated to measure temperature of an object
o Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics/Law of Equilibrium
 if objects A & B are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third object C, then A & B are in thermal
equilibrium with each other
 temperature - the property that determines whether or not an object is in thermal equilibrium with
another
 10.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
o Celsius temp scale
 freezing point - temperature of ice-water mixture = 0°C
 boiling point - 100°C
o Constant-Volume Gas Thermometer & Kelvin Scale
 gas thermometer - offers a way to define temperature and relate it directly to internal energy

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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea
 pressure extrapolates to zero when temp is -273.15°C
 absolute zero
 0K
 273.15
 triple point of water - single temp and pressure at which water, water vapor, and ice can coexist
 0.01°C, 4.58mm of mercury
 SI unit of temperature - kelvin - 1/273.16 of the temperature of the triple point of water
o Celcius, Kelvin, & Fahrenheit Temp Scales
 32
 32
 ∆ ∆
 10.3 Thermal Expansion of Solids & Liquids
o thermal expansion - increase in temp = increase in volume
o ∆L = αL0∆T
 α - coefficient of linear expansion
o ∆A = A - A0 = γA0∆T
 γ = 2α - coefficient of area expansion
o ∆V = βV0∆T
 β = 3α - coefficient of volume expansion
o Unusual Behavior of Water
 upwelling - surface water sinking , warmer water from below forced to surface
 10.4 Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas
o equations of state relate pressure, volume
o Ideal Gas
 collection of atoms or molecules that move randomly and exerts no long-range forces on each other.
Each particle of the ideal gas is individually point-like, occupying a negligible volume.
 moles (n) - the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in 12g of the
isotope carbon-12.
23
 Avogadro's Number - NA = 6.02 × 10 particles/mole

 molar mass = mass of one mole of the substance
 ideal gas law
 PV = nRT
 R - universal gas constant
3
 8.31 J/mol·K - in terms of Pa & m
 0.0821 L·atm/mol·K - in terms of atm & liters
 Kinetic Theory of Gases
o Number of molecules in the gas is large, the average separation between them is large compared with
their dimenions
o The molecules obey Newton's laws of motion, but as a whole they move randomly
o The molecules interact only through short-range forces during elastic collisions
o The molecules make elastic collisions with the walls
o All molecules in the gas are identical
o Molecular Model for Pressure of an Ideal Gas
 pressure of ideal gas
 is proportional to number of molecules per unit volume and to the average translational kinetic
energy of a molecule,

 temperature of a gas
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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea
 direct measuremeasure of average molecular kinetic energy of gas

-23
 Boltzmann's constant - kB - 1.38×10 J/K)
 total translational kinetic energy of system of molecules is proportional to the absolute temperature of
the system
 internal energy (U) of monatomic gas

 root-mean-square (rms) speed

## Chapter 11: Energy in Thermal Processes

Friday, November 19, 2010
10:18 PM

##  11.1 Heat and Internal Energy

o Heat is a transfer of internal energy from one location to another
o Internal Energy U
 Energy associated with the microscopic components of a system--the atoms and molecules of the
system. The internal energy includes kinetic and potential energy associated with the random
translational, rotational, and vibrational motion of the particles that make up the system, and any
potential energy bonding the particles together.
o Heat
 The transfer of energy between a system and its environment due to temperature differences between
them
o Units of Heat
 calorie - the energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1g of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C
 British thermal unit (customary) - the energy required to raise the temperature of 1lb of water
from 63°F to 64°F
 1 cal = 4.186 J
 mechanical equivalent of heat
 11.2 Specific Heat
o ≡

 Q - quantity of energy transferred to substance of mass m, changing its temp by ∆T
o thermals - rising layers of air caused by uneven heating of earth's surface
 11.3 Calorimetry
o calorimeter - insulators used as vessels to isolate systems
 11.4 Latent Heat & Phase Change
o phase change - a change in the internal energy of a substance, but not its temperature
 e.g. melting
 happens when characteristics of the substance change from one form to another
 Q = ±mL
 L - latent heat
 latent heat of fusion (Lf) - when phase change occurs during melting or freezing
 latent heat of vaporization (Lv) - phase change occurs during boiling or condensing

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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea
 11.5 Energy Transfer
o Thermal Conduction
 thermal conduction - exchange of kinetic energy between microscopic particles, with less energetic
particles gaining energy as they collide with more energetic particles
 SI Unit: J/s·m·°C

 - rate of energy transfer through an insulated rod (Thermal Conductivity)
 one end in temp Tk, other in Tc
 L - length of rod
 k - proportionality constant

## Chapter 12: Laws of Thermodynamics

Tuesday, November 30, 2010
5:27 PM

##  12.1 Work in Thermodynamic Processes

o work W done on a gas
 W = –P∆V
o PV diagram - pressure vs. volume
 area under graph is equal to work done on the gas
 12.2 First Law of Thermodynamics
o if a system undergoes a change from an initial state to a final state, where Q is the energy transferred to
the system by heat and W is the work done on the system, the change in internal energy of the system ∆U
is:
 ∆U = Uf – Ui = Q + W
 effectively says a cyclic process cannot yield greater energy than was put in
o for a monatomic gas (gas composed of single atoms)
 molar specific heat at constant volume (Cv)of monatomic gas
 ≡
 degree of freedom - each different way a gas molecule can store energy
 each degree of freedom contributes to molar specific heat
o Isobaric Processes
 process in which pressure remains constant
 process in which no energy is exchanged by heat
 ∆U = W
 adiabatic index of a gas
 γ=
o Isovolumetric Processes
 aka isochoric processes
 processes which proceed at a constant volume, corresponding to vertical lines in a PV diagram
 volume doesn't change, so no work is done, so:
 ∆U = Q
o Isothermal Processes
 process in which the temperature of the system doesn't change
 temp doesn't change, so ∆U = 0, so:
 W = –Q
 12.3 Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
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o heat engine - takes in energy by heat and partially converts it to other forms, such as electrical and
mechanical energy
 uses a cyclic process
1. Energy transferred by heat from a source at a high temperature
2. work is done by the engine
3. energy is expelled by the engine by heat to a source at lower temperature
 | | | |
 work Weng done by the engine for a cyclic process is the area enclosed by the curve representing
the process on a PV diagram
 thermal efficiency (e)
| | | |
 ≡ | | | |
1
o Refrigerators/Heat Pumps
 refrigerators & air conditioners are heat pumps in reverse
 energy injected into machine
 energy travels from cold reservoir to hot reservoir, or vice-versa
 coefficient of performance for a refrigerator or an air conditioner
| |
 COP cooling mode
 dimensionless
 Qc - magnitude of energy extracted from cold reservoir
| |
 COP heating mode
 dimensionless
 Qh - magnitude of energy extracted from hot reservoir
o The Second Law of Thermodynamics
 no heat engine operating in a cycle can absorb energy from a reservoir and use it entirely for the
performance of an equal amount of work
 no cyclic process can yield the same amount of energy as is put in
o Reversible and Irreversible Processes
 reversible process - every state along the path is an equilibrium state, so the system can return to its
initial conditions by going along the same path in the reverse direction
 irreversible processes don't satisfy this requirement
o The Carnot Engine
 Carnot cycle - heat engine operating in an ideal, reversible cycle, between 2 energy reservoirs is the
most efficient engine possible
 Carnot's theorem
 no real engine operating between 2 energy reservoirs can be more efficient than a Carnot
engine operating between the same two reservoirs
 thermal efficiency of a Carnot engine:

 T in kelvins only
 all Carnot engines operating reversibly between the sae two temperatures have the same
efficiency
 Third Law of Thermodynamics
 it's impossible to lower the temperature of a system to absolute zero in a finite number of
steps
 all real engines operate irreversibly, due to friction and the brevity of their cycles, and are therefore
less efficient than a Carnot engine
 12.4 Entropy
o ∆ ≡
 SI Unit: J/K

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 Qr - energy absorbed or expelled during a reversible, constant temp process between two equilibrium
states
o entropy of the Universe increases in all natural processes

## Chapter 13: Vibrations & Waves

Friday, December 10, 2010
5:42 PM

##  13.1 Hooke's Law

o Fs = -kx
o k - spring constant
o Simple Harmonic Motion - occurs when the net force along the direction of motion obeys Hooke's law--
when the net force is proportional to the displacement from the equilibrium point and is always directed
toward the equilibrium point
 Three Aspects
 Amplitude A - maximum distance of object from its equilibrium position
 period T - time it takes object to move through one complete cycle of motion
 frequency f - number of complete cycles or vibrations per unit of time, reciprocal of the period
 acceleration in simple harmonic motion:

 13.2 Elastic Potential Energy
o
o Velocity as a Function of Position

##  13.3 Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion with Uniform Circular Motion

o Period & Frequency

##  frequency is measured in cycles per second (Hertz)

 angular frequency of an object-spring system

##  13.4 Position, Velocity, and Acceleration as a Function of Time

o when a ball is moving in a circle
 reference circle - circle made by the ball
o
 for objects moving with simple harmonic motion
 creates sinusoidal graph, with x oscillating between A and -A
 13.5 Motion of a Pendulum
o

## o The Physical Pendulum

 a pendulum can be made of an object of any shape

 2
 13.6 Damped Oscilations

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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea
o Damped - oscillation where friction reduces the mechanical energy of the system over time
 underdamped - system returns keeps vibrating and returns slowly to equilibrium point (e.g. fluid of
low viscosity in shock absorber)
 critically damped - system returns quickly to equilibrium point
 overdamped - system retrns to equilibrium point without once overshooting the equilibrium point (e.g.
very viscous fluid in a shock absorber)
 13.7 Waves
o the motion of a disturbance that travels through a medium but doesn't carry the medium along with it
o Types of Waves
 traveling wave - bump (plse) that travels in one direction
 transverse waves - each portion of medium affected moves perpendicular to the direction of
the wave
 longitudinal waves - medium is displaced parallel to the direction of the velocity of the wave
 soliton - consists of a solitary wave front that propagates in isolation
 waves have a trough and a crest
 density waves compress and expand
 13.8 Frequency, Amplitude, & Wavelength
o amplitude A - maximum displacement caused by the wave
o wavelength λ- distance between two successive points that behave identically
o wave speed v
 v = fλ
 13.9 The Speed of Waves on Strings
o

##  F - tension in the string

 µ - linear density - mass of the string per unit length
 13.10 Interference of Waves
o two traveling waves can meet and pass through each other without being destroyed or even altered
o superposition principle - when two or more traveling waves encounter each other while moving through a
medium, the resultant wave is found by adding together the displacements of the individual waves point by
point
o constructive interference - two waves meet exactly crest to crest & trough to trough, so the resultant wave
has twice the amplitude
o destructive interference - two waves meet half a wavelength apart, resulting in no wave
 13.11 Reflection of Waves
o when a wave pulse reflects from a rigid boundary, the pulse is inverted; when the boundary is free, the
reflected pulse is not inverted

## Chapter 14: Sound

Monday, January 03, 2011
4:48 PM
Ryan O'Shea 11B

##  14.1 Producing a Sound Wave

o compression - region of high molecular density and high air pressure
o rarefaction - region of reduced density
 14.2 Characteristics of Sound Waves
o motion of elements of medium in a longitudinal sound wave is back and forth along the direction in which
the wave travels
o Categories of Sound Waves
 Audible Waves - longitudinal waves that lie within the range of sensitivity of the human ear, 20 Hz
to 20 000 Hz

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 Infrasonic Waves - longitudinal waves with frequencies below the audible range
 Ultrasonic Waves - frequencies above the audible range for humans
o Applications of Ultrasound
 piezoelectric effect - method of converting electrical energy to mechanical energy, is reversible
 14.3 The Speed of Sound
o

 B is bulk modulus
o speed of a longitudinal wave in a solid rod:

 Y is Young's Modulus
o Speed of Sound in Air

##  approximation: 331 0.6 each degree 0°C

 14.4 Energy & Intensity of Sound Waves
o Intensity I - rate at which energy flows through the surface, divided by surface area

 ≡

2
 W/m
 ≡
-12 2
o threshold of hearing - 1 × 10 W/m
 faintest sound a human can hear
2
o threshold of pain - 1 W/m
o Decibels
 relative intensity of a sound
 log
-12 2
 I0 = 1.0 × 10 W/m
 14.5 Spherical & Plane Waves
o point source - small source which emits a spherial wave
o Intensity of Sound at a Distance

o wave front - one of a series of circular arcs concentric with the source
 plane waves - wave front at a great distance from the source, represented by parallel planes
 14.6 The Doppler Effect
o Doppler Effect - change in frequency caused by the relative motion of the sound source and the observer
 observer moving toward a stationary source - observer detects an additional number of wave fronts
 source moving toward a stationary observer - wavelength shortened
o General Case
 when both source and observer are in motion relative to earth, observed frequency is:

o Shock Waves
 Mach Number -
 shock wave - conical wave front produced when vs > v (supersonic)
 14.7 Interference of Sound Waves
o if the path difference r2 - r1 is zero or some integer multiple of wavelength, then constructive interference
occurs and r2 - r1 = nλ (n = 0, 1, …)
o if the path difference r2 - r1 is 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, etc., destructive interference occurs
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 14.8 Standing Waves
o standing waves - waves made by attaching one end of a string to a fixed object and the other to a vibrating
object
 superposition principle determines how incident & reflected waves combine
 at a certain frequency, string will appear stationary
o node - occurs where the two traveling waves always have the same magnitude of displacement but the
opposite sign
 net displacement is zero, no movement
o antinode - midway between two nodes
o all points on the string oscillate at the same frequency, but at different amplitudes
o ends of string are always nodes
o fundamental frequency / first harmonic - lowest frequency of vibration, has nodes only at the ends
o second harmonic / first overtone - constructed by inserting an additional node-antinode segment between
the endpoints
o third harmonic / second overtone - constructed similarly
 14.9 Forced Vibration & Resonance
o forced vibration - applying force to an oscillator to keep it vibrating, overcoming friction
 e.g. object-spring system vibrates at frequency f0, pushed back and forth by periodic force with
frequency f of the driving force
 amplitude reaches a maximum when the frequency of the driving force equals the natural frequency
of the system f0, the resonant frequency
 14.10 Standing Waves in Air Columns
o if one end is closed, a node must exist at that end because the movement of air is restricted
 , , , …
 pipe open at both ends; all harmonics are present
o if the end is open, the elements of air have complete freedom of motion, and an antinode exists
 , , , …
 pipe closed at one end; only odd harmonics are present
 14.11 Beats
o beats - alternation in loudness
o beat frequency
 fb = |f2 - f1|

## Chapter 15: Electric Forces and Electric Fields

Thursday, January 20, 2011
9:18 PM
Ryan O'Shea 11B

##  15.1 Peoperties of Electric Charges

o Two kinds
 positive & negative
o like charges repel, unlike charges attract
o electric charge is always conserved
 negative charge transfers between objects
o quantized - charge occurs in discrete chunks that can't be subdivided
 coulomb (C) - SI unit of charge
 15.2 Insulators & Conductors
o conductors - electric charges move freely in response to electric force
o insulators - all other materials
o Semiconductors - somewhere between
o Charging By Conduction

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College Physics, 7th Ed. Outlines by Ryan O’Shea
 charged object touches neutral object, neutral object left with charge having same sign as the charged
object
o Charging By Induction
 grounded - object touching Earth, which can absorb infinite number of electrons
 induction requires no contact with object inducing the charge
 polarization - more positive charge on one side of a molecule than on the other
 15.3 Coulomb's Law
o An electric force has the following principles:
 It is directed along a line joining the two particles and is inversely proportional to the square of
the separation distance r, between them.
 It is proportional to the product of the magnitudes of the charges |q1| and |q2|, of the two particles
 It is attractive if the charges are of opposite sign and repulsive if the charges have the same sign.
o Coulomb's Law
| || |

9 2 2
 ke - Coulomb constant - 8.99 × 10 N·m /C
o The Superposition Principle
 when a number of separate charges act on the charge of interest, each exerts an electric force, these
elctric forces can all be computed separately, then added as vectors
 15.4 The Electric Field
o electric fields E exist in the region of space around a charged object; exert an electric force on any other
charged object within the field
o ≡
 SI: N/C
 E - electric field produced by charge Q at the location of a small "test" charge q0
o electric field exists at a point if a test charge at that point is subject to an electric force there
o magnitude of an electric field due to charge q at position q0
| |

 15.5 Electric Field Lines
o electric field lines - lines pointing in the direction of the electric field vector at any point
 electric field vector E is tangent to electric field lines at each point
 number of lines per unit area through a surface perpendicular to the lines is proportional to the
strength of the electric field in a given region
o electric dipole - electric field lines for two point charges of equal magnitude but opposite sign
 15.6 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
o electrostatic equilibrium - when no net motion of charge occurs within a conductor
 Electric field is zero everywhere inside the conducting material
 Any excess charge on an isolated conductor resides entirely on its surface
 Electric field just outside a charged conductor is perpendicular to the conductor's surface
 On an irregularly shaped conductor, the charge accumulates at sharp points, where the radius of
curvature of the surface is smallest
 15.9 Electric Flux and Gauss's Law
o closed surface - has an inside and an outside
o electric flux - measure of how much the electric field vectors penetrate through a given surface
o Electric Flux
2
 SI Unit: N·m /C
 electric field passing through a vector:

 by convention, for a closed surface, the flux lines passing into the interior of the volume are negative
and those passing out of the interior are positive

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## Chapter 16: Electrical Energy and Capacitance

Friday, January 28, 2011
4:54 PM
Ryan O'Shea 11B

##  16.1 Potential Difference and Electrical Potential

o electric potential - electric potential energy per unit charge
o Work and Electric Potential Energy
 Coulomb force is conservative
 work done by a conservative force = negative of change in potential energy
 Change in Electric Potential Energy
 ∆ ∆
 for a constant electric field only
 scalar quantity
o Electric Potential

 ∆
SI: J/C = Volt
scalar quantity
 16.2 Electric Potential and Potential Energy due to Point Charges
o Electric Potential Created by Point Charge

o superposition principle applies for finding potential at some point affected by 2 charges
 16.3 Potentials & Charged Conductors
o Work required to Move a Charge
 ∆
o no work required to move a charge to a point with the same potential
o all points on the surface of a charged conductor in electrostatic equilibrium are at the same potential
o electric potential is a constant everywhere on the surface of a charged conductor in equilibrium
o electric potential is a constant everywhere inside a conductor and equal to that same value at the surface
o electron volt- kinetic energy that an electron gains when accelerated through a potential difference of 1 V
 16.4 Equipotential Surfaces
o equipotential surface - surface on which all points are at the same potential
 no work required to move a charge at constant speed on an equipotential surface
o electric field of equipotential surface is always perpendicular to the surface
o equipotentials - 2D views of the intersections of equipotential surfaces with the plane of a drawing
 16.5 Applications
o Electrostatic Precipitator
 removes particulate matter from combustion gases, reducing air pollution
o Xerography & Laser Printers
 16.6 Capacitance
o capacitor - consists of two parallel metal plates separated by distance d, connected to positive & negative
terminals of a battery
 makes the plate connected to the + terminal +, the plate connected to the - terminal -
 capacitors store energy that can be reclaimed when needed
o ≡

 SI: farad (F) = Coulomb / Volt (C/V)
 16.7 Parallel-Plate Capacitor
o Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitor:

 ε0 - permittivity of free space
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 =
-12 2 2
= 8.85 × 10 C /Nm

 16.8 Combinations of Capacitors
o Capacitors in Parallel
 capacitors in parallel have the same potential difference ∆V across them
 the equivalent capacitance of a parallel combination of capacitors is greater than any of the individual
capacitances
o Capacitors in Series
 for a series combination of capacitors, the magnitude of the charge must be the same on all plates
 all of the right plates gain charges of -Q and all the left plates have charges of +Q
 the equivalent capacitor must end up with a charge of -Q on its right plate and a charge of +Q on its
left plate
 equivalent capacitance of a series combination is always less than any individual capacitance in the
combination
 16.9 Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor
o Energy Stored ∆ ∆
 16.10 Capacitors with Dielectrics
o dielectric - insulating material between plates of a capacitor, which increases capacitance
 if it fills the space between the plates, multiplies capacitance by factor κ - dielectric constant
o dielectric strength - maximum electric field that can be produced in dielectric before it breaks down and
begins to conduct
6
 dielectric strength of air: 3 × 10 V/m
o Atomic Description of Dielectrics
 polarization - separation between the average positions of the negative and positive charge of a
molecule
 induced polarization is caused by an electric field

## Chapter 17: Current & Resistance

Saturday, February 05, 2011
11:07 PM
Ryan O'Shea 11B

##  17.1 Electric Current

o electric current - rate at which charge flows through an area

 ≡

 SI: ampere (A) = C/s
o direction of a conventional current is the direction positive charges flow
o charge carriers - moving charges
 17.2 Microscopic View: Current & Drift Speed
o drift speed vd - constant average speed that carriers move at
o ∆Q = number of carriers × charge per carrier = (nA ∆x) q = (nAvd ∆t) q

o ≡

 17.4 Resistance and Ohm's Law
o resistance - ratio of voltage to current on a conductor

 ≡
 SI: ohms (Ω) = Volt/ampere
o Ohm's Law: ∆V = IR
 resistance remains constant over a wide range of applied voltages or currents
 ohmic materials obey Ohm's Law

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 nonohmic materials have resistance that changes with the voltage or current
o resistor - conductor that provides a specified resistance in an electric circuit
 diode - nonohmic conducting device; acts as one way valve for current
 17.5 Resistivity
o
 ρ - resistivity - constant of proportionality
 17.6 Temperature Variation of Resistance
o over a limited temperature range, resistivity of most metals increases linearly with increasing temperature:
 ρ = ρ0 [1 + α(T - T0)]
 α - temperature coefficient of resistivity
o variation of resistance with temperature:
 R = R0[1 + α(T - T0)]
 17.7 Superconductors
o superconductors - materials whose resistance falls to zero below a certain critical temperature
 once a current is set up in them, it persists without any applied voltage
 17.8 Electrical Energy & Power
o ∆
o power delivered to a resistor:

o kilowatt-hour - amount of energy converted or consumed in 1 h at the constant rate of 1 kW
6
 1kWh = 3.60 × 10 J
2
o W = Pt = VIt = I Rt =

## Chapter 18: Direct-Current Circuits

Thursday, February 10, 2011
6:59 PM
Ryan O'Shea 11B

 steady state circuits - all currents are constant magnitude and direction
 18.1 Sources of Emf
o emf - work done per unit charge, in Volts
o ∆
 r - resistance; R - load resistance
 = terminal voltage when current is zero, called open-circuit voltage
o
 18.2 Resistors in Series
o current is the same in all resistors in series
o ⋯
 equivalent resistance of a series of resistors is algebraic sum of the individual resistances and is
always greater than any individual resistance
 18.3 Resistors in Parallel
o for resitors connected in parallel, potential differences across the resistiors are the same because each is
connected directly across the battery terminals
o because charge is conserved, the current I that enters the "split point" must be equal to the total current I1 &
I2 leaving that point
 I = I1 + I2
o inverse of the equivalent resistance of resistors in parallel is the sum of the inverses of the resistances, is
always less than the smallest resistance in the group

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 ⋯
 18.4 Kirchhoff's Rules and Complex DC Circuits
o Kirchhoff's Rules
1. junction rule - The sum of the currents entering any junction must equal the sum of the currents
leaving that junction
2. loop rule - sum of the potential differences across all the elements around any closed circuit loop
must be zero

## Chapter 19: Magnetism

Thursday, February 17, 2011
9:25 AM
Ryan O'Shea 11B

 19.1 Magnets
o magnets have poles, north & south
o like poles repel each other, unlike poles attract
o positive & negative charges can exist independent of one another, magnetic poles cannot
o soft magnetic materials - (iron) easily magnetized, tend to lose their magnetism easily
o hard magnetic materials - (cobalt, nickel) difficult to magnetize, tend to retain their magnetism
o magnetic field surrounds any moving electric charge
o magnetic field line - direction the north pole of a compass points
 19.2 Earth's Magnetic Field
o geographic North Pole of Earth corresponds to a magnetic south pole; geographic South Pole of Earth
corresponds to a magnetic north pole
 north pole of a magnet points north b/c its attracted to the south pole, vice-versa
o dip angle - angle between the direction of the magnetic field and the horizontal
 e.g. if a 3D compass needle points directly down, the dip angle is 90 degrees
o magnetic declination - difference between true north and magnetic north from any point on earth (varies)
 19.3 Magnetic Fields
o when a charged particle is moving through a magnetic field, a magnetic force acts on it
 no force on stationary charged particle
o F = qvB sin θ
 B - magnitude of magnetic field
o ≡

 SI Unit: tesla (T) = Weber (Wb) per square meter
 cgs unit: gauss (G)
4
 1 T = 10 G
 force on a charged particle moving in a magnetic field has its maximum when the particle's motion is
perpendicular to the magnetic field
o direction of force obeys right-hand rule
 point fingers of right hand in direction of velocity
 curl fingers in direction of magnetic field
 thumb is not pointing in the direction of the force
 19.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
o magnetic field lines
 on plane of the page - use arrows
 pointing into page - use X symbol
 pointing out of page - use dot
o F = BIƖ sinθ
 formula for magnetic force acting on a wire carrying current I along a length l, in a magnetic field of
magnitude B
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 I - current
 l - length of wire
 reduces to F = BIl when the current and magnetic field are at right angles to each other
 19.6 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
o particles move in helical path in a magnetic field:
o
 cyclotron equation
 19.7 Magnetic Field of a Long, Straight Wire and Ampere's Law
o right-hand rule #2 - point thumb of your right along a wire in the direction of a positive current. Your
fingers then naturally curl in the direction of the magnetic field B
o
-7
 μ0 = permeability of free space - 4π × 10 Tm/A
o Ampere's Law and a Long, Straight Wire
 ∑ || ∆
Ampere's circuital law, marked as "skip" in book
 19.8 Magnetic Force between 2 Parallel Conductors
o Parallel conductors carrying currents in the same direction attract each other
o Parallel conductors carrying currents in opposite directions repel each other
 19.9 Magnetic Fields of Current Loops ad Solenoids
o Magnetic field at center of coil of N circular loops of radius R, carrying current I, is given by

o Solenoid/electromagnet - wire bent into a coil of several closely spaced loops
 Magnetic field inside a solenoid:
 B = µ0nl
 n - turns of wire per unit length (N/l)
 Exterior field at the sides of the solenoid is nonuniform, much weaker than the interior field, and
opposite in direction to the interior field
 19.10 Magnetic Domains
o An individual atom should act as a magnet because of the motion of the electrons about the nucleus
 Electrons cancel out each other by revolving in opposite directions
 Magnetic effect produced by the electrons orbiting the nucleus is either zero or very small for
most materials
o Ferromagnetic - materials whose electrons don't fully cancel out each other's magnetic fields
 Nickel, cobalt, iron
 Domains - large groups of atoms with spins that are aligned, formed by strong coupling between
atoms of ferromagnetic materials
 Permanent magnet - once the external field is removed, the domains remain aligned

## Chapter 20: Induced Voltages and Inductance

Saturday, March 05, 2011
3:08 PM
Ryan O'Shea 11B

##  20.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux

 consists of a coil connected to a switch and battery
 coil is called the primary coil, wraps around one side of an iron ring (intensifies magnetic field
produced by the coil)
 second coil wrapped around the other side of the iron ring, connected to an ammeter (no battery)
 when switch on primary circuit is opened or closed, the secondary circuit measures a suddenly then
stops
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 an electric current can be produced by a changing magnetic field
 an induced emf is produced in the secondary circuit by the changing magnetic field
o Magnetic Flux
 changing magnetic flux - physical quantity associated with magnetism that creates an electric field
 magnetic flux ΦB through a loop of wire with area A:

B⊥ - component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the loop
θ - angle between B and the normal to the plane of the loop
SI: weber (Wb)
 in a magnetic field dagram, the value of the magnetic flux is proportional to the total number of lines
passing through the loop
 20.2 Faraday's Law of Induction
 a current is set up in the circuit as long as there is relative motion between the magnet and the loop
o Faraday's Law of Magnetic Induction

 N - number of loops in circuit
o Lenz's Law
 current caused by the induced emf travels in the direction that creates a magnetic field with flux
opposing the change in the original flux through the circuit
 in other words, the direction of an induced current is such that it opposes the force which induced it
 20.3 Motional emf
o motional emf - emf induced in a conductor moving through a magnetic field
o ∆V = El = Blv
o Example:
 If a moving conductor is part of a closed circuit, then the changing magnetic flux through the loop
and the corresponding induced emf across the moving bar arise from the change in area of the loop as
it moves through the magnetic field
 Rectangular circuit:
 Resistor on left side
 Sliding conductor moving left & right is right side
o Motional emf
∆ ∆

∆ ∆
 20.5 Generators
o Alternating current generator - converts mechanical energy to electrical energy
 Wire loop rotated in a magnetic field

o Direct current generator - same as AC generator, except that contacts to rotating loop are made by a split
ring (commutator)
 Output voltage always has same polarity
 Creates pulsating DC current
o Motors and Back emf
 Motors - generators run in reverse
 Back emf - emf that tends to reduce the applied current
 20.6 Self-Inductance
o Self-induction - emf is induced in a circuit loop when a switch is opened or closed, causing a logistic
growth in current (grows exponentially at first, then slows gradually until reaching its max current, / )
 Happens because current flowing creates a magnetic field, which induces emf opposing the current

o

 L - inductance

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 20.6 RL Circuits
o Inductor - circuit element that has a large inductance, like a tightly wrapped coil
o Resistance is a measure of opposition to current
o L can be interpreted as a measure of opposition to the rate of change in current
o Time constant
 20.8 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field
o Energy stored in an inductor:

## Chapter 21: AC Circuits & Electromagnetic Waves

Tuesday, March 15, 2011
9:05 PM
Ryan O'Shea 11B

##  Electromagnetic waves - composed of fluctuating electric and magnetic fields

 21.1 Resistors in an AC Circuit

## Chapter 23: Mirror and Lenses

Thursday, March 24, 2011
4:46 PM
Ryan O'Shea 11B

##  23.1 Flat Mirrors

o Object distance - p - distance of an object from a flat mirror
 After reflection, rays diverge, and appear to come from a point I behind the mirror
 Point I is called the image
 Images are formed at the point where rays of light actually intersect or where they appear to
originate
 Point I is image distance q behind the mirror
o Image Types:
 Real image - light actually passes through the image point
 Virtual image - light doesn't pass through the image point, but appears to come (diverge) from there
o Lateral Magnification

 ≡

o Image formed by a flat mirror has following properties:
 The image is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front.
 The image is unmagnified, virtual, and upright.
 23.2 Images formed by Spherical Mirrors
o Concave Mirrors
 Spherical mirror - shape of a segment of a sphere
 Concave mirror - spherical mirror with a reflective inner side
 Has radius of curvature R, center of curvature is point C
 V is the center of the spherical segment
 Line from C to V - principal axis
 Example
 Point source of light at O
 Rays diverge from O and are reflected by the mirror
 Rays converge at point I - image point
 Rays diverge from I as if there were an object there
 Whenever reflected light actually passes through a point, the image formed is real
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 Spherical aberration - caused by rays that make a large angle with the principal axis, and converge to
other points on the principal axis, producing a blurred image

 Mirror Equation

 When an object is very far from the mirror, the image point is halfway between the center of
curvature and the center of the mirror
 Rays are assumed to be parallel, and they converge on the image point, renamed the focal point
 23.3 Convex Mirrors and Sign Conventions
o Convex Mirrors
 Convex mirror - spherical mirror that reflects from its outer surface
 Aka diverging mirror
 Front side - side of mirror where light rays move (the outer side)
 Back side - side of mirror where virtual image is formed
o Ray Diagrams for Mirrors
 Ray 1 is drawn parallel to the principal axis and is reflected back through the focal point F.
 Ray 2 is drawn through the focal point and is reflected parallel to the principal axis.
 Ray 3 is drawn through the center of curvature, C, and is reflected back on itself.
 23.6 Thin Lenses
o Thin lens - consists of a piece of glass or plastic, ground so that each of its two refracting surfaces is a
segment of either a sphere or a plane
o Types of lenses
 Converging lenses - thicker at center than at rim
 Diverging lenses - thinner at center than rim
o Distance between Focal point and lens is called focal length f
 Aka the image distance that corresponds to an infinite image distance
o
o Thin-lens Equation

 Converging lens has positive focal length
 Diverging lens has negative focal length
o
 n - index of refraction of lens material
 R - radius of curvature of surface 1 or 2
o Ray Diagrams for Thin Lenses
 Ray 1 is drawn parallel to the principal axis. After being refracted by the lens, this ray passes through
(or appears to come from) one of the focal points.
 Ray 2 is drawn through the center of the lens. This ray continues in a a straight line.
 Ray 3 is drawn through the other focal point and emerges from the lens parallel to the principal axis.

## Chapter 27: Quantum Physics

Monday, March 28, 2011
2:14 PM

##  27.2 The Photoelectric Effect and the Particle Theory of Light

o photoelectric effect - light incident on certain metallic surfaces caused the emission of electrons from the
surfaces
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 emits photoelectrons
o KEmax = e∆Vs
 Stopping potential ∆Vs - potential below which no photoelectrons reach the opposite plate and
current is zero
o Unique features of photoelectric effect
 No electrons are emitted if light frequency falls below some cutoff frequency fc , which is
characteristic of the material being illuminated
o Particle Theory of Light
 Einstein extended Planck's concept of quantization to electromagnetic waves
 Suggested that a tiny packet of light energy (photon) would be emitted
 Maximum kinetic energy for liberated photoelectrons:
 KEmax = hf - ϕ
 ϕ - work function of the metal - the minimum energy with which an electron is bound in
the metal
-34
 h - Planck's Constant = 6.626 × 10 J·s
 27.3 X-Rays
o x-rays are produced when high-speed electrons are suddenly slowed down
 e.g. when metal is struck by electrons accelerated through a potential difference of a several thousand
volts
o Graph of x-ray intensity vs. wavelength for an x-ray tube has spikes in it
 The accelerating voltage must exceed a certain value, the threshold voltage, in order to observe these
spikes, which represent radiation emitted by the target atoms as their electrons undergo
rearrangements
 The continuous radiation is called bremsstrahlung
 27.4 Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals
o Condition for constructive interference when an x-ray is reflected by two parallel crystalline planes
separated by a distance d:
 Bragg's Law:
 2d sin θ = mλ (m=1,2,3,…)
 27.5 The Compton Effect
o Compton shift - change in wavelength between a scattered x-ray and an incident x-ray
 ∆
 - Compton wavelength = 0.00243 nm
 27.6 The Dual Nature of Light & Matter
o Light has a dual nature, exhibiting both wave and particle characteristics
o The Wave Properties of Particles
 De Broglie hypothesis - Because photons have wave and particle characteristics, perhaps all forms of
matter have both properties
 Energy of a Photon
 E = hf =
 Momentum of a Photon

c
 De Broglie Wavelength

 Frequency of Matter Waves

o Davisson-Germer Experiment
 Confirmed the de Broglie relationship
o Application: The Electron Microscope
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 Electron microscopes rely on the wave characteristics of electrons
 Transmission electron microscope

## Chapter 28: Atomic Physics

Monday, March 28, 2011
8:43 PM
Ryan O'Shea 11B

##  28.1 Early Models of the Atom

o J.J. Thomson suggested model as volume of positive charge with electrons embedded
o Ernest Rutherford fired alpha particles at a thin metal film, which amazingly deflected the particles in all
directions
 Rutherford proposed the nucleus
 28.2 Atomic Spectra
o Emission spectrum - the wavelengths emitted by a gas when a current is passed through it
o Rydberg constant - RH = 1.0973732 × 107 m-1
o Absorption spectrum - wavelengths of light that an element absorbs
 28.3 The Bohr Theory of Hydrogen
o Bohr's Theory
 Electrons move in fixed circular orbits
 Only some orbits are stable
 Radiation is emitted when electron "jumps" from a more energetic initial state to a less energetic state
 Frequency of the radiation emitted during the jump is related to the change in the atom's energy
and is independent of the frequency of the electron's orbital motion
o Energy of the Hydrogen Atom (Bohr)

o Bohr's theory is based on the assumption that the electron can exist only incertain allowed orbits
determined by the integer n
.
o
o Wavelengths of various series in the hydrogen spectrum

## Chapter 29: Nuclear Physics

Monday, March 28, 2011
9:21 PM
Ryan O'Shea 11B

##  29.1 Some Properties of Nuclei

o Atomic Number Z - number of proteins in nucleus
o Atomic Number N - number of neutrons in the nucleus
o Mass Number A - number of nucleons in the nucleus
o Isotopes - isotopes have equal Z, but different N & A values
o Charge & Mass
-27
 Unified mass unit - 1 u = 1.66 × 10 kg
o Size of Nuclei
-15
 Fermi/femtometer - 10 m
1/3
 Radius of nucleus: r = r0A
-15
 r0 = 1.2 × 10 m

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 All nuclei have nearly the same density
o Nuclear Stability
 Nuclei are stable because of the presence of the nuclear force
 29.2 Binding Energy
o Total energy of the nucleus is less than the combined energy of the separated nucleons
o Positron - particle similar to the electron, except it has a charge of +e
 Antiparticle of the electron
o Decay Constant & Half Life
 Decay constant (λ)
 Decay rate (R) - number of decays per second

 Old Unit: Curie (Ci)
 SI unit: becquerel (Bq) = 1 decay/second
 Decay function:
- t
 N = N 0e λ
 N - number of nuclei
 Exponential decay

 Half-life (T1/2) =
 29.4 The Decay Processes
o Alpha Decay
 Parent nuclei decay into daughter nuclei
 Spontaneous decay - when one element changes into another
 e.g. when a nucleus emits an alpha particle ( )
o Beta Decay
 In beta decay, the daughter nucleus has the same number of nucleons, but the atomic number is
changed by 1
 Neutrino - 3rd particle necessary to carry away the "missing" energy
 Zero energy
 Near-zero mass
 Spin of 1/2
 Very weak interaction w/ matter
 In beta decay, an electron and an antineutrino are emitted or a positron and a neutrino are emitted
o Gamma Decay
 Nuclei can decay to a lower energy state (de-excitation), by releasing high-energy photons, called
gamma rays
 Carbon Dating - uses the beta decay of Carbon-14
 Smoke detection - ions facilitate a current in the smoke detector; if smoke gets in, it binds to the ions,
decreasing the current & activating the alarm
o Natural radioactivity - unstable nuclei found in nature which naturally decay
o Artificial radioactivity - nuclei produced in the laboratory through nuclear reactions
 29.6 Nuclear Reactions
o Nuclear reactions - changing the structure of nuclei by bombarding them with energetic particles

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## Chapter 30: Nuclear Energy and Elementary Particles

Tuesday, March 29, 2011
9:31 PM
Ryan O'Shea 11B

##  30.1 Nuclear Fission

o Nuclear fission occurs when a heavy nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei
 Total mass of products is less than the original mass of the heavy nucleus
o Fission of 235U by slow (low energy) neutrons results in an intermediate state of 236U which splits into nuclei
X & Y, the fission fragments
 30.2 Nuclear Reactors
o Nuclear reactors maintain a self-sustained chain reaction
o Parameter for describing the level of reactor operation is the reproduction constant K, defined as the
average number of neutrons from each fission event that will cause another event
 When K = 1, self-sustained reaction is achieved
 Reactor said to be critical
 If K is less than 1, reactor is subcritical and reaction dies out
o Neutron Leakage
 A percentage of the neutrons produced in fission will leak out of the core before inducing other
fission events
o Regulating Neutron Energies
 Moderator - slows down neutrons to speeds where they will produce fission events, in order to
sustain the reaction
 30.3 Nuclear Fusion
o Nuclear fusion - when two light nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus
o Fusion in the Sun
 Supernova - explosion of a star
 High temps in a star aren't hot enough to allow hydrogen molecules to overcome Coulomb repulsion
and fuse, so they exhibit quantum tunneling and pas through the barrier anyway
 Proton-proton cycle -- series of 3 nuclear reactions that are believed to be the stages in the liberation
of energy in the Sun and other stars rich in hydrogen
 4 protons combine to form an alpha particle & 2 positrons, with the release of 25 MeV of energy
in the process
 30.5 Fundamental Forces of Nature
o Strong force - tight binding of quarks to form neutrons and protons and for the nuclear force, which binds
neutrons and protons into nuclei
o Electromagnetic force - 10--2 as strong as the strong force; binding of atoms and molecules
 Long-range; decreases in proportion to the inverse square of the distance between the particles
o Weak force - short range nuclear force; produces instability in certain nuclei
 Responsible for beta decay
-6
 10 times that of the strong force
o Gravitational force - long-range; strength 10-43 the strong force
o Physics describes the forces in terms of field particles or quanta
 Electromagnetic force --> photons
 Strong force --> gluons
 Weak force --> bosons
 Gravitational force --> gravitons
 30.6 Positrons and other Antiparticles
o Dirac's theory of quantum mechanics states that for every particle, there is an antiparticle with the same
mass as the particle, but the opposite charge
 30.7 Mesons and the Beginning of Particle Physics
o Two atoms can form a covalent chemical bond by the exchange of electrons
o Charged particles interact by exchanging a photon