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Introduction to Nitride Semiconductor Blue Lasers and Light Emitting Diodes 0748408363

Introduction to Nitride Semiconductor Blue Lasers and Light Emitting Diodes 0748408363

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Published by: titsbhiwani on May 25, 2011
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Like most other semiconductors, the atoms in the nitrides are tetrahedrally
coordinated. The s and p orbitals in the outer electron shells combine to produce
hybrid sp3 orbitals where the probability of finding an electron in a p-state is 3
times as much as finding it in an s-state. As a result each atomic site has four
nearest neighbours occupying the vertices of a regular tetrahedron, in a manner
similar to the diamond-cubic structure.
Atomic layers are arranged in hexagonal closed packed planes, with
alternating sub-layers containing the group I11 and group V elements as shown in
Figure 4.1. There are various ways to stack these layers (Wyckoff, 1995). A
configuration following the sequence .ABABAB.., as in Figure la and b, results in
the hexagonal wurtzite structure (space group P6mc, C?,

(#186)). A staclang
sequence of the type . ABCABCABC.. , as in Figure lc and d, produces the cubic
zincblende structure (space group F43m, pd(#216)). The indices of the stacking
planes are (000 1 } for the hexagonal and { 1 1 1 } for the cubic structures. These
lattices are polar in nature, since the anions and the cations occupy planes that are
lsplaced from one another along the <0001> and the directions for the
hexagonal and cubic structures, respectively.

Figure. 4.1 Two main types of atomic arrangement in the nitride semiconductors. Unit cells for (a)
hexagonal wurtzite (b) cubic zincblende, and (b) and (d) their respective ctystalline layer sequences.

Ctystal Defects and Device Per$omance in LEDs and LDs

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