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3G Systems are intended to provide a global mobility with wide range of services including telephony, paging, messaging, Internet and broadband data. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) started the process of defining the standard for third generation systems, referred to as International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000). In Europe European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) was responsible of UMTS standardisation process. In 1998 Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was formed to continue the technical specification work. 3GPP has five main UMTS standardisation areas: Radio Access Network, Core Network, Terminals, Services and System Aspects and GERAN. 3GPP Radio Access group is responsible of: • Radio Layer 1, 2 and 3 RR specification • Iub, Iur and Iu Interfaces • UTRAN Operation and Maintenance requirements • BTS radio performance specification • Conformance test specification for testing of radio aspects of base stations • Specifications for radio performance aspects from the system point of view 3GPP Core Network group is responsible of: • Mobility management, call connection control signalling between the user equipment and the core network. • Core network signalling between the core network nodes. • Definition of interworking functions between the core network and external networks. • Packet related issues. • Core network aspects of the lu interface and Operation and Maintenance requirements 3GPP Terminal group is responsible of: • Service capability protocols • Messaging • Services end-to-end interworking • USIM to Mobile Terminal interface • Model/framework for terminal interfaces and services (application) execution • Conformance test specifications of terminals, including radio aspects 3GPP Services and System Aspects group is responsible of: • Definition of services and feature requirements. • Development of service capabilities and service architecture for cellular, fixed and cordless applications. • Charging and Accounting • Network Management and Security Aspects
• Definition, evolution, and maintenance of overall architecture. Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP) was formed for technical development of cdma2000 technology which is a member of IMT-2000 family. In February 1992 World Radio Conference allocated frequencies for UMTS use. Frequencies 1885 - 2025 and 2110 - 2200 MHz were identified for IMT-2000 use. See the UMTS Frequency page for more details. All 3G standards are still under constant development. In 1999 ETSI Standardisation finished for UMTS Phase 1 (Release '99, version 3) and next release is due December 2001. UMTS History page has a list of all major 3G and UMTS milestones. Most of the European countries and some countries round the world have already issued UMTS licenses either by beauty contest or auctions.
2. UMTS Services
UMTS offers teleservices (like speech or SMS) and bearer services, which provide the capability for information transfer between access points. It is possible to negotiate and renegotiate the characteristics of a bearer service at session or connection establishment and during ongoing session or connection. Both connection oriented and connectionless services are offered for Point-to-Point and Point-toMultipoint communication. Bearer services have different QoS parameters for maximum transfer delay, delay variation and bit error rate. Offered data rate targets are: • 144 kbits/s satellite and rural outdoor • 384 kbits/s urban outdoor • 2048 kbits/s indoor and low range outdoor UMTS network services have different QoS classes for four types of traffic: • Conversational class (voice, video telephony, video gaming) • Streaming class (multimedia, video on demand, webcast) • Interactive class (web browsing, network gaming, database access) • Background class (email, SMS, downloading) UMTS will also have a Virtual Home Environment (VHE). It is a concept for personal service environment portability across network boundaries and between terminals. Personal service environment means that users are consistently presented with the same personalised features, User Interface customisation and services in whatever network or terminal, wherever the user may be located. UMTS also has improved network security and location based services.
3. UMTS Architecture
A UMTS network consist of three interacting domains; Core Network (CN), UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) and User Equipment (UE). The main function of the core network is to provide switching, routing and transit for user traffic. Core network also contains the databases and network management functions. The basic Core Network architecture for UMTS is based on GSM network with GPRS. All equipment has to be modified for UMTS operation and services. The UTRAN provides the air interface access method for User Equipment. Base Station is referred as Node-B and control equipment for Node-B's is called Radio Network Controller (RNC). UMTS system page has an example, how UMTS network could be build. It is necessary for a network to know the approximate location in order to be able to page user equipment. Here is the list of system areas from largest to smallest. • UMTS systems (including satellite) • Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) • MSC/VLR or SGSN • Location Area • Routing Area (PS domain) • UTRAN Registration Area (PS domain) • Cell • Sub cell
4. Core Network
The Core Network is divided in circuit switched and packet switched domains. Some of the circuit switched elements are Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC), Visitor location register (VLR) and Gateway MSC. Packet switched elements are Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). Some network elements, like EIR, HLR, VLR and AUC are shared by both domains. The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is defined for UMTS core transmission. ATM Adaptation Layer type 2 (AAL2) handles circuit switched connection and packet connection protocol AAL5 is designed for data delivery. The architecture of the Core Network may change when new services and features are introduced. Number Portability DataBase (NPDB) will be used to enable user to change the network while keeping their old phone number. Gateway Location Register (GLR) may be used to optimise the subscriber handling between network boundaries. MSC, VLR and SGSN can merge to become a UMTS MSC.
5. Radio Access
Wide band CDMA technology was selected to for UTRAN air interface. UMTS WCDMA is a Direct Sequence CDMA system where user data is multiplied with quasi-random bits derived from WCDMA Spreading codes. In UMTS, in addition to channelisation, Codes are used for synchronisation and scrambling. WCDMA has two basic modes of operation: Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD). UTRAN interfaces are shown on UMTS Network page. The functions of Node-B are: • Air interface Transmission / Reception • Modulation / Demodulation • CDMA Physical Channel coding • Micro Diversity • Error Handing • Closed loop power control The functions of RNC are: • Radio Resource Control • Admission Control • Channel Allocation • Power Control Settings • Handover Control • Macro Diversity • Ciphering • Segmentation / Reassembly • Broadcast Signalling • Open Loop Power Control
6. User Equipment
The UMTS standard does not restrict the functionality of the User Equipment in any way. Terminals work as an air interface counter part for Node-B and have many different types of identities. Most of these UMTS identity types are taken directly from GSM specifications. • International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) • Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) • Packet Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (P-TMSI) • Temporary Logical Link Identity (TLLI) • Mobile station ISDN (MSISDN) • International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI) • International Mobile Station Equipment Identity and Software Number (IMEISV) UMTS mobile station can operate in one of three modes of operation:
• PS/CS mode of operation: The MS is attached to both the PS domain and CS domain, and the MS is capable of simultaneously operating PS services and CS services. • PS mode of operation: The MS is attached to the PS domain only and may only operate services of the PS domain. However, this does not prevent CS-like services to be offered over the PS domain (like VoIP). • CS mode of operation: The MS is attached to the CS domain only and may only operate services of the CS domain. UMTS IC card has same physical characteristics as GSM SIM card. It has several functions: • Support of one User Service Identity Module (USIM) application (optionally more that one) • Support of one or more user profile on the USIM • Update USIM specific information over the air • Security functions • User authentication • Optional inclusion of payment methods • Optional secure downloading of new applications
Picture below shows how an UMTS 3G network could be build.
An Operator needs 3 . TD/CDMA) Unpaired.4 channels (2x15 MHz or 2x20 MHz) to be able to build a highspeed. . channel spacing is 5 MHz and raster is 200 kHz. on a worldwide basis. 1980-2010 and 2170-2200 MHz Satellite uplink and downlink. Such use does not preclude the use of these bands by other services to which they are allocated. channel spacing is 5 MHz and raster is 200 kHz. by administrations wishing to implement International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000). Tx and Rx are not separated in frequency." Here is the summary of UMTS frequencies: 1920-1980 and 2110-2170 MHz Frequency Division Duplex (FDD. W-CDMA) Paired uplink and downlink. 1900-1920 and 2010-2025 MHz Time Division Duplex (TDD.UMTS network layout example 3G Frequencies According to "WARC-92 frequencies for IMT-2000" resolution: "The bands 18852025 MHz and 2110-2200 MHz are intended for use. high-capacity network.
1626.1660.1544. The general formula relating frequency to UARFN is: UARFCN = 5 * (frequency in MHz) WARC-92 IMT-2000 Frequencies WRC-2000 in Istanbul • Identified the bands 1710 . depending on market developments • Decided that "the bands.5. .5. 1646. This identification does not preclude the use of these bands by any application of the services to which they are allocated and does not establish priority in the Radio Regulations".5 and 2483. 1710 . are identified for use by administrations wishing to implement International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000).1885 and 2500 .2520 MHz and 2670.1885 MHz and 2500 2690 MHz. or portions of the bands.Carrier frequencies are designated by a UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (UARFCN). 1545 . 1610 .2690 MHz for IMT-2000 • Identified those parts of the band 806 .5 .1645.2690 MHz.1559.960 MHz which are allocated to the mobile service on a primary basis • Admitted that High Altitude Platform Stations (HAPS) may use the WARC-92 frequency bands for terrestrial IMT-2000 on restrictive conditions • Decided that the frequency bands 1525 .1626.5 .2500 MHz may be used for the satellite component of IMT-2000. as well as the bands 2500 .5 .
WRC-2000 IMT-2000 Frequencies From the TS 25.101 Specification: UTRA FDD frequency bands TX-RX frequency separation .
turbo coding is used for higher bit rates. . Interleaving is done in two stages. Channel coding separates different down link connection to users within a cell. Rate matching is dynamic frame-by-frame operation and done either by puncturing or by repetition of the data stream. It is first done by inter-frame and then by intra-frame. Channel coding includes the spreading. Half-rate and 1/3-rate convolutional coding is used for low data rates. In the uplink direction Channel coding is used for separation of physical data and control channels.UARFCN definition UARFCN definition (Band II additional channels) UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number Channel Multiplexing Structure This is a short overview how data stream is modified during processing in layer 2 and 1 in downlink direction. Uplink coding is done in a similar way. Ciphering happens in RCL or MAC-d part of the layer 2. f8 algorithm gets five inputs to generate a keystream block that is ciphered by binary addition to a data stream.
Transport channel multiplexing structure for downlink .
Even using 25dB as inbuilding penetration loss into the building core area. capacity and quality of service requirement in the network. In an urban area. link budget would typically allow about 300m cell range. Downlink direction limits the available capacity of the cell. A typical cell range in rural areas will be several kilometers depending on a terrain. building penetration) • Behavior and type of mobile (speed. cable losses. because mobiles power level is limited to (voice terminal 125mW). max power level) • System configuration (BTS antennas. Below is an example of how WCDMA voice call link budget can be done. when typically cells are less congested. Some of the values can be debated. BTS power. which is a way too much for a capacity purposes. The object of the link budget design is to calculate maximum cell size under given criteria: • Type of service (data type and speed) • Type of environment (terrain. capacity and quality needs with each area and service. So by improving one side of the equation would decrease the other side. In a network environment both coverage and capacity are interlinked by interference. as BTS transmission power (typically 20-40W) has to be divided to all users. UMTS WCDMA macro cell coverage is uplink limited. so inner city cells will be dimensioned by required Erlangs/km² for voice and data. which helps to dimension the required coverage. In a rural area uplink power budget will determine the maximum cell range. System is loosely balanced by design. handover gain) • Required coverage probability • Financial and economical factors (use of more expensive and better quality equipment or not the cheapest installation method) and to match all of those to the required system coverage. but it gives an idea of the calculation methods.WCDMA Link Budget Link budget planning is part of the network planning process. including the propagation model. . capacity will be the limiting factor.
The main security elements that are from GSM: • Authentication of subscribers • Subscriber identity confidentially • Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) to be removable from terminal hardware • Radio interface encryption Additional UMTS security features: . Some of the security functions have been added and some existing have been improved.UMTS link budget UMTS Security The security functions of UMTS are based on what was implemented in GSM. Encryption algorithm is stronger and included in base station (NODE-B) to radio network controller (RNC) interface . the application of authentication algorithms is stricter and subscriber confidentially is tighter.
• User untraceability: the property that an intruder cannot deduce whether different services are delivered to the same user by eavesdropping on the radio access link. MSCs and other networks is not ciphered and operators can to implement protections for their core network transmission links. so all switches will have to have security measures against unlawful access. and protect against attacks on the wireline network. and which in particular protect against attacks on the (radio) access link. Air interface ciphering/deciphering in performed in RNC in the network side and in mobile terminals. • User domain security: the set of security features that secure access to mobile stations • Application domain security: the set of security features that enable applications in the user and in the provider domain to securely exchange messages.• Security against using false base stations with mutual authentication • Encryption extended from air interface only to include Node-B to RNC connection • Security data in the network will be protected in data storages and while transmitting ciphering keys and authentication data in the system. • Mechanism for upgrading security features. • Visibility and configurability of security: the set of features that enables the user to inform himself whether a security feature is in operation or not and whether the use and provision of services should depend on the security feature. UMTS specification has the following user identity confidentiality security features: • User identity confidentiality: the property that the permanent user identity (IMSI) of a user to whom a services is delivered cannot be eavesdropped on the radio access link. • Network domain security: the set of security features that enable nodes in the provider domain to securely exchange signalling data. Ciphering in function of air interface protocol Radio Link Control (RLC) layer or Medium Access control (MAC) layer. UMTS specification has five security feature groups: • Network access security: the set of security features that provide users with secure access to 3G services. MSCs will have by design a lawful interception capabilities and access to Call Data Records (SDR). but that is unlike to happen. . Core network traffic between RNCs. • User location confidentiality: the property that the presence or the arrival of a user in a certain area cannot be determined by eavesdropping on the radio access link.
DL Type ComplexValued Gold ComplexOrthogonal Gold Codes Code Segments Valued Gold Variable (long) or Code Primary Synchronization Spreading Factor ComplexCodes (PSC) and Segments (OVSF) codes Valued S(2) Secondary Codes (short) Synchronization Codes sometimes called Pseudo Noise (SSC) Walsh Codes Pseudo Noise (PN) codes (PN) codes Length Duration Number of codes 256 chips 66.213.Main UMTS Codes Here us a summary of the main UMTS FDD codes: Synchronisation Codes Channelisation Codes Scrambling Codes. does not change bandwidth = spreading factor 1 primary code / 16 4 . 256 UL.. secondary codes 4 .223 Synchronisation Different UTRAN synchronisation required in a 3G network: • Network synchronisation • Node synchronisation • Transport channel synchronisation . 25. does not change bandwidth No.. 25. UL Scrambling Codes.67 s 4-512 chips 1.216 No. 512 DL Yes.201.04 s 133.67 s 38400 chips 10 ms 512 primary / 15 secondary for each primary code No. increases bandwidth 16. does not change Spreading bandwidth Usage UL: to separate physical data and To enable terminals control data from to locate and same terminal synchronise to the DL: to separate cells' main control connection to channels different terminals in a same cell Separation of terminal Separation of sectors Further reading: 3GPP TS 25.777.34 s 38400 chips / 256 chips 10 ms / 66...
The distribution of an accurate frequency reference to the network elements in the UTRAN is related to several aspects. FDD and TDD modes have different requirements on the accuracy of the timing difference estimation and on the necessity to compensate for these differences. The Transport Channel Synchronisation mechanism defines synchronisation of the frame transport between RNC and Node B. in order to minimise UE buffers. One main issue is the possibility to provide a synchronisation reference with a frequency accuracy better than 0. The Radio Interface Synchronisation relates to the timing of the radio frame transmission (either in downlink [FDD] or in both directions [TDD]). FDD and TDD have different mechanisms to determine the exact timing of the radio frame transmission and also different requirements on the accuracy of this timing. Node Synchronisation relates to the estimation and compensation of timing differences among UTRAN nodes. The Time Alignment Handling procedure over Iu relates to the control of DL . In FDD Radio Interface Synchronisation is necessary to assure that the UE receives radio frames synchronously from different cells. Positioning / Localisation functions may also set requirements on Node Synchronisation.05 ppm at the Node B in order to properly generate signals on the radio interface. considering radio interface timing.• Radio interface cynchronisation • Time alignment handling Synchronisation Issues Model Network Synchronisation relates to the distribution of synchronisation references to the UTRAN Nodes and the stability of the clocks in the UTRAN (and performance requirements on UTRAN internal interfaces).
which are caused by unwanted transmitter effects such as harmonics emission. but exclude out of band emissions. 6. Spectrum Emission Mask. This procedure is controlled by SRNC. Isolations Spurious emissions are emissions. This is measured at the base station RF output port.402 Co-location.transmission timing in the CN nodes in order to minimise the buffer delay in SRNC. intermodulation products and frequency conversion products.84MHz spurious emission requirements from UMTS DL to UMTS UL.2 Spurious emissions limits for protection of the BS receiver The table above corresponds to -80 dBm / 3. . parasitic emission. Further reading: 3GPP TS 25.104 Fig. 3GPP TS 25.
80 dBm See above UL . spurious emission and blocking • Co-existence issues. The transmit intermodulation level shall not exceed the out of band emission or the spurious emission requirements.5. spurious emission and blocking • Intermodulation issues • All wireless systems need to be considered • Vendor equipment specification far better that 3GPP specifications Solution considerations • Equipment specifications • Horisontal antenna separation • Vertical antenna separation • Additional filtering • Antenna beamwidth • Antenna bearing . they will quote a lower figure The receiver blocking characteristics is a measure of the receiver ability to receive a wanted signal at its assigned channel frequency in the presence of an unwanted interferer on frequencies other than those of the adjacent channels. they will quote a lower figure The transmit intermodulation performance is a measure of the capability of the transmitter to inhibit the generation of signals in its non linear elements caused by presence of the wanted signal and an interfering signal reaching the transmitter via the antenna. EXAMPLE Max Node B power Blocking level Min required isolation 43 dBm = 20W .1 83 dB UMTS FDD . Summary: Co-location and isolation related issues • Co-location issues. base station receivers. mobile phone receivers.121 BS reference Max sensitivity dBm sensitivity degradation 41 dB Min required isolation UMTS FDD isolation requirement due to spurious emissions Note: Check with your vendor.EXAMPLE Spurious emission DL to .FDD isolation requirement due to receiver blocking Note: Check with your vendor.40 dBm 3GPP 25104 7.
ITU-R SM.329-9 3G and LAN Date Speeds Here are the theoretical maximum data speeds of 2G.5G.05. 3G and beyond. 2. GSM 05. Data Speed of Mobile Systems (top) and LANs (bottom) . and compared to LAN data speeds.104.• Frequency coordination with other carriers • Smart designs for common antenna systems Further reading: 3GPP TS 25.
Pilot bits are always the same and are used for channel synchronisation. TCP stands for Transmit Power Control. Feedback Information (FBI) is used for closed loop transmission diversity. DPCH Time Slot Structure . Here is an example of DPCH (Dedicated Physical Channel) downlink and uplink time slot allocation.UMTS Time Slots UMTS has several different time slot configuration depending on the used channel. Transport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI) contains the information relating to data rates.
UL. PCH Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH). which are mapped to transport channels. UL/DL. DL. DCCH and DTCH Paging Channel (PCH). DL. mapped to DCCH and DTCH Physical Channels: Primary Common Control Physical Channel (PCCPCH). Unidirectional (one to many) Transport Channels: Dedicated Transport Channel (DCH). UL/DL Common Control Channel (CCCH). Logical to Transport channel conversion happens in Medium Access Control (MAC) layer. mapped to BCCH. mapped to DCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH). which are again mapped to physical channels. mapped to FACH. mapped to BCCH Forward Access Channel (FACH). Downlink (DL) Paging Control Channel (PCCH). UL/DL Common Traffic Channel (CTCH).UTRA Channels UTRA FDD radio interface has logical channels. mapped to CCCH. DL Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH). mapped to CPCH Synchronisation Channel (SCH) Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) Paging Indication Channel (PICH) CPCH Status Indication Channel (CSICH) Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indication Channel (CD/CA-ICH) . DL. which is a lower sublayer in Data Link Layer (Layer 2). mapped to BCH Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (SCCPCH). mapped to DSCH Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH). mapped to DCCH and DTCH Broadcast Channel (BCH). UL/DL Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH). Logical Channels: Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). CCCH. mapped to DCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH). DCCH and DTCH Uplink Common Packet Channel (CPCH). mapped to RACH Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH). CTCH. UL. mapped to PCCH Random Access Channel (RACH). DL. mapped to DCCH and DTCH Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH).
System losses are typically 4 6 dBs . Spreading factor in dBs indicates the process gain.(Required SNR + System Losses) • Required Signal to Noise Ration is typically about 5 dB • System losses are defined as losses in receiver path. Interference margin is calculated from that: Interference Margin = Process Gain .UTRA Channels WCDMA Spreading TDD WCDMA uses spreading factors 4 . Spreading factor 128 = 21 dB process gain).512 to spread the base band data over ~5MHz band.
These aspects are among others the control signalling. A bearer service includes all aspects to enable the provision of a contracted QoS. each bearer service on a specific layer offers it's individual services using services provided by the layers below. this means from a Terminal Equipment (TE) to another TE.Overview of Spreading Process Quality of Service Network Services are considered end-to-end. user plane transport and QoS management functionality. . An End-to-End Service may have a certain Quality of Service (QoS) which is provided for the user of a network service. It is the user that decides whether he is satisfied with the provided QoS or not. A UMTS bearer service layered architecture is depicted below. To realise a certain network QoS a Bearer Service with clearly defined characteristics and functionality is to be set up from the source to the destination of a service.
Preserve time Fundamental .Request -Destination is response pattern not expecting the data within a certain time -Preserve payload content -Preserve Streaming class Interactive class Background class .QoS Architecture There are four different QoS classes: • conversational class • streaming class • interactive class • background class Traffic class Conversational class Real Time Real Time .Preserve time characteristics relation (variation) relation between (variation) information between entities of the information stream entities of the stream Best Effort Best Effort .
Conversational pattern (stringent and low delay ) Example of the voice application streaming video UMTS QoS classes web browsing payload content telemetry. 'background') Maximum bit rate (kbps) Guaranteed bit rate (kbps) Delivery order (y/n) Maximum SDU size (octets) SDU format information (bits) SDU error ratio Residual bit error ratio Delivery of erroneous SDUs (y/n/-) Transfer delay (ms) Traffic handling priority Allocation/Retention Priority Source statistics descriptor ('speech'/'unknown') SDU = Service Data Unit Further reading: 3GPP 23. 'streaming'.107 Channel Coding Channel coding and multiplexing example for DTCH and DCCH: .. 'interactive'. emails List of UMTS Bearer Service Attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Traffic class ('conversational'.
Shift_JIS. US-ASCII. The media type of a single MM element shall be identified by its appropriate MIME type whereas the media format shall be indicated by its appropriate MIME subtype. Unrecognized subtypes of "text" shall be treated as subtype "plain" as long as the MIME implementation knows how to handle the charset.). Media formats and codecs Multiple media elements shall be combined into a composite single MM using MIME multipart format. 25.944 Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS). In order to guarantee a minimum support and compatibility between multimedia messaging capable terminals.Channel coding example for the UL 64 kbps channel Further reading: 3GPP TS 25. UTF-8. Any other unrecognized . MMS User Agent supporting specific media types shall comply with the following selection of media formats: Text Plain text.104. etc. ISO-8859-1. Any character encoding (charset) that contains a subset of the logical characters in Unicode shall be used (e.g.
Huffman coding • optional: progressive DCT. non-differential. Source codec bit-rates for the AMR codec Audio MPEG-4 AAC Low Complexity object type should be supported. non-differential. either in format 0 or format 1.stream". the MPEG-4 AAC Long Term Prediction object type may be supported. SPMIDI content is delivered in the structure specified in Standard MIDI Files 1. The channel configurations to be supported are mono (1/0) and stereo (2/0). Synthetic audio The Scalable Polyphony MIDI (SP-MIDI) content format defined in Scalable Polyphony MIDI Specification and the device requirements defined in Scalable Polyphony MIDI Device 5-to-24 Note Profile for 3GPP should be supported. The support for ISO/IEC JPEG only apply to the following two modes: • mandatory: baseline DCT. The AMR wideband speech codec shall be supported when wideband speech working at 16 kHz sampling frequency is supported.0. Still Image ISO/IEC JPEG together with JFIF shall be supported. The maximum sampling rate to be supported by the decoder is 48 kHz. In addition. Speech The AMR codec shall be supported for narrow-band speech.subtype and unrecognized charset shall be treated as "application/octet . Huffman coding .
This is the mandatory video codec for the MMS.1 and Mobile SVG as W3C Recommendations (14/01/03) File format for dynamic media The file format used in the present document for timed multimedia (such as video.Bitmap graphics The following bitmap graphics formats should be supported: • GIF87a • GIF89a • PNG Video For terminals supporting media type video. Read the EETimes article. it is referring to its structure (ISO file format). When the present document refers to the MP4 file format.264 video compression standard (23/12/02) Etsi and Digital Video Broadcasting Project are developing DVB-X standard for UMTS.263 profile 0 level 10 shall be supported. World Wide Web Consortium Issues Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1. However. ITU press release regarding H. In addition. . NOTE: ITU-T Recommendation H. since non-ISO codecs are used here.263 Profile 3 Level 10 • MPEG-4 Visual Simple Profile Level 0 These two video codecs are optional to implement.263 and MPEG-4 decoders). ITU-T Recommendation H. associated audio and timed text) is structurally based on the MP4 file format. (11/10/03) Vector graphics For terminals supporting media type "2D vector graphics" the "Tiny" profile of the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG-Tiny) format shall be supported. it is called the 3GPP file format and has its own file extension and MIME type to distinguish these files from MPEG-4 files. MMS should support: • H. not to its conformance definition.263 baseline has been mandated to ensure that video-enabled MMS support a minimum baseline video capability and interoperability can be guaranteed (an H. and the "Basic" profile of the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG-Basic) format may be supported.263 baseline bitstream can be decoded by both H. It also provides a simple upgrade path for mandating more advanced codecs in the future (from both the ITU-T and ISO MPEG).
234 also includes an informative annex B that provides guidelines for SMIL content authors.1 but a superset of XHTML Basic. the MP4 file format shall be supported. This will increase the data rate so bits will get sent twice as fast. defined by the WAP Forum. 3GPP MMS should provide the following format: • XHTML Mobile Profile • The 3GPP MMS uses a subset of XHTML 1. Further reading: 3GPP 26071. This compressed mode operation can be achieved in three different methods: • Decreasing the spreading factor by 2:1.212: In compressed frames. Media synchronization and presentation format The mandatory format for media synchronization and scene description of multimedia messaging is SMIL. etc. The usage of the MP4 file format shall follow the technical specifications and the implementation guidelines specified in TS 26. • The 3GPP MMS uses a subset of SMIL 2. MMS clients and servers with support for scene descriptions shall support XHTML Mobile Profile. This will remove various bits from the original data and hence reduce the amount of information that needs to be transmitted. This profile is a subset of the SMIL 2.234. As illustrated below. 1 to 7 slots per frame can be allocated for the UE to perform this intra frequency (hard handover).1 as a format for scene description.To ensure interoperability for the transport of video and associated speech/audio and timed text in an MM. • Puncturing bits. TS 26.0 Language Profile but a superset of the SMIL 2. These slots can either be in the middle of the single frame or spread over two frames. Transmission Gap Length slots from Nfirst to Nlast are not used for transmission of data.0 as format of the scene description. • The higher layer scheduling could also be changed to use less timeslots for user traffic. MMS clients and servers with support for scene descriptions shall support the 3GPP PSS5 SMIL Language Profile. 3GPP 26140 Compressed Mode During inter-frequency handover the UE’s must be given time to make the necessary measurements on the different WCDMA carrier frequency. FER. From the 3GPP TS 25. the instantaneous transmit power is increased in the compressed frame in order to keep the quality (BER. XHTML Mobile Profile is a subset of XHTML 1. Additionally.0 Basic Language Profile.) .
unaffected by the reduced processing gain. Transmission is turned off during the rest of the transmission gap (below). the pilot field of the last slot in the transmission gap is transmitted. There are two different types of frame structures defined for downlink compressed frames. The frame structure for uplink compressed frames is illustrated below. What frames are compressed. are decided by the network. compressed frames can occur periodically. Type A maximises the transmission gap length and type B is optimised for power control. The frame structure type A or B is set by higher layers independent from the downlink slot format type A or B. The amount of power increase depends on the transmission time reduction method. Transmission is turned off during the rest of the transmission gap (below). • With frame structure of type B. When in compressed mode. The rate and type of compressed frames is variable and depends on the environment and the measurement requirements. • With frame structure of type A. or requested on demand. the TPC field of the first slot in the transmission gap and the pilot field of the last slot in the transmission gap is transmitted. .
and advanced receiver design. HSDPA is evolved from and backward compatible with Release 99 WCDMA systems. fast cell search. which will support even higher data transmission rates up to 20 Mbps. HSPDA and CDMA2000 1xEV-DV Comparison .212 HSDPA in W-CDMA High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is a packet-based data service in WCDMA downlink with data transmission up to 8-10 Mbps (and 20 Mbps for MIMO systems) over a 5MHz bandwidth in WCDMA downlink. Currently (2002) 3GPP is undertaking a feasibility study on high-speed downlink packet access.Further reading: 3GPP TS 25. HSDPA implementations includes Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC). MIMO systems are the work item in Release 6 specifications. In 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP) standards. Hybrid Automatic Request (HARQ). Release 4 specifications provide efficient IP support enabling provision of services through an all-IP core network and Release 5 specifications focus on HSDPA to provide data rates up to approximately 10 Mbps to support packet-based multimedia services. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO).
User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception (FDD) Lucent announced the world's first turbo decoder chip for HSDPA UMTS terminals (11/02/03) UMTS Handover There are following categories of handover (also referred to as handoff): • Hard Handover Hard handover means that all the old radio links in the UE are removed before the new radio links are established.890 High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). which refers to the condition that several radio links are active at the same time. whereas generally in soft handover on the downlink. In softer handover.856 High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). the site of co-located base stations from which several sector-cells are served. • Softer handover Softer handover is a special case of soft handover where the radio links that are added and removed belong to the same Node B (i. macro diversity with maximum ratio combining can be performed in the Node B. Seamless hard handover means that the handover is not perceptible to the user. Layer 2 and 3 aspects 3GPP TS 25.855 High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA).e. Normally soft handover can be used when cells operated on the same frequency are changed. between UMTS and other 3G systems) FDD soft/softer handover FDD inter-frequency hard handover FDD/TDD handover (change of cell) TDD/FDD handover (change of cell) TDD/TDD handover .e.876 Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Antenna Processing for HSDPA 3GPP TS 25. In practice a handover that requires a change of the carrier frequency (inter-frequency handover) is always performed as hard handover.3GPP TS 25. For UMTS the following types of handover are specified: • • • • • • Handover 3G -3G (i. Hard handover can be seamless or non-seamless. macro diversity with selection combining is applied. Overall UTRAN description 3GPP TS 25. Soft handover is performed by means of macro diversity.877 High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) . Generally we can distinguish between intra-cell handover and inter-cell handover.Iub/Iur Protocol Aspects 3GPP TS 25. • Soft Handover Soft handover means that the radio links are added and removed in a way that the UE always keeps at least one radio link to the UTRAN.
g. downlink transport block error rate. UMTS Location Based Services UMTS networks will support location service features. which are not included in the active set.g. • Inter-frequency measurements: measurements on downlink physical channels at frequencies that differ from the frequency of the active set. geographical co-ordinates) the current location of the user's terminal and to make the information available to the user.g. the UTRA cells currently assigning a downlink DPCH to the UE constitute the active set). A measurement object corresponds to one cell.. handover to GSM) • Handover 2G . A measurement object corresponds to one cell. which are neither in the CELL_INFO_LIST nor in the active set belong to the Detected Set.3G (e. network operator. • Traffic volume measurements: measurements on uplink traffic volume. • Cells detected by the UE. • Inter-RAT measurements: measurements on downlink physical channels belonging to another radio access technology than UTRAN.g. • Active Set is defined as the set of Node-Bs the UE is simultaneously connected to (i. less interference).• Handover 3G . The UE also supports that each measurement is controlled and reported independently of every other measurement.e. e. A measurement object corresponds to one transport channel in case of BLER. but are included in the CELL_INFO_LIST belong to the Monitored Set. • UE positioning measurements: Measurements of UE position.2G (e. GSM. A measurement object corresponds to one cell. e. • Quality measurements: Measurements of downlink quality parameters. • UE-internal measurements: Measurements of UE transmission power and UE received signal level. handover from GSM) The most obvious cause for performing a handover is that due to its movement a user can be served in another cell more efficiently (like less power emission. Reporting of measurements of the detected set is only applicable to intra-frequency measurements made by UEs in CELL_DCH state. The UE supports a number of measurements running in parallel. A measurement object corresponds to one timeslot in case of SIR (TDD only). ME. . It may however also be performed for other reasons such as system load control.g. A measurement object corresponds to one cell. It will be possible to identify and report in a standard format (e. The different types of air interface measurements are: • Intra-frequency measurements: measurements on downlink physical channels at the same frequency as the active set. • Cells. to allow new and innovative location based services to be developed.
targeted congestion avoidance advice Rural and suburban emergency services. manpower planning. Locationindependent PLMN or country Regional (up to 200km) District (up to 20km) Up to 1 km 500m to 1km 100m (67%) 300m (95%) 75m-125m 50m (67%) 150m (95%) 10m-50m Most existing cellular services. FCC mandate (99-245) for wireless emergency calls using handset based positioning methods Asset Location. This is meant to be used for charging. It is possible for the network operator or service provider to define additional. information services (where are?) U.service provider. as well as the positioning services. information services (where is the nearest?) U. route guidance. etc. home zone pricing. location-based services. localized advertising. network maintenance. traffic reports Vehicle asset management. navigation Example of location services The table below lists the attributes of specific location based services as determined by the GSM Alliance Services Working Group. FCC mandate (99-245) for wireless emergency calls using network based positioning methods Urban SOS. traffic information (pre-trip) Local news. sports reports Services that are restricted to one country or one PLMN Weather reports.. emergency calls.S. lawful interception. The location is provided to identify the likely location of specific MEs. security. priority. stock prices. non-standardised service types. network demand monitoring. Location based services categories Public Safety Services Location Sensitive Charging Person Tracking Fleet Management Asset Management Traffic Congestion Reporting Traffic Monitoring Roadside Assistance Enhanced Call Routing Routing to Nearest Commercial Enterprise Location Based Information Service Navigation Tracking Services Standardized Service Types Emergency Services Emergency Alert Services . asset tracking.S. localized weather warnings. privacy and other related aspects. value added service providers and for PLMN internal operations. Location Information consists of: • Geographic Location • Velocity (the combination of speed and heading ) • Quality of Service information (horizontal & vertical accuracy and response time) 3GPP specification also describes location based service reliability.
g. user applications and supplementary services. high value asset security. an LCS client communicates with the LCS server to request the location information for one or more target UEs within a specified set of quality of service parameters. subject to provision of privacy. the geographic location may be provided to an emergency services LCS Client either without any request from the client at certain points in an emergency services call (e. when the call is answered.City Sightseeing Localized Advertising Mobile Yellow Pages Service Provider Specific Services Standardized Service Types UE locations is reported periodically. transit passenger information systems A LCS Client is a logical functional entity that makes a request to the PLMN LCS server for the location information of one or more than one target UEs. The LCS server shall provide a platform which will enable the support of location based services in parallel to other telecommunication services such as speech. each applicable to different value added services: Location reporting only within predetermined period Periodic location reporting within specified period and reporting triggered by a specific event Periodic location reporting triggered by a specific event e. e. if positioning fails. an error indication plus optional reason for the failure. the current or most recent Location Information (if available) of the Target UE or. The periodic reporting function is generally applicable for asset management services and exists as several variants.g. stolen vehicle monitoring. manpower planning. messaging. Request Type Immediate Deferred Response Time Immediate Delayed (event driven) Number of Responses Single One or More Location Service Requests The LCS Server will provide. when the call is released) or following an explicit request from the client. home zone charging. As shown in below. e. The former type of provision is referred to as a “push” while the latter is known as a “pull”. following receipt of the emergency call request. on request. . commercial asset tracking and. For emergency services (where required by local regulatory requirements). Using the Location Service Request. a location service may be specified as immediate or deferred. data.g.g. 24hr depot management. A LCS server consists of a number of location service components and bearers needed to serve the LCS clients. other teleservices.
Initial location at start of emergency call Location information that may be provided The specification Release '99 specifies the following LCS positioning methods: • Cell coverage based positioning method • Observed Time Difference Of Arrival (OTDOA) method with network configurable idle periods • Network assisted GPS methods OTDOA Location Method .Current location Pull . answered.Type of Access Information Items Current Geographic Location (if available) MSISDN IMSI IMEI Push NA-ESRK NA-ESRD State of emergency call: – unanswered. released Geographic location. either: .
The UE transmitter is capable of changing the output power with a step size of 1. Two algorithms are supported by the UE for deriving a TPC_cmd. It is used for setting initial uplink and downlink transmission powers when a UE is accessing the network. 2 and 3 dB. "PowerControlAlgorithm".UMTS Power Control Open loop power control is the ability of the UE transmitter to sets its output power to a specific value. 1. 1. combining multiple TPC commands if more than one is received in a slot. in order to keep the received uplink Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) at a given SIR target.5 or 2 dB. The power control step size can take four values: 0. the UE derives a single TPC command for each slot. is determined by a UE-specific higher-layer parameter. The open loop power control tolerance is ± 9 dB (normal conditions) or ± 12 dB (extreme conditions) Inner loop power control (also called fast closed loop power control) in the uplink is the ability of the UE transmitter to adjust its output power in accordance with one or more Transmit Power Control (TPC) commands received in the downlink. generate TPC commands (TPC_cmd) and transmit the commands once per slot according to the following rule: if SIRest > SIRtarget then the TPC command to transmit is "0". while if SIRest < SIRtarget then the TPC command to transmit is "1". in the slot immediately after the TPC_cmd can be derived. Which of these two algorithms is used. The serving cells estimate SIR of the received uplink DPCH. Inner loop power control frequency is 1500Hz. It is mandatory for . Upon reception of one or more TPC commands in a slot. Algorithm 1: • The power control step is the change in the UE transmitter output power in response to a single TPC command Algorithm 2: • If all five estimated TPC command are "down" the transmit power is reduced by 1 dB • If all five estimated TPC command are "up" the transmit power is increased by 1 dB • Otherwise the transmit power is not changed Transmitter power control range The transmit power of the downlink channels is determined by the network.5.
Upon receiving the TPC commands UTRAN adjusts its downlink DPCCH/DPDCH power accordingly. The UE generates TPC commands to control the network transmit power and send them in the TPC field of the uplink DPCCH. The cell search is typically carried out in three steps: Step 1: Slot synchronisation During the first step of the cell search procedure the UE uses the SCH's primary synchronisation code to acquire slot synchronisation to a cell. and identifying the maximum correlation value. 25. the UE uses the SCH's secondary synchronisation code to find frame synchronisation and identify the code group of the cell found in the first step. 25.133. 25. while support of other step sizes is optional. . even dynamically.UTRAN to support step size of 1 dB. 25. The slot timing of the cell can be obtained by detecting peaks in the matched filter output. 25. This target SIR is updated for each UE according to the estimated uplink quality (BLock Error Ration. This is done by correlating the received signal with all possible secondary synchronisation code sequences. 25. 25. Further reading: 3GPP TS 25. 25. the UE searches for a cell and determines the downlink scrambling code and frame synchronisation of that cell.214.435.849 Cell search procedure During the cell search. Bit Error Ratio) for each Radio Resource Control connection. The downlink outer loop power control is the ability of the UE receiver to converge to required link quality (BLER) set by the network (RNC) in downlink. Since the cyclic shifts of the sequences are unique the code group as well as the frame synchronisation is determined.215. while using as low power as possible.841. This is typically done with a single matched filter (or any similar device) matched to the primary synchronisation code which is common to all cells. The uplink outer loop power control is responsible for setting a target SIR in the Node B for each individual uplink inner loop power control. In general the ratio of the transmit power between different downlink channels is not specified in 3GPP specifications and may change with time.101. Outer loop power control is used to maintain the quality of communication at the level of bearer service quality requirement. Additional special situations of power control are Power control in compressed mode and Downlink power during handover.433. Step 2: Frame synchronisation and code-group identification During the second step of the cell search procedure. Power control of the downlink common channels are determined by the network.331.
Picture above illustrates the structure of the SCH radio frame. The 10 ms radio frames of the Primary and Secondary SCH are divided into 15 slots. The primary scrambling code is typically identified through symbol-by-symbol correlation over the CPICH with all codes within the code group identified in the second step. The SCH consists of two sub channels. the Primary CCPCH can be detected and the system. where i = 0. This sequence on the Secondary SCH indicates which of the code groups the cell's downlink scrambling code belongs to. the UE determines the exact primary scrambling code used by the found cell. the Secondary Synchronisation Codes (SSC). 14 is the slot number. If the UE has received information about which scrambling codes to search for. the Primary and Secondary SCH. 1. Symbol Note 256 chips . The Secondary SCH consists of repeatedly transmitting a length 15 sequence of modulated codes of length 256 chips.k in figure 20. The Primary SCH consists of a modulated code of length 256 chips. Slot. The SSC is denoted csi. 63 is the number of the scrambling code group. Summary of the process: Channel Primary Synchronisation acquired Chip. 1. the primary synchronization code (PSC) is transmitted once every slot. ….and cell specific BCH information can be read. The PSC is the same for every cell in the system. steps 2 and 3 above can be simplified Structure of synchronization channel The Synchronisation Channel (SCH) is a downlink signal used for cell search. each of length 2560 chips. transmitted in parallel with the Primary SCH.Step 3: Scrambling-code identification During the third and last step of the cell search procedure. and k = 0. After the primary scrambling code has been identified. …. Each SSC is chosen from a set of 16 different codes of length 256.
211 25.SCH Synchronisation Secondary SCH Frame Synchronisation. There are 64 S-SCH sequences corresponding to the 64 scrambling code groups 256 chips. . The RACH is always received from the entire cell. Code Group (one of 64) Common Pilot CH PCCPCH *) SCCPCH **) Scrambling code (one of 8) Super Frame Synchronisation. The RACH is characterized by a collision risk and by being transmitted using open loop power control.213 Random Access The Random Access Channel (RACH) is an uplink transport channel. different for different cells and slot intervals To find the primary scrambling code from common pilot CH Fixed 30 kbps channel 27 kbps rate spreading factor 256 Carries FACH and PCH channels Variable bit rate *) Primary Common Control Physical Channel **) Secondary Common Control Physical Channel Further reading: 3GPP TS 25. BCCH info The same in all cells 15-code sequence of secondary synchronisation codes. There are 16 secondary synchronisation codes.
each of length Tslot = 2560 chips. The data and control parts are transmitted in parallel.3. A 10 ms message part consists of one message part radio frame. 128. This corresponds to a spreading factor of 256. Acquisition Indicator AIs corresponds to signature s on the PRACH. where k=0. a data part to which the RACH transport channel is mapped and a control part that carries Layer 1 control information. Each slot consists of two parts. 64. while a 20 ms message part consists of two consecutive 10 ms message part radio frames. The data part consists of 10*2k bits.1. Structure of Acquisition Indicator Channel .2.RACH access slot numbers and their spacing RACH preamble is of length 4096 chips and consists of 256 repetitions of a signature of length 16 chips. There are a maximum of 16 available signatures. and 32 respectively for the message data part. All 16 preamble signature codes available in every cells. Structure of the random-access message part radio frame The Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) is a fixed rate (SF=256) physical channel used to carry Acquisition Indicators (AI). The 10 ms RACH message part radio frame is split into 15 slots.
The structure of CD/CA-ICH is shown in figure 25.The Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator channel (AP-AICH) is a fixed rate (SF=256) physical channel used to carry AP acquisition indicators (API) of CPCH. followed by a part of duration 1024chips with no transmission that is not formally part of the CD/CA-ICH. AP acquisition indicator APIs corresponds to AP signature s transmitted by UE. The part of the slot with no transmission is reserved for possible use by CSICH or possible future use by other physical channels. or CD Indicator/CA Indicator (CDI/CAI) at the same time if the CA is active. The Collision Detection Channel Assignment Indicator channel (CD/CA-ICH) is a fixed rate (SF=256) physical channel used to carry CD Indicator (CDI) only if the CA is not active. CD/CA-ICH and APAICH may use the same or different channelisation codes. PCPCH Access Example: PCPCH (similar to RACH) and AICH transmission as seen by the UE DPCCH PCPCH AP-AICH CD/CA-ICH AP CD/CA Dedicated Physical Control Channel Physical Common Packet Channel Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicator Channel Access Preamble Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicators are means of fast low-level signalling entities which are transmitted . The CD/CA-ICH has a part of duration of 4096chips where the CDI/CAI is transmitted. Uplink Common Packet channel (CPCH) is an extension to the RACH channel for packet-based user data.
including transitions between UTRA RRC connected mode and GSM connected mode for CS domain services. Their mapping to indicator channels is channel specific. The meaning of indicators is specific to the type of indicator.211 UMTS RCC States Picture below shows the RRC states in UTRA RRC Connected Mode. It also shows the transitions between Idle Mode and UTRA RRC Connected Mode and furthermore the transitions within UTRA RRC connected mode. and between UTRA RRC connected mode and GSM/GPRS packet modes for PS domain services. Indicators are transmitted on those physical channels that are indicator channels (ICH). Further reading: 3GPP TS 25.without using information blocks sent over transport channels. . The indicators defined in the current version of the specifications are: • Acquisition Indicator (AI) • Access Preamble Indicator (API) • Channel Assignment Indicator (CAI) • Collision Detection Indicator (CDI) • Page Indicator (PI) • Status Indicator (SI) Indicators may be either boolean (two-valued) or three-valued.
downlink and uplink (TDD) shared transport channels. • The UE is assigned a default common or shared transport channel in the uplink (e. • The position of the UE is known by UTRAN on cell level according to the cell where the UE last made a cell update. and a combination of these transport channels can be used by the UE. • No uplink activity is possible. and uses DRX for monitoring the selected PCH via an associated PICH. • The position of the UE is known by UTRAN on cell level according to the cell where the UE last made a cell update in CELL_FACH state.RRC States and State Transitions including GSM CELL_DCH state is characterised by: • A dedicated physical channel is allocated to the UE in uplink and downlink. • The UE is known on cell level according to its current active set. • The UE selects a PCH with the algorithm. one or several USCH or DSCH transport channels may have been established. CELL_FACH state is characterised by: • No dedicated physical channel is allocated to the UE. CELL_PCH state is characterised by: • No dedicated physical channel is allocated to the UE. • The UE continuously monitors a FACH in the downlink. RACH) that it can use anytime according to the access procedure for that transport channel. • In TDD mode. • Dedicated transport channels. .g.
If no suitable cell is found in the cell reselection procedure.URA_PCH State is characterised by: • No dedicated channel is allocated to the UE. and uses DRX for monitoring the selected PCH via an associated PICH. procedure Cell reselection. the UE evaluates the cell reselection criteria based on radio measurements. the RRC connection is released. If the change of cell implies a change of radio access technology. • The UE selects a PCH with the algorithm. and the UE enters idle mode of the other RAT. the UE shall use the Initial cell reselection procedure to find a suitable cell. Call reselection procedures: States and procedures in the cell reselection process in connected mode When a cell reselection is triggered. When an Initial cell reselection is triggered. • The location of the UE is known on UTRAN Registration area level according to the URA assigned to the UE during the last URA update in CELL_FACH state. and if a better cell is found that cell is selected. • No uplink activity is possible. If the UE is unable to find a . where the UE may trigger an initial cell reselection in order to request re-establishment of the RRC connection. One example where this procedure is triggered is at radio link failure. the UE eventually enters idle mode.
• Control frame. Further reading: 3GPP TS 25. the UE eventually enters idle mode. • Data frame. The general structure of frames Data frame example: . Header Payload: Data or Control Information General Frame Structure There are two types of frames (indicated by the Frame Type field).suitable cell.331 UTRAN Iub Interface General Frame Structure The general structure of a Common Transport Channel frame between Node B and RNC consists of a header and a payload.
DL FDD DSCH data frame structure CRC FT CFN TFI SF SP MC Info TB Cyclic Redundancy Checksum Frame Type Connection Frame Number Transport Format Indicator Spreading Factor Spare Multi Code to indicate the number of parallel PDSCH codes on which the DSCH data will be carried Transport Block Control frame example: .
435 Call Setup .Iub Common Transport Channel Control Frame Format Further reading: 3GPP TS 25.
303. The structure is based on the principle that the layers and planes are logically independent of each . 25.Basic Mobile Originating Call Diagram Further reading: 3GPP TS 25.331 UTRAN Protocol Model The general protocol model for UTRAN Interfaces is shown below.
other. RNSAP or NBAP. Radio Access Bearer or Radio Link) in the Radio Network Layer. i.e. but without any UTRAN specific requirements. General Protocol Model for UTRAN Interfaces Horizontal Layers The Protocol Structure consists of two main layers. The User Plane Includes the Data Stream(s) and the Data Bearer(s) for the Data Stream(s).e. and Transport Network Layer. The Data Stream(s) is/are characterised by one or more frame protocols specified for that interface. the Application Protocol is used for setting up bearers for (i. RANAP. Therefore. and the Transport Network Layer represents standard transport technology that is selected to be used for UTRAN. All UTRAN related issues are visible only in the Radio Network Layer. as and when required. and is completely in the Transport Layer. the standardisation body can easily alter protocol stacks and planes to fit future requirements. Among other things. and the Signalling Bearer for transporting the Application Protocol messages. Radio Network Layer. It includes the ALCAP protocol(s) that is/are needed to set up the transport bearers (Data Bearer) for the User . The Transport Network Control Plane does not include any Radio Network Layer information. Vertical Planes The Control Plane Includes the Application Protocol.
Iur Interface Protocol Structure Iur layers Further Reading: . the decision to actually use an ALCAP protocol is completely kept within the Transport Network Layer. Indeed. The introduction of Transport Network Control Plane is performed in a way that the Application Protocol in the Radio Network Control Plane is kept completely independent of the technology selected for Data Bearer in the User Plane.Plane. It also includes the appropriate Signalling Bearer(s) needed for the ALCAP protocol(s). The Transport Network Control Plane is a plane that acts between the Control Plane and the User Plane.
Iur specification numbers Protocol layering specification numbers .
Of these.420 Paging The Paging Channel (PCH) is a downlink transport channel. the UE shall perform a selection according to the following rule: • The UE shall select a SCCPCH from the ones listed in SIB 5 based on IMSI as follows: "Index of selected SCCPCH" = IMSI mod K. In a cell. The PCH is always transmitted over the entire cell. Thus. One PICH radio frame of length 10 ms consists of 300 bits. The remaining 12 bits are not formally part of the PICH and shall not be transmitted (DTX). "Index of selected SCCPCH" identifies the selected SCCPCH with the PCH and the uniquely associated PICH to be used by the UE. 288 bits are used to carry paging indicators. SCCPCHs carrying FACH only shall not be counted). If the UE has no IMSI. The transmission of the PCH is associated with the transmission of physical-layer generated Paging Indicators. Picture below illustrates the frame structure of the PICH. In case that more than a single PCH and associated PICH are defined in SIB 5. for each defined PCH there is one uniquely associated PICH also indicated. These SCCPCHs shall be indexed in the order of their occurrence in SIB 5 from 0 to K-1. The Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) is a fixed rate (SF=256) physical channel used to carry the paging indicators. Paging Channel selection System information block type 5 (SIB 5) defines common channels to be employed in Idle mode. to support efficient sleepmode procedures.e. . a single or several PCHs may be established. The part of the frame with no transmission is reserved for possible future use. the UE shall use as default number IMSI = 0. The PICH is always associated with an S-CCPCH to which a PCH transport channel is mapped. PI. in one Paging Occasion per DRX cycle. 25. where K is equal to the number of listed SCCPCHs which carry a PCH (i. Each Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (SCCPCH) indicated to the UE in system information may carry up to one PCH.More further reading: 3GPP TS 25. for instance when making an emergency call without USIM. When DRX is used the UE needs only to monitor one Page Indicator. The UE may use Discontinuous Reception (DRX) in idle mode in order to reduce power consumption.401.
Two Paging Message Types: PAGING TYPE 1 message is used to send information on the paging channel. Upper layers in the network may request paging. Upper layers in the network may request initiation of paging. when using the DCCH for CN originated paging. UTRAN may initiate paging for UEs in idle mode. PICH / S-CCPCH timing relation Picture below illustrates the timing between a PICH frame and its associated single SCCPCH frame. the S-CCPCH frame that carries the paging information related to the paging indicators in the PICH frame.g. In addition. For a UE in CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH state. CELL_PCH and URA_PCH state to trigger reading of updated system information. i.Structure of Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) Two Paging Procedures: Paging procedure is used to transmit paging information to selected UEs in idle mode. UTRAN may initiate paging for UEs in CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state to trigger a cell update procedure. One or several UEs. A paging indicator set in a PICH frame means that the paging message is transmitted on the PCH in the S-CCPCH frame starting tPICH chips after the transmitted PICH frame. . in idle or connected mode.e. CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state using the paging control channel (PCCH). UTRAN initiates the procedure by transmitting a PAGING TYPE 2 message on the DCCH using AM RLC. to e. which also can contain other information PAGING TYPE 2 message is used to page an UE in connected mode (CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH state). establish a signalling connection. can be paged in one message. UTRAN initiates the paging procedure by transmitting a PAGING TYPE 1 message on an appropriate paging occasion on the PCCH. UE dedicated paging procedure is used to transmit dedicated paging information to one UE in connected mode in CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH state.
211 25. The concept of VHE is such that users are consistently presented with the same personalised features. . For Release 5. CAMEL MExE MRF OSA USAT Customised Application For Mobile Network Enhanced Logic Mobile Execution Environment Media Resource Function Open Service Access Universal SIM Application Tool-Kit A user's VHE is enabled by user profiles as logically depicted in a picture below.e. activate. modify.g. The home environment shall: • enable the user to manage one or more user profiles (e. PBP = 1). (For FDD. for general user preferences and subscribed services information).g.g.304 Virtual Home Environment (VHE) Virtual Home Environment (VHE) is a concept for Personal Service Environment (PSE) portability across network boundaries and between terminals. MExE. Paging occasion: (FDD) The SFN of the PICH frame where the UE monitors its paging indicator (i. activate. CAMEL. modify. deactivate etc. Further reading: 3GPP TS 25. the SFN of the PCCPCH frame in which the PICH frame begins). deactivate etc.) • enable the identification of a user's personalised data and services information directly or indirectly from the user's profile(s) • enable authorised HE-VASPs to access the user's profile(s) • enable VASPs controlled and limited access to the user's profile(s) (e.Timing relation between PICH frame and associated S-CCPCH frame tPICH = 7680 chips (3 slots) Paging Block Periodicity (PBP): Period of the occurrence of Paging Blocks. OSA and USAT are considered the mechanisms supporting the VHE concept.) • enable the home environment and HE-VASP to manage one or more user profiles (e. wherever the user may be located. User Interface customisation and services in whatever network and whatever terminal (within the capabilities of the terminal and the network).
the USIM and in the ME • uniquely identify the user in the telecommunication networks supported by the Home Environment. The home environment shall: • be able to provide and control services to the user in a consistent manner also if the user is roaming • provide the necessary means to create and maintain a set of user profiles • Support the execution of services – through its Service Toolkits in the network.The home environment's view of the Virtual Home Environment concept is logically depicted in a picture below. .
The discovery function enables the application to find out which network service capability features are provided by the Service Capability Servers. which are abstractions from underlying network functionality. conferencing. These applications are implemented in one or more Application Servers.g. Mobile Execution Environment (MExE) provides a standardised execution environment in an UE. • Framework: providing applications with basic mechanisms that enable them to make use of the service capabilities in the network. Examples of framework functions are Authentication and Discovery. The UE (consisting of the ME and SIM/USIM) can then be targeted at a . VPN.Logical VHE Role Model (Operator's Home Environment's View) The Open Service Access consists of three parts: • Applications: e. location based applications. allowing applications to be developed independently of any UE platform. and an ability to negotiate its supported capabilities with a MExE service provider. • Service Capability Servers: providing the applications with service capability features. Examples of service capability features offered by the Service Capability Servers are Call Control and User Location.
. A transport mechanism is provided enabling applications to be down-loaded and/or updated. Generic MExE architecture Universal Subscriber identity module Application Toolkit (USAT) provides a standardised execution environment for applications stored on the USIM/SIM card and the ability to utilize certain functions of the supporting mobile equipment. independent of the respective manufacturers and operators. SAT/USAT provides mechanisms which allow applications. limited memory. MMI etc. to interact and operate with any ME which supports the specified mechanism(s) thus ensuring interoperability between a USIM/SIM and an ME. to sophisticated with a complete MExE execution environment. existing in the USIM/SIM. low processor speeds. limited displays. .range of implementations for MExE from small devices with low bandwidth.
127 23.USAT Diagram Further reading: 3GPP TS 22.078 23.955 .057 23.057 23.038 22.121 22.
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