HOLLOW CORE FLOORS

SPEED AND STRENGTH

CONTENTS 2 3 INTRODUCTION PRECAST CONCRETE FLOORS T H E A D VA N TA G E S BISON HOLLOW CORE FLOORS BEARINGS FALSE CEILINGS AND SOFFIT FIXINGS BISON HOLLOW COMPOSITE FLOORS BISON SOLID COMPOSITE FLOORS BISON SOLID COMPOSITE FLOORS C O N S T R U C T I O N D E TA I L S SOUND INSULATION W ITH B ISON H OLLOW C ORE S LABS BISON PRECAST FLOORING SPECIFICATION QUALITY ASSURANCE 4 5 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 .

Other products pioneered by Bison and for which they hold a market leading position include house floors for use both at ground floor and intermediate levels and precast prestressed staircases produced by a patented method which provides a product of excellent quality at moderate cost. Brochures on other Bison products and services for the construction industry are listed on the back cover of this brochure. commercial buildings and car parks as well as in housing. educational and government projects. industrial. The company has been a leader in the design and manufacture of structural products since 1919. This brochure describes the extensive range of precast flooring available to the specifier. Bison is a market leader producing precast concrete. steel and composite structures for use in retail. 2 . There are five Bison factories throughout the United Kingdom strategically situated to provide a comprehensive service to our customers.INTRODUCTION Bison is the largest producer of precast concrete floors in the United Kingdom. In the field of structures too.

Elimination of Edge Shuttering Edge shuttering to any building is inevitably a difficult and often dangerous operation.Periods in excess of this can be provided with modified sections if required. Steel deck systems by comparison can present problems in achieving level surfaces whilst concrete is poured and in providing access whilst in the propped condition. The Bison long span 450 mm deep unit can span in excess of 16 metres. Quality control systems are properly implemented and are independently examined on a regular basis under the British Standards Institution Quality Assurance Scheme. it is immediately available as a working platform.PRECAST CONCRETE FLOORS T H E A D VA N T A G E S Speed of Erection Time consuming activities such as propping. Minimum Insitu Concrete Using a precast floor. No Propping Propping is generally not required with hollow core floors. Factory Produced to Rigorous Quality Standards Because precast floors are factory produced. Extra Long Spans Factory made prestressed units offer the maximum design advantages of achieving long span units for given depths. slots and reinforcement arrangements which offer various design approaches. This minimises storey height. Immediate Unpropped Working Platform Once a precast floor is erected. Structural Efficiency A hollow core slab offers the ideal structural section by reducing the deadweight whilst providing the maximum structural efficiency within the slab depth. This can be totally avoided by using a precast floor. they are manufactured in an environment which is more readily controlled than a building site. 3 . This avoids the need for intermediate supports and provides an economically light solution throughout the entire structure. shuttering and concrete pouring are virtually eliminated. Flexibility of Design Approach Precast floors are available with a variety of factory formed notches. a large volume of work is carried out off site and saves what can be complex and time consuming site operation subject to the vagaries of the climate. Fire Resistance Standard precast floors can be supplied with a fire resistance of up to 2 hours. Diaphragm Action Precast floor slabs are structurally grouted to provide a floor with full diaphragm action as required in most multi–storey frameworks.Compare this with the large amount of propping required with insitu and semi-insitu floor systems. lower internal fitting costs etc. Preformed Site Services Precast floors can be provided with factory formed service holes thus avoiding laborious setting out and shuttering on site. Finished Soffits Precast floors are manufactured on high quality steel beds and are suitable in appropriate cases for direct decoration. Shelf Angle Bearing Slab ends can be notched during manufacture to facilitate a bearing within the depth of a main supporting steel. with substantial cost benefits arising from reduced cladding costs.

1 11.6 10.0 10.0 11.0 7.5 2.5 10.2 9.95 4.0 7.4 15.3 10.6 14. The most economic flooring solution for the widest variety of situations.30 3.9 16.6 5.0 14.75 1.1 14.0 5.9 6.6 6.6 8.8 13.BISON HOLLOW CORE FLOORS Widely used in masonry.3 The table is given as a guide only.3 12.0 7.4 5.1 17.2 15.2 13.2 13.0 7.45 4.0 12.8 16.0 2.3 15.0 7.1 16.7 15.4 13.0 Effective span in metres Available fire period Self Wt kN / m2 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 1 Hour or 2* Hour 1 Hour or 2* Hour 2 Hour 2 Hour 2 Hour 2 Hour 2 Hour 2 Hour 2.3 8.1 13. providing the maximum benefits of speed of construction.0 15.3 8.6 12.7 14.5 3.3 9.35 5.6 9.3 16. UNIT PROFILES 100 mm Thick 1200 mm Nominal width 150 mm Thick 200 mm 250 mm 1200 mm Nominal width 300 350 400 450 mm Thick mm mm mm 1200 mm Nominal width 4 .6 18.0 19.0 6.7 8. LOAD / SPAN TABLE Overall structural depth mm Spans indicated below allow for characteristic service load (live load) plus self weight plus 1.5 9.5 17. steel and concrete structures for domestic. When using maximum spans.85 3.0 5.6 6.8 15.2 14.5 5.5 18.5 15.0 11.8 10.3 4. commercial and industrial buildings.5 10.40 2. * 35mm screed required.8 4.6 4.3 5.6 7.5 5.0 10.4 17.40 2.0 12.7 11.0 10.6 7.0 7. consideration must be given to the effect of camber and deflection on partitions or finishes.8 16.1 4.5 3.4 12.0 18.9 3.0 5.5 kN / m2 for finishes Characteristic service loads kN / m2 0. Further advice is available on request.85 5.0 4.5 10.7 9.8 14.

sections are used 25 mm clearance is required to allow unit to be dropped into position past the flange of the supporting U.B.10 mm Wall thickness t > 190 Continuous wet mortar by builder to take up camber t 5 . Greater where U. 25 mm clearance BEARINGS ON MASONRY SIDE BEARING Where required by Building Regulations for sound insulation.BEARINGS BEARINGS ON SHELF ANGLES Finishes Structural concrete infill Nominal bearing 75 Minimum bearing 50 Projection of angle beyond extremity of flange 50 mm. Finishes Finishes Nominal bearing t / 2 .C.

In general nominal bearings of 100 mm on masonry or 75 mm on steelwork are recommended but may be reduced dependent upon circumstances and subject to the above clause.10 mm Flange width t < 150 (Min. where necessary by General Contractor The recommendations for bearings of precast units are set out in Clause 5.3 of B. These vary according to the type of floor construction and the type of support material and building tolerances. 140 mm) Tie reinforcement at 400 c/c in joints and troughs provided in 1200 wide units t Nominal bearing t / 2 .140 mm) Tie reinforcement at 400 c/c in joints and troughs provided in 1200 wide units t END SLOTS IN UNITS Slots may be provided in slab ends for the purpose of tying into the structure for nominal continuity TRIMMING OPENINGS M. this detail is only recommended where a full bearing is available at the other end of the slab) NARROW BEARING ON STEELWORK Finishes Structural concrete infill Finishes Structural concrete infill Nominal bearing t / 2 . In order to satisfy the tolerances in this situation. Fire protection. 6 .S.Trimmer.2. 8110:1997.S.BEARINGS NARROW WALL BEARING ( NB.10 mm (Min. 65 mm) Wall thickness t < 190 (Min.

COUNTER BATTENS FIXED DIRECT TO SLAB SOFFIT Shot firing is not recommended. Some alternative methods are shown below. used in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. CLIPS OR HANGERS FIXED IN SLAB JOINTS Type ‘A’ hangers TYPICAL CEILING HANGERS 20g M. are a simple and economic fixing method.S.FA L S E C E I L I N G S A N D S O F F I T F I X I N G S A wide variety of methods to suspend ceilings and services are available. Various site-drilled anchors are available and. Galvanised or Sheradized TYPE ‘ A ’ TYPE ‘ B ’ TYPE ‘ C ’ DETAIL OF CEILING HANGER IN SLAB JOINT Joint to be grouted Bend over shank of hanger TYPE ‘WL’ WIRE CEILING CLIP IN SLAB JOINT Type ‘B’ hanger Wire loops bent under batten and nailed upwards 7 .

4 12.0 9.3 10.2 13.2 8.20 6. Overall thickness at bearing must take account of the camber of the slab.5 2. Design data for alternative combinations are available from Bison Design Offices.2 7.1 10.0 12. This type of floor gives the benefit of an increased structural performance with an enhanced lateral load distribution where necessary for heavy point loads.3 16.5 12.6 11.45 5.4 15.3 8. Topping reinforcement.4 13.0 10.5 15.8 6.7 10.6 15.9 18.7 13.8 16.1 10.2 15.3 11. daywork and movement joints should be considered in relation to the overall structural concept of the building.0 15.0 10. LOAD / SPAN TABLE Overall structural Unit depth mm depth Spans indicated below allow for characteristic service load (live load) plus self weight plus 1.5 12.0 10.5 3.0 7. COMPOSITE PROFILES Composite depth 200 mm 250 mm 300 mm 1200 mm Nominal width Composite depth 375 mm 425 mm 475 mm 525 mm *Minimum structural depth 50mm at centre of span.1 11.2 9.0 4.1 11.2 14. The floor may be designed in the unpropped or partially propped condition to suit particular requirements.7 15.9 16. This floor is particularly suitable for industrial buildings.2 12.3 15.3 13.60 4.00 4.0 5.0 14.10 8.6 9.8 13.2 14.0 9.3 11.6 14. car parks or other structures where additional longitudinal and transverse tying is required.1 The above data is based upon 50 or 75 mm structural topping of C30 concrete which should be regarded as a minimum. 50 or 75 mm 150 mm Thick 200 mm 250 mm 75 mm 300 mm Thick 350 mm 400 mm 450 mm 1200 mm Nominal width 8 .2 8.9 15.5 17.0 17.BISON HOLLOW COMPOSITE FLOORS A combination of the Bison Hollow Core Slab with a structural concrete topping.8 16. Other topping depths may be recommended in some circumstances.2 7. high buildings.3 10.8 13.0 2.1 5.5 kN / m2 for finishes Self Wt Characteristic service loads kN / m2 kN / m2 0.0 Effective span in metres Available fire period 200 250 300 375 425 475 525 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 1 Hour or 2 Hour 1 Hour or 2 Hour 2 Hour 2 Hour 2 Hour 2 Hour 2 Hour 3.2 6.5 7.2 8.7 14.4 13.7 8.60 7.2 8.6 14.75 1.75 6.7 9.

75 3.03 4.34 6.30 9.75 3.40 4.18 7. The prestressed element.62 4.44 3.21 8.74 4.79 5.29 6.64 6.75 3.50 7.44 8.75 3.18 4.69 4.75 3.77 9.99 7.71 3.00 5.94 7.61 8.72 9.57 4.55 5.22 6.60 7.50 3.18 10.50 7.58 4.75 3.74 4.00 10.75 3.29 5.86 6.95 3.36 6.06 3.52 3. trimming of openings.00 5.BISON SOLID COMPOSITE FLOORS Combines the advantages of a precast.43 6.00 5.99 4.5 2.72 7.73 4.42 5. such as the tying in of balconies.83 5.88 8.75 3.78 4.00 5.75 3.89 7.00 4.0 10.96 100 10.07 3.12 4.60 6.0 5.77 4.75 3.78 4.00 4.00 5.00 5.71 5.73 9.38 8.0 Effective span in metres * Self Wt kN / m2 125 150 175 1 Hour Fire Resistance 1 Hour Fire Resistance 2 Hour Fire Resistance 2.42 7.54 4.30 4.14 6.34 6.75 3.75 3.54 4.89 7.44 4.98 5.00 4.68 6.00 10.00 5.71 5.81 5.90 6.65 8.75 4.22 7.02 *Enhancement of the stated fire period may be achieved by applied soffit finishes.71 5.70 4.57 5.50 7.00 5.63 4.0 15.63 3.07 3.28 5.66 3.75 3.87 5. provides a structural performance far superior to normally reinforced concrete.75 3.47 5.74 2.65 4.71 5.00 5.69 3.32 3.33 7.72 9.48 5.82 4.5 kN / m2 for finishes Characteristic service loads kN / m2 0.60 6.75 7.89 7.61 7.75 6.87 5.00 5.75 3.84 8.52 3.75 3.18 6.95 3.97 7.00 9.85 9.00 5.01 7.75 3.70 4.00 4.07 U/P P U/P P U/P P 6.54 4.23 7.89 4.00 9.38 6.18 10.18 7.00 5.44 8.12 4.54 4.34 3.00 5.16 4.03 4.00 4.71 5. LOAD / SPAN TABLE Unit depth mm Overall structural depth mm Propped or Unpropped Spans indicated below allow for characteristic service load (live load) plus self weight plus 1.92 9.42 6.00 10. This provides the engineer with the scope to incorporate all of the details normally associated with insitu design.71 2.88 8.00 5.00 10.61 4.00 5.00 5. 9 .72 4.00 5.75 3.44 4.46 4.88 5.86 5.60 3.00 5.83 5.07 3.00 5.12 3.00 5.88 4.5 3. prestressed element acting compositely with an insitu concrete structural topping to form a solid slab.75 3.50 3.75 3.75 3.84 3.90 6.50 7.32 4.75 3.38 4.00 9.38 4.23 7.75 3.11 75 200 125 150 175 200 150 200 250 100 300 150 200 250 300 150 200 250 300 150 200 250 300 10.32 4.75 3.00 10.0 2.43 6.44 3.91 4.34 6.75 3.76 7.54 4.00 4.39 9.00 5.00 10.54 4.89 7.75 3.36 4.00 5.00 5.05 5.95 4.94 7.00 5.00 9.53 4.07 3.0 4.61 6.33 7.50 7.72 4.53 8.61 4.52 8. whilst eliminating the need for conventional shuttering.75 1.83 4.65 8.00 5.64 4.35 4.86 5. maximum load distribution and minimum structural depth.57 4.

combining the benefits of precast and insitu construction. bearing 40 mm Min. and the flexibility of architectural and engineering design. These benefits are reduced construction depths. elimination of shuttering. fire resistance. bearing 10 .BISON SOLID COMPOSITE FLOORS C O N S T R U C T I O N D E TA I L S Solid composite construction utilises the advantages of a prestressed precast element acting compositely with an insitu structural topping. COMPOSITE PROFILE O / A Depth 75 or 100 mm Deep SIMPLE BEARING ON TOP FLANGE OF STEELWORK SLAB COMPOSITE WITH SUPPORTING BEAM Nominal support reinforcement and/or daywork joints determined by general layout and site operation Flange reinforcement and shear studs as required by steelwork design D 40 mm Min. speed of erection. minimal propping.

BISON SOLID COMPOSITE FLOORS C O N S T R U C T I O N D E TA I L S SHELF ANGLE BEARING CANTILEVER CONSTRUCTION Minimum 25 mm cover to top of steel beam flange Insitu structural topping on precast element Minimum 50 mm clearance Nominal 50 mm bearing Precast balcony element Temporary propping during construction INSITU CONSTRUCTION Solid composite floors may be placed on insitu beam downstands or supported on shutters before pouring site concrete Beam depths and widths to suit specific requirements Nominal 50 mm bearing for precast elements Nominal 50 mm bearing for precast elements 11 .

3 12 .0 7.2 5.5 3.0 4.S O U N D I N S U L AT I O N WITH BISON HOLLOW CORE SLABS The Building Regulations (Approved Document 1992 ) set out the sound insulation requirements both for airborne and impact sound for a floor separating dwellings.5 kN / m2 for finishes Characteristic service loads kN / m2 0.5 7.1 6. Mass < 300 kg/m2 Floating layer on resilient layer 200 mm Standard Bison slab 300 kg/m2 150 mm Standard Bison slab 250 kg/m2 150 mm Bison sound slab 307 kg/m2 THE BISON SOUND SLAB ( TYPE RS ) The Bison sound slab has been specially developed to provide an economic and structurally efficient means of satisfying the requirements of sound insulation.0 2. They are as follows: FLOOR TYPE 1 CONCRETE BASE WITH SOFT COVERING Soft covering of resilient material Building Regulation requirement is: Examples of compliant construction using Bison profiles are as follows: SCREED ( 35 mm Sand / Cement ) 65 kg/m2 SCREED ( 60 mm Sand / Cement ) 115 kg/m2 Floor Base comprising structural slab together with any directly bonded screed plus ceiling finish.5 5.5 10.0 15.75 1.0 4.0 5.5 2.02 7.0 Effective span in metres 150 2 Hours 3. two alternative types of construction meet the requirements.5 7.3 7. When using precast concrete units. 150 mm 1200 mm Overall structural depth mm Available fire period Self Wt kN / m2 Spans indicated below allow for characteristic service load (live load) plus self weight plus 1.6 6.5 7. Mass < 365 kg/m2 SCREED ( 30 mm Sand / Cement ) 60 kg/m2 200 mm Standard Bison slab 300 kg/m2 150 mm Standard Bison slab 250 kg/m2 150 mm Bison sound slab 307 kg/m2 FLOOR TYPE 2 CONCRETE BASE WITH FLOATING LAYER Floating layer ( timber or screed ) Resilient layer Building Regulation requirement is: Examples of floors complying with type 2 requirements are as follows: Floating layer on resilient layer SCREED 50 kg/m2 Floor Base comprising structural slab together with any directly bonded screed plus ceiling finish.

2 Cross-sectional tolerances are within the limits set out in clause 6.S.3 An air entraining agent complying with B. 4.8110:1997.1 The design of Bison units is in accordance with the requirements and recommendations of B.S.S.5896: 1980.5mm diameter strand complying with the requirements of B.2:1982 is included in the concrete mix to improve workability.4 Edges are shaped to form a grout joint giving a shear key to distribute load to adjacent units. 4. ” 4. FINISHES 3. 1.8110:1997 “The Structural Use of Concrete.5 Bison units are sawn to length on the manufacturing bed and are supplied as standard with plain sawn ends with open cores.S. 13 . 3. 3.1 Bison Floors are manufactured by the long line prestressed method using slip form or extrusion techniques.3. 75mm 100mm 150mm 200mm 250mm 300mm 350mm 400mm 450mm 2. of B.4 Fire Resistance : Fire resistance is based upon the tabulated data contained within B.These periods of fire resistance may be further enhanced by the application of appropriate finishes. DIMENSIONS 2.1 Concrete surface finish to soffit is Type A finish as described in clause 6. 5075 Pt. 8110:1997.8110:1997.S.8110:1997. of B.S. The units are cast on heated steel beds within an enclosed factory environment. Plaster finishes are not recommended on longer spans.S.2. 1.2. of B.2.BISON PRECAST FLOORING S P E C I F I C AT I O N MANUFACTURE 1.3 Exposure Condition : The standard Bison section is suitable for a moderate exposure classification as defined in Table 3. without the addition of further finishes.S.3 Bison units will have an upward camber due to pre-stressing as described in clause 6.2 Load/Span capacity : The reinforcement pattern within a Bison section will vary according to the design loading specified. 2.3 Units may accumulate water within the cores due to exposure during the construction programme.7. Sections are available for fire periods of 1 hour or 2 hours. Solid : Depth Hollow : Depth DESIGN 4.5 of B. 1. Where a plaster finish is intended it may be necessary to use a bonding agent in accordance with the instructions of the plaster manufacturer. Where non-standard widths are provided the edge will be rough cut from a standard unit. Length tolerances are + 20 mm.2 Sides and top surfaces are ‘as extruded’ as described in Table 5.8.2 The materials used in the manufacture of Bison Floors comply with the relevant British Standard for that material.S. 8110 Part 2 Section 4. or keep them clear where they are provided during manufacture.4.1 Bison Units are manufactured in nominal sizes as follows : Standard nominal width of all units is 1200mm.8110:1997. 2. The General Contractor should drill weep holes as necessary.2 of B.3.8. The soffit is suitable for the direct application of a textured paint finish where this is applied in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.4 Reinforcement is generally 5mm diameter high tensile wire or 12. 1.

Larger holes may be cut subject to the design capacity of the slab.9 Holes : Small holes up to 60 mm diameter may be drilled on site through the hollow cores. care being taken to avoid damage to the reinforced ribs. 4.I. 4. Futher information is set out on page 12 of this brochure. factories have been assessed by the British Standards Institution (B.1.8110. you can be sure that all aspects of our production.K. As a customer.3 of B.S. REGISTRATION No. 4.5 Serviceability : The standard Bison section is designed to meet the criteria of Class 3 as set out in clause 4.6 Sound Insulation : The requirements of The Building Regulations are that a floor construction incorporating the use of precast concrete units should have a minimum mass which is dependent upon whether the finishes to the top surface are directly applied or are on a separating layer. and reserves the right to change specification and details without prior notice. Registered Firms Scheme for Quality Assurance to B. 4.S.8 Bearings : Level and structurally adequate bearings for Bison precast units should be provided by other contractors. this should be carried out in strict accordance with the Bison drawings. FM 11 HCF/ 02 / 04 5985 Consortium Communications Ltd.) and awarded Certificates of Assessed Capability under the scheme covering Quality Assurance for the manufacture of precast concrete floors. The company maintains a policy of continuous development.co. but may be reduced in accordance with clause 5.S.I.11 Propping : Where the slab design requires site propping.S. 4. 4. All Bison U. Membership of the scheme ensures that all procedures and disciplines relevant to the design and manufacturing processes are subject to the independent approval and periodic review by the British Standards Institution. The mass of Bison unit sections are given in the technical data and are net weights of standard hollow sections.3 of B. design detailing and quality control have been independently inspected and have achieved the high level of competence and quality required by the British Standards Institution.S.10 Grouting : Joints between units should be grouted with a 20 N/mm2 concrete using a 6 mm nominal aggregate size.2.BISON PRECAST FLOORING S P E C I F I C AT I O N QUALITY ASSURANCE 4. 5.7 Horizontal & Vertical Ties : Ties necessary to satisfy the requirements for accidental damage should be specified by the Engineer with responsibility for the design of the overall structure in accordance with the Code of Practice.1997 Designs to Class 1 and Class 2 are available if required. Tel: 01494 681600 email: info@consortcom.8110:1997.uk 14 . EN ISO 9001:1994 for the design and manufacture of precast concrete products.1 All Bison manufacturing plants are members of the B. These should generally be 100 mm for masonry or 75 mm for concrete or steelwork.

PRECAST STAIRCASES BEAM AND BLOCK FLOORS STRUCTURES CAR PARKS BISON CONCRETE PRODUCTS LIMITED Millennium Court First Avenue.uk .uk WEB www. Centrum 100 Burton Upon Trent. DE14 2WR FAX 01283 5 4 4 9 0 0 T E L 01283 4 9 5 0 0 0 E-MAIL concrete@bison.co.co.bison.

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