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HUE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH

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NGUYEN VAN TUAN

TRANSLATION 1&2

HUE - 2006

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INTRODUCTION
An increasing number of universities in Vietnam have added courses in translation to their curricula; however, the textbooks available for such courses are few. This unit has been written with these courses in mind. The unit is designed to provide the learners with some basic principles of translation which will be generally useful to translation courses in universities and colleges, to help the learners avoid some errors they may encounter when they translate a text, to provide the learners with essential English sentence patterns that could be very useful for the learners in learning and practicing translating and to provide the learners 20 assignments related to the theory they have learned. The desire of the author is to make available the principles of translation which have learned through personal experience in translation and teaching translation, and through interaction with colleagues involved in translation projects in many universities in Central Vietnam. Since it is assumed that the students will be speakers of Vietnamese language, many of these exercises involve translating from or into their mother tongue. The material is presented in a way that it can be used in a self-teaching situation or in a classroom. An attempt has been made to keep technical terms to a minimum. When technical vocabulary is used, every effort is made to clarify the meaning of such vocabulary or to provide its meaning in Vietnamese. This has been done so that the unit can be used by any student translator, even though his exposure to linguistic and translation theory has been minimal. This is an introductory unit. The lessons give an overview presenting the fundamental principles of translation and the rest of the unit illustrates these principles. The overriding principle is that translation is meaning-based rather than form-based. Once the learner has identified the meaning of the source text, his goal is to express that same meaning in the receptor/target language. Many examples of cross-language equivalence are used to illustrate this principle. Since the coursebook has been written for the students to learn either by themselves in their distant learning course or in class with a teacher, there will be a coursebook and 20 assignments. By the end of the course, the students will be able to: 1. obtain general knowledge of the principles of translation . 2. get familiar with and effectively use the English sentence patterns in their translations. On the completion of this coursebook, I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. Ton Nu Nhu Huong for her encouragement. I would also like to be grateful to Dr. Tran Van Phuoc and other colleagues of the College of Foreign Languages and the English Department for their kind help. Errors are unavoidable in this coursebook. Therefore, I appreciate and welcome any criticism on the course book. Hue, June 24th, 2001 Nguyen Van Tuan

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CHAPTER 1:
LESSON 1:
1.What is translation?

THEORY OF TRANSLATION
FORM AND MEANING

1.1. Translation is the expression in another language (target language) of what has been expressed in one language (source language), preserving semantic and stylistic equivalencies. (By Roger T. Bell). 1.2. Translation is the replacement of a representation of a text in one language by a representation of an equivalent text in a second language. (By Roger T. Bell). The author continues and makes the problems of equivalence very plain: Texts in different languages can be equivalent in different degrees (fully or partially different), in respect of different levels of presentation (in respect of context, of semantics, of grammar, of lexis, etc.) and at different ranks (word-for-word, phrase-for-phrase, sentencefor-sentence). However, languages are different from each other; they are different in form having different codes and rules regulating the construction of grammatical stretches of language and these forms have different meanings. To shift from one language to another is, by definition, to change the forms. Also, the contrasting forms convey meanings which cannot but fail to coincide totally; there is no absolute synonym between words in the same language, why should anyone be surprised to discover a lack synonym between languages. Something is always „lost‟ (or might one suggest „gain‟?) in the process and translators can find themselves being accused of reproducing only part of the original and so „betraying‟ the author‟s intentions. Hence the traitorous nature ascribed to the translator by the notorious Italian proverb: “ Traduttore traditore”. Faced by a text in a language, we are able to work out not only the meaning of each word and sentence but also its communicative value, its place in time and space and information about the participants involved in its production and reception. We might take, as a light-hearted model of the questions we can ask of the text, the first verse of a short poem by Kipling. I keep six honest serving men; (They taught me all I knew); Their names were What? And Why? And When? And How? And Where? And Who? What? is the message contained in the text; the content of the signal. Why? orients us towards the intention of the sender, the purpose for which the text was is used. (Informing, persuading, flattering, etc.) When? is concerned with the time of communication realized in the text and setting in its historical context; contemporary or set in the recent or remote past or future.

3 Where? is concerned with the place of communication, the physical location of the speech event realized in the text. How? refers to whether the text is written in a formal or informal way. Who? refers to the participants involved in the communication; the sender and receiver. 1.3. Translation is rendering a written text into another language in a way that the author intended the text. (By Bui Tien Bao- Hanoi National University) “ Translators are concerned with written texts. They render written texts from one language into another language. Translators are required to translate texts which arrange from simple items including birth certificates or driving licences to more complex written materials such as articles in journals of various kinds, business contracts and legal documents.” (Bui Tien BaoHanoi National University). 1.4. Translation, by dictionary definition, consists of changing from one state or form to another, to turn into one‟s own or another‟s language. (The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 1974). Translation is basically a change of form. When we speak of the form of a language, we are referring to the actual words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, etc. The forms are referred to as the surface structure of a language. It is the structural part of language which is actually seen in print or heard in speech. In translation the form of the source language is replaced by the form of the receptor/target language. But how is this change accomplished? What determines the choices of form in the translation? The purpose of this lesson is to show that translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. This is done by going from the form of the first language to the form of the second language by a way of semantic structure. It is meaning that is being transferred and must be held constant. Only the form changes. The form from which the translation is made will be called the source language and the form into which it is to be changed will be called the receptor language. Translation, then, consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon, grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context. Let us look at an example. Assume that we are translating the Vietnamese sentence ‘‘ C¸m ¬n b¹n ®· gióp ®ì t«i tËn t×nh.’’ into English. This Vietnamese sentence has the verb ‘gióp ®ì tËn t×nh’, but to convey the same meaning in English one would use a noun phrase: „ your kind help‟. To do effective translation one must discover the meaning of the source language and use the receptor language forms which express the meaning in a natural way. It is the purpose of this unit to familiarize the learners with the basic linguistic and sociolinguistic factors involved in translating a text from a source language into a receptor language, and to give them enough practice in the translation process for the development of skills in cross-language transfer.

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2. Characteristics of language which affect translation
There are certain characteristics of languages which have a very direct bearing on principles of translation. First, let us look at the characteristics of meaning components. Meaning components are packaged into lexical items, but they are packaged differently in one language than in another. In most languages there is a meaning of plurality, for example the English -s. This often occurs in the grammar as a suffix on the nouns or verbs or both. In Vietnamese, however, plurality is expressed in an isolated word ‘ nh‚ng/c¸c’. Many times a single word in the source language will need to be translated by several words. For example, a projector was called the thing that shows pictures on the wall by the Chipara Bolivia.

Second, it is characteristic of languages that the same meaning component will occur in several surface structure lexical items. In English, the word „sheep‟ occurs. However, the words „lamb‟,‟ ram‟ and „ewe‟ also include the meaning „sheep‟. They include the addition meaning components of young (in „lamb‟, adult and male in „ ram‟ and adult and female in „ewe‟. In Peru, „lamb‟ would need to be translated by „sheep its child‟, „ram‟ by „ sheep big‟ and „ewe‟ by „sheep its woman‟. Third, it is further characteristic of language that one form will be used to represent several alternative meanings. This again is obvious from looking in any good dictionary. For example, the Reader‟s Digest Great Encyclopedic Dictionary gives 54 meanings for the English word „run‟. Most words have more than one meaning. There will be a primary meaning-the one which usually comes to mind when the word is said in isolation-and the secondary meaningthe additional meanings, which a word has in context with other words. In English, we can say „ the boy runs‟, using „run‟ in its primary meaning. We can also say „ the motor runs, the river runs, and his nose runs‟, using runs in its secondary meanings. This principle is not limited to lexical items for it is also true that the same grammatical pattern may express several quite different meanings. For instance, the English possessive phrase „my house‟ may mean „the house I built‟, „ the house I rent‟, „the house I live in‟, or the house for which I drew up in my plans.‟ Only the larger context determines the meaning. Notice the following possessive phrases and the variety of meanings: my car my brother my foot my singing my book my village my train ownership kinship part-whole action ownership or authorship ( the book I own, or, the book I wrote) residence ( the village where I live) use

the question: “ Mary. We have seen that one form may express many meanings. blanket. and may in some context be asking for information. On the other hand. and. nhµ. ®ang bµy b¸n. John was stopped by the bookstand. Also. which is black. John found the book on the floor. the meaning is essentially the same in the following English sentences: Others blamed John because of the difficulty. so grammatical markers have their primary function and often have other secondary functions. the black cat. The preposition „on‟ is used in English to signal a variety of meanings. another characteristic of languages is that a single meaning may be expressed in a variety of forms. but it is often used with the meaning of command rather than a real question. John found the book on mathematics. the cat. by is used to signal that the bookstand is the location. John found the book on sale. depending on how that meaning relates to other meanings. and pillows in neat order on the bed. John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch trªn sµn John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch viÕt vÒ John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch vµo John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch Compare also the following uses of ‘ by’ John was stopped by the policeman. . A simple English sentence like “ He made the bed. by is used to signal the meaning that the policeman is the agent of the action. or “ He put the sheets. In the first.5 (the train I ride on) Whole sentences may also have several functions. In the second. Compare the following uses of „on‟ with the corresponding form used in Vietnamese. For example. why don‟t you wash the dishes?” has a form of a question. Others blamed the difficulty on John.” May mean either “He made (as a carpenter would make) the bed”. Others blamed John for the difficulty. the meanings of “ Is this place taken?” “Is there anyone sitting here?” and “ May I sit here?” are essentially the same. thø Ba. For example. the meaning “ the cat is black” may be expressed by the following: the cat is black. In addition.” Just as words have primary and secondary meanings. John found the book on Tuesday. m«n to¸n. Others said John was responsible for the difficulty. A question form may be used for a nonquestion.

The meaning. not form is retained. “ he is frightened. he saw his appearance one little necklace. and may even be quite meaningless.e. One day the things he walks in a plantation or in them the coastlands. in translation the same meaning may have to be expressed in another language by a very different form. Therefore. It can hardly be called a translation. that is one which has the same meaning as the source language but is expressed in the natural form of the receptor language. has no emotional sympathy. The following is a literal translation of a story first told in the Quiche language of Guatemala: “It is said that being one man not from here. It is generally no more than a string of words intended to help someone read a text in its original language.grammatical structure translation would be possible. We have seen that even within a single language there are a great variety of ways in which form expresses meaning. then all lexical items and all grammatical forms would have only one meaning and a literal word-for-word and grammatical structure-for. not known where the his or the he comes where. Each language has its own distinctive forms for representing the meaning. A word-for-word translation which follows closely the form of the source language is called a literal translation. that is. His heart is cold (meaning „he is unfeeling. the diversity or the lack of one-to-one correlation between form and meaning is the basic reason that translation is a complicated task. To translate the form of one language literally according to the corresponding form in another language would often change the meaning or at least result in a form which is unnatural in the second language. The goal of a translator should be to produce a receptor language text (a translation) which is idiomatic. But the fact is that a language is a complex set of skewed relationship between meaning (semantics) and form (lexicon and grammar).‟) literally into Mambila in Nigeria would be understood to mean. Only when a form being used in its primary meaning or function is there a one-to-one correlation between form and meaning. If there were no skewing. or he thought that a little necklace the very pretty thrown on the ground in the road. “ he is peaceful.6 Others accused John of being responsible for the difficulty. to translate the English sentence “ he is cold hearted” i. Meaning must. It is meaning that is to be carried over from the source language to the receptor language. therefore. A literal translation does not communicate the meaning of the source text. For example. not the linguistic forms. have priority over form in translation. it would mean.” And if translated literally into Cinyanja in Zambia. The other meanings are secondary meanings or figurative meanings. It is unnatural and hard to understand. or give a wrong meaning in the receptor language. Words have these extended meanings and in the same way grammatical forms have extended usages (secondary and figurative function). not quick-tempered. This characteristic of “skewing”. He took the necklace this he threw in his mouth for its cause that coming the one person another to his behind ness.” The nature of language is that each language uses different forms and these forms have secondary and figurative meanings which add further complications. for his that not he encounters the one the following this way in his behindness not he knows and that the necklace the he threw in his mouth this one .

” Anything which can be said in one language can be said in another. He did not know he put a snake into his mouth rather than a necklace.” Now compare the above with the following less literal translation of the same story: “ It is said that there once was a man not from here. what he thought was a very pretty little necklace.” In the first. the natural forms of English lexicon and grammar were used to express the meaning of the Quiche story. It is possible to translate. or rather. He snatched up this necklace and threw this into his mouth because there was another person walking behind him and he did not want him to see the necklace. The stranger did not know that the necklace was really a snake. 3. the receptor language form should be changed in order that the source language meaning should not be distorted. Wherever necessary. He grabbed this necklace and threw this into his mouth because there was someone coming along behind him. The goal of the translator is to keep the meaning constant. but rather a snake. it is often necessary to change the form when translating. Below the story is again rewritten in a more idiomatic English style. lying on the road. He did not know that what he had put in his mouth was not a necklace. He did not know that the necklace he threw into his mouth was really a snake. each quiche word was replaced by the nearest English equivalent. “I am told that there once was a stranger from some other town who was walking in a plantation along the coast. Notes Form-based translation: Meaning-based translation: chuyÓn t¶i Source language: Receptor language: Context: Principle of translation: Meaning component: dÞch dùa vµo h×nh thøc hay cÊu tróc dÞch dùa vµo nghÜa. and he did not want the other person to see it. As he walked along he suddenly saw a very pretty little necklace lying on the road. He saw a little necklace. Since a meaning expressed by a particular form in one language may be expressed by quite a different form in another language. The result was nonsense. He died because he did not realize that it was a snake. dùa vµo néi dung cÇn ng«n ng÷ gèc ng«n ng÷ dÞch v¨n c¶nh/ ng÷ c¶nh nguyªn t¾c dÞch/kü thuËt dÞch thµnh tè nghÜa . The man died immediately. In the second translation. and I do not know his town or where he came from. who one day was walking in a plantation (or in the coastlands).7 snake and the man this one died right now because not he knows his appearance the snake or that the he ate this not this a necklace only probably this snake. The man died in short order because he did not recognize from its appearance that it was a snake.

What is an idiomatic translation? Give some examples of idiomatic translations. Some differ in meaning. each of which contains a word used in a secondary sense. He saw the bird. 4. 4. The students like studying translation. Self-study 4. The students like to study translation. What is a literal translation? Can you give some examples of literal translations? 3. What is translation? What definition do you think is the most appropriate? Can you give your own definition of translation? 2. The old man was dropped by them. What are the secondary meanings? Give ten sentences. Identify change of meaning versus change of form. 2. Indicate if the primary change is in the form or in the meaning. 6. 3. What characteristics of language affect translation? 5. Some of the following pairs of sentences differ in their form.8 Lexical: Surface structure: Deep structure: Meaning/ sense: Primary meaning: Secondary meaning: Literal translation: One-to-one correlation: Figurative meaning: Function: Idiomatic translation: (thuéc vÒ) tõ vùng cÊu tróc bÒ mÆt cÊu tróc s©u/cÊu tróc ng÷ nghÜa nghÜa nghÜa chÝnh/nghÜa gèc nghÜa ph¸i sinh dÞch tõng tõ mét quan hÖ mét ®èi mét nghÜa bãng chøc n¨ng dÞch ®óng. Example: They robbed the old man. Answer: Change of form 1. What is the primary meaning? Give ten sentences. I bought a pair of leather shoes.2 Exercises A. He heard the cat.1 Questions for discussion 1. dÞch s¸t nghi· 4. I bought a pair of horseshoes. . each of which contains a word used in a primary sense.

the doctor‟s office 2. After two weeks he came. the jug water 2. I want you to go to bed. a hot day 4. 8. 5. Phillip went walking. saw. there is a change of meaning which is signaled by that lexical item. All of the following have the same grammatical form. He was awaken by a thunderclap. mother‟s long blue dress 5. Two weeks later he came. With the change of lexical items. The young man had an English grammar book stolen. 6. 9. A thunderclap awakened him. the doctor‟s brother . the doctor‟s patient 3. Go to bed. 7. which is black 1.the man owns the car The man‟s eye . There is a book on the table. An English grammar book was stolen from the young man. the doctor‟s book 4.the eye is part of the man 1. I came. B. Peter‟s house C. and conquered. Example: the cat is black the black cat the cat.9 4. John bought a car 3. List as many grammatical forms as you can which realize the same meaning as the one given below. I saw. Phillip took a walk. There is a table in the book. Then put the same meaning into a language other than English in as many forms as you can. How can that meaning best be expressed in another language which you speak? Example: The man‟s car . apart from the referential meaning of the word itself. 10. I conquered. What meaning is signaled in each of the following possessive phrases? Answer by restating. I came.

But there are many people who do not agree that this is so. (b) He did not say anything. Others do not agree. (a) There are four rooms in the house. (a) In my opinion. (a) John is ill: he has a bad case of malaria. (b) I bought tomatoes and onions in the market. (b) My mother and father are well. (a) I bought cloth to make Mary a new dress. (a) I bought vegetables in the market. For each pair of sentences. 7. (a) He remained silent. (a) There is a book on the table. LESSON 2: KINDS OF TRANSLATION 1. 2. (b) The house has four rooms and a kitchen at the back. 9. (b) There is a table on the book. (b) John is very ill indeed. 10. (b) The day was hot. different in meaning.10 5. (b) Rain fell all night. Some say they are doing well and making many improvements in the country. Literal versus idiomatic . (a) My parents are well. (b) The news very much amazed John when he heard it. the same in meaning or 2. (a) It was a hot day. the doctor‟s hand 6. 8. (b) Opinions are divided concerning the government. 3. 6. (a) John was very surprised when he heard the news. (a) Peter‟s house (b) The house that belongs to Peter 4. (b) I bought a new dress for Mary. state whether the two sentences are 1. 1. the doctor‟s house D. 5. the government is doing well and making many improvements in the country. Example: (a) It rained all night.

An interlinear translation is a completely literal translation. Most translators who tend to translate literally actually make a partially modified literal translation. since the general grammatical form may be similar. Meaning-based translations make every effort to communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language. the result still does not sound natural. The appropriate translation would be: Would you like to come to my home? If the two languages are related. as discussed in the previous lesson. Such translations are called idiomatic translations. Occasionally. This English version is a literal translation of the French. The following bilingual announcement was overheard at an airport ( Barnwell 1980:18) Literal English: Madame Odette passenger with destination Domda is demanded on the telephone. They modify the order and grammar enough to use acceptable sentence structure in the receptor language. . This literal translation makes little sense in English. However. est demandeÐ au telefon. (literal) (modified literal) I fastened her in my heart. there are two main kinds of translation. However. as for example. passenger for Domda. However. French: Madame Odette. For some purposes. a truly literal translation is uncommon. You are wanted on the phone. passager µ destination de Domda. Except for interlinear translation. For example: Vietnamese: Literal translation: Mêi b¹n vÒ nhµ t«i ch¬i Invite friend about house me play. Although these literal translations may be very useful for purposes related to the study of the source language. the literal choice of lexical items may the translation sounds foreign. Form-based translations attempt to follow the form of the source language and are known as literal translation. I my heart fastened-her. Notice the following example from a language in Papua New Guinea: Ro abombo ngusifu pamariboyandi. in a linguistic study of that language. An idiomatic translation into English would be: Miss Odette. the literal translation can often be understood. A literal translation sounds like nonsense and has little communication value. it is desirable to reproduce the linguistic features of the source text. these are also changed to avoid complete nonsense or to improve the communication. the lexical items are translated literally. One is form-based and the other is meaning-based.11 Because a given text has both form and meaning. they are of little help to speakers of the receptor language who are interested in the meaning of the source language text.

e. However.” The translator‟s goal should be to reproduce in a receptor language a text which communicates the same message as the source language but using the natural grammatical and lexical choices of the receptor language. A translator may express some parts of his translation in very natural forms and then in other parts fall back into a literal form. he will follow the form of the source text even though a different form might be more natural in the receptor language. ‘‘ NhiÒu du kh¸ch n-íc ngoµi ®· giíi thiÖu cho chóng t«i vÒ kh¸ch s¹n H-¬ng Giang. In one translation.” Or “ I‟ve kept her memory in my heart. English has many nouns which really refer to actions while Vietnamese prefers to express actions as verbs rather than nouns. “ There is a general agreement that the government has given top priority to education. the source text said. “ Huong Giang Hotel has been recommended to us by a number of foreign tourists. This is his goal.” It was translated.’’ It was translated. both in the grammatical constructions and in the choice of lexical items. the source text said. This would . It will not always be possible to translate a source language noun with a noun in the receptor language. An idiomatic translation would have used the form: “ I never forgot her. and sometimes nonsensical translations.” A person who translates in a modified literal manner will change the grammatical forms when the constructions are obligatory. The basic overriding principle is that an idiomatic translation reproduces the meaning of the source language in the natural form of the receptor language. Translating grammatical features Parts of speech are language specific. adjectives and so on. It sounds like it was written originally in the receptor language. lexical items being translated. the sentence still does not communicate in clear English. It is not easy to consistently translate. Therefore. verbs. In a modified literal translation. translations are often a mixture of a literal transfer of the grammatical units along with some idiomatic translation of the meaning of the text. Literal translations of words. 2.” It would have been translated idiomatically. if he has a choice. Idiomatic translations use the natural forms of the receptor language. i.12 The modified literal translation changes the order into English structure. Each language has its own division of the lexicon into classes such as nouns. In one translation. However. A truly idiomatic translation does not sound like a translation. ‘‘ Cã mét sù ®ång ý chung r»ng chÝnh phñ ®· dµnh nhiÒu sù -u tiªn cho gi¸o dôc’’. However. “ Many foreign tourists have introduced us about Huong Giang Hotel. For example. idioms result in unclear. Literal and modified literal translations consistently err in that they choose literal equivalents for the words. but the unnaturalness still remains. the translator usually adjusts the translation enough to avoid the nonsense and wrong meanings. Different languages will have different classes and subclasses. unnatural. a good translator will try to translate idiomatically.

he must distinguish degrees of honor even though nothing in the source language indicates these distinctions. ‘‘Ai còng ®ång ý r»ng chÝnh phñ ®· dµnh nhiÒu -u tiªn cho gi¸o dôc. for example. village industry. planning. planning and government spending. An idiomatic translation was made which used verbs as in the following. trade would have to be rendered by verbs in most languages. activity. the appropriate subject and object of the verb may need to be made explicit also.” Such sentences are very difficult for translators who want to translate into the native language of the country. Words such as Decentralization. He will need to understand the culture of the Balinese and the cultural context of the text he is translating in order to choose correctly. In English. The form in the receptor language is very different from the source language form and yet this kind of adjustment.” Clearly . “The government wants to decrease the work it does for businesses and what it plans and the money it spends in the capital. When verbs are used. and wants to increase what people and groups in local area do to help farmers and small businesses whose owners live in the villages. using verbs rather than using nouns. For example. The following simple sentences from Vietnamese is given with a literal English translations: ChÞ sèng ë ®©u? You live where ? . and more spending channeled through local and area bodies. a translator in Papua New Guinea was asked to translate the Eight Point Improvement Plan for Papua New Guinea. must be made in order to communicate the message. Pronominal systems vary greatly from language to language and the translator is obliged to use the form of the receptor language even though they may have very different meanings than the pronouns of the source language.” Most languages have a class of words which may be called pronouns. may be completely reserved. better internal trade. The translator would need to look for the natural way to communicate second person and the feeling of empathy carried by the source language. Or if a translator is translating into Balinese. In translating these pronouns into another language. the first plural pronoun we is often used when the real meaning is second person you. if one is translating into Kiowa (USA). One point reads. the pronouns do not refer to the nurse or the teacher but to the children whom she is addressing you. The reason for the use of we is to show empathy and understanding. the pronouns will have to indicate a different between singular. The order . dual and plural person even though the source language does not make this three-way distinction. The nurse say to the sick child. government spending. “We‟re not going to shout. emphasis development.” Or the teacher says. and help people in this country buy and sell things made in this country and to help local groups spend the government‟s money. “Decentralization of economic activity.’’ Similarly. then. quietly to our we‟ll walk places. Grammatical constructions also vary between the source language and the receptor language.13 have been translated idiomatically. a literal translation with first person plural would probably distort the meaning. with emphasis on agricultural development. “ It‟s time for us to take our medicine now.

. metaphors. but a translator should translate the meaning not concern himself with whether the forms turn out the same or not.sai chç. false friends. Nguyen Du is considered to be a great poet. and other figurative meanings. It is not uncommon that passive constructions will need to be translated with an active construction or vice versa. Translating lexical features Each language has its own idiomatic way of expressing meaning lexical items. 3. ( passive) Ng-êi ta xem NguyÔn Du lµ mét nhµ th¬ vÜ ®¹i. It will readily be seen that understandable translations into English requires a complete reversal of the order: She often wears a small blue silk shirt. For example. The above translated sentences are only examples to show some types of grammatical adjustments which will result if a translator translates idiomatically in the source language. Vietnamese: A: ChuyÖn g× ®· x¶y ra víi toµn bé sè tiÒn mµ b¹n cã ®-îc sau khi gi¶i quyÕt xong chuyÖn chóc th. Or: The fever was no more in him. English: Vietnamese: (active) English: A: What has happened to all your money after the will was settled and the business was sold? (passive) B: The usual thing. (active) B: Còng lÏ th-êng t×nh th«i.vµ b¸n ®i c¶ s¶n nghiÖp. there will be times by coincidence they match. She often wears a shirt silk blue small. b¹n bÌ gi¶ dèi. fast-living style and bad investment. He cooled. Vietnamese people tend to use active constructions to express their ideas whereas English people prefer to use passive constructions. secondary meanings. He cooled. Certainly. notice the following ways in which a fever is referred to ( literal translations are given to show the source language form): Greek: Aguaruna: Vietnamese: The fever left him. Languages abound in idioms. depending on the natural form of the receptor language. For example.14 C« Êy th-êng mÆc ¸o s¬ mi v¶i silk mµu xanh cì nhá. ¨n ch¬i hoang ®µn vµ ®Çu t.

a literal translation of blind as a bat might sound really strange in a language where the comparison between a blind person and a bat has never been use as a figure of speech. one cannot say the following break into debt. The literal English is misleading.15 Ilocano: The fever was no more in him. in Vietnamese to say that someone is cøng ®Çu cøng cæ means that the person is „stubborn‟. etc. but the receptor language word or phrase which has the equivalent meaning will be the correct one to use in the translation. or His temperature returned to normal. Care would need to be taken if pig were used metaphorically or a wrong meaning might result in the receptor language. Similarly. I have been busy with my work. I have buried my head into my business. The following idioms occur in Vietnamese. In Vietnamese it would be more natural to say strong as a buffalo. It could means that the person is stupid or that the person is a greedy. He is as strong as a buffalo. The combinations are fixed as to form and their meaning comes from their combination. jump into a fight. For example. In the second is an idiomatic translation. LITERAL I don‟t have my eye on you. dive into a book. when someone is called a pig in English. Languages abound in such idioms. The meaning has little to do with ®Çu or cæ. break into society. But the comparison is often different and so the figure will be misunderstood unless some adjustment is made. In Vietnamese. Similarly. There is a legend in which the sun borrowed the fox‟s eyes and then returned to heaven taking the fox‟s good eyes with him and leaving the fox with the sun‟s inferior eyes. The form cannot be kept. it usually means he is dirty or a greedy eater. Names of animals are used metaphorically in most languages.e. it has different meanings. A literal word-for-word translation of these idioms into another language will not make sense. rush into a fight. All languages have idioms. He is as strong as a horse. . a string of words whose meaning is different than the meaning conveyed by the individual words. Figures of speech are often based on stories or historical incidents. stumble into acquaintance. In Aguaruma it would be more natural to say blind as a fox. A literal translation of strong as a horse might sound really strange in a language where the comparison between a strong person and a horse has never been use as a figure of speech. The following are a few English idioms using in and into: run into debt. That is why they say. Translators who wants to make a good idiomatic translation often find figures of speech especially challenging. In the first column is a literal translation from Vietnamese. In spite of all these combinations. IDIOMATIC I don‟t remember you. rush into print. fall into print. The English translations of all six would be : His fever went down. when the fox is trying to see. fall in love. i. he stretches back his head and looks with his throat. step into a practice. In English to say that someone is bullheaded means that the person is „stubborn‟. dive into debt. The meaning has little to do with bull or head .

The meaning is not clear. the weather is too hot for us to feel like eating.1 Questions for discussion 1. and then to look for the equivalent way in which the same message is expressed naturally in the receptor language. What are the differences between a literal translation and an idiomatic translation? 2. a translator who is concerned with transferring the meaning will find that the receptor language has a way in which the desired meaning can be expressed even though it may be very different from the source language form. He will know he is successful if the receptor language readers do not recognize his work as a translation at all. Conclusion It is obvious that translation is a complicated process. to write analysis of it.” could mean any of the following: The food is too hot to eat. 5. Notes Form-based translation : Meaning-based translation: Literal translation: Idiomatic translation: Interference : Mother-tongue interference: To make adjustments: Translating grammatical features: Parts of speech: Subclass: Indo-European language: Pronominal system: dÞch dùa vµo h×nh thøc dÞch dùa vµo nghÜa dÞch tõng tõ mét dÞch ®óng nghÜa sù can thiÖp sù can thiÖp cña tiÕng mÑ ®Î hiÖu ®Ýnh/ ®iÒu chØnh ®Æc tr-ng ng÷ ph¸p dÞch tõ lo¹i nhãm nhá ng«n ng÷ Ên-¢u hÖ thèng ®¹i tõ 6. first of all. and some times brilliant translation. “ It is too hot to eat. how can a translator ever hope to produce an adequate translation? Literal translation can only be avoided by careful analysis of the source language: by. What should you do to translate a text idiomatically? . A translator who takes the time to study carefully the source language text. In the process of making an idiomatic translation. For example. the horse is too hot after running a race and does not want to eat. His goal must be to avoid literalisms and to strive for a truly idiomatic receptor language text. However. but simply as a text written in the receptor language for their information and enjoyment. Self-study 6. understanding clearly the message to be communicated. 4. Considering the complexity of language structures. will be able to provide an adequate.16 Some lexical combinations of the source language may be ambiguous. such ambiguities must often be resolved and only the intended meaning communicated.

(b) He then his mishap reported to the police. Look for literalisms in the following translations into English and underline the words or phrases that do not sound natural in English.(a) The storekeeper said that we will refund your money. 4. What lexical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas. The forms used shows examples of how their mother-tongue language . How many children have shed hot tears about spelling? (b) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform . he lost our belief in him. The participants discussed about the causes of pollution environment. (b) The storekeeper promised to refund our money. In each of the following pairs of sentences.17 3. He told the one little story. 2. I feel my house absent anybody. All of these examples are from published translated material. 7. 4. After saying lies many times. who are the thief searching intensively B. Suggest a more idiomatic way of saying it. 3. I left my village for three years. (b) He is one boy. a or b? How would the meaning be expressed idiomatically in the language you speak? 1. many foreign countries have been investing in Vietnam. 3. Foreign tourists usually at Kinh Do Hotel for their friends have introduced to them very much about this hotel. Every time my mother goes to work . 5.(a) A certain boy told me this little story at a party. 9. 1.2 Exercises A. 5. Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam. Each of the following are sentences written by some Vietnamese who are not yet fluent English speakers.too. This is a game he said. Hue is famous about its delicious dishes and beautiful landscapes. 8. who are searching diligently for the thief. And how many hot children‟s tears have not been shed on spelling? 4. One thing makes me proud of my village is a large green field that provides one part of life for people. 2. a time not long but like a century. A robbery took place of a motorcycle rider at Kampung early yesterday morning. What grammatical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas. 6. which is more idiomatic English.(a) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform as well. 10. C. The third-year students often visit the schools in the city for the attendance of the class.(a) He then reported his misfortune to the police. Why do you have to take the time to read the source language text carefully before translating it? 6.

chiÕm cø : take up/ to be situated/ to occupy .cao nguyªn : plateau .tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. Translate the following Vietnamese sentences as idiomatically as possible. . I will think you time to time day and day.) 2.) 4.) D. 1. ( I have now lived in Hanoi for 12 years. (If there is any way to do so.18 structures have been carried over into English. Sir.cha «ng: ancestors . §µ L¹t chiÕm cø mét vïng ®Êt réng trªn cao nguyªn L©m Viªn. xung quanh toµn lµ nói ®åi hïng vÜ. s«ng §µ. send me a letter to Saigon. send a letter to me in Saigon. ( Sir. ®ång ©m víi ‘‘n-íc’’ trong ý nghÜa tæ quèc quª h-¬ng. Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ cña ViÖt Nam ph¶i ®-îc xÐt trong hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh kÐo dµi. the problems of before don‟t forget. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh..xung quanh: to be surrounded by/ with 4. 1. th× ‘‘n-íc’’ (trong s«ng. trong hå. Cha «ng ta ®· uèng n-íc s«ng Hång..®ång nghÜa : synonym/ synonymous .) l¹i ®ång nghÜa. If there is any means. please don‟t forget the problems we discussed before. What changes were made in correcting the English? These changes point out some of the differences between Vietnamese and English. trong biÓn.) 3. Hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh Êy ®· g©y ra . ( I am very happy to be able to send/write you this letter.trong ý nghÜa : to mean/ to signify . ChÞ may ¸o s¬ mi nµy ë ®©u vËy? 2.. Trong tiÕng ViÖt.tæ quèc quª h-¬ng: homeland/ fatherland/ motherland . I am a man who has been to Hanoi for 12 years. ( I will be thinking about you often every day.thèng nhÊt : uniformity . I am very grateful to inform you with this letter.) 5. .sèng chÕt: to try hard to protect them/ to spare no pain to protect them 3. The same information is then given in parenthesis in idiomatic English.®ång ©m : homonym . s«ng Cöu Long vµ ®· sèng chÕt víi s«ng n-íc nµy.

cã nh÷ng b-íc tiÕn kú diÖu: to be dramatically improved .m¹ng l-íi : network .vÊn ®Ò nghiªm träng : serious problem . . dinh d-ìng vµ gi¸o dôc cho phô n÷.hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh kÐo dµi : in the context of the long period of war .®-îc xÐt : to be viewed/ to be considered/ to be taken into account .®-¬ng ®Çu : to face . Ngµy nay thÕ giíi ®ang ®-ong ®Çu víi nhiÒu vÊn ®Ò nghiªm träng cho dï ®· cã nhiÒu b-íc tiÕn ®¸ng kÓ trong lÜnh vùc khoa häc.®Þa vÞ : status .®µi truyÒn h×nh : television station . . cßn cã 25 ®µi thuéc c¸c tØnh ®-îc thµnh lËp vµo n¨m 1988.g©y ra thiÖt h¹i : to cause damage to .19 nhiÒu thiÖt h¹i vÒ sinh m¹ng vµ tµi s¶n còng nh. Ngoµi nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh t-¬ng ®èi hiÖn ®¹i.thµnh lËp : to establish/ set up . MÆc dï ®Þa vÞ cña phô n÷ ®· cã nh÷ng b-íc tiÕn kú diÖu.c«ng tr×nh c«ng céng : public facilities .truyÒn nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh : to relay the transmissions . Nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh nµy sÏ truyÒn nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh quan träng cña ®µi truyÒn h×nh trung -¬ng vµ ph¸t ch-¬ng tr×nh cña ®µi m×nh.tµi nguyªn : resources 5.ph¸t: to broadcast 7. M¹ng l-íi truyÒn h×nh ®ang x©y dùng réng kh¾p c¶ n-íc.dinh d-ìng : nutrition 6. . cã tõ l©u ®êi nh.®µi truyÒn h×nh Hµ Néi vµ Thµnh Phè Hå ChÝ Minh. Mét trong nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò ®ã lµ sù bïng næ d©n sè. ®Æc biÖt ë c¸c n-íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn. D©n sè ®ang t¨ng theo cÊp sè nh©n trong lóc s¶n xuÊt hµng ho¸ l¹i t¨ng theo cÊp sè céng. nh-ng ng-êi ta ph¶i thùc hiÖn nhiÒu chuyÖn kh¸c ®Ó c¶i thiÖn t×nh tr¹ng søc khoÎ.l©u ®êi: long-standing .cã nhiÒu b-íc tiÕn ®¸ng kÓ : to take great strikes .c¸c c«ng tr×nh c«ng céng vµ tµi nguyªn.tµi s¶n : property .sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ : the economic development . c«ng nghÖ vµ tri thøc. .

s¶n Anh lóc bÊy giê.cö ®¹i diÖn : to be represented .®iÒu lÖ : regulations 10.s¶n xuÊt hµng ho¸ : the production of goods 8.sù phª ph¸n : criticism . .sù t-¬ng ph¶n : contrast .20 .®-îc quyÒn lµm g× : to have the right to do something . Charles Dickens lµ mét trong nh÷ng nhµ viÕt tiÓu thuyÕt lín nhÊt thÕ giíi. .giµu vµ nghÌo : wealth and poverty .téi ¸c : evil .tr-êng ph¸i hiÖn thùc phª ph¸n : the school of critical realism . §iÒu mµ chóng ta ®¸nh gi¸ cao vÒ nh÷ng t¸c phÈm cña Dickens lµ sù phª ph¸n vÒ téi ¸c vµ sù t-¬ng ph¶n gi÷a giµu vµ nghÌo cña x· héi t. thuéc tr-êng ph¸i hiÖn thùc phª ph¸n thÕ kû 19.t¨ng theo cÊp sè nh©n : to grow in geometric progression .nhµ viÕt tiÓu thuyÕt : novelist .Quèc Héi : the National Assembly .Héi §ång Bé Tr-ëng : the Council of Ministers . .s¶n Anh : the English boutgeois society . Héi Liªn HiÖp Phô vµ chñ tÞch héi ®-îc Héi §ång Bé Tr-ëng ®Ó ®iÒu lÖ liªn quan ®Õn N÷ ViÖt Nam ®-îc cö ®¹i diÖn ë Quèc Héi quyÒn tham dù c¸c cuéc häp th-êng kú cña bµy tá quan ®iÓm cña Héi vµ ®Ò nghÞ nh÷ng phô n÷. nÒn v¨n minh c«ng nghiÖp ®ang t¸c ®éng tõng ngµy.cuéc häp th-êng kú : regular meeting . Gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam chÞu ¶nh h-áng râ rÖt cña nÒn v¨n minh n«ng nghiÖp.x· héi t.Héi Liªn HiÖp Phô N÷ ViÖt Nam : The Vietnam‟s Women Union .chÞu ¶nh h-áng : to be affected by . tõng giê vµo cuéc sèng gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam.sù bïng næ d©n sè : population explosion/ population boom . Do chÝnh s¸ch më cöa.®¸nh gi¸ cao : to value/ highly appreciate .giai cÊp trung l-u vµ h¹ l-u : the middle and lower classes 9.bµy tá quan ®iÓm : express one‟s points of view . ThÕ giíi mµ «ng ta miªu t¶ lµ thÕ giíi cña giai cÊp trung l-u vµ h¹ l-u ë Lu©n §«n.t¨ng theo cÊp sè céng : to grow in arithmetic progression .

there are a number of matters which need to be clearly understood by all who will be involved. The text refers to the source language document which is to be translated. it may be that the project can be done completely by one person. bilingualism. But even so there should be other available for evaluation and consultation. These can be summarized under four T‟s. a number of people who are going to contribute to the translation at some stage in the project.21 . Will it be used in school. Not all these need to be found in one person. The translator should examine his reasons for choosing the text and the potential for its use by the receptor language audience. Each of these steps will be elaborated on in more detail in the last section of the book. and reviewers. The team may include the translators.nÒn v¨n minh n«ng nghiÖp : agricultural civilization . or 2.the text. where one is a specialist in the source language and the other a specialist in the receptor language. 1. The target refers to the audience. The desirability of translating a particular text must be determined. co-translators. There are various kinds of programs which may be set up depending on the abilities and backgrounds of those who will be involved. educational level. who is most skilled at drafting in the receptor language. a translator with capability to handle both source language and receptor language matters and an advisor or consultant.Establishing the project Before one considers beginning a translation project. in business. It may. Most translation projects require a team. however.chÝnh s¸ch më cöa : the open-door policy . the team. The team may consist of 1. a committee working together with specific responsibilities delegated to each one. it is important to have in mind the total translation project and what is involved in producing a good translation. or 3. . Texts are chosen to be translated for various reasons. also change as the project moves along and new factors come into focus. If a person is a competent speaker of both the source language and the receptor language. testers. The working relationship between these people needs to be established before the project gets underway. Which kind of program is developed will depend on who is available and qualified to determine the meaning of the source language. and the tools. or it may be to share the enjoyment of the source text. age level. and people‟s attitudes towards their languages. a consultant. For whom is the translation prepared? The form of translation will be affected by questions of dialect.t¸c ®éng tõng ngµy tõng giê : to have daily and hourly impact /influence on LESSON 3: STEPS IN A TRANSLATION PROJECT Before beginning an actual translation. There are certain essentials to any translation project. the target. or read orally in a meeting or at home? The team refers to the people who will be involved in the project. Most often it is to communicate certain information to people speaking another language. and who has an understanding of translation principles.

22 Tools refer to the written source materials which will be used by the translators as helps. . there may be a scarcity of such material. the key terms must be determined. All of these tools should be brought to the translation site in preparation for the project. He may want to outline the text. he will be looking for the author‟s purpose and the theme of the text. the translator begins drafting piece by piece. . Every text has a set of words which re crucial to the content and correct communication of the theme. cultural descriptions. as indicated above. then by reading other materials that may help in understanding the culture or language of the source text. In this way. Once he has done this. and all other factors which will need to be understood in order to produce an equivalent translation. section by section. This is the process which takes place in moving from the source language form to the meaning of the text. As he does so. There are two ways of approaching the transfer and initial draft. identifying implicit information. and then reword it for naturalness. Exegesis Exegesis is used to refer to the process of discovering the meaning of the source language text which is to be translated. any dictionaries. 2. that is. 3. The translator should begin by reading the text several times. Then they go back and tighten up the details to be sure that there is no wrong information. It is the step which includes the preparation and analysis which must be done before anything at all can be written in the receptor language. The team will want as much in formation available as possible while translating. It will involve doing the kind of analysis which this book is all about. Before any extensive drafting can be done. but whatever is available should be there to make the work easier. studying key words. For some projects. In preparing this draft. These need to be decided upon and may need to be checked with other speakers of the receptor language. he must always keep his target audience in mind. recognizing when words are being used in a secondary sense. being sure that all the information all the information is accounted for. The translator carefully studies the source language text and using all the available tools. of both the source language and receptor language which are available.. The purpose is to understand the text as a whole. etc. The transfer results in the initial draft. determines the content of the source language message. when grammatical structures are being used in a secondary function. in addition to the document to be translated. the receptor language text is more apt to be in the natural style of the receptor language. he is ready to work on the material a section at a time. Others prefer to prepare a proposition-like semantic draft. Transfer and initial draft After a careful analysis of the source language text. grammars. the related communication situation matters. etc. These include. Some translators prefer to do a quick rough translation so that the material flows naturally. The text must be understood completely. For other projects. interpreting figurative senses. there will be a wealth of materials that can be used to help in interpreting the source language text and in finding equivalents in the receptor language. the translator is transferring from the source language into the receptor language. lexicons. The goal of exegesis is to determine the meaning which is to be communicated in the receptor language text. He will look for the larger groupings or sections. As he reads the text. and no omissions or additions.. The analysis of the source text will include resolving ambiguity.

4. and the relevant facts of the text. 5. honestly accepting the evaluation . etc. by adding more information to clarify participants or theme or whatever. but know both the source language and receptor language. Others may help with this work. the audience must always be kept in mind. Any wrong understanding should be noted and then checked with others as well. and that the form chosen will communicate to the desired audience. It is especially advantageous to have a consultant check over the material. Evaluation The purpose of evaluation is threefold: accuracy. Any time there is an indication of a problem in reading . It is best to have someone who has not worked on the translation. there will be parts that are hard to read or hard to understand. Does the audience for whom the translation is intended understand it clearly? 3. Does the back translation carry the same information as the original source language text? Any difference will need to be checked further. It may be necessary to rework the initial draft several times before the team is satisfied that all the adjustments needed have been made. deletions or change of in formation have crept in . Consultation . Questions need to be carefully formed so that they bring out the theme. Once the translation team has sufficiently reworked the initial draft. Those with whom the translator has checked may have suggested many rewordings. Revised After evaluation is done carefully. clearness. translate back from the receptor language into the source language without the reference to the original source language text. that no information is wrong or omitted. How much re-drafting will be needed will vary depending on the results of the evaluation. Does the translation communicate the same meaning as the source language? 2. may have expressed misunderstanding. Is the form of the translation easy to read and natural receptor language grammar and style? Those helping with the evaluation should be mother-tongue speakers of the receptor language. While making and reworking this draft. There are a number of kinds of evaluations which need to be done. If some parts were hard for people to read. or to whom it is read. that the text communicates clearly in the receptor language. the author‟s purpose . The translation team now works through this material . they may need to be made easier by more redundancy( or less redundancy in another language). there will need to be a revised draft made on the basis of the feedback received. The translator will want to compare the translation with the source text at several points during the translation process to be sure no additions. The translator will want to have receptor language speakers read the text and then tell back what the text communicated to them.23 reword it in the idiomatic form of the receptor language. If many of the people who will eventually be using the receptor language text can be involved in the evaluation process. The questions to be answer are: 1. If any key words are changed. Either method will lead to an idiomatic translation if careful work is done. this will also create interest in the translated material when it is finally published. and rewording the material accordingly. and naturalness. As they read. the text will need to be checked carefully for consistency in the change made. 6. Another way to check is by asking questions of those who read the text . this should be noted for further checking . It is very important that sufficient time and effort be given to evaluation. they arrange for copies to be made so that adequate evaluation.

the consultant. before he prepares the final draft. naturalness of style. decisions about format need to be discussed with the whole translation team. a number of copies should be prepared and distributed for proofreading by various people before the actual printing takes place. When all matters are cared for. If the publication is to include pictures. The time spent in careful checking and preparation of the final draft will improve quality and will make the translation more acceptable to the audience for whom it is being prepared. If a special size of print is being recommended. 8. the potential publisher and those who will promote distribution. The translator(s) will expect that the consultant is interested in three matters:1.24 In many translation projects. it will need to be tested. checks them again with mother-tongue speakers to be sure they are warranted. Notes Target: Target language audience: Dialect: Educational level: Bilingualism: To come into focus: Co-translator: Specialist: Tools: Lexicon: Exegesis: Initial draft: Revised draft: ®äc gi¶ ng-êi ®äc b¶n dÞch ph-¬ng ng÷ tr×nh ®é häc vÊn song ng÷ chó ý/ tËp trung ng-êi cïng dÞch chuyªn gia tµi liÖu tham kh¶o khi dÞch tù ®iÓn tõ vùng hiÓu nghÜa v¨n b¶n tr-íc khi dÞch b¶n th¶o ®Çu tiªn b¶n th¶o ®· d-îc hiÖu ®Ýnh . Asking a consultant to work through the material with him will give the translator insights which will not only help his final draft of the material being worked on. If they continue . these will need evaluation. effect on the receptor language audience. A final editing for spelling and punctuation will need to be made. there are advisors or consultants who are willing to help the translator. and do large amounts of translation work without this kind of a check. but will help him do better transfer drafts on the sections of the document remaining to be done. It is important that translators check their materials with a trained consultant after completing a section or two of a long document. However. Final draft The translator incorporates into the translated text the suggestions made by the consultant. Every translator wants his final copy to be as accurate as possible. 7.accuracy of content 2. and makes any other minor changes which have come to his attention. Some matters may need special testing before the final draft is prepared. and 3. they will miss out on the training which a consultant can give as they go over the material together.

Name and discuss the four T‟s of a translation project. These heavy payments. which affect the poor the most. where tropical forest has been converted to grazing land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. affluent society. How many times have you read the text to understand it completely? 4. and not by „shifting‟ cultivators or landless peasants. have arisen largely from external loans taken out to finance the purchase of luxury items and arms by military and governing elite. it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor. cash crops. The majority of deforestation in Latin America. The cleared land is mainly devoted to the export of beef for the fast-food industries in North America. However. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil. Do you have any difficulty in finding the Vietnamese meaning of the English words : subsistence agriculture. landless peasants. How will the final draft be different from the revision draft done earlier? 8. military and governing elites. hamburger connection ? 5. Explain what is meant by exegesis. . it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor.the aptly named „hamburger connection‟. How is the revision draft different from the initial draft? 9. ranch-style cattle grazing property. What kinds of evaluation checks can be made? 6. 3. Each year commercial logging eliminates 45000 square kilometers of forest. South-east Asia and the Pacific is caused by clearing land to grow cash crops for export and by commercial logging operations.25 9. What is the text about? 3. What is the author‟s purpose of writing this text? 2. Do you have any difficulty in finding the equivalent Vietnamese structures of the following English sentences? a. shifting cultivators. However.2 Exercises A. commercial logging operations. The establishment of large ranch-style cattle grazing properties is the principal reason for the elimination of 20000 square kilometers of rainforest each year in Central or South America. Self-study 9. What are the goals of the translator as he prepares the initial draft? 4. 1. 2. Europe and Japan. Read the English text and answer the questions.1 Questions for discussion 1. much of the timber being exported to the United States and Japan. external debt payment. DEFORESTATION Population growth is one factor in rainforest destruction. What is the consultant concerned about when he checks a translation? 7. What is the purpose of the evaluation? 5.

Translate the text into English. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh. ng-êi Nam kÎ B¾c. What is the author‟s purpose of writing this text? 2. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil. dï bÊt kú ë ®©u. Trªn thÕ giíi. What is the text about? 3. cã nhiÒu quèc gia tõ tØnh nä sang tØnh kia nãi lµ kh«ng hiÓu nhau råi. hÔ gÆp nhau lÇn ®Çu nãi lµ hiÓu nhau ngay. Nh-ng ë ViÖt Nam. hÔ gÆp nhau lÇn ®Çu nãi lµ hiÓu nhau ngay. sèng chÕt. 6. NON N¦íC Cha «ng ta ®· uèng n-íc s«ng Hång. dï bÊt kú ë ®©u. biÓn.tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. ®ång ©m víi ‘‘n-íc’’ trong ý nghÜa tæ quèc quª h-¬ng. xi m¨ng tr-êng tån.26 b. where tropical forest has been converted to grazing land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. Translate the text into Vietnamese.mét khèi bÊt tö bÊt diÖt bëi mét thø xi m¨ng tr-êng tån. 6. ë ViÖt Nam th× ‘‘n-íc’’( trong s«ng. S«ng §µ. . S«ng Cöu Long vµ tõng sèng chÕt víi s«ng n-íc nµy.tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. How many times have you read the text to understand it completely? 4. hiÓu nhau? 5. kÕt hîp chÆt chÏ. 1. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh.) l¹i ®ång nghÜa. Do you have any difficulty in finding the equivalent English structures of the following Vietnamese sentences? a. Read the Vietnamese text and answer the questions. S«ng n-íc vµ con ng-êi ë ®©y kÕt hîp víi thiªn nhiªn vµ lÞch sö nh. b. §ã lµ lßng yªu n-íc th-¬ng nßi cña d©n téc ViÖt Nam. ng-êi Nam kÎ B¾c. B. lßng yªu n-íc th-¬ng nßi.Nh-ng ë ViÖt Nam. hå. sù thèng nhÊt. Do you have any difficulty in finding the English meaning of the Vietnamese words : cha «ng.

“matrix” is better translated ‘‘b¶n’’. harvesting it. as it should be clear from the context which of these words is meant. cooking it. it may be appropriate or necessary to use a more specific word to translate an English word into Vietnamese. the latter having larger wheels and engines than both mopeds and scooters. the English word for “rice” can be translated by many different Vietnamese words. which does not suggest any problems of comprehension in Vietnamese. which translates the word “matrix” by the Vietnamese word ‘‘ma trËn’’. Another difficulty is that. For instance. STRATEGY 1 : How to deal with non-equivalence at lexical level It is often the case that no direct equivalents can be found in Vietnamese for English words. as there may be many Vietnamese words that correspond to the general category or meaning expressed by English word. This usually involves choosing among several different words. in Vietnamese. and does not have the additional sense of a model or a plan according to which something is developed. 1. 1. its animate ( e. English makes distinctions among mopeds. scooters. and others involved in translating as ways to approach difficulties in translations from English into Vietnamese. or eating it.27 LESSON 4: STRATEGIES FOR TRANSLATORS The following strategies have been suggested by translators. the English word alone is not enough to determine the appropriate Vietnamese translation. 1.g. and it is necessary to examine the English context. Similarly.3 Translating by cultural substitution This strategy involves replacing a culture-specific item or expression with one of the different meanings but similar impact in the translated text. 1. and a very difficult concept to understand and explain in many languages. or “leg” may all be translated by the Vietnamese word ‘‘ch©n’’. It may be that the concept or idea is new to Vietnamese translators. Vietnamese has many words that mean “ to carry” with distinction being made depending on the size and shape of the object. a relatively new concept in general. Another example can be found in a manual on community development. on the one hand.). However. or in the arms. depending on whether one is planting it. “foot”. Similarly. it may be appropriate to use a more general word to translate an English word with no specific Vietnamese equivalent.. in the hand. some words have special connotations that are not conveyed by the Vietnamese word for the same thing. refers to all two-wheel. motorized vehicles as ‘‘ xe m¸y’’. It may also be that the concept is known or understood but there is no specific word in Vietnamese used to express it. in fact. commissioners of translations.2 Translating by a more general word In other cases. in addition to their concrete meaning. The strategies listed below can be used to handle cases of non-equivalence. In this example. and how it is carried (e.. the English words “paw”. Vietnamese. as in the case of „gender‟. and motorcycles.g. For example. In these cases. which is. which is a more general word used to classify a written plan or formula. a child as opposed to a box). ‘‘ma trËn’’ has a specific use in mathematics only. Because of their self-described “respect” .1 Translating by a more specific word In some cases.

so the Vietnamese translation should add the word beer to reflect the full meaning of the source language sentence. culturespecific items. Because these words have been in common used in Vietnam for a long time. as they are referred to by their English names in almost every part of the world. which must be unpacked for better understanding. However. which is printed on every package and hence easily recognized. Another example is the acronym for oral dehydration salts. Whenever a loan word is used . and from abandonment and negligence in their care. 1. or when the Vietnamese term for it does not include all the meanings conveyed by the English term for the same concept. and proper names of diseases or medicines that are widely known in English names. Another example is that the English words „abuse‟ and „neglect‟ signify a whole range of behaviors. the English „alcohol‟ includes all alcoholic drinks in its meaning. However. HIV and AIDS are two loan words that are frequently used in Vietnamese. awkward paraphrases. Back translated roughly into English. the English sentence: “Children should be protected from abuse and neglect. most Vietnamese translators object to this strategy and tend to translate directly.4 Translating by using a loan word plus explanation There is some objection to this strategy in Vietnam. The original manual. This can be done by paraphrasing as a translator has attempted in the following translation: ‘‘trÎ em cÇn b¶o vÖ chèng l¹i mäi h×nh thøc b¹o lùc. the translator is in fact playing an important role in this task. a farmer‟s manual that has been translated into Vietnamese suggests the planting of different types of fruit trees which are not even grown in Vietnam.”. as many translator prefer to coin new words in Vietnamese rather than borrow English words.6 Translating by omission Though some translators may reject this strategy as too drastic. even though it is in appropriate. g©y tæn th-¬ng hay xóc ph¹m. bá mÆc hoÆc xao nh·ng trong viÖc ch¨m sãc’’. this is not only the burden of the translator. this is normally written in English with an explanation in Vietnamese : ORS (muèi bï mÊt n-íc) 1. this sentence reads. As a result. or literal and unnatural translations. some of which are not conveyed by the Vietnamese words alone. they are often used without any accompanying explanation. it is sometimes appropriate to omit words or phrases that are not essential to the meaning or impact of the text. Translators should be encouraged to consider the appropriateness of the documents they are translating and suggest changes to make them more culturally appropriate.5 Translating by using a paraphrase This strategy can be used when we translate an English word or concept that does not exist in Vietnamese. For instance. The Vietnamese word ‘r­îu’ does not include beer in its definition. it is better to give an explanation.28 for the original text. This is especially true for words that would require lengthy explanations. For example. was not modified at all for the Vietnamese context. This translation does not account for their full meaning . Though some translators argue that it is not the responsibility of the translator to chance the text in this way. which was developed in other parts in Asia. or ORS.’’. which would interrupt the flow of the text and could distract .” cannot be translated as simply as ‘‘trÎ em nªn ®-îc b¶o vÖ khái sù l¹m dông vµ l¬ lµ. but also of the commissioners of the translation and the editor. this strategy is very useful when the translator deal with concepts or ideas that are new to Vietnamese audience. For example.” 1. : “Children must be protected from all forms of violence causing harm or offense. in the sentence: “ Pregnant women should avoid alcohol.

the flow and the impact of the source text are retained in the translation. The expression “packaging up the problem” caused the problems in translation. and would not do so by emphasizing the physicality of a person‟s presence. which cannot easily express the slight emphasis implied here by the author. One example is the idiom “ to fight like cats and dogs”.to bring something to a place that has an abundance of that thing.which is translated as “ to carry firewood to the forest.’’. It is ideal if such a match can be found.but the way in which each language expresses is bound to be the culture of that language. A good example can be found in an article on maternal mortality. which in English could be understood as something like “summing up the problem by referring to it simply as a number. For example. which is expressed using the same words in Vietnamese: ‘‘ c·i nhau nh.29 the reader from the overall meaning." . the sentence “ Much can be done even without being physically present in the meeting. but this kind of correspondence is not common.” is best translated into Vietnamese by.2 Using an idiom or a set expression of similar meaning but different form It is possible and easy to find a Vietnamese idiom with a similar meaning for an English idiom or set expression. A good example can be found is the translation for to carry coals to Newcastle”: ‘‘Chë cñi vÒ rõng.” The meaning here is clearly the same for both idioms. By substituting a similar Vietnamese idiom. which would unduly interrupt the flow of the text and greatly diminish the idiom‟s impact. even if this phrase were clearly understood. since more idioms may make sense when translated literally. it would be difficult to find a precise equivalent in Vietnamese. 2. The difference in meaning between “ being physically present” and being present” is so minimal that it does not justify translation into Vietnamese. which includes the sentence. In fact.chã víi mÌo. “ But before the new estimates replace the old as a way of packaging up the problem. as it was misinterpreted to mean “assembling” or “gathering”. This phrase is best dealt with by paraphrasing. another is “ Better than never. 2.”. then. there is another difficulty that the translator may not realize that s/he is dealing with an idiomatic expression. With idioms. which is translated : ‘‘Thµ muén cßn h¬n kh«ng ®Õn’’.1 Using an idiom or a set expression of similar meaning and form It is sometimes possible to find a Vietnamese idiom or expression with a similar meaning to an English idiom or expression. 2. and it is usually necessary to use other strategies in dealing with idioms and set expressions. it should be said that a mistake has been made in allowing statistics such as these to slip into easy language.3 Translating by paraphrasing When Vietnamese equivalents cannot be found. which does . paraphrasing may be the best way to deal with an idiom or set expression in English. it would be difficult to restate concisely in English. however. STRATEGY 2 : How to deal with idioms and set expressions Idioms and set expressions can be dealt with in the ways similar to those mentioned above. However. and which is expressed in the same way. It is far more cumbersome to translate this idiom literally into Vietnamese with an explanation that Newcastle is a well-known coal-producing city in England (as was suggested by some Vietnamese translators). ‘‘ nhiÒu viÖc cã thÓ lµm ngµy c¶ khi kh«ng cã mÆt t¹i cuéc häp’’ which omit the word “physically” in the translation.

The meaning of the phrase could be that a person is suffering from positive HIV and that s/he should have an optimistic outlook on life. as a literal translation into Vietnamese would be meaningless. 2. a book entitled “ Being Positive-Living with HIV/AIDS” causes problems in translate because of the double meaning of “ being positive”. This translation expresses the notion of being positive about life without mentioning anything about being HIV positive status. after which a choice must be made between the two meanings. and is also best dealt with by paraphrasing. number and person 2. or literal and unnatural translation.4 Translating by omission This strategy could be used when we translate words or phrases that would require lengthy explanations.” The expression “to slip into easy usage” is problematic for the same reasons. English : Vietnamese: A is/was/has been done by B (i) A ®-îc+ ®éng tõ+(bëi B) A ®-îc/do+(B)+®éng tõ (ii) A bÞ +®éng tõ + bëi B A bÞ +(B) + ®éng tõ Example: This house was built by Frank in 1930 Ng«I nhµ nµy do Frank x©y n¨m 1930 Tom is given a present by Mary Tom ®-îc Mary tÆng mét mãn quµ . This strategy has also be used when we translate phases which has two meanings one of the meanings may be sacrificed for the other. for it would not be possible to translate both meanings by one Vietnamese phrase. As the emphasis is on positive outlook on life but not on the fact of being HIV positive. However. STRATEGY 3 : How to deal with voice.30 not reflect its true magnitude or impact. Passive voice can be translated from English into Vietnamese in the following ways: a. one translator has suggested the translation: ‘‘H·y Sèng Yªu §êi Dï NhiÔm HIV’’. who may interpret the phrase to mean that this book is for and about people who are HIV positive. For instance. the double meaning should be made clear through collaboration with the commissioner. awkward paraphrases. This may be clear to the translator .1 Voice The passive voice is used very often in English and poses some problems in Vietnamese translation.

: . téc In Vietnamese. there are some cases where one can see the words ®-îc/bÞ but they are not translated into English passive sentences at all. (i) (ii) (iii) A ®-îc+ ®éng tõ A bÞ+ ®éng tõ Ng-êi ta/ai ®ã + ®éng tõ + A Example: Tom has been promoted recently. The CD has been broken. Vietnamese: MÌo.English : Vietnamese: A is/was/has been done. ChiÕc ®Üa CD ®· bÞ vì/ Ai ®ã ®· lµm vì chiÕc ®Üa CD. . when the positive or negative connotation of the sentence is clear it is more appropriate to retain the passive voice in Vietnamese. . The positive and negative connotation is not often conveyed in English. Hä Ng-êi d©n téc H¬ M«ng kh«ng thÝch bÞ gäi lµ d©n thÝch ®-îc gäi lµ d©n téc H¬ M«ng. Example: . Lan has a cough. On the other hand. or ‘‘C¸c ch¸u bÞ tiªm.31 Tom was attacked by a stranger last night Tom bÞ mét kÎ l¹ mÆt tÊn c«ng tèi h«m qua b. Tom míi ®-îc ®Ì b¹t gÇn ®©y.’’.’’ depending on whether the receiving injection is considered a positive or negative experience. Example: The H‟Mong people do not like to be called Meo. so it is difficult to know what way used to translate into Vietnamese.H«m nay chóng ta ®-îc ®¸nh chÐn no nª.Anh Êy bÞ ng·. They prefer to be called H‟Mong. Example: The children were given injections. : He fell. Vietnamese translation : ‘‘C¸c ch¸u ®-îc tiªm.ChÞ Lan bÞ ho.

2. then the translator should choose accordingly. ‘‘c¸c’’ generally means all of the given category of things.English translation) The following techniques could be used to translate the non-subject sentences in Vietnamese texts: 4. 2. “you” should be translated as ‘‘chóng ta’’ . the attention should be focused on the tone and the overall purpose of the text to be translated. These distinctions are not always explicitly expressed in English and can usually be determined by the context in which the language operates. 4.32 We had and enormous meal today. There + to be. ‘‘Mçi’’ emphasizes the identity of the individual member of the category without indicating anything of their totality. whereas ‘‘nh÷ng’’ refers only to some of the total number of things being discussed. 4. there are different grammatical forms for singular and plural nouns. Unlike English pronouns. social status. .2 Number Though both languages have similar notions of number and countability. familiarity.4. It + to be + Adj + to infinitive 4.3 Person Participants‟ roles and forms of address are expressed in Vietnamese through a very complicated system of personal pronouns based largely on kinship terms. some plural markers such as ‘‘c¸c’’. If it is not possible to determine the distinctions of the English pronouns.’’mçi’’ can be used in addition to the noun. In English.. In Vietnamese. each language has its own way to express these notions. and even one‟s particular mood or attitude in a given situation. ‘‘mäi" . sex. 2. In the sections for adults. STRATEGY 4 : How to deal with non-subject sentences ( Vietnamese.3. Use the subject that is found in the previous sentence(s) Example: CÇn ®¶y m¹nh c«ng nghiÖp hãa. Example: A book on health-care contains many sections written especially for children and adults. no such distinction is grammatically made. Vietnamese pronouns bear a number of semantic components depending on the relationship within a family. tÊt c¶’’. Example : Phô n÷: can mean either woman or women In Vietnamese. that is. hiÖn ®¹i hãa. Passive voice 4. If it is clear from the English context which of these plural markers should be used in the Vietnamese. age. number is expressed as a grammar category. In the sections for children the pronoun “you” is translated as “em” or ‘‘c¸c em’’. ‘‘mäi’’ expresses both the individuality of the items and the totality of the category.1. however.. ‘‘nh÷ng’’.

Trung Quèc chuyÓn sang kinh doanh 2. STRATEGY 5 : How to deal with newspaper headlines Some main follows. 5. Chinese Professors Turn To Business C¸c gi¸o s. a metaphor. . Verb + noun Example: 1.5. interference in translation takes place when apparently. Or: It is modernization necessary to promote industrialization and and modernization should be VÉn ch-a cã c¸ch ch÷a khái bÖnh AIDS. Present tense = past events 5.n÷a ®-îc cÊp giÊy phÐp trong n¨m nay Bïng næ ®Çu t- LESSON 5: PATTERNS AND SOURCES OF ERRORS MADE BY VIETNAMESE TRANSLATORS What is mother tongue interference in translation? In the narrow definition. Present participle = event in progress 5. a lexical item.1. There has been no cure for AIDS. any feature of the source language – notably a syntactic structure. 6.3.6. and idiom. characteristics of newspaper headlines are as 5. Nouns 5. 5. To infinitive = future events 5. Three More Investment Projects Licensed This Year Investment Boom See You In Court HÑn gÆp t¹i tßa Thªm ba dù ¸n ®Çu t. Past participle = passive voice 5.4. US President Visiting Vietnam Tæng thèng Hoa Kú ®ang th¨m ViÖt Nam 3.33 Industrialization promoted. Oil Price To Rise? Gi¸ dÇu sÏ t¨ng 4.2.

1. LINGUISTIC ERRORS The linguistic errors can be divided into the following groups: . a mark of the effect of the source language (SL) or the SL culture. In a wider definition. a “false friend”. a sign of the translator‟s ignorance. culture words are evidently transferred in the translation in fact all cases where the language of the translation is manifestly affected whether appropriately or not by the language of the original. it can be categorized as follows. proper names. When the mother tongue interference is an error. interference includes cases when sentence length. punctuation.34 word order or culture is carried over or literally translated as the case may be into the target language(TL) text.

search for” or “seek”. 1. I am looking for my book. “search for”. in English “ to cook an account” translated as ‘‘nÊu sæ s¸ch’’ is meanigless and it must be translated as ‘‘gi¶ m¹o sæ s¸ch’’. It is characteristic of word that a single lexical item may have several meanings. ( leader) 2. there are many equivalents in English for the word ‘‘t×m’’ such as “seek”. The word “death” is normally translated as ‘‘c¸i chÕt’’ but ‘‘vua b¨ng hµ’’ in “King‟s death” and as for Buddhism this word should be translated as ‘‘viªn tÞch’’. “find”. Example: 1. He is the former head of the Chemistry Section of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. When translators are asked to translate these sentences into English a.1 Lexical Errors Lexical interference traps are common enough but more invidious are innocent looking collocations which appear to make sense until one asks oneself what they mean in particular context. c. the word “ head” in isolation means something like” the upper part of the body”. “find out”. “look for”. Michael Faraday ®· t×m ra m¸y ph¸t ®iÖn. It sounds strange and funny. their meaning should be solved in the context. 2. T«i ®ang t×m cuèn s¸ch.1 Context The context itself determines the meaning of words.1. in a text written about Buddhism in which there are two words “clergy” and “death”. In fact. In sentence (3) the word ‘‘t×m’’ has an equivalent as “invent”. he has no head. fields in society. Obviously. “clergy” translated as ‘‘gi¸o sÜ’’ for Catholicism but ‘‘giíi t¨ng ®å’’ for Buddhism. 1. classes.35 1. Some translated transferred “clergy” as ‘‘gi¸o sÜ’’ and “death” as ‘‘c¸i chÕt’’ for Buddha. Although he is the head of the company. in sentence (1) the word ‘‘t×m’’ has an equivalent in English as “discover”. The New World was discovered by Christopher. Lexical interference is very dangerous because it can distort the meaning of a sentence. 3. b. But the same word used in the context of talking about a company or an organization has nothing to do with the human body though the idea of the upper position of something still remains. Therefore.g. For example. The three above-mentioned sentences can be translated as follows. However. Michael Faraday invented the generator. There are many ways of translating of some nouns related to professions. It is commonly known that a word may have equivalents and accordingly the analysis of its meaning has to be made carefully in order to pick out the most appropriate word. ( leader-intelligence) . In sentence (2) the word ‘‘t×m’’ is understood as “look for”. Kha Lu©n Bè ®· t×m ra T©n thÕ giíi vµo n¨m 1842. For example. In addition. E. there are two more words related to this meaning: “to invent” and “ to discover”.

In fact. “ relevant with ‘‘thÝch ®¸ng. beer. However. This translation is quite vague in Vietnamese. due to poor quality. the translators have a habit of translating literally and depending largely on the meaning in dictionary due to the mother-tongue interference. ‘‘lêi chµo hái’’ “hello”. Each of language has its own principle in word collocation. . words should be solved in context and the analysis of their meaning has to be made carefully to pick out the most appropriate equivalent. The word “ assign” is equivalent with ‘‘ph©n c«ng/ bæ nhiÖm’’. thÝch hîp. a word in source language has many equivalents in target language. For instance. some major commodities were stockpiled because of poor quality. In order to avoid committing errors of context. Therefore. Say hello/ goodbye/ yes/ no. nÒn t¶ng. c¬ së’’. major commodities were not sold out leading to stockpile. medicine and even poison. “In 1999. ‘‘tiÕng Ph¸p’’ “French”. in English it is quite different. while the word “handsome” often goes with boys or men. ‘‘ agency’’ with ‘‘ ®¹i lý. 1. ’’. in Vietnamese the word ‘‘uèng’’ (drink) can go with many different kinds of liquid including water. “foundation’’ ‘‘nÒn mãng. Some translators do not realize this. Take medicine/ poison. However. In fact.2 Word collocation Word collocation consists of the associations a word acquires on account of the meanings of words which tend to occur in its environment. chi nh¸nh’’.’’ In brief.1. Tell a lie/ the truth/ a story. the sentence should be translated as ‘‘ N¨m 1999 mét sè mÆt hµng chñ yÕu bÞ tån kho do chÊt l-îng kÐm.” was translated ‘‘Thñ t-íng ®· bæ nhiÖm nh÷ng chÝnh s¸ch thÝch hîp ®Ó ®-a ra luËt vÒ khu c«ng nghiÖp ®Ó cung cÊp mét bèi c¶nh hoµn toµn hîp ph¸p cho c¸c ho¹t ®éng cña khu c«ng nghiÖp. ‘‘sù thËt’’ “ the truth”. “The Prime Minister has also assigned relevant agencies to formulate a law on industrial zones to provide a complete legal background/frame for the operation of Izs and EPZs in Vietnam. the word “ pretty” often goes with girls and women. Another example indicates that in Vietnamese the word ‘‘nãi’’ (say) can be collocated with ‘‘lêi t¹m biÖt’’ “goodbye”. For this reason. which leads to wrong and funny collocation. ‘‘dèi’’ “a lie”. For example. in this context it should be chosen the most appropriate equivalents to create an idiomatic translation: ‘‘ Thñ t-íng ®· giao cho c¸c c¬ quan cã liªn quan ban hµnh bé luËt vÒ khu c«ng nghiÖp nh»m cung cÊp mét sè c¬ së ph¸p lý hoµn chØnh cho viÖc ho¹t ®éng cña khu c«ng nghiÖp vµ khu chÕ xuÊt ë ViÖt Nam.’’ 2. c¬ quan. alcohol. cã liªn quan’’.” It is not accurate at all when “stockpiled” was translated ‘‘l-u tr÷’’.36 The following examples show that the translators do not treat words in context but rely on the meaning in dictionary: 1. khu chÕ xuÊt ViÖt Nam. in English these are clear distinction as follows: Drink beer/ water/ wine/ coffee.

Neither English nor Vietnamese is an exception. each language has its own principles of word collocation. In fact.37 Speak English/ French/ Chinese. On the contrary.) 3. ‘‘s. Chóng t«i ph¶i hoµn thµnh nhiÖm vô tr-íc khi tæ kiÓm tra chÊt l-îng s¶n phÈm. ChÝnh phñ ®· tiÕn thùc hiÖn nhiÒu biÖn ph¸p nh»m ng¨n chÆn viÖc bu«n lËu ma tóy. the above-mentioned examples should be translated more accurately and idiomatically as follows. Tõ khi Mü bá lÖnh cÊm vËn ViÑt Nam.tö/ nai Similarly. (Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam many foreign countries have been investing in many different fields.vµo c¸c lÜnh vùc kh¸c nhau.” should be corrected as “The government has taken many measures to stop the drug smuggling.” . “The government has made many measures to stop the drug smuggling. ‘‘gia sóc’’ (cattle). nhiÒu n-íc trªn thÕ giíi ®x ®Çu t..) 2.) 4.. As a result.) It is the mother tongue interference that leads to the mechanic collocation which is unacceptable in target language. ( We have to complete our duty before the investigators control the product quality. in English there are many words meaning ‘‘®µn’’ as follows. the word “decision” can be collocated with many word such as “to make/ to reach/ to arrive at/ to come to. we decided to launch an impressive product which can compete against the imported ones. 1. “We have to complete our duty before the investigators control the product quality. the word ‘‘®µn’’ can be collocated with many different nouns such as ‘‘c¸’’(fish) “chim” ( bird).” should be corrected “We have to fulfill our duty before the investigators control the product quality.” 2. a decision”. In Vietnamese. A flock of birds/ sheep: §µn chim/ cõu A herd of cattle/ buffaloes: §µn gia sóc/ tr©u A pack of dogs/ calves: §µn chã/ bª A school of fish/ chickens: §µn c¸/ gµ A pride of lions/ deer : §µn s. Sau khi nghiªn cøu thÞ tr-êng. The following examples show the wrong collocations of some translators: 1.tö’’ (lion). (After making a market research. (The government has made many measures to stop the drug smuggling. chóng t«i quyÕt ®Þnh ®-a ra thÞ tr-êng mét s¶n phÈm g©y Ên t-îng cã søc c¹nh tranh víi hµng ngo¹i nhËp.

“According to Mr Thien. 1. For example.. c-ng µ.3 Misuse of personal pronouns and prepositions In Vietnamese. c-ng µ. cËu.’’ In Vietnamese. .1. d×. we decided to launch an impressive product which can compete against the imported ones. and the family order are distinguished clearly and systematically. chÞ. dear.38 3. These are the typical errors made by the translators: 1. “ proud about”. The following examples show clearly that the translator sometimes do not master the relationship between the speaker and the hearer leading to a funny translation. the translator should read as many English books and magazines to take notes of collocated words under the English standard. quÝ vÞ. the meaning of a preposition in English depends on its preceding word.” In a word. The social status. “After making a market research. thÝm. adjective or verb proceeding it. bµ. anh. chó.” should be corrected “After doing a market research. em.’’ such words are generally expressed by English people in one word “you”. we decided to launch an impressive product which can compete against the imported ones. d-îng. age. b¸c. This difference leads to errors in using prepositions of TL. mµy.’’ instead of ‘‘ MÑ yªu con l¾m. On the contrary. This is reflected in a distinguished clearly and systematically. there are many ways to express the thoughts and feelings or attitude which differ from those in English.” Which was translated as ‘‘ Em yªu anh l¾m . A mother was taking care of her child in hospital. his plant currently produces lubricants under the API (American Petroleum Institute) standards” (Theo «ng ThiÖn th× hiÖn nay nhµ m¸y cña «ng ®ang s¶n xuÊt dÇu nhên d-íi tiªu chuÈn cña . it is inevitable for the translators to obey the principles of English and Vietnamese word collocations. “Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam many foreign countries have been investing in many different fields. «ng. “famous about” as the translator may use. sex. In order to avoid this type of errors.” 4. She said: “ I love you very much. the Vietnamese preposition ‘‘vÒ’’ can be expressed by different prepositions in English: a talk on history : be disappointed in : be interested in : lay emphasis/ stress on : be worried about : be proud of/ take pride in : be famous for : mét cuéc nãi chuyÖn vÒ lÞch sö thÊt väng vÒ quan t©m vÒ nhÊn m¹nh vÒ lo l¾ng vÒ tù hµo vÒ næi tiÕng vÒ instead of “disappointed about”.” should be corrected “Since the USA lifted the embargo against Vietnam many foreign countries have been investing in many different fields. each preposition has a fixed meaning which does not change regardless of the noun. ngµi. c«. This is reflected in a number of words for addressing such as ‘‘cô.

«ng Nam cã nhiÒu kinh nghiÖm vÒ viÖc gi¶ng d¹y häc sinh. the translators tended to choose the English prepositions basing on Vietnamese meanings without paying attention to their variations. ‘‘Lµ gi¸o viªn -u tó trong nhiÒu n¨m.” ( Nãi chuyÖn trªn diÖn tho¹i th× dÔ bÞ hiÓu nhÇm.) 2. “It is so easy to be misunderstood when talking on the phone. his plant currently produces lubricants under the API ( American Petroleum Institute) standards” should be translated (Theo «ng ThiÖn th× hiÖn nay nhµ m¸y cña «ng ®ang s¶n xuÊt dÇu nhên theo tiªu chuÈn cña ViÖn x¨ng dÇu Mü.” Due to the mother tongue interference. If they do not know how to use prepositions exactly. ‘‘Tßa ¸n Nh©n D©n quyÕt ®Þnh kÕt ¸n chóng 15 n¨m vÒ téi bu«n lËu ma tóy. ‘‘Chóng t«i thµnh thËt chia buån vÒ viÖc ra ®i cña bè b¹n.” As can be seen from the above-mentioned examples.’’ should be translated (The People‟s Court decided to condemn them to 15 years imprisonment for the drug smuggling.Nam is experienced about educating and teaching the pupils. the translators should be provided with as many structures with .’’ should be translated (We really condole with you for the loss of your father. These errors could be corrected as follows. ‘‘Tßa ¸n Nh©n D©n quyÕt ®Þnh kÕt ¸n chóng 15 n¨m vÒ téi bu«n lËu ma tóy.) 3. 1. they tend to the Vietnamese ones into English or vice versa. In order to avoid this type of errors the translators should learn the prepositions going with nouns. adjectives or verbs by heart. ‘‘Lµ gi¸o viªn -u tó trong nhiÒu n¨m. “According to Mr Thien.” is equivalent with (Nãi chuyÖn qua ®iÖn tho¹i th× dÔ bÞ hiÓu nhÇm. Mr.’’ (As a qualified teacher for many years.39 ViÖn x¨ng dÇu Mü.) 4.) 3.’’ (We really condole with you about the loss of your father. “It is so easy to be misunderstood when talking on the phone. ‘‘Chóng t«i thµnh thËt chia buån vÒ viÖc ra ®i cña bè b¹n. «ng Nam cã nhiÒu kinh nghiÖm vÒ viÖc gi¶ng d¹y häc sinh. the translators found themselves in a confusing situation when they use prepositions n English.’’ should be translated (As a qualified teacher for many years.) 2. As a result.) 4.” 5.’’ (The People‟s Court decided to condemn them to 15 years imprisonment about the drug smuggling.” 5. Mr Nam is experienced in educating and teaching the pupils.

( acceptable) “ The river is deep.) (wrong) 3. In Example 2 “stubborn” fails to evoke the features of positive meaning which praises the Vietnamese people on their heroism expressing the speaker‟s admiration. the pairs of synonyms share at least one sense in common but do not share all their senses. However. they can hardly substitute for each other. In Example 3 “home” and “house” are places where one lives.”( acceptable) “ The river is very profound. While “famous” means “well-known/ celebrated”. The misuse of synonyms makes the meaning of one of the following sentences unacceptable. In contrast. (Nhµ lµ n¬i con tim tró ngô.There is no place like home. in terms of the connotational meaning they are quite different. (Ch¼ng cã n¬i ®©u nh. “ You have my deep/ profound sympathy.) ( wrong) In Example 1 “stubborn” synonymous to “unyielding” means ‘‘cøng ®Çu/b-íng bØnh’’ in Vietnamese.ë nhµ.4 Misuse of synonyms Some translators depend largely on the meaning in dictionary picking out the synonyms without paying much to the context.) ( right) 2.’’ (The Vietnamese people are really stubborn. 1. In fact. Take “famous’’(næi tiÕng) and “notorious” (khÐt tiÕng) as an example.1. 1.) . The following can be seen as the misuse of the synonyms by some of the inexperienced translators.Home is where the heart is. which leads to the distorting of the meaning of the sentence. “Ng-êi ViÖt Nam cã tinh thÇn bÊt khuÊt. “notorious” means “well-known” especially for unfavorable reason & negative meaning.’’ (The government plans to build thousands of homes for homeless people.’’ (This boy is very stubborn/unyielding. meaning ‘‘nhµ’’ in Vietnamese. it expresses the speaker‟s anger and discontent. “CËu bÐ nµy rÊt b-íng bØnh. ChÝnh phñ cã kÕ ho¹ch x©y hµng ngµn ng«i nhµ cho ng-êi v« gia c-.” (unacceptable) Another example shows that some translators do not realize the connotational meaning.40 prepositions systematically as possible to help them take notes and draw out the formation and rules. To some extent. Example: . and therefore contains some features of positive meaning. “House” refers to the building or structure while “home” refers to the atmosphere or feeling found in the house.) .

b©y giê’’. 1. For instance. chóng t«i ph¶i lµm nhiÒu thñ tôc giÊy tê r-êm rµ.’’ 3.1. if not. “Every time. we decided to go out. She often lets the grass grow under her feet. For example. unnatural and funny. In order to avoid the misuse. “Every time. Sau khi suy ®i tÝnh l¹i. 1.” is usually translated as ‘‘viÖc h«m nay chí ®Ó ngµy mai’’ instead of ‘‘kh«ng cã thêi gian nh. The following errors were found in some of the translated texts and should be corrected. Trong lÇn suy nghÜ thø hai chóng t«i quyÕt ®Þnh ®i ra ngoµi. “ She rarely saves her time to do her homework. If a translator use synonyms without referring to the context.’’ . “to sell like a hot cake” is usually translated as ‘‘b¸n ®¾t nh. the translator should carefully take the synonyms into consideration before using them. we have our children‟s birth certificates signed at the local People‟s committee. idioms can be translated satisfactorily by considering the context.(s)he can make wrong & funny for his readers. the meaning becomes strange. On the second thought. chóng t«i ph¶i ®i qua nhiÒu b¨ng ®á.’’ The above-mentioned translations could be improved as follows. “At first we intended to stay at home. “ wet blanket” should be translated ‘‘ng-êi rÇu rÜ’’ instead of “c¸i ch¨n -ít’’ or “to read one‟s palm” translated as ‘‘xem chØ tay’’ instead of ‘‘®äc c¸i g× ë lßng bµn tay’’. it would be better for the translator to consider the differences of the pairs of synonyms when translating. it is difficult to find the exact meaning. we have to go though a lot of red tape.” was translated as ‘‘C« Êy hiÕm khi tiÕt kiÖm thêi gian ®Ó lµm bµi tËp ë nhµ.b¸nh nãng”. In addition.” Instead of ‘‘b¸n nh. we have to go though a lot of red tape.” was translated as ‘‘Tho¹t ®Çu chóng t«i cã ý ®Þnh ë nhµ. we have our children‟s birth certificates signed at the local People‟s committee. “Live and learn” is usually translated as ‘‘cßn sèng cßn häc’’ instead of ‘‘sèng vµ häc’’. “ There is no time like present.5 Idioms & terminologies The meanings of idioms are not definitely related to grammatical rules or the lexical meaning of each word because they feature the metaphor and figures of speech. An English idiom must be translated into Vietnamese by an equivalent one.” was translated as ‘‘Mçi khi nhê hä ký giÊy khai sinh t¹i ñy ban nh©n d©n ph-êng. chóng t«i quyÕt ®Þnh ®i ra ngoµi. C« th-êng ®Ó cá mäc d-èi ch©n.’’ 2.t«m t-¬i. “At first we intended to stay at home.” should be translated as ‘‘Tho¹t ®Çu chóng t«i cã ý ®Þnh ë nhµ.” should be translated as ‘‘Mçi khi nhê hä ký giÊy khai sinh t¹i ñy ban nh©n d©n ph-êng. If we stick to each word.41 Most of the synonyms have the same meaning in certain context. we decided to go out. 1. It is very important to be aware that we must not choose the equivalents of every word forming the idiom but we do find the equivalent ways of expression which exist in both languages.’’ 2. On the second thought. In fact.

For example. . Some translators keep the same structures when translating.2.total working capital: .cash flow: . For instance.’’ In addition. due to the limited knowledge of social background and some special fields. It is not always possible to translate a SL noun with a noun in TL. Another problem is that some translators did not realize the linking meaning of word units. adverbs. that equivalent hardly keeps the meaning of the word itself but that of context. C« th-êng ®Ó n-íc ®Õn ch©n míi nh¶y. In practice. leading to vagueness in TL texts. Even more. Structural Errors Each language has its own division of lexicon into classes such as nouns. inaccuracy to readers.’’ instead of ‘‘C¸m ¬n anh ®· tÆng em mãn quµ ®¸ng yªu.hard currency: .insurance policy: . it can be chosen the only one appropriate equivalent from this into that language.’’ In addition to this. In English. It is not very easy for some translators to translate the following terminologies if they are not familiar with business texts.marginal: gi¸ b¸n) . At the same time.42 3. In some dictionaries. She often lets the grass grow under her feet.credit terms: . “The USA is said to be a powerful country. 1. there is also a tendency of using more passive constructions in English than in Vietnamese. the synonyms are those of the context in which the are operating . prepositions. It is obvious that these units link together to create a larger unit of meaning in a given text to be translated. etc.sales promotion campaign: l-u l-îng tiÒn mÆt hîp ®ång b¶o hiÓm giÊy b¸o cho biÕt ®· nhËn ®-îc nh÷ng ®iÒu kho¶n tÝn dông ®ång tiÒn m¹nh biªn tÕ chªnh lÖch gi÷a gi¸ mua vµ tæng sè vèn l-u ®éng chiÕn dÞch khuyÕn m¹i In conclusion. “Thank you for your pretty present. in terms of translation. adjectives. both languages have a one-to-one correlation of lexical items.” was translated as: .” was translated as ‘‘C¸m ¬n anh v× mãn quµ ®¸ng yªu. They are committed by those who have little knowledge of both source language(SL) and target language (TG).acknowledgement: . there is a tendency of using more nominal structures while verbal structures are used more in Vietnamese. the authors present series of synonyms of SL in comparison with TL. The linking meaning itself does not exist in separate word units but in the link of the units constituting the whole text. some inexperienced translators committed the lexical errors mentioned above including those of context. they thought that although English is different from Vietnamese. synonyms and idioms & terminologies. some translators mistranslated the terminologies causing vagueness. “She rarely saves her time to do her homework. verbs. However.” should be translated as ‘‘C« Êy hiÕm khi tiÕt kiÖm thêi gian ®Ó lµm bµi tËp ë nhµ. word collocation.

The Vietnamese Airlines has coped with difficulties due to the regional financial crisis..) 3. nªn H·ng Hµng Kh«ng VN ph¶i ®-¬ng ®Çu víi nh÷ng khã kh¨n. Sau mét n¨m häc hµnh ch¨m chØ. It is commonly known that in some languages. bè mÑ ®· th-ëng cho t«i mét chuyÕn du lÞch ®Õn thµnh phè Nha Trang.”.43 ‘‘Mü ®-îc nãi lµ mét c-êng quèc. ( C¸m ¬n l¸ th. Hue was recognized as the world‟s cultural heritage by UNESCO in 1994. Tr-êng häc d¹y to¸n v× to¸n häc ®ãng vai trß rÊt quan träng. 3. UNESCO ®· c«ng nhËn HuÕ lµ di s¶n v¨n hãa thÕ giíi vµo n¨m 1994. I was rewarded with a trip to Nha Trang by my parents after a year of hard work. (T«i ®· ®-îc th-ëng mét chuyÕn ®i ®Õn Nha Trang bëi bè mÑ cña t«i sau mét n¨m lµm viÖc vÊt v¶. This principle suggests that the translator should not depend largely on the structures of the SL but break them . Schools teach mathematics because of its very important roles. in English the way of giving an advice could be expressed by a number of structures : “Why don‟t you.’’ 4. For example. on function is expressed by many forms and vice versa. 4. 2. “You should/ ought to.. Another problem is that some translators was not aware of the relationship between form and function of language. ( Hµng kh«ng ViÖt Nam gÆp ph¶i nh÷ng khã kh¨n do cuéc khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh vïng trÇm träng. 5. “If I were . Do ¶nh h-ëng cña cuéc khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh trÇm träng trong khu vùc. it is not necessary to keep the form at all. ( HuÕ ®-îc xem lµ di s¶n v¨n hãa thÕ giíi bëi UNESCO vµo n¨m 1994.?”. Thank you for your letter. some translators focused on the structures of SL so much that they fail to convey all the implicit meaning of TL.) 5.) 2. not conveying the desired meaning of the SL sentences. 1. As can be seen from the examples mentioned above.cña em. C¶m ¬n em ®· viÕt th.’’ The following examples of structural errors were made by some of translators. conveying the meaning as much as possible in an appropriate structures in the TL.’’ instead of ‘‘Ng-êi ta nãi r»ng Mü lµ mét c-êng quèc. It would be more idiomatic to translate as follows. ( Tr-êng häc d¹y to¸n v× tÇm quan träng cña nã.) The above-mentioned translations do not sound Vietnamese. 1. In fact. lacking the coherence and smoothness. The most important thing is that the translations must be done on the basis of the TL grammar that is familiar to the readers.cho em.

Mµy ®ßi lµm thÇy cña tao µ? 3. 1. NÕu h¾n kh«ng lµm viÖc võa ý t«i . the structural difference between the SL and the TL is likely to make it difficult for the translators. If they try to keep the same punctuation of the SL text. “You‟d better” or “ I advise you to. Why don‟t we go to the cinema? ( a suggestion) 4. I will not pay him for this.”. I‟d. run-together. 1.” (Kho¶ng c¸ch lín gi÷a ng-êi giµu vµ ng-êi nghÌo còng nh.sù tham nhòng vµ t×nh tr¹ng bÊt an cña x· héi g©y ra do sù ph©n bè l¹i d©n c. Why did you say so? ( You should not have said so) 5. Unless he has done the work to my satisfaction. 1. As mentioned in the previous part. LÏ ra anh kh«ng nªn nãi nh. It is much better to divide long sentences into short ones aiming at creating coherence.”.(If he has not done. Cã biÕt mÊy giê råi kh«ng? 2. some translators did not realize the conversational implicature understood implicitly as follows. What‟s the time? ( Why are you so late?) 2.) 2. “ It is also necessary to invest in increasing capability of battery production establishments to meet the demand for automobile and motorbike manufacturing and assembling in accordance with the localization program. attraction for readers in the translations. These are the translated sentences with their structural errors made by some of inexperienced translators.ë c¸c khu c«ng nghiÖp ®· lµm cho nhiÒu ng-êi ph¶i do dù khi chÊp nhËn nh÷ng thay ®æi lín. In addition. have made many people hesitate in further changes.” . the correspondent TL text will have clumsy.) Those sentences should be translated as follows. The translators were not aware of dividing or combining the sentences within a text to be translated. long and complex sentences.44 you. Are you my teacher? ( You want to teach me.vËy! 5..) 3. “The dividing gap between the rich and the poor as well as corruption and social unrest caused by the relocation of people in industrialized areas. th× ®õng hßng t«i tr¶ l-¬ng cho h¾n. Chóng ta ®i xem phim hÌ? 4.

2. “ It is also necessary to invest in increasing capability of battery production establishments to meet the demand for automobile and motorbike manufacturing and assembling in accordance with the localization program. 1. the levels of language in translation can be different . colloquials used in spoken language.” ( §Çu t. familiar language used among friends. formal . have made many people hesitate in further changes. relatives. “The dividing gap between the rich and the poor as well as corruption and social unrest caused by the relocation of people in industrialized areas.vµo viÖc t¨ng n¨ng suÊt cña nh÷ng c¬ së s¶n xuÊt ¾c qui ®Ó ®¸p øng nhu cÇu d©y chuyÒn s¶n xuÊt vµo viÖc chÕ t¹o « t« vµ xe m¸y phï hîp víi ch-¬ng tr×nh ë trong n-íc. Due to the context. ChÝnh ®iÒu nµy ®· lµm cho nhiÒu ng-êi ph¶i miÔn c-ìng nh÷ng thay ®æi lín h¬n n÷a. text-type and audience.” (Sù thay ®æi chç ë t¹i c¸c vïng c«ng nghiÖp hãa ®· lµm cho kho¶ng c¸ch gi÷a ng-ßi giµu vµ ng-êi nghÌo còng nh.) All above translated sentences should be corrected as follows. the most effective way for translators is to master the structures of bot languages.) 3.” ( Ph¶i mÊt nhiÒu thêi gian ®Ó ph©n phèi hµng hãa ®Õn c¸c vïng xa x«i b»ng c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn giao th«ng l¹c hËu.” (Nã lÊy nhiÒu thêi gian ®Ó ph©n phèi hµng hãa ®Õn c¸c vïng xa x«i b»ng c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn giao th«ng l¹c hËu.vµo viÖc t¨ng n¨ng suÊt cña nh÷ng c¬ së s¶n xuÊt ¾c qui ®Ó ®¸p øng nhu cÇu d©y chuyÒn s¶n xuÊt vµo viÖc chÕ t¹o « t« vµ xe m¸y phï hîp víi ch-¬ng tr×nh ë trong n-íc lµ rÊt cÇn thiÕt.the informal language used in informal situations . members in a family.sù tham nhòng vµ t×nh tr¹ng bÊt an cña x· héi ngµy cµng lín.) In order to overcome this type of structural errors. STYLE ERRORS Styles play an important role informal translation and strongly affect the second language meaning.) 2.45 ( Nã còng rÊt cÇn thiÕt ®Ó ®Çu t. It is clear that a translator who is proficient in English cannot help being good at Vietnamese and vice versa. “It takes much time to deliver goods to remote areas by backward means of transport.) 3. “It takes much time to deliver goods to remote areas by backward means of transport.

46 language used in formal texts such as speeches in conference, legal documents, business letter & documents, research papers. The examples given below clearly indicate that the same massage could be expressed in different styles.

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1. Drop me a line. 2. Remember to write me a letter. 3. I look forward to your letter. 4. They can escape from family suprvision. 6. They are completely armed. 7. They are armed to teeth.

( informal language ) ( neutral) ( informal language ) ( formal) ( formal) ( colloquial)

5. Their parents can‟t keep an eye on them. (colloquial)

Style error is an acute problem to the translators. There are translators did not master the difference when using various styles such as conversational, academic, scientific, literary styles. Many translators failed when coming across the unfamiliar styles due to being unaware of degrees of formality (informal or formal style), usage of vocabulary ( informal, colloquial, formal) These are some style errors taken out from some Vietnamese- English translations. 1. NÕu chóng t«i ®Æt hµng víi sè l-îng lín, liÖu doanh nghiÖp anh cã b¸n víi gi¸ rÎ kh«ng? (If we place substantial orders, can your enterprise get us with soft price?) It is impossible to use informal style in a business letter. Instead of using “soft price” , the translator should use “cheaper price”. 2. Thêi tiÕt ë HuÕ kh«ng thÝch hîp cho ng-êi giµ. Mïa hÌ trêi nãng nh- thiªu ®èt, trong khi mïa ®«ng l¹nh ®Õn x-¬ng tñy. (The weather in Hue is favorable for the old. It is burning hot in summer while it chills to the bones in winter.) It is impossible to use informal style to tanslate a formal text. Instead of using “burning hot” , the translator should use “exceedingly hot”.

3. CULTURAL ERRORS
Culture could be understood as the total set of beliefs, attitude, customs, behaviour, social habits etc. of the member of a particular society. In the broad sense, it includes mode of production, production activities, community organization, spiritural life, knowledge of nature and society, emotions, and moral conceptions. Language is regarded as both a component of a culture and network through which other elements of culture operate. Language , therefore uses almost all other cultural elements so as to perfect its universal and self-sufficient nature. It could be said that we will not translate from this to that language perfectly unless we know its relation to its culture. It is common ly known that “ao dai” is a traditional costume of the Vietnamese women and we never find an equivalent word in English to translate “ao dai”. However, some translators translated mechanically “ ao dai” into “ a dress”. How funny it is! It would be preferredcto

48 writing down “ao dai” to express the cultural feature to making foreign people misunderstand “ao dai” as”a dress”. * ‘‘ Trang phôc truyÒn thèng cña ng-êi phô n÷ ViÖt Nam lµ chiÕc ¸o dµi t-îng tr-ng cho sù duyªn d¸ng.’’ should be translated as “ The traditional costume of the Vietnamese women is ‘‘ao dai’’ which symbolises the grace. Translation is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions." As this statement implies, translators are permanently faced with the problem of how to treat the cultural aspects implicit in a source text (ST) and of finding the most appropriate technique of successfully conveying these aspects in the target language (TL). These problems may vary in scope depending on the cultural and linguistic gap between the two (or more) languages concerned. The cultural implications for translation may take several forms ranging from lexical content and syntax to ideologies and ways of life in a given culture. The translator also has to decide on the importance given to certain cultural aspects and to what extent it is necessary or desirable to translate them into the TL. The aims of the ST will also have implications for translation as well as the intended readership for both the ST and the target text (TT). Considering the cultural implications for a translated text implies recognising all of these problems and taking into account several possibilities before deciding on the solution which appears the most appropriate in each specific case. Before applying these methods to the chosen text, this essay will examine the importance of culture in translation through a literature review. The different general procedures of treating the cultural implications for translation will be examined as well as analysing the ST and the aims of the author. The translation process will also be treated using specific examples found in the ST before discussing the success of aforementioned theoretical methods applied to the TT. Although corresponding to cultural categories examined, the title will be considered separately in order to determine the pertinence of conserving, highlighting, or excluding certain aspects. Due to these considerations, the title will be considered after the other aspects as all other cultural implications need to be examined before reaching relevant conclusions.

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CHAPTER 2:
ASSIGNMENT 1:
I.THEORY:

ASSIGNMENTS

1. What is translation? What definition do you think is the most appropriate? Can you give your own definition of translation? 2. What is an idiomatic translation? Give some examples of idiomatic translations. 3. What are the secondary meanings? Give ten sentences, each of which contains a word used in a secondary sense. 4. What is the primary meaning? Give ten sentences, each of which contains a word used in a primary sense.

II. EXERCISES:
A. Identify change of meaning versus change of form. Some of the following pairs of sentences differ in their form. Some differ in meaning. Indicate if the primary change is in the form or in the meaning. Example: They robbed the old man. The old man was dropped by them. Answer: Change of form 1. The students like to study translation. The students like studying translation. 2. He saw the bird. He heard the cat. 3. Go to bed. I want you to go to bed. 4. I came; I saw; I conquered. I came, saw, and conquered. 5. The young man had an English grammar book stolen. An English grammar book was stolen from the young man. B. List as many grammatical forms as you can which realize the same meaning as the one given below. Then put the same meaning into a language other than English in as many forms as you can.

46 Example: The cat is black The black cat The cat, which is black 1. The water jug 2. John bought a car 3. A hot day 4. Mother‟s long blue dress 5. Peter‟s house C. All of the following have the same grammatical form. With the change of lexical items, there is a change of meaning which is signaled by that lexical item, apart from the referential meaning of the word itself. What meaning is signaled in each of the following possessive phrases? Answer by restating. How can that meaning best be expressed in another language which you speak? Example: The man‟s car - the man owns the car The man‟s eye - the eye is part of the man 1. The doctor‟s office 2. The doctor‟s patient 3. The doctor‟s book 4. The doctor‟s brother 5. The doctor‟s hand 6. The doctor‟s house D. For each pair of sentences, state whether the two sentences are 1. the same in meaning or 2. different in meaning. 1. (a) It rained all night. (b) Rain fell all night. 2. (a) There is a book on the table. (b) There is a table on the book. 3. (a) John was very surprised when he heard the news. (b) The news very much amazed John when he heard it. 4. (a) It was a hot day. (b) The day was hot. 5. (a) Peter‟s house (b) The house that belongs to Peter

7. (a) My parents are well. Translate the following sentences into English. 4. MÆc dï ®Þa vÞ cña phô n÷ ®· cã nh÷ng b-íc tiÕn kú diÖu. Ngµy nay thÕ giíi ®ang ®-ong ®Çu víi nhiÒu vÊn ®Ò nghiªm träng cho dï ®· cã nhiÒu b-íc tiÕn ®¸ng kÓ trong lÜnh vùc khoa häc. (b) I bought a new dress for Mary. (a) The storekeeper said that we will refund your money. xung quanh toµn lµ nói ®åi hïng vÜ. (a) John is ill: he has a bad case of malaria. In each of the following pairs of sentences. EXERCISES: A. ChÞ may ¸o s¬ mi nµy ë ®©u vËy? 2. He told the one little story. (a) I bought cloth to make Mary a new dress.47 6. (b)The storekeeper promised to refund our money. ASSIGNMENT 2: I. 8. (a) He remained silent. Mét trong nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò ®ã lµ sù bïng næ d©n sè. E. which is more idiomatic English. (b) He is one boy. . 1. 2. dinh d-ìng vµ gi¸o dôc cho phô n÷. 9. ThÕ giíi mµ «ng ta miªu t¶ lµ thÕ giíi cña giai cÊp trung l-u vµ h¹ l-u ë Lu©n §«n. Charles Dickens lµ mét trong nh÷ng nhµ viÕt tiÓu thuyÕt lín nhÊt thÕ giíi. (b) He did not say anything. (b) My mother and father are well. D©n sè ®ang t¨ng theo cÊp sè nh©n trong lóc s¶n xuÊt hµng ho¸ l¹i t¨ng theo cÊp sè céng. What are the differences between a literal translation and an idiomatic translation? 2. What grammatical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas.s¶n Anh lóc bÊy giê. 3.THEORY: 1. ®Æc biÖt ë c¸c n-íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn. 5. II. §µ L¹t chiÕm cø mét vïng ®Êt réng trªn cao nguyªn L©m Viªn. This is a game he said. c«ng nghÖ vµ tri thøc. (b) John is very ill indeed. thuéc tr-êng ph¸i hiÖn thùc phª ph¸n thÕ kû 19. (a) A certain boy told me this little story at a party. a or b? How would the meaning be expressed idiomatically in the language you speak? 1. §iÒu mµ chóng ta ®¸nh gi¸ cao vÒ nh÷ng t¸c phÈm cña Dickens lµ sù phª ph¸n vÒ téi ¸c vµ sù t-¬ng ph¶n gi÷a giµu vµ nghÌo cña x· héi t. nh-ng ng-êi ta ph¶i thùc hiÖn nhiÒu chuyÖn kh¸c ®Ó c¶i thiÖn t×nh tr¹ng søc khoÎ.

( I am very happy to be able to send/write you this letter. Hue is famous about its delicious dishes and beautiful landscapes. ( I will be thinking about you often every day. send a letter to me in Saigon. many foreign countries have been investing in Vietnam.000 Kw.) 4. The forms used shows examples of how their mother-tongue language structures have been carried over into English. B. Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam. 2. Sir. And how many hot children‟s tears have not been shed on spelling? 4. 4. 5 . ( Sir. What changes were made in correcting the English? These changes point out some of the differences between Vietnamese and English. If there is any means. C. Look for literalisms in the following translations into English and underline the words or phrases that do not sound natural in English. A robbery took place of a motorcycle rider at Kampung early yesterday morning. (b) He then his mishap reported to the police. All of these examples are from published translated material. Each of the following are sentences written by some Vietnamese who are not yet fluent English speakers. How many children have shed hot tears about spelling? (b) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform.) D. Foreign tourists usually at Kinh Do Hotel for their friends have introduced to them very much about this hotel. who are searching diligently for the thief. the problems of before don‟t forget.48 3. The same information is then given in parenthesis in idiomatic English. . 1. Suggest a more idiomatic way of saying it. 1. Translate the following sentences into Englisgh. I am very grateful to inform you with this letter. please don‟t forget the problems we discussed before. send me a letter to Saigon. (If there is any way to do so. 3. The participants discussed about the causes of pollution environment. Th¸c M¬ lµ c«ng tr×nh thuû ®iÖn cã c«ng suÊt thiÕt kÕ 150. (a) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform as well.) 3. 1.) 2.) 5. I am a man who has been to Hanoi for 12 years. I will think you time to time day and day.too. who are the thief searching intensively. (a) He then reported his misfortune to the police. ( I have now lived in Hanoi for 12 years. s¶n l-îng ®iÖn trung b×nh hµng n¨m 600 triÖu Kw giê.

Efforts are being made to raise women‟s awareness of their rights to have labour safety or hygiene conditions at work through an expanded communication network. 3. Víi khèi l-îng c«ng viÖc lín nh. it is still far below the demand to fully equip schools and improve training quality. 10. ®¾p h¬n 350. Nh÷ng ng-êi l·nh ®¹o c«ng tr×nh kh¼ng ®Þnh víi Thñ t-íng r»ng ®· cã ®Çy ®ñ c¬ së ®Ó ®¶m b¶o khëi ®éng tæ m¸y sè 1 vµo th¸ng 6 n¨m 1994. hÖ thèng t¶i ®iÖn 500 Kw B¾c Nam còng ®-îc hoµn thµnh. 4. §Ó x©y dùng c«ng tr×nh nµy cÇn ph¶i ®µo ®¾p gÇn 15 triÖu m3 ®Êt ®¸. trade. Trung tuÇn th¸ng 11/1993. Although the state budget for teaching aids at schools of all levels has been icreased since 1990. Theo «ng NguyÔn B¸ MÉn. E. ®æ kho¶ng 220. 6. Nh. Tr-ëng ban Qu¶n lý c«ng tr×nh. th× hÇu hÕt c¸c h¹ng môc c¨n b¶n ®Òu ®¹t ®óng yªu cÇn vÒ tiÕn ®é thi c«ng.vËy sÏ cã mét sù trïng hîp cã ý nghÜa lµ cïng mét thêi ®iÓm víi viÖc khëi ®éng tæ m¸y sè 1 thuû ®iÖn th¸c M¬. There have been four foreign invested projects in education. 9. 5. nh-ng chÝnh phñ quyÕt ®Þnh ph¶i hoµn thµnh viÖc thi c«ng trong hai n¨m do nhu cÇu cung cÊp ®iÖn cho c¸c ®Þa ph-¬ng phÝa Nam ®· trë nªn hÕt søc cÊp b¸ch. 6. 7. science and technology. Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese 1. its traditional friend and stragic partner in Southeast Asia. 4. They discussed a series of measures intended to ensure comprehensive cooperation in economy. ViÖc chÆn dßng s«ng BÐ tiÕn hµnh vµo th¸ng 12 nµy. 8. ®æ kho¶ng 40% khèi l-îng bª c«ng cèt thÐp.000 mÐt khèi bª t«ng cèt thÐp vµ l¾p ®Æt gÇn 7.vËy. It is more likely that schools in the southern provinces have more computer labs used in teaching foreign languages than schools in the northern provinces. . Tõ ngµy khëi c«ng ®Õn nay. President Putin affirmed that Russia has always attacted importance to its relations with Vietnam.000 tÊn thiÕt bÞ vµ kÕt cÊu kim lo¹i. Thñ t-íng Vâ V¨n KiÖt ®· ®Õn kiÓm tra t×nh h×nh thi c«ng c«ng tr×nh thuû ®iÖn th¸c M¬.000 mÐt khèi tÇng läc. c¸c ®¬n vÞ thi c«ng ®· thùc hiÖn ®-îc kho¶ng 90% khèi l-îng ®µo ®Êt. one in the central coast and one in remote areas. 2. n¨m 1994. miÒn Nam ®· tho¸t khái t×nh tr¹ng ®ãi ®iÖn. with investment capital from the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. one in mountainous areas. Víi c¸c c«ng tr×nh nµy. 3. 5. It is projected to extend integration opportunities to 3000 disabled children in three provinces. 7.49 2.

Of 50 foreign language students surveyed recently by the Vietnam Courier. . 9. 38 said they are not interested in working for foreign invested companies. Vietnam and China agreed to set up negotiations for the signing of a land border agreement delineating the sea boundary in the Bac Bo ( Tonkin ) Gulf no later than 2000.50 8. Most recently the government has offered incentives like tax reduction or preferential loans to employers who have employed a large number of women. 10.

Cöa hµng. ng-êi th× tù bá vèn hoÆc lµ liªn kÕt víi ng-êi bá vèn hïn h¹p x©y dùng c¸c biÖt thù sang träng dïng lµm kh¸ch s¹n mi ni phôc vô kh¸ch n-íc. quÊt vµng méng. 8. B. Why do you have to take the time to read the source language text carefully before translating it? II. Mong sao Hµ néi vµ ng-êi Hµ Néi m·i m·i xøng danh víi m¶nh ®Êt ngµn n¨m v¨n hiÕn. 9. leaving only a small opening for the rituals to proceed. ®ñ ®¸p øng nhu cÇu cña ng-êi Hµ Néi vÒ hoa c¶nh. 3.51 ASSIGNMENT 3: I. tim tÝm vi«lÐt vµ ®á rùc hoa ®ång tiÒn. Translate the following sentences into English. To reduce the costs while increasing accessibility of education for disabled children. 10.nÊm ®ñ lo¹i hµng ho¸ tõ b×nh d©n ®Õn cao cÊp. 1. NÕu ®i tõ phÝa Kinh B¾c xuèng. Vµi ba n¨m trë vÒ tr-íc. ®Êt trång hoa hiÖn nay bÞ thu hÑp dÇn do sù chuyÓn h-íng lµm ¨n cña kh«ng Ýt nghÖ nh©n. 3. ta sÏ nh×n thÊy b¹t ngµn hoa xu©n. n¬i ®©y lµ rõng hoa. nhÊt lµ lay¬n khoe s¾c ®ñ mµu. Hµ Néi thêi më cöa ®ang ®æi thay. gµ ®Ìu nh»m phôc vô tÕt. 7. Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese. The whole area around the temple was virtually packed with people. 4. What lexical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas. the government has launched a program of community-based education and integration. 6. Nghi Tµm. 1. THEORY: 1. Bµ con vïng nµy lµ nh÷ng nghÖ nh©n cã truyÒn thèng trång hoa l©u ®êi. Cã lÏ bµ con n«ng d©n ngo¹i thµnh lµ ng-êi c¶m nhËn thÊy TÕt h¬n ai hÕt bëi tõ viÖc vun xíi rau qu¶. S¸t víi vïng Néi Thµnh lµ vïng hoa NhËt T©n . 2. 2. cöa hiÖu mäc lªn nh. Ch¼ng cßn nghi ngê g× n÷a. ®ang ph¸t triÓn. 5. The centerpiece of the festivities was a show entitled “ A Flock of Birds to Good Land” staged simultaneously on the three different grand stages in the downtown area. EXERCISES: A. TiÕc thay. Ng-êi th× b¸n ®¸t bá nghÒ. cá hoa cho viÖc vç bÐo lîn. . Ngay tõ nh÷ng ngµy ®Çu th¸ng Ch¹p ( ¢m lÞch) TÕt ®· l¶ng v¶ng ë vïng ngo¹i thµnh Hµ Néi. Qu¶ng B¸ víi nhiÒu lo¹i : ®µo hång th¾m. 2.

52 4. where tropical forest has been converted to grazing . Read the English text and answer the questions. ASSIGNMENT 4: I. But out of the four marketplaces targeted. The television network is being established throughout the country. Regular expenditure has been ensured. Name and discuss the four T‟s of a translation project. 7. 10. down from 4. only Dong Tam market was moved from the Dong Da residential quarter to the Dai La area. Deforestation Population growth is one factor in rainforest destruction. State budget revenues have approximately achieved the level originally set. In recent years. II. EXERCISES: A. THEORY: 1. Each year commercial logging eliminates 45000 square kilometers of forest. Apart from the relatively modern and long-standing television stations in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. to restore public order. and not by „shifting‟ cultivators or landless peasants. 6. 8. it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor. 2.2% in 1997. However. much of the timber being exported to the United States and Japan. floods and droughts have been made. 5. However. Besides the investment from the State budget. 25 provincial stations were set up in 1988. these sources made up only 13% and 21% of the state budget for general education schools and universities respectively. These relay the important transmissions of the central TV stations and broadcast their own program.6% of GDP in 1998. public facilities and resources. It is the context of long periods of wars that has caused loss of people‟s lives and damage to property. 9. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil. The majority of deforestation in Latin America. all the schools had to look for other financial sources to buy teaching equipment. Due to the open-door policy. Hanoi removed a number of unofficial marketplaces into designated areas. South-east Asia and the Pacific is caused by clearing land to grow cash crops for export and by commercial logging operations. while irregular spending in support of area hit by storms. The budget deficit has been kept at a permissible level of 3. The Vietnam‟s Women Union is represented in the National Assembly and its president is entitled to attend the regular meeting of The Council of Ministers where she can express the Women Union‟s view-points and propose the regulations related to the Union. the industrial civilization has exerted a daily and hourly effect on the life of Vietnamese families. The economic development of Vietnam has to be viewed in the context of long periods of wars. The Vietnamese families have been affected by the agricultural civilization. Explain what is meant by exegesis.

B. 1. which affect the poor the most. §ã lµ lßng yªu n-íc th-¬ng nßi cña d©n téc ViÖt Nam. S«ng §µ. affluent society. These heavy payments. military and governing elites. it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor. 1. shifting cultivators. How many times have you read the text to understand it completely? 4. Translate the text into Vietnamese. 6. Trªn thÕ giíi. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh. hå. where tropical forest has been converted to grazing land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. Do you have any difficulty in finding the Vietnamese meaning of the English words : subsistence agriculture. ë ViÖt Nam th× ‘‘n-íc’’( trong s«ng. What is the text about? 3. The establishment of large ranch-style cattle grazing properties is the principal reason for the elimination of 20000 square kilometers of rainforest each year in Central or South America. hÔ gÆp nhau lÇn ®Çu nãi lµ hiÓu nhau ngay. cash crops. Read the Vietnamese text and answer the questions.mét khèi bÊt tö bÊt diÖt bëi mét thø xi m¨ng tr-êng tån. Do you have any difficulty in finding the equivalent Vietnamese structures of the following English sentences? a. biÓn. Europe and Japan. What is the text about? 3.the aptly named „hamburger connection‟. What is the author‟s purpose of writing this text? 2. external debt payment. commercial logging operations. landless peasants. ®ång ©m víi ‘‘n-íc’’ trong ý nghÜa tæ quèc quª h-¬ng. Nh-ng ë ViÖt Nam. ranch-style cattle grazing property.tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. ng-êi Nam kÎ B¾c. hamburger connection ? 5.) l¹i ®ång nghÜa. The cleared land is mainly devoted to the export of beef for the fast-food industries in North America. S«ng n-íc vµ con ng-êi ë ®©y kÕt hîp víi thiªn nhiªn vµ lÞch sö nh. dï bÊt kú ë ®©u. NON N¦íC Cha «ng ta ®· uèng n-íc s«ng Hång. cã nhiÒu quèc gia tõ tØnh nä sang tØnh kia nãi lµ kh«ng hiÓu nhau råi. What is the author‟s purpose of writing this text? 2. have arisen largely from external loans taken out to finance the purchase of luxury items and arms by military and governing elite.53 land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. S«ng Cöu Long vµ tõng sèng chÕt víi s«ng n-íc nµy. However. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil. b. How many times have you read the text to understand it completely? .

tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta.Nh-ng ë ViÖt Nam. kÕt hîp chÆt chÏ. utopian invetions such as aircrafts. Translate the text into English. 4. hiÓu nhau? 5. Many of the jobs now being performed by people in the manufacturing and service sectors of our economy can be done faster and more cheaply by modern computers or electronic devices controlled by computers. Ford. They have already done so in the Fiat car factory in Italy and the Nissan car plant in Japan. 5. The News Atlantic hailed the scientists of the time as merchants of light who would penetrate the darkness and open the way to man‟s control over nature. sù thèng nhÊt. b. Nissan and Simpson Pope. xi m¨ng tr-êng tån.the abacus. At that time. In the human history. 7. and telephones were foreseen. 50 robots were in use in Australia by companies such as General Motors. Do you have any difficulty in finding the equivalent English structures of the following Vietnamese sentences? a. The forerunner of modern computer goes back some 5000 years to the first calculating machine invented by the Chinese. What kinds of evaluation checks can be made? II. it is necessary to consider briefly the history of computers. People involved in the computer industry believe we are experiencing a computer revolution. By 1980. Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese. and to increase human understanding of the world. hÔ gÆp nhau lÇn ®Çu nãi lµ hiÓu nhau ngay. England and the USA to aid the speedy and accurate calculations necessary to decode the enemy‟s messages during the Second World War. Do you have any difficulty in finding the English meaning of the Vietnamese words : cha «ng. What are the goals of the translator as he prepares the initial draft? 2. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh. science has been seen as having a mission to liberate people from ignorance and superstition. What is the purpose of the evaluation? 3. submarines. 2. ASSIGNMENT 5: I. 6. Why is this revolution occuring? What will be its social consequences? To answer these questions . sèng chÕt. EXERSISES: A. Until the 17th century. Robot machines are replacing assembly line workers in manufacturing. 1. to lessen human misery. 6. . ng-êi Nam kÎ B¾c. Computers were developed simultaneously in Germany. THEORY: 1.54 4. lßng yªu n-íc th-¬ng nßi. 3. Europe had nothing to rival the abacus for speed and accuracy of calculation. dï bÊt kú ë ®©u.

55 8. ®-êng t¶i ®iÖn vµ c¸p quang xuyªn ViÖt kho¶ng 12 ViÖc cung cÊp n-íc ngät cho khu nµy lµ hÕt søc thuËn lîi tr÷ l-îng lµ 3 tØ mÐt khèi /n¨m. Mét diÒu kiÖn thuËn lîi n÷a lµ Dung QuÊt n»m c¸ch ®-êng ®-êng s¾t. cã kÕt cÊu ®Þa lý æn ®Þnh víi diÖn tÝch hµng chôc c©y sè vu«ng. t-îng tr-ng cho nguån l-¬ng thùc cña c¶ . which was wiped out by electronic watches in a couple of years.®« thÞ hiÖn ®¹i víi kho¶ng 60 v¹n d©n. Such has been the fate of the $200 million a year Swiss watch industry. Ngµy nay chóng ta ®ang tr·i qua mét cuéc biÕn ®æi x· héi rÊt s©u s¾c nh. VÞnh Dung QuÊt n»m ë phÝa ®«ng b¾c huyÖn B×nh S¬n. Bê phÝa nam vÞnh lµ mét vïng ®¸t b»ng ph¼ng. nhµ m¸y läc dÇu. ASSIGNMENT 6: I. N¬i ®©y sÏ h×nh thµnh c¸c khu c«ng nghiÖp nÆng vµ ho¸ chÊt. The heroic image of science grew through the 18th and 19th centuries. 1. II. khu chÕ biÕn h¶i s¶n. víi nguån n-íc tõ s«ng Bång. 9. viÖc ®Þnh nghÜa l¹i kh¸i niªm viÖc lµm cã lÏ lµ cÇn thiÕt. With the mechanization of some work processes. 2. 10. 4. much sought-after. bé. Translate the following sentences into English. VÞnh cã chiÒu dµi 18 km vµ ®-îc che chë kÝn ®¸o bëi c¸c d·y nói tù nhiªn. 3. Do vËy. khu c«ng nghiÖp nhÑ vµ mét khu d©n c. víi Trµ 5. EXERCISES: A. Translate the following sentences into English. “cottage industry” artisans suddenly found themselves redundant and de-skilled by the new technology. Previously. which started in England in the late 18th century. The Industrial Revolution. 2. Do phï sa båi ®¾p cña dßng s«ng Cöu Long ®· lam phong phó vùa lóa ®Çy ¾p nµy. khu chÕ biÕn n«ng s¶n. Firms that do not adopt the new computer technology are enable to compete with their cheaper electronic rivals. tØnh Qu¶ng Ng·i. although the social costs and benefits were far from equal share. 1. the new factories initially resulted in large-scale structural unemployment.THEORY: 1. Why does a translator often make structural and lexical errors when he/she translates a text? 3. strongly reinforced faith in a technological society. Name some kinds of errors that a translator could make when he/she translates a text. Give some examples of errors in word collocation that a translator could make when he/she translate a text. skilled. km.sù thay ®æi trong cuéc c¸ch m¹ng c«ng nghiÖp lÇn thø nhÊt. B.

The nuclear energy proponents also pressed the theme that it was inevitable that the world would increasingly go nuclear. 3. 7. g¾n bã víi gia ®×nh quª h-¬ng. MÆc dï møc l-¬ng tèi thiÓu hµng th¸ng t¨ng. Cuéc ®iÒu tra do héi phô n÷ ViÖt Nam tiÕn hµnh cho thÊy r»ng nh÷ng ph-¬ng ph¸p tr¸nh thai truyÒn thèng ®ang ®-îc ¸p dông réng r·i.phong c¸ch sinh ho¹t kÒ cËn s«ng n-íc cña c. . dramatically increasing the blood cells that HIV destroys. ®Êt n-íc.56 n-íc còng nh. In the field of medicine training. Today. Tõ nh÷ng dßng s«ng réng lín ®Õn nh÷ng m-¬ng r¹ch m¶nh mai chØ tiÖn cho nh÷ng chiÕc thuyÒn nhá bÐ ra v«. 3. yªu quÝ vµ gi÷ g×n b¶n s¾c v¨n ho¸ vµ hun ®óc nªn tÝnh c¸ch con ng-êi ViÖt Nam. ChÝnh phñ ®¨ xóc tiÕn mét cuéc t¸i thiÕt toµn diÖn vÒ l-¬ng bæng cña c«ng nh©n viªn nhµ n-íc b»ng c¸ch chØnh ®èn l¹i nh÷ng kho¶n bao cÊp cho ng-êi tiªu dïng trªn danh nghÜa ho¹ch ®Þnh l¹i chÕ ®é l-¬ng. cure. Doctors have shown for the first time they can rebuild the immune systems of people infected with the AIDS virus. what was done in the past years has been remarked by distinguished fact that many specialists and medical colleges in different countries set forth the necessity for reconsidering training subjects for health workers. ph-¬ng ph¸p th-êng dïng nhÊt lµ ®Æt vßng tr¸nh thai B. nh-ngl-¬ng thùc tÕ vÉn gi¶m xuèng ®¸ng kÓ do l¹m ph¸t. 2. Tr-íc n¨m 1988. chÝnh s¸ch míi vÒ l·i suÊt vµ cho phÐp tù do bu«n b¸n vµng trªn thÞ tr-êng. h-ëng øng viÖc cøu trî nh÷ng n¬i trong n-íc bÞ thiªn tai vµ tham gia c¸c viÖc nghÜa víi truyÒn thèng ‘‘ nhiÔu ®iÒu phñ lÊy gi¸ g-¬ng. and rehabilitate the health of the individuals and the community. Hence.’’ 5. chÝnh phñ ®· ®Ì ra c¸c biÖn ph¸p míi bao gåm tæ chøc l¹i hÖ thèng ng©n hµng. nhiÒu kiÒu bµo cßn ®ãng gãp x©y dùng quª h-¬ng. the responsibility of the physicians is to know how to discover. Cuéc ®iÒu tra cho thÊy r»ng 39% phô n÷ cã gia ®×nh dïng ph-¬ng ph¸p hiÖn ®¹i.d©n trong vïng. 4. 2. ®-a vµo c¸c chÝnh s¸ch tÝn dông h¹n ®Þnh. 4. §Ó khuyÕn khÝch hÖ thèng ng©n hµng ho¹t ®éng cã môc ®Ých h¬n. 6. §iÒu ®¸ng quÝ lµ kiÒu bµo lu«n h-íng vÒ tæ quèc. ¶nh h-ëng cña hÖ thèng ng©n hµng ®èi víi sù ph¸t triÓn vµ qu¶n lý kinh tÕ vÜ m« lµ kh«ng ®¸ng kÓ. tr¹m cuèi cïng cña hµnh tr×nh 4500km n¬i cöa ngâ biÓn §«ng. Ngoµi viÖc gióp ®ì ng-êi th©n ë n-íc nhµ. S«ng Cöu Long cho ta mét c¶nh quan hoµnh tr¸ng khi nã ch¶y vµo ViÖt Nam. who broke machines. Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese 1. It is suggested that the opponents were standing against the tide of history and were akin to the Luddites at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. the physicians should be considered as men of health.

and a truly healthy man is one who can enjoy the proper equilibrium between his body and mind. Sù hiÖn diÖn cña hµng tr¨m lµng nghÒ truyÒn thèng ®· s¶n xuÊt ra hµng ngh×n lo¹i s¶n phÈm thñ c«ng mü nghÖ næi tiÕng. tËp qu¸n. v¨n hãa nghÖ thuËt d©n gian ®Æc s¾c. H«Þ phô n÷ gióp cho phô n÷ gi¶i quyÕt nh÷ng khã kh¨n trong cuéc sèng h»ng ngµy.Nh÷ng thµnh tùu cña qu¸ tr×nh ®æi míi trong thËp niªn võa qua ®· t¹o ra nh÷ng c¬ héi cho phô n÷ ®¹t ®-îc môc ®Ých cña m×nh. Hµng ngh×n di tÝch lÞch sö.57 5. Mét lÔ héi ®©m tr©u ch¼ng h¹n. ASSIGNMENT 7: Translate the following texts into English 1. C¸c dÞch vô x· héi ®· gióp phô n÷ bít nhäc nh»n trong c«ng viÖc nhµ vµ t¹o ®IÒu kiÖn cho phô n÷ tham gia vµo c¸c ho¹t ®éng x· héi .NhËn ra nh÷ng nh©n tè t¹o nªn viÖc häc ngo¹i ng÷ nhanh vµ hiÖu qu¶ ngµy cµng trë nªn quan träng v× ®a sè ng-êi häc lµ ng-êi lín rÊt lo l¾ng khi häc mét ngo¹i ng÷ chuyªn ngµnh sö dông trong th-¬ng m¹i. However. It is obvious that a healthy body helps a sound mind because it is the sound minds that direct the orientation of the values systems. ®Ó lµm c©y nªu xua ®uæi ma quû. SÏ ph¶i cã mÆt tr-íc lÔ héi hµng tuÇn cïng ng-êi d©n ®i t×m tre ®Ó söa nhµ r«ng. 2. 5. 3. Héi phô n÷ ViÖt nam ®¹I diÖn cho phô n÷ ViÖt Nam trong c¶ n-íc ®· ®æi míi tæ chøc vµ c¸ch lµm viÖc v× vËy ®· thu hót ngµy cµng nhiÒu phô n÷ tham gia vµo c«ng t¸c x· héi. Being mentally healthy is very important. .nghiªn cøu vµ ngo¹I giao. ViÖt Nam lµ mét céng ®ång cña 54 d©n téc víi nhiÒu phong tôc.Søc hÊp dÉn lín nhÊt ®èi víi du kh¸ch lµ b¶n s¾c v¨n hãa cña d©n téc ViÖt Nam. 4. trong ®ã hµng tr¨m di tÝch cã gi¸ trÞ lÞch sö vµ nghÖ thuËt cao. NÕu du kh¸ch ®Õn víi c¸c vïng d©n téc thiÓu sè th× cßn cã thÓ tham dù vµo nh÷ng sinh ho¹t v¨n hãa kú thó cña vïng nói rõng nhiÖt ®íi. A healthy man should be healthy not only physically but also mentally. Trong nh÷ng ngµy ®ã du kh¸ch cßn ®-îc quan s¸t c¸ch chän c¸c vß r-îu cÇn vµ nhÊt lµ viÖc chän tr©u ®Ó ®©m. di tÝch c¸ch m¹ng ®· ®-îc nhµ n-íc xÕp h¹ng. 6. Nowadays people are inclined to worry too much about their physical health. Cuéc sèng cña phô n÷ ®· ®-îc c¶i thiÖn vµ phô n÷ bít nhäc nh»n h¬n. Nhu cÇu ®Ó häc mét ngäai ng÷ cã hiÖu qu¶ cÇn ®-îc xem xÐt theo khÝa c¹nh ng-êi häc. Héi còng ®Ö tr×nh lªn nhµ n-íc nh÷ng ®iÒu luËt vµ chÝnh s¸ch nh»m ph¸t huy mäi tiÒm n¨ng cña phô n÷ trong tiÕn tr×nh ®æi míi. ng-êi d¹y vµ ch-¬ng tr×nh gi¶ng d¹y. I would like to lay stress on the importance of psychological health.

Nh÷ng ng-êi chñ h·ng bu«n vµ c¸c øng cö viªn chÝnh trÞ tõ kh¾p n¬i trªn thÕ giíi ®æ vÒ ®©y vµ ph¸t triÓn nã thµnh mét trong nh÷ng thµnh phè quèc tÕ sµnh ®iÖu nhÊt thÕ giíi. Th-îng H¶i vÉn lµ mét thµnh phè nhá chuyªn nghÒ ®¸nh c¸ vµ dÖt m·i cho ®Õn nöa thÕ kû 19 khi nã b¾t ®Çu ph¸t triÓn nh.mét trung t©m c«ng nghiÖp vµ th-¬ng m¹i. 7. ChØ riªng c¸i tªn Th-îng H¶i còng ®· dËy nªn mét lµn sãng nhá niÒm thÝch thó v« tËn. Nguyªn t¾c c¬ b¶n cña chÝnh s¸ch nµy lµ kÕt hîp tr¸ch nhiÖm cña nhµ n-íc.’’ ASSIGNMENT 8: Translate the following text into English Cã lÏ B¾c Kinh lµ n¬i tËp trung quyÒn lùc chÝnh trÞ nh-ng Th-îng H¶i còng cã quyÒn tù hµo lµ mét thñ ®« th-¬ng m¹i. C¸c ng©n hµng vµ c¸c c«ng ty th-¬ng m¹i ®ñ lo¹i tù x©y dùng cho hä nh÷ng trô së chÝnh sang träng tr«ng ra n¬i mµ sau ®ã lµ nh÷ng c¸nh ®ång lóa mªnh m«ng tr¶i dµi hai bê s«ng Hoµng Phè. thua thiÖt trong hîp t¸c c¹nh tranh.lµ mét n¬i mµ bÊt cø viÖc g× còng cã thÓ x¶y ra. MÆc dï lµ n¹n nh©n cña biÕt bao nhiªu cuéc x©m l-îc. chÝnh lßng nh©n ¸I lµ nh©n tè t¹o nªn søc m¹nhcña d©n téc vµ nÒn ngo¹I giao ViÖt Nam. cña céng ®ång vµ mçi c¸ nh©n tù v-¬n lªn hßa nhËp v¬I x· h«Þ. §ã thùc lµ mét th¸ch thøc lín ®èi víi d©n téc ViÖt Nam trong bèi c¶nh quèc tÕ ngµy nay. 8. LÊy chÝ nh©n thay c-êng b¹o. .®ang sinh sèng ë n-íc ngoµi. Tõ nh÷ng n¨m 1920 trë ®i. NguyÔn Tr·I . ng-êi anh hïng d©n téc cña thÕ kû 15 ®· ®Ó l¹I ph-¬ng ch©m l-u truyÒn cho m·I ®Õn h«m nay : ‘‘ LÊy ®¹I nghÜa th¾ng hung tµn. B¾c Kinh cã lÏ lµ n¬i tËp trung quyÒn lùc chÝnh trÞ nh-ng danh hiÖu mét thñ ®« th-¬ng m¹i l¹i thuéc vÒ Th-îng H¶i. Phóc lîi x· héi lµ chÝnh s¸ch x· héi lín cña ViÖt Nam dùa trªn truyÒn thèng t-¬ng th©n t-¬ng ¸i gióp ®ì lÉn nhau cã tõ ngµn x-a. H¬n thÕ n÷a . B¶n chÊt nh©n v¨n cña tr-êng ph¸i ngo¹i giao ViÖt Nam lµ mét nÐt ®Æc thï.58 6. ChÝnh s¸ch nµy ®ang tõng b-íc më ra cho mäi ®èi t-îng víi nhiÒu h×nh thøc kh¸c nhau. nh-ng ng-êi ViÖt Nam kh«ng bao giê mÊt ®I lßng nh©n ¸i. tuy thÕ hÇu hÕt du kh¸ch ®Òu bÞ chinh phôc tr-íc vÎ quyÕn rò cña thµnh phè ®Æc biÖt nµy. Nh÷ng ®Þa ®iÓm lÞch sö chØ míi cã tõ gÇn 80 n¨m tr-íc ë Th-îng H¶i. n¬i mµ m«i tr-êng lµ tÊt c¶. NÕu tôt hËu xa h¬n cã nghÜa lµ r¬I vµo sè phËn cña mét n-íc cung cÊp nguyªn liÖu vµ nh©n c«ng trong sù ph©n c«ng lao ®éng quèc tÕ. nã trë nªn ngµy cµng tai tiÕng nh. chÞu lÐp vÕ . Sù l¹c hËu vµ nguy c¬ tôt hËu h¬n vÒ kinh tÕ ®ang lµ nçi tr¨n trë canh c¸nh trong lßng mçi ng-êi ViÖt Nam ë trong n-íc còng nh.

vÉn cßn hiÖn h÷u ®©u ®ã trong nh÷ng biÖt thù tao nh· vµ nh÷ng con ®-êng rîp bãng c©y. The younger generation in both our countries must stick to their ideals and work tirelessly for socialism. ASSIGNMENT 9: Translate the following text into Vietnamese In a keynote speech at Hà Nội National University (HNU) yesterday. / Du kh¸ch kh«ng thÓ bá qua mét cuéc t¶n bé däc bê ®ª khi ®Õn th¨m n¬i ®©y. ®iªu kh¾c ®¸ vµ ®å gèm còng ®· ®ñ ®em l¹i nh÷ng kû niÖm khã phai. tõng ®o¹n qu¸ khø nh. bao gåm mét vµi toµ nhµ cao nhÊt thÕ giíi ®· mäc lªn ë chÝnh n¬i mµ x-a kia lóa ®· tõng mäc.” the Chinese General Secretary and State President told the students. phÇn lín ®ang ®-îc phôc håi nh÷ng nÐt ®¸ng yªu tõ thêi hoµng kim tr-íc ®©y cña chóng. mét c¸i nh×n toµn c¶nh tõ nh÷ng tÇng cao cña th¸p sÏ lµ mét kû niÖm khã quªn.nÕu thêi gian cho phÐp. Nh÷ng toµ nhµ chäc trêi. the young people. leader Jiang urged the youth of Vietnam and China to work for strengthening the friendship between the two countries and contribute to peace and development in Asia and the world. Mét cuéc t¶n bé däc bê ®ª lµ kh«ng thÓ thiÕu ®èi víi nh÷ng ai ®Õn th¨m n¬i ®©y. he said. . D-íi sù nh-îng bé cña ng-êi Ph¸p tr-íc ®©y. and the future belongs to you. Vßng qua gãc ®ª. Jiang stressed that a better future awaited China-Vietnam relations in the 21st century. kh¸ch s¹n Hoµ B×nh vµ ban nh¹c Jazz ®¸ng kÝnh cña nã lµ nh÷ng chøng tÝch næi tiÕng cña mét thêi kú hµo hiÖp. and joint efforts by the youth of both countries cannot be separated from this. Trong mét thêi gian ng¾n kh«ng thÓ tham quan hÕt toµ nhµ gi¸ trÞ nµy ®-îc. n¬i mµ vÉn ®-îc nhiÒu ng-êi c«ng nhËn lµ thµnh phè träng ®iÓm cña Trung Quèc. ®-îc më cña vµo n¨m 1996. §iÓm næi bËt nhÊt lµ th¸p truyÒn h×nh Hßn Ngäc ViÔn §«ng . Nh-ng Th-îng H¶i còng cßn cã nhiÒu kh¸ch s¹n tuyÖt vêi kh¸c tõ nh÷ng n¨m 1930. nh-ng thËm chÝ chØ cÇn mét giê trong nh÷ng phßng tr-ng bµy ®å ®ång. Th-îng H¶i së h÷u mét trong nh÷ng b¶o tµng thËt sù lín cña thÕ giíi. “A bright future will be created by you.59 Toµn bé d¶i ®Êt nµy vÉn cßn tån t¹i sau nh÷ng thêi kú san b»ng å ¹t vµ ngµy nay nã lµm nªn mét b¶o tµng më ®éc ®¸o vÒ kiÕn tróc cña nh÷ng n¨m 1930.

liberated our peoples and unified our countries. He expressed his hope that the Chinese and Vietnamese young people will cherish. “Comprehensive co-operation is the bridge and the target a prosperous future”. thì vấn đề “tiết kiệm chống lãng phí” phải luôn được coi là quốc sách. both Vietnam and China have suffered invasion by the imperialists but we both successfully fought off the imperialists. recognized by the UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. He pledged that the Chinese party and Government would fully back such exchanges. The foundation of China-Vietnam ties was mutual trust. sử dụng ngân sách. là một trong những nguyên nhân gây ảnh hưởng lớn tới nền kinh tế của đất nước. He said that the friendship between Vietnam and China derives not only from history but also the fact. Jiang left Hanoi yesterday Central Vietnam where he toured the ancient imperial capital of Huế. that the two peoples are “comrades and brothers”. “In history. he said. Bởi vì trong năm đầu (1998) sau khi có pháp . lãng phí trong đầu tư xây dựng cơ bản. Nào là lãng phí trong quản lý. He is scheduled to visit the ancient port town of Hội An and the Hoà Thọ Textile Company before concluding his three-day visit to Việt Nam. trụ sở làm việc. vẫn còn tràn lan những hiện tượng lãng phí. lãng phí trong lĩnh vực doanh nghiệp Nhà nước và rồi lãng phí còn len lỏi trong dân chúng với những thủ tục cưới xin đầy tốn kém… “Lãng phí” thực sự đã và đang là vấn đề bức xúc của xã hội.” he said. study hard. long-term stability. to strive for the cause of developing socialism. maintain and promote China-Vietnam relations. have more exchanges and learn from each other to enhance mutual understanding.” said Jiang. lãng phí trong quản lý đất đai. as noted by Hồ Chí Minh. to be persistent in ideology. the pre-condition. and for the wealth and prosperity of their respective motherlands. and met with leaders of the port city of Đà Nẵng. the guarantee. he added. ASSIGNMENT 10: Translate the following text into English Đối với một đất nước còn nhiều khó khăn như chúng ta. Nhưng trong thực tế. những năm qua khắp nơi. and friendly neighborliness.60 “The youth of China and Vietnam need to inherit and bring into full play the revolutionary spirit of their elders.

nên thắt chặt lại các khoản chi tiêu là việc cần làm.7 tỉ đồng. Qua thanh tra tài chính. ASSIGNMENT 11: Translate the following texts into Vietnamese GAZA CITY -Israel and palestinians negotiated through the night in what US envoy Dennis Ross termed "a good evening of work" aimed at breaking an impasse over Israel's delayed pullout from the West Bank town of Hebron. agreed that "We had a good set of discussions.8 tỉ đồng. Dự toán NSNN năm 1999 tiếp tục thực hiện tiết kiệm 10% dự toán chi thường xuyên. cho thấy tín hiệu đáng mừng về sự chuyển biến trong công tác này. Ross.three hours after he arrived . chi hội nghị lễ tân… Những số liệu “giảm chi” trong khi thực hiện Pháp lệnh thực hành tiết kiệm chống lãng phí thời gian qua. quà biếu… Vào dịp cuối năm này. Một số khoản chi thường xuyên đã giảm mạnh từ 30% đến 70% như chi mua sắm thiết bị làm việc. chi mua sắm tài sản cố định phục vụ chuyên môn nghiệp vụ: 153." apparently referring to his own suggestion last week that Ross was biased toward Israel. số chi thực năm 1998 giảm so với quyết toán năm 1997. chống lãng phí được Uỷ Ban thường vụ Quốc Hội khóa X thông qua ngày 26-02-1998 và có hiệu lực thi hành từ ngày 1-5-1998. báo cáo quyết toán hàng năm đã phát hiện nhiều cơ quan đơn vị hành chính sự nghiệp. thực sự là những con số biết nói. song điều đó cũng chứng tỏ bấy lâu nay việc chi tiêu còn quá buông lỏng.94 tỉ đồng. doanh nghiệp vi phạm các nguyên tắc quản lý hành chính." Referring to the negotiations.43 tỉ đồng. Ross left Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat's office early yesterday . "The meeting was positive (and) constructive. người ta còn thấy các nhà hàng chật kín bởi các “thượng đế” hầu hết là các “cán bộ” chứ người dân thường thì lấy đâu ra “ngân quỹ” mà vui vẻ như vậy! Trong khi cuộc sống của những người dân “tự do” còn đang vất vả bươn chải từng ngày với những chi tiêu hạn hẹp thì việc tiết kiệm chống lãng phí trong “cơ chế chi bao cấp” là việc nhất thiết cần phải làm. tiền ăn uống.but negotiators stayed behind to corntinue talks.57 tỉ đồng. cơ quan ngang Bộ. công tác phí: 12. but there are still issues to be overcome. fax: 9." . Một trong những vấn đề chi tiêu được coi là bức xúc và có thể nói là hết sức tốn kém hiện nay là: Chi tiêu đối với các lễ đón nhận huân huy chương.61 lệnh thực hành tiết kiệm. ngày thành lập ngành. chi phí điện thoại. he said : "This has been a good evening of work. chi phí sửa chữa lớn TSCĐ: 80. hội thảo… Mỗi cuộc “đình đám” như vậy tốn không biết bao là tiền của. He added that he and Ross "solved some of the obstacles which were between me and him. nào tiền thuê hội trường. cụ thể như: Hội nghị phí: 12." Arafat said. qua số liệu báo cáo của 12 Bộ. who was to leave later yesterday.

In Hebron on Sunday.owned hotels and private guest . Israel was to have pulled out of Hebron . joint . but delayed it after a series of terrorist attacks in Israel. trying to tighten security for the 500 settlers who live in the town of 130. led by Maj. Several hotels have become burdens to their owners. HCM CITY . They were questioned and held at gunpoint for about an hour.rates and hotel services. with low gross earnings and high taxes. Viet Nam's tourist industry needs to reorganise its management and set goals in order to satisfy the current demands of tourists. many are about to be forced to close down. and he was taken to the city hospital. but most were released. On average.62 Inside Arafat's headquarters. the army rounded up about 100 Palestinians after two fire bombs were thrown at a Jewish enclave without causing injuries. They are now operating at a capacity rate of only 60 per cent. . Gen. For this reason. a top advisor to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Though the number of tourists is on the rise.The number of foreign tourists arriving in Viet Nam has been increasing year after year. A Palestinian walking past the Beit Hadassah enclave was hit and injured by a metal ladder that fell or was thrown from the roof. the Palestinian team led by chief negotiator Saeb Erekat continued deliberations with Israel's delegation. The talks began on Sunday afternoon in Jerusalem and moved to Gaza. has delayed the pullout further. according to recent statisties released from Viet Nam Tourism Administration.houses. Shaul Muhfaz and Yitzhak Molcho.the last West Bank city under occupation in March. it grows by 30 per cent a year.000 Arabs. Most foreign visitors have come here eager to experience something new and to travel to places of wild and natural beauty during their stay.venture hotels and guest houses operated at an average capacity rate of 85 to 90 per cent. a hardliner elected in May. and also seek to link the Israeli redeployment to a further pullout elsewhere in the West Bank that was also promised in the signed autonomy accords. The Palestiians have refused to reopen the existing agreement. Ross might delay his departure and Netanyahu and Arafat might hold a summit either yesterday or today. One of the main reasons for the decline in hotel capacity rates is the muchrooming of joint venture hotels which has caused severe competition among hotels for room . A rate which is much worse than that of state . Israeli media speculated that if the meeting was successful. occupancy rates of hotels have dropped significantly as compared to previous years. Netanyahu. The army spokesman said several Palestinians were arrested. Over the past six years.

It is evident that the attraction of Viet Nam's tourist industry is still inadequate and tourist sites. these sites have failed to help boost the development of the tourist industry.x©y dùng b»ng c¬ giíi. due to a lack of management expertise and investment knowledge. the number of visitors that come for a second visit is low. §an M¹ch vµ Th¸i Lan. c¸c suÊt häc bæng riªng dµnh cho c¸c sinh viªn n-íc ngoµi ë Nga vµ §«ng ¢u ®· t¹m ngõng.The country now has some 22 provinces and cities which have completed detailed master plans for tourist resorts. C¸c khãa häc vÒ viÔn th«ng. H»ng n¨m ViÖt Nam göi ®i kho¶ng 77 sinh viªn vµ 100 chuyªn viªn bËc cao ra n-íc ngoµi th«ng qua nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh häc bæng ®-îc chÝnh thøc b¶o trî. Cuéc triÓn l·m ®Ò cËp ®Õn ch-¬ng tr×nh ®µo t¹o vµ nÒn gi¸o dôc mµ c¸c sinh viªn tù tóc ViÖt Nam ®ang t×m kiÕm vµ lêi gi¶i ®¸p cña nh÷ng c¬ së ®µo t¹o nµy ë n-íc ngoµi ®èi víi nh÷ng th¾c m¾c cña sinh viªn. cuéc triÓn l·m ®· ®Ò cao c¸c tr-êng ®¹i häc.n¨m nay. To improve quality of tourist resorts and to boost hotel operations. Translate the following text into English Cµng ngµy cµng cã nhiÒu ng-êi ViÖt nam t×m c¸ch ®i häc n-íc ngoµi b»ng chi phÝ riªng cña m×nh. However. ngµnh kh¸ch s¹n du lÞch vµ nÊu ¨n ®· ®-îc ®Æc biÖt ®Ò cao. Nh-ng vµo th¸ng t. nh-ng hy väng sè l-îng sÏ t¨ng trong vßng 5 n¨m tíi v× nÒn kinh tÕ ViÖt Nam tèt h¬n vµ chÝnh phñ hîp lý hãa c¸c thñ tôc lµm cho viÖc häc tù tóc dÔ dµng h¬n. Viet Nam's tourism industry now requires more investment from the government. BØ. transport and accommodation facilities have not yet reached international standards. Tõ gi÷a n¨m 1992 dÕn th¸ng 5 n¨m nay.63 Though there has been growth in the number of tourists over the past several years. Ph¸p. Even though each year the government has spent tens of billion of dongs on upgrading national historical relics and tourist resorts. PhÇn lín nh÷ng sinh viªn ®i häc tù tóc ®· ®i häc ë Nga. Nh-ng cuéc qu¶ng c¸o lín nhÊt nh»m thóc ®Èy nh÷ng ng-êi ViÖt Nam m¹nh d¹n ®Çu t. §-îc gäi lµ ‘‘ Educasia’’. óc. Hoa Kú. these projects are yet to be developed and are still under discussion. Cho ®Õn b©y giê hÇu hÕt nh÷ng sinh viªn ViÖt nam ®· ®i ra n-íc ngoµi häc thªm theo häc bæng quèc tÕ hay cña mét chÝnh phñ n-íc ngoµi cÊp. Hoa Kú vµ Thôy SÜ. Hiªn . sè ng-êi tù bá tiÒn ra häc cßn Ýt. mét sè ®i c¸c n-íc §«ng ¢u vµ mét sè rÊt Ýt ®i häc ë Hµ Lan.tiÒn b¹c cho b¶n th©n hoÆc con c¸i cña m×nh ®Ó ®-îc häc trong mét nÒn gi¸o duc ®¹t chuÈn quèc tÕ lµ nhê vµo viÖc më mét cuéc triÓn l·m ®Æc biÖt vÒ gi¸o dôc ë n-íc ngoµi tæ chøc t¹i thµnh phè Hå ChÝ Minh vµ Hµ Néi trong hai th¸ng võa qua. c¸c tr-êng h-íng nghiÖp vµ c¸c nhµ cung cÊp thiÕt bÞ tr-êng häc cña c¸c n-íc Anh.

tiÒn b¹c kh«ng thÓ tr¸nh khái. many schools in the United States have bilingual programs. In such programs. After a period of time. §· cã nh÷ng l·ng phÝ vÒ thêi gian còng nh. science. The people against bilingual education say. "It helps students to understand their school work in history. so they often became discouraged and dropped out of school. Bilingual education is "controversial. . they say. a school with many Spanish-speaking students might have a bilingual program.64 nay ®· cã nh÷ng ®iÒu kiÖn dµnh cho sinh viªn ViÖt Nam muèn häc ë n-íc ngoµi lµ ph¶i tèt nghiÖp phæ th«ng vµ ph¶i theo häc c¸c khãa häc ngo¹i ng÷ phï hîp vµ ph¶i cã kiÕn thøc vÒ vi tÝnh." This means some people like it. Translate the following text into English Ng-êi nghÌo th-êng cã nhiÒu con h¬n nh÷ng ng-êi thuéc giíi trung l-u vµ th-îng l-u. etc. Tuy nhiªn vÉn cßn thiÕu nh÷ng th«ng tin vÒ c¸c r¾c rèi mµ sinh viªn tù tóc ë n-íc ngoµi th-êng gÆp ph¶i. mathematics. Now. The Spanish-speaking students study their subjects in both English and Spanish. English is the national language of the United States. They were not able to get good jobs without a good education. at the same time. they can take all of their classes in English with English speaking students." These people say bilingual education helps students succeed in school. "It's a waste of time and government money. "Bilingual education is too expensive. new immigrants had a hard time in American schools. ASSIGNMENT 12: Translate the following text into Vietnamese The United States is a country of immigrants. A school with a large Chinese population might have an English Chinese bilingual program. They want to put the money for bilingual programs into English programs. Vµ d©n ë c¸c n-íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn th× cã nhiÒu con h¬n d©n cña c¸c n-íc ph¸t triÓn. they are learning English. those against bilingual education think so. The people in favor of bilingual education say. ("Bi" means "two" and "lingual" means "language". should learn to speak English as quickly as possible. Students in bilingual programs continue their general education and learn English at the same time. These immigrants come from all over the world." In other words. They could not understand their school work in English.) For example. At least. Ngµy cµng cã nhiÒu chuyªn gia vÒ d©n sè thÊy ®-îc mèi quan hÖ kh¨ng khÝt gi÷a sè con trong gia ®×nh vµ sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ. ®Æc biÖt lµ vÊn ®Ò vÒ thêi gian vµ tr×nh ®é mµ c¸c khãa häc ®ßi hái.. They can get better jobs and be better citizens after graduation. They speak many different languages. They say. the government spends too much money on bilingual education. everyone will learn English a lot faster." Everyone living in the United States. and other people do not like it. In the past.

lµ mét nh©n tè quan träng trong viÖc quyÕt ®Þnh sè con trong gia ®×nh. TÊt c¶ con c¸i cña hä ®Òu ph¶i chia sÏ vµ g¸nh v¸c tr¸ch nhiÖm ch¨m sãc cha mÑ. Hä kh«ng cã b¶o hiÓm. ng-êi nghÌo ë n-íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn muèn cã nhiÒu con. vµ hä cã gia ®×nh Ýt con h¬n. C©u tr¶ lêi rÊt ®¬n gi¶n. ASSIGNMENT 13: Translate the following text into English C¸c nhµ xuÊt khÈu cã uy thÕ cña Trung Quèc ®ang chÜa tÇm ng¾m cña m×nh vµo ViÖt Nam. mét gia ®×nh ®«ng con lµ mét c¸ch thøc ®Ó ho¹ch ®Þnh cho t-¬ng lai. C¸c nhµ qu¶n lý Trung Quèc ®· nãi trong buæi lÔ khai m¹c héi chî tæ chøc t¹i Hµ Néi : ‘‘ Nh-ng ViÖt Nam ®· cã mét kinh nghiÖm l©u dµi tr-íc khi nhËn ra hµng xuÊt khÈu cña m×nh vµo Trung Quèc t¨ng lªn khi mét vµi s¶n phÈm lµ cã thÓ x©m nhËp vµo thÞ tr-êng Trung quèc ®· më réng h¬n.thÕ vµo h«m thø n¨m. dÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh cña chÝnh phñ cã lÏ kh«ng cã ®èi víi d©n nghÌo do ®iÒu kiÖn ®Þa lý. Con c¸i cña hä b©y giê ®· trë thµnh ng-êi lín vµ ®ang ®i lµm viÖc. Chóng ta cã thÓ nãi r»ng gia ®×nh ®«ng con lµ nguån b¶o hiÓm cho tuæi giµ.ng-êi d©n ë n«ng th«n sèng qu¸ xa trung t©m kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh. tiÒn h-u. nhËn ra n-íc l¸ng giÒng ë ph-¬ng nam nh®· chÝn muåi cho mét kÕ ho¹ch qu¶ng c¸o trong viÖc mua s¾m hµng hãa tiªu dïng vµ m¸y mãc. Nh×n chung th× d©n thµnh thÞ cã nhiÒu th«ng tin h¬n d©n n«ng th«n. c¸c nhµ qu¶n lý ®iÒu hµnh Trung Quèc ®· ph¸t biÕn nh.65 T¹i mét vµi vïng. Nh÷ng lý do kh¸c lµ g×? Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ gia ®×nh. §èi vãi nhiÒu ng-êi nghÌo. Ng-îc l¹i. Do vËy hä kh«ng nhËn ®-îc th«ng tin vÒ c¸ch thøc h¹n chÕ sinh ®Î. Ng-êi cã nhiÒu tiÒn th× cã Ýt con. T¹i sao? Do hä ph¶i lÖ thuéc vµo sù ch¨m sãc cña con c¸i khi vÒ giµ. D©n ë thµnh thÞ ®-îc hæ trî dÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh. Khi hä giµ c¶ th× ai sÏ gióp hä. Hä cã thÓ vµ sÏ quay sang nhê con c¸i gióp ®ì. hay ë mét ph¹m vi lín h¬n lµ cña mét n-íc. hay sù gióp ®ì cña chÝnh phñ. Ch¼ng h¹n nh. V× thÕ chóng ta cã thÓ nãi r»ng vÞ trÝ ®Þa lý n¬i mµ ng-êi d©n sèng ®ãng mét vai trß qan träng trong viÖc quyÕt dÞnh mät gia ®×nh nªn sinh bao nhiªu con: Gia ®×nh sèng ë thµnh thÞ th× cã Ýt con h¬n gia ®×nh sèng ë n«ng th«n.’’ Kho¶ng 60 c«ng ty ë B¾c Kinh ®· tr-ng bµy nh÷ng mÆt hµng cña hä tõ ®å ch¬i b»ng nhùa rÎ tiÒn vµ c¸c ®å trang trÝ cho ®Õn .

nh-ng ®ang ®èi mÆt víi mät sù c¹nh tranh kh¾c nghiÖt víi thÞ tr-êng xe h¬i NhËt B¶n ®· ‘‘ x©y phßng tuyÕn xung quanh’’ ë ®©y. «ng Guo Fengli. mÆc dï lµ «ng Guo nghÜ lµ cã thÓ t×m ra lêi gi¶i ®¸p cho mét vÊn ®Ò b×nh th-êng. phã chñ tÞch c«ng ty XuÊt NhËp KhÈu ¤ t« B¾c Kinh ®· ph¸t biÓu nh. . Trong chuyÕn viÕng th¨m Trung Quèc tuÇn tr-íc. Phã thñ t-íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i kªu gäi hai bªn thay thÕ viÖc bu«n b¸n qua biªn giíi b»ng nh÷ng tháa hiÖp chÝnh thøc gi÷a c¸c c«ng ty th-¬ng m¹i vµ c¸c nhµ chÕ t¹o mµ c¸ch lµm nµy sÏ lµm t¨ng gi¸ cña c¸c s¶n phÈm ViÖt Nam. ViÖc bu«n b¸n qua biªn giíi ®· t¨ng vät kÓ tõ ngµy hai n-íc më l¹i biªn giíi vµo n¨m 1991.’’ «ng Guo ®· nãi ®Õn ®iÒu nµy. hi väng sÏ chen ch©n vµo thÞ tr-êng xe h¬i ®ang lín m¹nh t¹i ViÖt Nam. mét liªn doanh s¶n xuÊt « t« Trung-Mü. Trung quèc ®-îc h-ëng mät gi¸ trÞ thÆng d. Nh÷ng ng-êi n«n nãng b¸n hµng h¬n lµ mua hµng. Tuy nhiªn hä vÉn thÝch trao ®æi nh÷ng mÆt hµng cã gi¸ trÞ cao h¬n.66 c¸c lo¹i xe cé t¹i héi chî ë Hµ Néi. ‘‘ Chóng t«i kh«ng biÕt nhiÒu vÒ nh÷ng g× mµ ViÖt Nam mêi chµo. Nãi mét c¸ch chÝnh thøc th×.’’ BAIEC ®ang mong muèn thiÕt lËp quan hÖ mËu dÞch víi ViÖt Nam nh-ng còng ®ang ph¶i ®èi ®Çu víi viÖc t×m kiÕm c¸c mÆt hµng thÝch hîp ®Ó buon b¸n.B¾c Kinh. vµ sè l-¬ng thùc nµy sÏ ®em b¸n ë Nam Trung Quèc.vËy.to lín. C«ng ty Trung Quãc dù kiÕn trao ®æi xe h¬i lÊy l-¬ng thùc. viÖc bu«n b¸n hai chiÒu cã gi¸ trÞ kho¶ng 500 triÖu ®« la dï cho viÖc bu«n b¸n bÊt hîp ph¸p cã thÓ cao h¬n nhiÒu. ®Æc biÖt lµ khi gi¸ c¶ cña chóng t«i thùc sù c¹nh tranh ®-îc víi c¸c ®èi thñ cña chóng t«i. n¬i xa nguån n¨ng l-îng cña Trung Quèc c¶ hµng ngµn c©y sè. Theo lêi cña «ng Guo th× ‘‘ thÞ tr-êng ë ®©y ®ang më ra kh¸ nhanh cho c¸c s¶n phÈm cña chóng t«i. ViÖt Nam muèn ®Èy m¹nh h¬n n÷a viÖc xuÊt khÈu than vµ dÇu khÝ cho c¸c trung t©m s¶n xuÊt ®ang bïng ph¸t ë Nam Trung Quèc. mét quan ®iÓm ®-îc c¸c nhµ doanh th-¬ng kh¸c nh¾c l¹i nhiÒu lÇn. mét héi chî ®Çu tiªn triÓn l·m c¸c mÆt hµng Trung Quèc kÓ tõ khi hai n-íc cã quan hÖ trë l¹i víi nhau. Jeep.

.67 ¤ng Phan V¨n Kh¶i cßn nhÊn m¹nh thªm vÒ gi¸ g¹o vµ c¸c mÆt hµng thùc phÈm kh¸c vµ phÝa ViÖt Nam nhËp nhiÒu h¬n n÷a c¸c m¸y mãc chÕ t¹o vµ c¸c c«ng nghÖ kh¸c cña Trung Quèc.

D¹o luËt cña chÝnh phñ ®-a ra lµ luËt cña Håi gi¸o. Tr-íc n¨m 1950. T«n gi¸o vÉn lµ mét yÕu tè quan träng trong nÒn gi¸o dôc cña A RËp. . §a sè lµ nh÷ng ng-êi A RËp Håi gi¸o. Vµo n¨m 1953. vµ ng«n ng÷ cña n-íc nµy lµ tiÕng A RËp. khoa häc. hä lµ nh÷ng tÝn ®å Håi gi¸o. vi tÝnh v. Do vËy. Tuy nhiªn hiÖn nay häc sinh. kh«ng cã bÊt kú mét tr-êng cao ®¼ng hay ®¹i häc nµo mµ chØ cã mét vµi tr-êng tiÓu häc vµ trung häc ë n-íc nµy. Häc sinh häc Kinh Koran. VÞ vua cña n-íc nµy võa lµ mét ng-êi l·nh ®¹o chÝnh trÞ võa lµ mét nhµ l·nh ®¹o t«n gi¸o cña ®Êt n-íc. §¹o Håi rÊt quan träng ®èi víi nÒn gi¸o dôc cña A RËp. Tr-íc n¨m 1950 chØ cã 20000 häc sinh. hÇu nh.toµn bé nÒn gi¸o dôc cña A RËp lµ nÒn gi¸o dôc t«n gi¸o. Tr-íc n¨m 1949. TÊt c¶ c¸c tr-êng häc ë a RËp lµ miÔn phÝ. HÖ thèng gi¸o dôc cña A RËp ph¸t triÓn nhanh h¬n bÊt kú mét n-íc nµo trªn thÕ giíi.: ng«n ng÷ ( ®Æc biÖt lµ tiÕng Anh).ph¸t hiÖn ra dÇu ë A RËp th× ®Êt n-íc nµy trë nªn giµu cã. Chóng ph¶i cè g¾ng nhí nh÷ng ®iÒu trong cuèn s¸ch nµy cµng nhiÒu cµng tèt. A RËp lµ mät quèc ®¹o. N¨m 1982 con sè nµy lªn tíi 1780000. nh-ng mét n-íc hiÖn ®¹i kh«ng thÓ ph¸t triÓn c«ng nghÖ mµ chØ dùa vµo mét hÖ thèng gi¸o dôc t«n gi¸o truyÒn thèng. Hä muèn kÕt hîp nÒn gi¸o dôc t«n gi¸o truyÒn thèng víi nÒn gi¸o dôc c«ng nghÖ hiÖn ®¹i cña Ph-¬ng T©y. Khi nh÷ng kü s. §©y thùc sù lµ b-íc më ®Çu cho mét nÒn gi¸o dôc hiÖn ®¹i cho n-íc nµy.68 ASSIGNMENT 14: Translate the following text into English D©n sè cña A RËp Xa U §i lµ 8853000 ng-êi. Hä quyÕt ®Þnh bæ sung c¸c m«n häc kh¸c vµo hÖ thèng gi¸o dôc. C¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o cña n-íc nµy b¾t ®Çu nhËn thÊy r»ng c«ng nghÖ Ph-¬ng T©y lµ cÇn thiÕt ®Ó gióp ®Êt n-íc ph¸t triÓn. s¸ch kinh th¸nh cña d¹o Håi. lÞch sö. C¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o vÉn tin r»ng nÒn gi¸o dôc t«n gi¸o lµ rÊt quan träng. chÝnh phñ A RËp thµnh lËp Bé Gi¸o Dôc.. to¸n häc. Hay nãi c¸ch kh¸c. sinh viªn ë A RËp. ChÝnh phñ còng cho sinh viªn cao ®¼ng vµ ®¹i häc thªm tiÒn ®Ó nh»m ®éng viªn hä.v. ®Ó lµm cho c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o t«n gi¸o chÊp nhËn cho phñ n÷ ®i häc th× chÝnh phñ ph¶i dÆt viÖc gi¸o dôc phô n÷ theo c¸c t«n chØ cña c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o t«n gi¸o. Hä cho r»ng phô n÷ cã häc cã thÓ g©y nh÷ng ¶nh h-ëng xÊu cho gia ®×nh vµ x· héi. sinh viªn A RËp còng hocj tÊt c¶ c¸c m«n häc kh¸c nh. Tuy nhiªn c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o t«n gi¸o kh«ng thÝch cho phô n÷ ®i häc.

the world's oil giants have now glumly awoken to the hazards. Hä trë thµnh c¸c gi¸o viªn. when BHP Petroleum of Australia announced the reserves at the Dai Hung ("Great Bear") site. Production is scheduled to begin neat month.69 Phô n÷ theo häc c¸c tr-êng cao ®¼ng vµ ®Æc biÖt lµ theo häc ë c¸c khoa vÒ phô n÷ ë c¸c tr-êng ®¹i häc dµnh riªng cho phô n÷. phô n÷ theo dâi c¸c bµi gi¶ng trªn v« tuyÕn vµ sau ®ã hä cã thÓ nãi chuyÖn víi thÇy gi¸o qua ®iÖn tho¹i ®Ó hái vÒ nh÷ng th¾c m¾c. Prospectors enthusiasm was abruptly dampened last May. b¸c sÜ. If caution is now the watchword. N¬i lµm viÖc hÇu nh. are not as great as some had hoped. Matharel said. c¸c nhµ ho¹t ®éng x· héi.nam giíi. BHP initially estimated the site to contain 700 million to 800 million barrels of oil. but they. off the coast of southern Vietnam. Gi¸o viªn ë ®©y lµ n÷. ASSIGNMENT 15: Translate the following text into Vietnamese After getting high on the hopes of striking black gold off the shores of Vietnam. The mood was subdued among foreign companies exhibiting their technological wares this week at the second International Oil and Gas Fair in Hanoi. "said Melchior de Matharel. and of gas made by British Petroleum (BP). c¸c nhµ khoa häc vµ nhiÒu viÖc kh¸c n÷a. "Oil exploration is plainly hazardous. Tr-íc hÕt.. disappointed foreign petroleum companies may draw comfort from the recent. §iÒu ®ã cã nghÜa lµ phô n÷ vµ nam giíi kh«ng ®-îc phÐp lµm viÖc cïng mét chç chØ trõ ë bÖnh viÖn.and half of it went into the first phase of the Dai Hung project. Nh-ng mét vµi phô n÷ kh«ng muèn cïng lµm viÖc víi nam giíi.. the meagre rewards. "encouraging" discoveries of oil made by Mitsubishi Oil and the Malaysian firm Petronas Carigali. were far smaller than projected. V× kh«ng cã ®ñ gi¸o viªn n÷ nªn chÝnh phñ cho phÐp gi¸o viªn nam gi¶ng d¹y phô n÷ A RËp th«ng qua ph-¬ng tiÖn truyÒn h×nh.000 barrels per day. but has now downgraded it to 100 million to 200 million. "The results aren't bad. Trong mét bµi b¸o gÇn ®©y d¨ng trong mét t¹p chÝ cã tªn gäi T¹p ChÝ Trung §«ng. But the good news is that the Vietnamese basin is oilbearing". phô n÷ A RËp cã nhiÒu c¬ héi xin viÖc gièng nh. ThÇy gi¸o vµ sinh viªn n÷ kh«ng ®-îc phÐp gÆp nhau. 375 kilometers (235 miles) southeast of Ho Chi Minh City. Sau khi tèt nghiÖp. head of Southeast Asia operations with the French firm Total. It has already invested 240 million dollars in Vietnam. so far. Phñ n÷ A RËp muons cã nhiÒu c¬ héi t×m viÖc lµm h¬n.còng t¸ch rêi phô n÷ víi nam giíi. That was a tough -blow for BHP. mét vµi sinh viªn n÷ nãi r»ng hä thùc sù kh«ng muèn lµm viÖc cïng nam giíi.the immense coot of investment and. at a modest level of 25. .

C¸c viªn chøc nãi r»ng bé phËn chïm ®iÖn tö kiÓm tra nhiªn liÖu bÞ hang. to develop the field at a total cost estimated at 1.25-percent share is equally split between Total and the Japanese firm Sumitomo. industry experts in Honoi cautioned. estimated to be 57 billion cubic metres (1. the field may be "of the same caliber" as neighbouring Bach Ho ("White Tiger") the only site now being commercially exploited in Vietnam.5 billion dollars. and Statoil five percent. Statoil.70 BHP headed an international consortium. ng-êi thuyÕt minh chuyÕn bay. The consortium. in Nam Con Son. it is the Japanese. and state . Gas exploration and exploitation have also proven to be a risk business. Translate the following text into English ViÖc háng hãc cña mét bé phËn tµu vò trô con thoi ®iÒu khiÓn b»ng ph¶n lùc vµo h«m thø t. According to the results of an exploratory well. with Petronas holding 20 percent. announced in June a "very promising" discovery at the Rang Dong (:Dawn) site.owned PetroVietnam 15 percent. in 1992. Bach Ho's reserves are estimated at a maximum of :300 million barrels. (ONGC). with ONGC holding 55 percent.But et will take at least another year and other drillings to precisely determine the scope of the Japanese discovery.75 percent of the consortium. which announced in September the discovery of two gas pockets. Kelly Humphries. nh-ng kh«ng g©y ra mét nguy hiÓm nµo ®èi víi c¸c nhµ du hµnh vò trô. BP 30 percent. BHP and the Norwegian national company. selected in April 1993. (JVPC).who appear to have had the best luck. vµo chiÒu h«m thø t. south of Ho Chi Minh City. The Japan Vietnam Petroleum Co. which in turn has taken a five percent stake on the interests of each of the European partners. kh«ng ph¸t hiÖn ®-îc mét hÖ thèng rß ritrong bé phËn ddaayr bÞ nghi lµ nguyªn nh©n lµm ng-ng ho¹t ®éng n¨m bé phËn kh¸c gäi lµ vÐcnª (verniers) cÇn thiÕt ®Ó chØnh l¹i cho ®óng ®-êng ®i cña tµu con thoi trong quyx ®¹o vµ chØ dÉn chÝnh x¸c khÝ cô trong khoang hµng ®Õn môc tiªu trªn hµnh tinh. C¬ quan Qu¶n TrÞ Hµng Kh«ng vµ Khong Gian Quèc Gia cho biÕt vÊn ®Ò nµy lµ mét tr¬ lùc ®èi víi phßng thÝ nghiÖm Radar trÞ gi¸ 384 triÖu ®«la. has conducted exploration and tests under a shared . For the moment. although fortune has so far smiled on British Petroleum. held by the Indian state firm Oil and Natural Gas Co.production contract with PetroVietnam. a branch of the Mitsubishi Oil group.995 billion cubic feet). The remaining 21. Pessimists say it will take four to five years in all to gauge Vietnam's oil potentially.buéc c¬ quan NA SA ph¶i ho·n mét cuéc kh¶o s¸t tr¸i ®Êt b»ng radar khi chuyÕn bay nghiªn cøu m«i sinh 10 ngµy cña tµu Endeavour bay qua mèc nöa phi tr×nh. bought shares in the offshore concession.®· gäi sù gi¸n ®o¹n mang tÝnh khoa häc nµy lµ ‘‘sù nghØ .the main buyers of Vietnam's crude oil. BHP holds 43.

71 t¹m thêi’’ trong lóc c¸c kÜ s- trªn mÆt ®Êt véi nghÜ ra mét c¸ch ®Ó c¸c m¸y tÝnh cña con thoi kh«ng ®Ó ý ®Õn bé phËn kiÓm tra nhiªn liÖu bÞ háng. Theo «ng Rich Jackson, Gi¸m ®èc ®iÒu khiÓn chuyÕn bay th× con tµu Endeavour víi 38 bé phËn ®Èy lín h¬n sÏ tiªu thô qu¸ nhiÒu nhiªn liÖu vµ lo¹i trõ ®iÒu mong ®îi con tµu sÏ lµm lan ra tai häa thiªn nhiªn quanh ®Þa cÇu. Vµo chiÒu h«m thø t-, tµu con thoi bay theo ph-¬ng thøc tù l¸i (hoa tiªu tù ®éng) vµ phi hµnh ®oµn ®· lµm viÖc theo hai ca suèt 24 giê liÒn kÓ tõ lóc cÊt c¸nh khái Florida vµo h«m thø s¸u, ®· h-ëng mät giê nghØ gi¶i lao bÊt ngê. ¤ng Jackson dù ®o¸n r»ng kho¶ng phÇn mÒm sÏ s½n sµng lµm viÖc vµo chiÒu thø ba, kho¶ng 24 giê sau khi trôc trÆc kü thuËt x¶y ra. Nãi víi c¸c phãng viªn t¹i tr¹m kiÓm so¸t chuyÕn bay t¹i Houston, «ng Jackson cho biÕt: ‘‘ Bé phËn chÊt hµng vµ nhãm kiÓm so¸t chuyÕn bay ®ang lµ viÖc rÊt tÝch cùc ®Ó phôc håi viÖc kiÓm so¸t c¸c vecnª vµ gi¶m thiÓu ¶nh h-ëng trong thêi gian cã sù cè.’’ C¸c nhµ khoa häc nãi r»ng sù trôc trÆc nµy kh«ng lµm h- háng c¸c h×nh ¶nh, nh-ng sÏ ph¶i mÊt mét thêi gian l©u ®Õn gÊp 5 lÇn ®Ó xö lý c¸c d÷ liÖu ra ®a vµ m¸y tÝnh cña chóng.

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ASSIGNMENT 16:
Translate the following text into Vietnamese Britain is divided into 651 constituencies and people in each constituency select one person to represent them in the House of Commons. The simple majority system of voting is used in parliamentary elections in Britain and voting is by secret ballot. There are moves to have this changed to a preferential system. Voting is voluntary. All British people who are 18 years of age or over and not legally barred from voting can vote. Members of the Royal Family peers and peeresses who are members of the House of Lords and foreign nationals are not allowed to vote. People who are disqualified include those who are kept in hospital for mental health reasons people serving prison sentences and people convicted within the previous five years of corruption. Candidates Anyone aged 21 or over holding British citizenship, or a citizen of another commonwealth country or the Irish Republic, who is qualified. May stand for election to Parliament. People who are not qualified are members of the House of Lords, elegy of the Church of England, Church of Ireland, Church of Scotland and the Roman Catholic Church. Neither are bankrupts, public servants and officials and those who have been sentenced to more than one year‟s imprisonment. Candidates in a constituency have to pay a sum of money, about £1,000, as a deposit and if they get at least 5% of the votes they will get the money back. General Elections In theory, the election for or seats in the House of Commons takes place every five years. But, elections are usually held before the end of the five-year term. The Prime Minister has the right to decide when to hold a general election. Then the queen formally dissolves parliament and calls for the election of the new one. Britain is divided into areas called constituencies of roughly equal population. General elections often happen on a Thursday and people still go to word as usual. Therefore, the hours of voting are flexible, from 07:00 to 22:00; to give voters are given a ballot paper with the names of the candidates for that constituency, usually in alphabetical order, and sometimes with a brief description of the candidates‟ backgrounds or their parties. After that, spoiled ballots are eliminated. The legal ballot papers are counted and the candidate with the most support is the winner and becomes the Member of Parliament for the constituency. The Campaign Three weeks before a general election is the time for the campaign. The campaign takes place in every constituency all over Britain. Candidates resort to different means to attract their supporters. Canvassing Canvassing means local party workers go from door to door and ask people how they intend to vote. In this way, candidates can know people‟s voting intentions and attitudes so that they can adapt their campaign tactics. Party workers also revisit those who have promised to support their party and urge them to do so on polling day.

73 Public meetings Candidates have the right to hold public meetings whenever and wherever available during an election campaign. They invite guests including influential members of their parties, and wellknow people such as writers, actors and actresses, who support them, to the meetings and try to influence voters. Such meetings are often covered in detail by the media. The mass media Because newspapers and magazines in Britain are privately owned and financially independent of the political parties, the owners and the editors can decide to support any party they like, but radio and television are required to be impartial. News programmes cover all aspects of the major parties‟ campaigns. On these occasions, candidates appear on television and radio day and night. They are televised in factories, school, youth centers, and the farms, giving speeches about their party policies. Talkback radio allows people to pose questions to political leaders, and reports and commentaries from journalists holding interviews with leading figures from all the parties are broadcast. Manifestos The main parties publish manifestos during the election campaign. Manifesto are often launched by each party at a press conference and inform people of their policies and what they will do if they win the election. Manifestos might include the past achievements of the party and can attack the policies of the their opponents.

ASSIGNMENT 17:
Translate the following text into Vietnamese Ha Noi- Ha Noi is trying to nearly double its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to US$1,100 per capita over the next five years. The ambitious projection has been based on the current annual GDP growth rate of 11.9 per cent. Participants at yesterday‟s Ha Noi Communist Party Conference were told if the current growth rate continues as expected, it should reach 15 per cent by the turn of the century. This should translate into a doubling of the GDP. The conference was also told the traditional rural and small industry base of the capital city‟s economy had rapidly been replaced by industrial endeavor and the trading and services industries, and that about 19 per cent of Hanoi families could now be classified as well-off. Last year‟s average GDP was estimated at $650 per capita compared with $470 in 1991. The sharp rise was due to massive investments from both foreign and domestic sources estimated as VND32, 570 (about $3.257 billion), according to a senior Ha Noi party official. Deputy Secretary of the Ha Noi Party Committee Le Xuan Tung told participants at the conference yesterday that part of the investment was spent on transfer of new technology and renovating equipment in existing industrial plants. The major part of the investment, however, was for setting up new joint ventures with foreign partners. By the end of 1995, up to 210 foreign investment projects had been licensed to operate in Ha Noi involving $3.3billion of prescribed capital. Of this amount $1.3billion has been consumed, Tung said.

74 This has helped Ha Noi along its chosen path to restructure its economic base towards industries and services rather than rely on its traditional agricultural and small industry underpinning. The proportion of industries and that of trade and services in Ha Noi GDP in the 1991-1995 period rose sharply to 33.1 per cent and 61.6 per cent respectively. Meanwhile the agricultural share fell to just 5.3 per cent of the total GDP share, Tung said. Tung said the change in the economic face of Hanoi was because of the sharp increase in the annual growth rate for the past five years. He said that a growth rate of 11.9 per cent was ensured year after year, which is almost double the figure set for the same period by the Ha Noi Party Committee back in 1991. Tung told participants that by the year 2000 the growth rate would reach 15 per cent per year and GDP per capita would be estimated at $1,100. By that stage the industrial share in Ha Noi GDP should reach 40 per cent, up seven per cent on the current rate. Five industries have been targeted as the key industries for the city, Tung said. They include mechanical engineering and electrical equipment production; textiles, garments and leather goods; the food processing industry electronics; and construction materials. In the next five years Ha Noi would need up to $9 billion in investment to develop new industrial zones, renovate existing industrial zones and build more high rise buildings in the inner city for office space, trade centers and entertainment centers. Hanoi has about 10 established and five new industrial zones. Many of the existing industrial areas need intensive-investment to replace old technology, and expand their premises for more plants. However the deputy party secretary for Hanoi reminded participants to the conference that more effort was needed to keep development in line with what he termed as a socialistoriented market economy. Ha Noi authorities had “failed to pay due attention to the consolidation of socialist production relationships” while the administration at all levels remained weak and “the role of the Party in different economic and social organizations remained limited,” he said. Tung‟s comments were supported by Party General Secretary Do Muoi, who also addressed the conference. The party leader told the Ha Noi conference that despite its initial success, Ha Noi should be more aware of economic development and human resource development. About six per cent of Hanoi‟s population remained unemployed which, Do Muoi said, was a challenge Ha Noi had to tackle. Part of the solution was to set up production groups, which could be engaged in small industries and the services industry. Deputy Secretary Tung said that in the 1991-1995 period the number of well-to-do families increased to nearly 19 per cent while those families classified as financially needy dropped to about two per cent.

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ASSIGNMENT 18:
Translate the following text into Vietnamese Gardening is a traditional occupation in Vietnam and appeared at the same time or earlier than water rice cultivation. But VAC (abbreviation for “vuon” (garden), “ao” (pond for keeping fish) and “chuong” (husbandary) is an economic model that was introduced only 10 years ago. Foreigners who have come to Vietnam to learn about VAC in Vietnam say it is not very efficient in production scale and performance, but is a uniform cultivation model bringing both economic benefit and environmental advantages. From its first days of operation VAC has continually cemented its role in the national economic development. VAC now operates in 53 provinces, with over 10 million farmer households using the model. In recent years, VAC has been expanded in most localities throughout the country. Tens of thousands of hectares (on average) farms were set up in 13 midland and mountainous provinces) and -orchards were expanded to 350000-400,000 ha. This application of VAC became the main fruit suppliers for the country, simultaneously meeting export demand. According to the FAO, Vietnam's fruit output is at nearly four million tones per year, world's fruit output per capital at 65 kg, Asia Pacific 31 kg and Vietnam 61 kg. VAC has now become significant for the country's poverty alleviation and hunger eradication campaign providing on - the - spot jobs, prevention of malnutrition, permanent agriculture and settlement and for plantations for bare hills and barren land. Living standards of VAC households have improved greatly with revenue from VAC operations usually providing 60% of household's total income. VAC output value accounts for one of third of agricultural output value and will probably in-crease further. VAC has made rapid growth in the last 10 years, but has not penetrated all rural areas. If intensive cultivation and crop specialization was carried out through out the country, Vietnam's fruit output could reach 8 million tones per year in the 21st century. VAC should be considered as a national agricultural programme. If VAC is encouraged to reach its full potential, it will certainty obtain further effective growth contributing to the national economy and the environmental protection.

nã lµ h×nh thøc ch÷a trÞ tèt nhÊt. M¸u ®-îc lÊy hÕt c¸c hång cÇu vµ b¹ch hang cÇu vµ kh«ng cã vi rót HIV. th× còng kh«ng nªn m« t¶ nã nh. Trong phÇn tr×nh bµy cña m×nh t¹i mét héi nghÞ ë Lu©n §«n «ng nãi:’’Døt kho¸t ®ã kh«ng ph¶i lµ mét ph-¬ng ph¸p ch÷a trÞ. Ch¼ng thÊy g× lµ ch÷a trÞ c¶. hµng th¸ng c¸c bÖnh nh©n ®-îc truyÒn nöa lÝt huyÕt t-¬ng lÊy tõ ng-êi kháe m¹nh cã nhiÔm HIV d-¬ng tÝnh. ¤ng Karpras nãi lµ lÇn ®Çu tiªn vµo n¨m 1985 «ng ®· ph¸t hiÖn nh÷ng ng-êi kháe m¹nh nh-ng bÞ nhiÔm HIV cã søc ®Ò kh¸ng nµy ë møc cao trong m¸u trong khi c¸c bÖnh nh©n AID S mÊt c¸c kh¸ng thÓ trung hßa nµy cã kh¶ n¨ng chèng l¹i bÖnh truyÒn nhiÔm. Tuy nhiªn.’’ ¤ng nãi r»ng nh÷ng nghiªn cøu do c«ng ty Hemacare ë Califonia vµ hai bÑnh viÖn ë Pa ri tiÕn hµnh còng cho they r»ng c¸ch ch÷a trÞ miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng gióp lµm chem. L¹i sù tÊn c«ng d÷ déi cuarv bÖnh AIDS ë c¸c bÖnh nh©n khi xÐt nghiÖm they cã HIV d-¬ng tÝnh. «ng Abraham ë khoa huyÕt häc cña §H Cambridge. ¤ng tuyªn bè trong mét cuéc pháng vÊn qua ®iÖn tho¹i r»ng:’’ ViÖc nghiªn cwuws cã tÝnh chÊt mß mÉm vµ h¹n chÕ b»ng thuèc trÊn an chøng tá r»ng viÖc ch÷a trÞ nµy cã lîi cho bÖnh nh©n m¾c bÖnh AID S vµ kÐo dµi thªm thêi gian sèng cña hä.76 ASSIGNMENT 19: Translate the following text into English H«m thø Hai võa råi. c¸c nhµ nghiªn cøu cho r»ng hä ®· cã b»ng chøng ®Ó kÕt luËn r»ng ph-¬ng ph¸p ®iÒu trÞ thùc nghiÖm b»ng c¸ch truyÒn huyÕt t-¬ng lµm cho bÖnh ph¸t triÓn chËm lai cho bÖnh nh©n nhiÔm HIV d-¬ng tÝnh vµ kÐo dµi thªm thêi gian sèng cho c¸c bÖnh nh©n AIDS.’’ Qua c¸ch ch÷a trÞ miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng. Bèn bÖnh nh©n ë Cambridge lµ nh÷ng ng-êi ®Çu tiªn ®-îc ch÷a trÞ theo c¸ch nµy vµ sau ®ã c¸c thö nghiÖm trªn qui m« nhá ®-îc . nãi r»ng mÆc dï c¸ch ch÷a bÖnh miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng lµ sù ®ét ph¸ trong viÖc ®iÒu trÞ bÖnh AID S vµ kh«ng g©y ph¶n øng phô nµo.mét ph-¬ng ph¸p ch÷a trÞ. nh-ng h×nh nh.’’ ¤ng Karpasnãi viÖc nghiªn cøu cña Ph¸p vµ Mü vÒ c¸ch ch÷a bÖnh miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng ®-îc th«ng b¸o t¹i héi nghÞ ®· lµm cho nghiªn cøu ban ®Çu cña «ng v÷ng ch¾c h¬n. lo¹i vi rót g©y ra bÖnh chÕt ng-êi nµy. nh-ng cã scws ®Ò kh¸ng trung hßa cao diÖt ®-îc vi rót.

Thö nghiÖm cña Hemancare nghiªn cøu tÝnh hiÖu qu¶ cña c¸ch ch÷a trÞ miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng ®-îc tiÕn hµnh trªn 220 bÖnh nh©n AIDS h¬n 3 n¨m.77 tiÕn hµnh ë Lu©n §«n vµo n¨m 1988 vµ 1989. víi mét giäng khµn khµn. «ng nh×n quanh nh-ng kh«ng thÊy ng-êi . vµ ®iÒu nµy ®· lu«n ¸m ¶nh trong t©m trÝ con cho ®Õn giê. ‘‘Th-a. Ng-êi ®µn «ng l¹i th-a: ‘‘LÇn tr-íc con ®· ®Õn x-ng téi. «ng ta ®· thøc giÊc vµ thÊy mét ng-êi l¹ mÆt ®ang dùa vµo cuèi gi-êng «ng. C¸c nhµ nghiªn cøu cho r»ng viÖc hiÕn m¸u cã vÎ nh. Trong 12 th¸ng ®Çu cuéc thùc nghiÖm cho they møc tö vong gi¶m rÊt nhiÒu trong khi bÖnh nh©n ®-îc truyÒn huyÕt t-¬ng.VÞ gi¸o sÜ choµng dËy vµ chuÈn bÞ ¸o quÇn. ‘‘ VÞ gi¸o sÜ biÕt ®©y lµ mét tr-êng hîp rÊt tåi tÖ. ¤ng Karpras nãi r»ng c¸c nghiªn cøu cña Ph¸p nh÷ng kÕt qu¶ t-¬ng tù. ¤ng nãi lµ c¸c nghiªn cøu Mü vµ Ph¸p cho b»ng chøng kÕt luËn ®Çu tiªn lµ miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng lµ mét ph-¬ng ph¸p ®iÌu trÞ hiÖu. sè bÖnh l©y nhiÔm do bÖnh AID S g©y ra thÊp h¬n nhiÒu trong nhãm ®-îc ®iÒu trÞ vµ chÝnh b¶n th©n nh÷ng ng-êi hiÕn m¸u h×nh nh. H¬n n÷a. trong khi bÖnh nh©n trong nhãm kiÒm chÕ b»ng thuèc trÊn an kh«ng ®-îc ch÷a trÞ th× tû lÖ tö vong cao gÊp 5 lÇn. trong nhãm ng-êi ®-îc ®iÒu trÞ b»ng thuèc trÊn an th× cã 6 trong tæng sè 30 bÞ tö vong. ng-êi ®µn «ng ®¸p. vÞ gi¸o sÜ ®· b×nh tÜnh hái xem ng-êi ®ã muèn g×. VÞ gi¸o sÜ b¶o ng-êi ®ã r»ng h·y ®îi ®Õn s¸ng mai v× lóc nµy kh«ng tiÖn ®Ó x-ng téi. con muèn x-ng téi‘‘. nh-ng v× xÊu hæ. §Õn lóc tiÕng gµ b¾t ®Çu g¸y ngoµi s©n.kÝch thÝch viÖc s¶n sinh c¸c kh¸ng thÓ trung hßa trong m¸u cña c¸c bÖnh nh©n nhiÔm HIV d-¬ng tÝnh. Nhãm ®-îc ®iÒu trÞ cã 1 ng-êi bÞ chÕt trong sè 21 ng-êi. Mét chót lo sî.hä còng they cã lîi. Ng-êi ®µn «ng ®ã ®· thiÕu thµnh thËt khi x-ng téi vµ cã lÏ «ng ta sÏ ph¶i nhËn l·nh téi chÕt. con ®· kh«ng nh¾c ®Õn mét téi lçi con ®· g©y ra.’’ còng tiªu c¸ch bÖnh ®em biÓu ch÷a AIDS l¹i cña trÞ h÷u ASSIGNMENT 20: Translate the following text into English H«m kh¸c. Vµo mét ®ªm. Tuy nhiªn «ng Karpras nãi r»ng «ng kh«ng nhËn ®-îc quyx dµnh cho c¸c nghiªn cøu nµy ë n-íc Anh do ®ã viÖc nghiªn cøu ph¶i ®-îc tiÕn hµnh ë Mü vµ Ph¸p. bµ l¹i kÓ vÒ mét gi¸o sÜ bµ biÕt.

Jackie. hy väng sù v¾ng mÆt cña t«i sÏ kh«ng g©y sù chó ý. Vµ ®Õn b©y giê t«i cã thÓ nhËn ra r»ng chõng nµo néi t«i cßn ë trong nhµ t«i. tim chÞ ®ang nhãi ®au v× em ®©y! Em sÏ nghØ nh. Em cã nhí c¸i lÇn em ®· cè giÕt chÞ b»ng con dao c¾t b¸nh m× kh«ng? Vµ c¶ nh÷ng lêi lÏ em ®· nãi n÷a? ChÞ kh«ng biÕt råi Cha sÏ lµm g× víi em.78 ®©u c¶. Cã thÓ Cha sÏ göi em cho ®øc Gi¸m Môc. mØm c-êi ChÞ Êy tá vÎ th-¬ng h¹i t«i nh. Cã Chóa míi biÕt. em ph¶i ®i Jackie ¹!‘‘ Nora còng ®¸p l¹i víi giäng ®iÖu ®µy vÎ th-¬ng h¹i ®ã. tÊt c¶ chØ v× bµ néi t«i. ®Õn bÖnh Nora ®· cã c¸ch lµm t«i ®au ®ín mÇ mÑ kh«ng hÒ biÕt. ‘‘Mµ còng ch¼ng cã g× ®¸ng tiÕc v× em ®©u ph¶i lµ mét ®øa bÐ ngoan ph¶i kh«ng Jackie? ¤i. Nh-ng vµo lóc 3 giê. khi t«i ®ang c¶m thÊy yªn æn th× mét anh chµng ch¹y dÕn. cïng víi lêi nh¾n cña bµ Ryan b¶o r»ng t«i ph¶i x-ng téi vµo ngµy thø b¶y t¹ nhµ nguyÖn cïng ví nh÷ng ng-êi cßn l¹i. t«i gi¶ vê ®au r¨ng. ®õng quªn x-ng c¸i téi em ®· ph¹m víi bµ ®Êy nhÐ! ‘‘ ‘‘§Ó em ®i! ‘‘. chØ ngöi thÊy mïi gç ch¸y. Tåi tÖ h¬n n÷a. Chóng ta kªu tªn §øc Chóa Trêi cã v« cí kh«ng? Chóng ta cã ph¶i th¶o kÝnh víi cha mÑ kh«ng? (T«i ®· hái bµ ta lµ cã ph¶i kÝnh träng «ng bµ kh«ng vµ bµ b¶o lµ cã!) Cã yªu th-¬ng hµng xãm nh. chõng ®ã t«i vÉn cßn tiÕp tôc ph¹m téi.chÝnh cho b¶n th©n m×nh kh«ng? (T«i l¹i nghÜ ®Õn sè tiÒn mµ Nora cã ®-îc vµo thø s¸u hµng tuÇn.) TÝnh l¹i th× t«i còng ®· vi ph¹m 10 ®iÒu r¨n. ‘‘Em ph¶i ®i. ¤ng nh×n l¹i gi-êng nh-ng còng kh«ng thÊy dÊu ®«i bµn tay ®ang bÞ ch¸y.thÕ nµo vÒ téi lçi cña m×nh nhØ? Nµy. LÝ do lµ v× ng-êi ®µn «ng ®ã ®· thiÕu ch©n thµnh lóc x-ng téi. ‘‘ .thÓ chÞ ®ang ®-a t«i viÖn cho mét ca mæ. mÑ t«i kh«ng ®i cïng t«i mµ l¹i lµ Nora. §iÒu tåi tÖ nhÊt lµ lóc bµ Ryan bµy cho chóng t«i c¸ch ®Ó ph¸n xÐt l-¬ng t©m. võa nãi t«i cè giËt tay m×nh ra khái tay Nora. lÊy tay t«i khi chóng t«i xuèng ch©n ®åi. Nora n¾m buån b·. Giê ®©y. chÞ kh«ng c¶m thÊy téi cho em chót nµo c¶. C©u chuyªn ®· ®Ó l¹i trong t«i mét nçi kinh hoµng. nÕu kh«ng cha xø sÏ ®Õn nhµ t×m em ®Êy. T«i sî x-ng téi ®Õn mÊt hån vÝa. ‘‘¤i Chóa ¬i! Xin h·y gióp chóng con! ‘‘ Nora rªn rØ. Ngµy c¶ líp ®i. ‘‘Em kh«ng muèn ®i x-ng téi ®©u‘‘ ‘‘Sao l¹i kh«ng.

Nh-ng dï sao. khi quay nh×n l¹i nh÷ng kho¶ng kh«ng cña nh÷ng ng«i nhµ n»m c¸ch nhau.mét ng-êi ®µn «ng. D-êng nhuwtooi còng c¶m th¸y rÊt xÊu hæ v× mäi ng-êi ®· kh«ng ngõng chª tr¸ch anh chµng ¸y. Tr-íc Nora cã thªm hai cô giµ n÷a. chÞ kh«ng quªn nÐm mét c©u n÷a: ‘‘Vµ tau hi väng Cha sÏ cho mµy ®äc thËt nhiÒu kinh hèi lçi. Giã cø xµo x¹c bªn ngoµi lµm cho sù im lÆng bªn trong d-êng nh. T«i ®ang ®øng tr-íc ‘‘Tßa ph¸n xÐt‘‘. mét bãng ®en tr«ng rÊt th¶m h¹i ®ang di ®Õn ®øng sau l-ng t«i cø nh. . Lóc Êy t«i tù hái m×nh liÖu «ng Êy cã ph¶i lµ ng-êi còng gièng néi t«i kh«ng. T«i nghÜ nÕu t«i cã ®i x-ng téi th× chÞ Êy sÏ kh«ng biÕt ®Õn mét nöa nh÷ng g× t«i sÏ ph¶i nãi vµ lóc Êy t«i bçng hiÓu t¹i sao c¸i anh chµng trong c©u chuyÖn cña bµ Ryan ®· x-ng téi mét c¸ch kh«ng thµnh thËt.79 M·i tËn b©y giê t«i vÉn cßn nhí lµ t«i ®· suy nghÜ mét c¸ch cay ®¾ng ®Õn thÕ nµo.®øng ®ã. ‘‘§Õn råi ®ã’’ Nora cÊt cao giäng rÊt tù m·n råi quay manh ng-êi ®i nhanh vµo cöa nhµ thê. Råi bçng nhiªn. chÞ Êy bçng ®æi giäng. ¸nh mÆt trêi vôt t¾t ®Ó nh-êng chç cho bãng tèi th¼m s©u. Trong c¶nh t-îng Êy. T«i vÉn cßn nhí nh. anh Êy vÉn tèt h¬n t«i. Khi s¾p b-íc ®i.thÓ kÑp t«i vµo gi÷a ®Ó t«i kh«ng thÓ nµo tho¸t ®-îc dÉu t«i cã can ®¶m ®Õn ®©u. Nora trë nªn hung d÷ vµ ®éc ¸c nhchÝnh con ng-êi thËt cña chÞ Êy. Ýt ra anh ta ®· ®Õn ®©y ®Ó x-ng téi. Khi t«i b-íc vµo. Khi Nora ®· kÐo t«i xuèng hÕt nh÷ng bËc tam cÊp ®Õn s©n nhµ thê. C¸i bãng ®en míi ®Õn . Nora ngåi ®ã.xö mét c¸ch th¶m th-¬ng nh. cã thÓ t«i sÏ kh«ng x-ng téi mét c¸ch thµnh thËt. Bëi v× chØ cã bµ míi khiÕn cho mét chµng trai ph¶i c. råi t«i sÏ bÞ chÕt ®i trong bãng ®ªm vµ liªn tôc trë vÒ ®Ó ph¸ ph¸ch ®å ®¹c. §óng lµ ®å h®èn. vßng tay l¹i. m¾t dâi lªn cao cÇu nguyÖn víi mét giäng rÊt ®çi thèng hèi. c¸ch cöa víi nh÷ng « kÝnh ®Çy mµu s¾c bçng ®ãng sÇm sau l-ng t«i. bªn c¹ch tßa x-ng téi. T«i cßn nhí c¶ nh÷ng ¸nh tµ d-¬ng tr¶i dµi hai bªn ngän ®åi n»m xa xa c¸i thung lòng bªn bê s«ng.in c¸i ®åi cã con dèc dÉn xuèng nhµ thê.vËy. ®èi diÖn víi cËu bÐ Jackie. t«i bæng liªn t-ëng ®Õn c¸i nh×n cuèi cïng cña Adam vÒ v-ên ®Þa ®µng. ‘‘ Råi th× t«i biÕt m×nh ®· bÞ l¹c lâng thËt sù.vì ra l¹nh gi¸ d-íi ch©n t«i. Cßn t«i.

the average wage of those working in this branch is only about VND 400. Due to the very nature of the industry. will push up production costs to very high levels. Employer agreement may be required if an employee want to leave his or her job. making it difficult for Vietnamese ventures to compete effectively and occupy the market.State ventures to Social Insurance schemes. after a time of stagnation. 2. paper and .Embroidery Association agree on the implementation of contributing a part of total wages to Social and Medical Insurance. the State should devise specific development plans for foreign investment in terms of business field and geographical area and should not encourage foreign investment in products. the State should amend the contribution rate of non . Saigon Beer has to compete fiercely with breweries of foreign Joint-ventures. Saigon Beer and HCMC Poultry Company. Only a year after the US embargo was lifted. which local enterprises can produce such as soft drink.State ventures should be given a work card. and are obligated to work for at least two years. Nam has suggested.70% of that in 1991 .000 per month. To protect domestic production. had the same opinion that local enterprises are not in an equal footing in competing with foreign counterparts as they do not enjoy tax incentives as foreign-invested enterprises. Consequently. Other products are also in the same situation. local producers have proposed several measures to the Government. HCMC' s private textile embroidery industry has recovered and develop somewhat since 1991. Tribeco Soft Drink. All members of HCMC's Textile . detergent. Mr. they can't control their production plan. Yet development is not stable because most private units work according to foreign orders. soft drink giants such as Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola. . Generally. Under the current fierce competition. in compliance with the Labour Code.80 ASSIGNMENT 21: Translate the following texts into Vietnamese 1. have gradually eaten into the market shares of local producers. Viet Thang Textiles. At a meeting on "How to encourage foreign investment and protect domestic production" held in HCMC last week. It is necessary that employees working at non-. P/S Cosmetics.Medical Insurance: 1 % by enterprises. First. although capable of meeting domestic demand to the year 2000.Social Insurance: 10% by enterprise. Business leaders of big companies in HCMC have voiced difficulties they are facing with in the fierce competition against foreign companies. and labour price for making garments is limited by foreign partners (the labour cost of 1995 is equal to 65 . marketing policies and preferences under the Foreign Investment Law. have driven into the corner by giants such as Procter & Gamble and Unilever. especially world giants. 3% by employee. which have enjoyed superior advantages in capital. To help private textile embroidery businesses survive. if the proposed social insurance scheme comes into effect.1992). as follows: . 1 % by employee The State should also issue a regulation concerning employees who are trained and recruited by an enterprise. Local detergent producers. the amount of 15% of total wages for social insurance and 2% for medical insurance that enterprises must contribute. producers of Tico and Lux Detergent.

Ch¼ng h¹n nh. D©n ë thµnh thÞ ®-îc hæ trî dÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh. dÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh cña chÝnh phñ cã lÏ kh«ng cã ®èi víi d©n nghÌo do ®iÒu kiÖn ®Þa lý. vµ hä cã gia ®×nh Ýt con h¬n. T¹i mét vµi vïng. Ngµy cµng cã nhiÒu chuyªn gia vÒ d©n sè thÊy ®-îc mèi quan hÖ kh¨ng khÝt gi÷a sè con trong gia ®×nh vµ sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ. a campaign to motivate local consumers to use domestic goods should be launched. Fifth. Vµ d©n ë c¸c n-íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn th× cã nhiÒu con h¬n d©n cña c¸c n-íc ph¸t triÓn. hay sù gióp ®ì cña chÝnh phñ. which involve in projects requiring large capital. .ng-êi d©n ë n«ng th«n sèng qu¸ xa trung t©m kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh. Chóng ta cã thÓ nãi r»ng gia ®×nh ®«ng con lµ nguån b¶o hiÓm cho tuæi giµ. advanced technology or producing goods for export. §èi vãi nhiÒu ng-êi nghÌo. Second. Third. TÊt c¶ con c¸i cña hä ®Òu ph¶i chia sÏ vµ g¸nh v¸c tr¸ch nhiÖm ch¨m sãc cha mÑ. ng-êi nghÌo ë n-íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn muèn cã nhiÒu con. C©u tr¶ lêi rÊt ®¬n gi¶n. hay ë mét ph¹m vi lín h¬n lµ cña mét n-íc. a law should be enacted against unfair competition that can lead to monopoly. licenses should be granted only to JVs or 100% foreign-owned enterprises. lµ mét nh©n tè quan träng trong viÖc quyÕt ®Þnh sè con trong gia ®×nh. there should be a policy to encourage domestic investment and to grant domestic enterprises the same tax incentives as foreign investors enjoy. Do vËy hä kh«ng nhËn ®-îc th«ng tin vÒ c¸ch thøc h¹n chÕ sinh ®Î. ASSIGNMENT 22: Translate the following text into English Ng-êi nghÌo th-êng cã nhiÒu con h¬n nh÷ng ng-êi thuéc giíi trung l-u vµ th-îng l-u. V× thÕ chóng ta cã thÓ nãi r»ng vÞ trÝ ®Þa lý n¬i mµ ng-êi d©n sèng ®ãng mét vai trß qan träng trong viÖc quyÕt dÞnh mät gia ®×nh nªn sinh bao nhiªu con: Gia ®×nh sèng ë thµnh thÞ th× cã Ýt con h¬n gia ®×nh sèng ë n«ng th«n. Nh×n chung th× d©n thµnh thÞ cã nhiÒu th«ng tin h¬n d©n n«ng th«n. Ng-êi cã nhiÒu tiÒn th× cã Ýt con. Ng-îc l¹i. Nh÷ng lý do kh¸c lµ g×? Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ gia ®×nh. Hä cã thÓ vµ sÏ quay sang nhê con c¸i gióp ®ì. tiÒn h-u. Hä kh«ng cã b¶o hiÓm. dumping or price inflation that does not benefit consumers. Con c¸i cña hä b©y giê ®· trë thµnh ng-êi lín vµ ®ang ®i lµm viÖc. creating conditions for domestic enterprises to develop. Khi hä giµ c¶ th× ai sÏ gióp hä. mét gia ®×nh ®«ng con lµ mét c¸ch thøc ®Ó ho¹ch ®Þnh cho t-¬ng lai.81 cigarettes. Fourth. T¹i sao? Do hä ph¶i lÖ thuéc vµo sù ch¨m sãc cña con c¸i khi vÒ giµ.

scale international assistance would be needed to meet a short fall in rice. The shortfall would have to be made up by the international community in order to help the country to revive its battered economy.6 percent below last year's production. In a joint report. which is hosting a three day meeting here. The shortfall was due to one of Indonesia's worst droughts this century. "Vietnam is now actively preparing all necessary conditions to become a full member of ASEAN next year.5 million tones. said the report on the world's fourth .based organizations said. the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the world Food programme (WFP) said large . The report said the Indonesian government planned to import about 1. dispelling speculation that Hanoi might put off membership until it.82 ASSIGNMENT 23: Translate the following text into Vietnamese “Indonesia will face a record food deficit this year as a result of lower harvests and a financial crisis that has raised the cost of imports”.most populous country whose economy has been shattered." Deputy Prime Minister Phan Van Khai told business people over lunch organised by the Switzerland .and financial crisis.member Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum "When it is possible". which visited the country from March 9 to April 1 in 1998.based World Economic Forum (WEF).member mission from the two agencies. the report added. This year‟s yield would be about 47.5 million poor Indonesians in 15 provinces may experience acute food short ages during the upcoming dry season ". " FA0 .5 million poor people since rice and overall food prices have increased by about 60 percent in the last 12 months.related food problems " the report by the two Rome . ASSIGNMENT 24: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Vietnam on Wednesday said it would join the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) next year. The report was based on findings of an 11-. two UN food agencies said yesterday.WFP urge donor countries to assist Indonesia in managing its drought. Khai said that Hanoi would also participate in other regional organisations and would join the 17 . Steep food price increases and rapidly growing unemployment were adding large numbers of people to those already living below the poverty line. 3. " Approximately 7.5 million tones of rice between April and September but this would still leave a deficit of two million tones. The major challenge facing the country was to ensure the food supply for some 7. the country's main staple food. . the report said. was better prepared.

based ASEAN Secretary . Những đặc khu kinh tế này đã thu hút vốn đầu tư của nước ngoài vào Philippines một phần nhờ vào chính sách miễn thuế cho các doanh nghiệp có vốn đầu tư nước ngoài.. 2. tài chính và thương mại. has said it is keen to become a full member of the group. Việt Nam đã nổ lực duy trì sự ổn định chính trị xã hội.as well as the United States. Chẳng hạn như. adding that Hanoi would work with others in Southeast Asia to ensure regional peace. who was speaking after meeting Jakarta . chính phủ đã xây dựng bốn đặc khu kinh tế nhằm tăng cường sản xuất hàng hoá xuất khẩu. "We deeply understand that Vietnam is facing great challenges of global economic competition and so must try hard to do away with the danger of being left far behind by neighbouring countries. Once we are a member we will follow all regulations. Vietnamese Deputy Foreign Minister Vu Khoan was quoted as saying that his country would file an application for ASEAN membership by the end of this month or early in November.general Ajil. Singapore and Thailand. APEC 's members include the ASEAN countries. Một khu công nghiệp-thương mại lớn với cơ sở hạ tầng hiện đại và được miễn thuế đã thu hút các ngành công nghiệp sản xuất hàng xuất khẩu và đầu tư nước ngoài. Japan and China.. Các ngành công nghiệp trong các khu chế xuất này được khuyến khích sản xuất các mặt hàng xuất khẩu truyền thống. Malaysia.Brunei. Vào những năm 70. said he did not expect any difficulties in joining.83 In Jakarta. including the launch of an ASEAN Free Trade Area within 10 years. Xây dựng thành công những đặc khu kinh tế này đã tạo tiền đề cho sự ra đời các khu công nghiệp có qui mô lớn hơn. Indonesia. Vietnam. Đa số họ đã quay trở về Việt Nam để đầu tư và liên lạc với bà con. Ngành sản xuất đã phát triển đáng kể trong thời kỳ tái thiết nền kinh tế của Philippines sau Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ II. as quoted by the Antara news agency. Tại Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh và vùng phụ cận những hoạt động dịch vụ và sản xuất đã phát triển và thay đổi nhanh chóng. Việc kiểm soát hàng hoá nhập khẩu của chính phủ đã thúc đẩy sự phát triển ngành công nghiệp nhẹ sản xuất các mặt hàng tiêu dùng cho thị trường trong nước. Khoan. the Philippines. Kinh tế phát triển mạnh một phần nhờ vào nguồn đầu tư vốn và công nghệ của gần 2 triệu Việt Kiều ở các nước trên thế giới. Nhờ nông nghiệp thích ứng với thị trường tự do nên Việt Nam được xếp là nước xuất khẩu gạo lớn thứ hai trên thế giới sau Thái Lan. phát triển kinh tế và quan hệ ngoại giao trong những năm gần đây. . Khai said his government would push ahead with reforms to improve conditions for foreign investment by putting a new legal framework and better administrative procedures in place. ASEAN officials had hoped that Vietnam might join ASEAN before leaders of the group 's six current members hold their next summit in Thailand in December 1995. An informal APEC leaders meeting will be held in Indonesia next month. Singh." Khai told reporters later. which gained observer status in ASEAN in 1992. which has ambitious programmes for cooperation. "There are already regulations for cooperation in ASEAN. Những thay đổi tích cực của luật pháp đã ảnh hưởng không nhỏ đến tình hình sản xuất. Canada. "he said ASSIGNMENT 25: Translate the following texts into Vietnamese 1. căn cứ hải quân Subic Bay của Mỹ trước đây nay đã trở thành một khu thương mại-công nghiệp khổng lồ ở Manila.

n-íc ngoµi vµo viÖc s¶n xuÊt ra c¸c s¶n phÈm mµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc cã kh¶ n¨ng s¶n xuÊt ®-îc nh.Coca-cola. Mỹ Tho. Sinh hoạt vui nhộn của vùng này không giống mấy với cách sinh hoạt của Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. ChØ 1 n¨m sau khi lÖnh cÊm vËn cña Mü ®-îc b·i bá. ph¸ gi¸ lµm h¹i ng-êi tiªu dïng. kết hợp cái kỳ ảo của vùng sông nước lung linh với cảnh quan đầy phấn khởi của một nền văn hoá vui tươi thể hiện qua cách sinh hoạt của dân địa phương cùng hoạt động thương mại.n-íc ngoµi vÒ l·nh vùc kinh doanh vµ ph©n bè theo vïng ®Þa lý vµ kh«ng nªn khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu t. Long Xuyên lập thành thế vững cho các tỉnh của Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long thì mạng lưới kênh rạch mênh mông lại là cái duyên có một không hai của vùng này. bét giÆt. Do phù sa bồi đắp của dòng sông Cửu Long làm phong phú vựa lúa đầy ắp này. Thø ba. Trong tiếng Việt. thủ phủ của tỉnh Tiền Giang và là điểm xuất phát tốt cho cuộc thăm dò vùng đồng bằng này. Tuy nhiên điều đó không có nghĩa là phải khó khăn lắm mới tới được Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long để thoát khỏi cái ồn ào náo nhiệt của thành phố lớn nhất Miền Nam này. Đối với du khách. . giÊy vµ thuèc l¸. 5.84 3. Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long là một trong những địa chỉ tham quan đẹp nhất Đông Nam Á.n-íc gi¶i kh¸t. Chỉ mất chừng ba giờ đồng hồ bằng xe đò trên Quốc lộ 1 là bạn là bạn đến Mỹ Tho. c«ng nghÖ cao hay s¶n xuÊt c¸c mÆt hµng xuÊt khÈu.n-íc ngoµi tham gia vµo c¸c dù ¸n ®ßi hái cã nhiÒu vèn. nh-ng l¹i bÞ c¸c c«ng ty khæng lå nh. viÖc cÊp giÊy phÐp nªn ®-îc ¸p dông cho c¸c c«ng ty liªn doanh hay c¸c doanh nghiÖp cã vèn ®Çu t. Bia Sµi Gßn ph¶i c¹nh tranh quyÕt liÖt víi c¸c c«ng ty bia liªn doanh víi n-íc ngoµi. mÆc dï cã thÓ ®¸p øng nhu cÇu trong n-íc ®Õn n¨m 2005. c¸c c«ng ty n-íc gi¶i kh¸t khæng lå nh. C¸c s¶n phÈm kh¸c còng r¬i vµo hoµn c¶nh t-¬ng tù. 4. một liên kết về ngôn ngữ mà mối ràng buộc càng thấy rõ ràng sau một chuyến đi thăm vùng đất phì nhiêu nhất Việt Nam: Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long. lµ nªn cã mét ®¹o luËt chèng ®èi viÖc c¹nh tranh kh«ng lµnh m¹nh cã thÓ dÉn ®éc quyÒn kinh doanh.Procter & Gamble vµ Unilever dån vµo thÕ bÝ.N-íc Ngoµi. C¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt bét giÆt trong n-íc. nhµ n-íc nªn cã kÕ ho¹ch ph¸t triÓn dµnh riªng cho viÖc ®Çu t.Cola ®-îc h-ëng -u ®·i vÒ vèn. nªn c¸c c«ng ty nµy ®· dÇn dÇn th©m nhËp thÞ phÇn cña c¸c nhà s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc. Pep si. Thø hai. c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc ®· ®Ò nghÞ víi chÝnh phñ mét sè biÖn ph¸p. Trong khi những thành phố lớn như Cần Thơ. §Ó b¶o vÖ viÖc s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc. Thø nhÊt. vừa có ý nghĩa là nước. chÝnh s¸ch tiÕp thÞ vµ c¸c -u ®·i kh¸c theo luËt §Çu T. tượng trưng cho nguồn lương thực của cả nước cũng như phong cách sinh hoạt kề cận sông nước của cư dân trong vùng. từ “nước” vừa có ý nghĩa là quốc gia.

a blue long dress of mother/ mother has a blue long dress 10. change of meaning 5. change of form B ASSIGNMENT KEYS 6. the house of Peter/ Peter is the owner of the house/ Peter owns the house C.79 CHAPTER 3: ASSIGNMENT 1: II. the same in meaning 7. the doctor owns the house D. . the same in meaning 4 . the same in meaning 2. the relative of the doctor/ the kinship 5. the hand is part of the doctor 6. change of form 2. 8. 1. the day is hot/ the day. which is hot 9. different in meaning 3. the same in meaning 6. the same in meaning 10. a car was bought by John/ John owned a car/ A car belonged to John. the same in meaning 8. thec doctor owns the book 4. 1. the place where doctor works/ the docter owns the office 2 someone is treated by the doctor 3. change of meaning 3.the jug contains water/ the jug of water/ 7. different in meaning 9. the same in meaning 5. EXERCISES: A. change of form 4. different in meaning E. 1.

is one of the greatest novelists in the world. change structure/ change word collocation 3. 1. Da Lat. 4. takes up/covers/is situated in a large area on the Lam Vien Plateau. omitting relative clause D. ASSIGNMENT 2: II. To construct this. Despite the great improvement in the woman status. The world he describes is that of the middle and lower classes in London. who belongs to the school of critical realism. b. the world has been facing a number of serious problems in spite of the fact that there have been dramatic progress in science. nearly 15 million cubic meters of earth and stone must be dug up and banked up. C. 4. 3. a 4. The population is growing in geometric progression while thee production of goods is growing in arithmetic prgression . 2. many foreign countries have been investing in Vietnam. A. Where did you have/ get your shirt made? 2. B. which is surrounded by the great/imposing hills and mountains. change the meaning of the verb and adjective 5. Since the USA lifted the embargo against Vietnam. 5. 2. A motorcycle rider was robbed at Kampung early yesterday morning.a . technologyand knowledge. Hue is famous for its delicious dishes and beautiful landscapes. What we value in his works is the criticism about evils and the contrast between the wealth and poverty in the English bougeois society of his time. 5 . Thac Mo is a hydroelectric works with a designed of 150000 KW.80 1. One of the problems is the population explosion/boom in the developing countries. change set expression 4. The participants discussed the causes of pollution environment. annually produce 600 million KWH/ has an average annual output of 150000 KWH. 1. about 220000 cubic 2. change word order 2. 1. nutrition and education. Charles Dickens. over 350000 cubic meters of filtering layers were embanked.a 3. other things must be done to improve women’s health. 1. Foreign tourists usually at Kinh Do Hotel for this hotel has been recommended by their friends. 3. Nowadays.

With these sources of power in 1994. . The task of blocking the current of Song Be River will start in December. So far. 3. 4. In mid November 93. 8. hay ®iÒu kiÖn vÖ sinh lao ®éng th«ng qua m¹ng l-íi truyÒn th«ng më réng. Tæng thèng Putin kh¼ng ®Þnh r»ng n-íc Nga lu«n coi träng mèi quan hÖ víi ViÖt Nam . Vèn ®Çu tchñ yÕu tõ Ng©n Hµng ThÕ Giíi vµ Ng©n hµng Ph¸t triÓn Ch©u ¸. concreted some 40% of the concrete volume. MÆc dï kÓ tõ n¨m 1990. mét ë vïng nói. ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc dµnh cho c¸c tr-êng häc ®· ®-îc t¨ng lªn nh-ng vÉn cßn rÊt thÊp so víi nhu cÇu trang bÞ ®Çy ®ñ cho tr-êng häc vµ c¶i tiÕn chÊt l-îng ®µo t¹o. ng-êi b¹n truyÒn thèng vµ lµ ®èi t¸c chiÕn l-îc ë §«ng Nam ¸. 1. the government has decided to have the construction finished in two years since the demand in power supply of southern localities has become very pressing. 2. 7. the South will basically free itself from the hunger for electricity. Despite such enormous volume. 6. the Prime Minister Vo Van Kiet came to inspect the building of Thac Mo Hydroelectric works. 5. Nguyen Ba Man. 3. 6. 9. head of the work managing committee. khoa häc vµ kü thuËt. Thus. 10.n-íc ngoµi cho gi¸o dôc. nearly all the basic items have met the demand in construction speed. th-¬ng m¹i. Ng-êi ta lËp dù ¸n ®Ó t¨ng thªm c¬ héi héi nhËp cho 3000 trÎ em khuyÕt tËt ë ba tØnh . the construction units have carried out about 90% of the dug-up earth volume.81 meters of concrete were used and nearly 7000 tons of equipment and metal structures were installed. According Mr. The field leaders assured the Prime Minister that they already have grounds to ensure the operation of Turbine 1 in June 1994. §· cã bèn dù ¸n ®Çu t. D. 7. Râ rµng r»ng c¸c tr-êng häc ë c¸c tØnh phÝa nam cã nhiÒu phßng m¸y vµ phßng thùc hµnh ®-îc dïng vµo viÖc ngo¹i ng÷ h¬n c¸c tr-êng ë c¸c tØnh phÝa B¾c. there will be a significant coincidence when Turbine 1 of Thac Mo Hydro-electric Plant starts operating. mét ë vïng duyªn h¶i MiÒn Trung vµ mét ë vïng s©u vïng xa 4. Ng-êi ta ®ang thùc hiÖn mäi næ lùc ®Ó n©ng cao nhËn thøc cña phô n÷ vÒ viÖc hä cã quyÒn ®-îc h-ëng sù an toµn lao ®éng . Hä ®· th¶o luËn mét lo¹t c¸c biÖn ph¸p nh»m môc ®Ých b¶o ®¶m sù hîp t¸c toµn diÖn vÒ kinh tÕ. 5. The North-South 500 KV transmission line will also be completed simultaneously.

Adjacent to the inner city are flower districts: Nhat Tan. 4. Hopefully. Hanoi and its people will always deserve the land of age-old culture. ASSIGNMENT 3: Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese 1.82 8. 2. Moving down from Kinh Bac. 38 trong sè 50 sinh viªn ngo¹i ng÷ ®-îc b¸o Vietnam Courier nãi r»ng hä kh«ng thÝch lµm viÖc cho c¸c c«ng ty ®-îc n-íc ngoµi ®Çu t-. purplish violet and bright red gerbera . 5. It is a regret to see the narrowing flower acreage due to a change in business of a number of artisans. . Tet has already roamed around the vicinities of Hanoi. 7. The local inhabitants have long been artisans devoting their lives to growing flowers. Míi ®©y chÝnh phñ ®· d-a ra biÖn ph¸p khÝch lÖ nh. flowers to fattening pigs and poultry are for Tet’s sake. 9. here was a vast land of flowers sufficiently meeting the need of ornamental plants for Hanoi people. B 1. fruits.gi¶m thuÕ hoÆc cho vay -u ®·i cho nh÷ng chñ nh©n sö dông nhiÒu c«ng nh©n n÷. 10. Quang Ba with a number of varieties: dark pink peach blossoms. 9. ViÖt Nam vµ Trung Quèc ®ång ý më c¸c cuéc ®µm ph¸n ®Ó ký kÕt mét hiÖp ®Þnh vÒ l·nh thæ vµ biªn giíi vµ mét hiÖp ®Þnh vÒ l·nh h¶i tr-íc n¨m 2000. Others have turned to building luxury villas rented out as mini hotels to foreign tourists with their own capital or in cooperation with those who have capital. Mµn tr×nh diÔn chÝnh cña lÔ héi lµ mét mµn diÔn mang tªn ‘‘ §Êt Lµnh Chim §Ëu’’ d-îc tr×nh diÔn ®ång thêi ë ba s©n khÊu lín ë khu trung t©m. Toµn bé khu vùc quanh ®Òn tËp trung ®Æc kÝn ng-êi. Some have sold their land and left their occupations forever. juicy golden kamquat. 6. selling all kinds of goods from the most popular to the top-graded ones. 2. Since early in the last lunar month. Nghi Tam. chØ chõa méy kho¶ng nhá cho nh÷ng nghi lÔ ®-îc tiÕn hµnh. The peasants in the suburbs are probably the ones to feel the presence of Tet before anyone else because all their tasks from taking care of vegetables. 10 No wonder why Hanoi has changed and been developed in the open-door time. 3. we will see immense fields of flowers especially gladioli of all colors. 8. Stores and shops have musroomed. A few year ago. grass.

tõng giê vµo cuéc sèng gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam. chÝnh phñ ®· ph¸t ®éng ch-¬ng tr×nh gi¸o dôc vµ héi nhËp céng ®ång. trong khi ®ã c¸c kho¶n chi bÊt th-êng cho c¸c vïng bÞ b·o. tÊt c¶ c¸c tr-êng häc ph¶i t×m c¸c nguån tµi chÝnh kh¸c ®Ó mua ®å dïng d¹y häc. M¹ng l-íi truyÒn h×nh ®ang x©y dùng réng kh¾p c¶ n-íc.tõ ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc. Hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh Êy ®· g©y ra nhiÒu thiÖt h¹i vÒ sinh m¹ng vµ tµi s¶n còng nh. thÊp h¬n n¨m 1997 lµ 4..c¸c c«ng tr×nh c«ng céng vµ tµi nguyªn. Gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam chÞu ¶nh h-áng râ rÖt cña nÒn v¨n minh n«ng nghiÖp. 5.®µi truyÒn h×nh Hµ Néi vµ Thµnh Phè Hå ChÝ Minh. Nh-ng trong sè 4 khu chî ®¨ ®-îc qui ®Þnh .§èng §a sang khu vùc §¹i La. 4. 10. lôt. Nh÷ng nguån chi tiªu b×nh th-êng vÉn ®-îc ®¶m b¶o. cã tõ l©u ®êi nh. ViÖc th©m hôt ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc ®-îc gi÷ ë møc cho phÐp lµ 3. §Ó gi¶m bít chi phÝ trong viÖc t¨ng kh¶ n¨ng tiÕp cËn c¶u trÎ em tµn tËt víi gi¸o dôc. 8. ASSIGNMENT 4: . 6.83 3. nÒn v¨n minh c«ng nghiÖp ®ang t¸c ®éng tõng ngµy. c¸c nguån nµy chØ b»ng 13% ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc dµnh cho c¸c tr-êng phæ th«ng vµ 21% cho c¸c tr-êng ®¹i häc. Ngoµi viÖc ®Çu t. Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ cña ViÖt Nam ph¶i ®-îc xÐt trong hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh kÐo dµi. Nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh nµy sÏ truyÒn nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh quan träng cña ®µi truyÒn h×nh trung -¬ng vµ ph¸t ch-¬ng tr×nh cña ®µi m×nh. th× chØ cã chî §ång T©m ®-îc dêi tõ khu d©n c. Héi Liªn HiÖp Phô N÷ ViÖt Nam ®-îc cö ®¹i diÖn ë Quèc Héi vµ chñ tÞch héi ®-îc quyÒn tham dù c¸c cuéc häp th-êng kú cña Héi §ång Bé Tr-ëng ®Ó bµy tá quan ®iÓm cña Héi vµ ®Ò nghÞ nh÷ng ®iÒu lÖ liªn quan ®Õn phô n÷. Tuy nhiªn.6% tæng thu nhËp quèc néi vµo n¨m 1998. 7. Trong nh÷ng n¨m gÇn ®©y ®Ó lËp l¹i trËt tù c«ng céng. cßn cã 25 ®µi thuéc c¸c tØnh ®-îc thµnh lËp vµo n¨m 1988.2%. Tæng thu nhËp ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc ®¹t xÊp xØ møc ®Ò ra ban ®Çu. Do chÝnh s¸ch më cöa. h¹n h¸n vÉn ®-îc thùc hiÖn. 9. Hµ Néi ®· dêi mét sè khu chî t¹m ®Õn nh÷ng vïng ®· ®-îc qui ®Þnh. Ngoµi nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh t-¬ng ®èi hiÖn ®¹i.

Da River. §¹i bé phËn rõng ë Ch©u Mü La Tinh. to give information 2.vµ t¸ ®iÒn g©y nªn. Kho¶n nî n-íc ngoµi khæng lå ®ang ®Ì nÆng lªn vai d©n nghÌo chñ yÕu ®-îc dïng ®Ó trang tr¶i cho c¸c kho¶n mua s¾m xa xØ cña chÝnh phñ vµ qu©n ®éi.its language and people 3. Tuy nhiªn. It depends on the leaners’ ability. Mèi liªn hÖ gi÷a n¹n ph¸ rõng vµ nhu cÇu thµnh lËp x· héi phån vinh ®-îc thÊy râ nÐt nhÊt ë Trung Mü vµ Brazin n¬i nh÷ng c¸nh rõng nhiÖt ®íi ®· bÞ biÕn thµnh ®ång cá ch¨n th¶ v× viÖc nu«i gia sóc mang l¹i c¸c kho¶n lîi nhuËn xuÊt khÈu gióp tr¶ nî n-íc ngoµi. yes/ a bilingual dictionary and the context could help to discover the meanings of these words. Ch©u ¢u vµ NhËt.yes COUNTRY Our ancestors drank the water from the Red River. 1.vïng xøng víi tªn gäi lµ ‘‘vïng giao l-u hamburger’’ A.yes 6. to give information 2. about invironmental protection / to be more exact. §N¸ vµ Th¸i B×nh D-¬ng bÞ tµn ph¸ lµ do viÖc khai hoang ®Ó trång c¸c lo¹i n«ng s¶n xuÊt khÈu vµ do c¸c ho¹t ®éng bu«n b¸n gç . about Vietnam. nÕu cho r»ng viÖc më réng mét nÒn n«ng nghiÖp tù cung tù cÊp ®Ó nu«i sèng nhiÒu miÖng ¨n h¬n lµ nguyªn nh©n chÝnh. Just think about the fact that very few languages in the world enjoy the uniformity as in the case of our mother tongue. the word “nuoc” (in the river. In Vietnam. yes/ a bilingual dictionary and the context could help to discover the meanings of these words. ` N¹N PH¸ RõNG Sù gia t¨ng d©n sè lµ mét nh©n tè g©y ra n¹n ph¸ rõng nhiÖt ®íi. 3. 4. th× ®©y lµ mét gi¶i thÝch v« c¨n cø. . ViÖc x©y dùng c¸c ®iÒn trang ch¨n th¶ réng lín lµ nguyªn nh©n chÝnh dÉn ®Õn viÖc ph¸ huû 2000 km2 rõng nhiÖt ®íi hµng n¨m ë Trung vµ Nam Mü. it is about deforestation.84 A. phÇn lín gç ®-îc xuÊt khÈu sang Mü vµ NhËt. du c. lake and sea) have a synonym and homonym of the word “nuoc” signifying homeland. 1. chø kh«ng ph¶i do n¹n du canh. Hµng n¨m ho¹t ®éng bu«n b¸n gç ®· ph¸ huû 4500 km2 rõng. 5. It depends on the leaners’ ability. 5. §Êt khai hoang chñ yÕu dïng cho viÖc nu«i bß xuÊt khÈu phôc vô cho ngµnh c«ng nghiÖp thøc ¨n nhanh ë B¾c Mü. 4. Me Kong River and tried hard/ spare no pain to protect them.

on the contrary. sù mª tÝn. B»ng chøng lµ sù thÊt b¹i cña c«ng nghiÖp s¶n xuÊt ®ång hå Thuþ SÜ trong 2 n¨m võa qua do bÞ ®ång hå ®iÖn tö c¹nh tranh nªn ®· thÊt thu 200 triÖu ®« la mçi n¨m. That is the patriotism of the Vietnamese people. Cho ®Õn thÕ kû thø 17. Trong lÞch sö loµi ng-êi khoa häc ®-îc xem nh. Tê N. tµu ngÇm vµ ®iÖn tho¹i ®· ®-îc dù b¸o tr-íc. 4. Nh÷ng ai quan t©m ®Õn ngµnh c«ng nghÖ m¸y tÝnh tin rµng chóng ta ®ang tr·i qua mét cuéc c¸ch m¹ng vÒ m¸y tÝnh. 7. cÇn phØa s¬ l-îc vÒ lÞch sö m¸y tÝnh. nhiÒu c«ng viÖc trong c¸c kh©u s¶n xuÊt vµ dÞch vô do con ng-êi ®¶m tr¸ch cã thÓ ®-îc thùc hiÖn nhanh h¬n vµ Ýt tèn kÐm h¬n nhê sù trî gióp cña c«ng nghÖ m¸y tÝnh vµ c¸c thiÕt bÞ ®-îc m¸y tÝnh kiÓm so¸t. 3. C«ng ty nµo kh«ng sö dông c«ng nghÖ m¸y tÝnh ®Òu kh«ng thÓ c¹nh tranh ®-îc víi c¸c ®èi thñ ¸p dông c«ng nghÖ nµy. 6. Trong thêi kú ®ã. In Vietnam.m¸y bay. . Vµo n¨m 1980. gi¶m ®ãi nghÌo vµ t¨ng tÇm hiÓu biÕt cña con ng-êi vÒ thÕ giíi.nhµ m¸y chÕ t¹o « t« Fiat cña ý vµ Nissan cña NhËt.h·ng General Motors Ford. the north or the south. do ng-êi Trung Quèc ph¸t minh c¸ch ®©y 5000 n¨m lµ tiÒn th©n cña m¸y tÝnh hiÖn ®¹i sau nµy. M¸y tÝnh ®-îc ph¸t triÓn ®ång thêi ë §øc. ë Ch©u ¢u ch-a cã g× cã thÓ s¸nh b»ng bµn tÝnh vÒ tèc ®é còng nh. no matter where they are from. there are many countries where people cannot communicate with one another when they travel from one province to another. In the world. 2.cã sø mÖnh gi¶i phãng con ng-êi khái sù ngu dèt. Anh vµ Mü ®Ó t¨ng thªm tèc ®é còng nh. people are able to understand one another right at the first meeting. nh÷ng ph¸t minh kh«ng t-ëng nh. ASSIGNMENT 5: A.®é chÝnh x¸c trong tÝnh to¸n cÇn cho viÖc gi¶i m· th«ng ®iÖp cña kÎ thï. T¹i sao cuéc c¸ch m¹ng nµy x¶y ra ? §iÒu nµy cã mang l¹i hËu qu¶ g× cho x· héi? §Ó tr¶ lêi nh÷ng c©u hái nµy. nh÷ng ng-êi sÏ xua tan bãng ®ªm vµ më ra con ®-êng cho con ng-êi chinh phôc thiªn nhiªn. M¸y tÝnh ®Çu tiªn -bµn tÝnh . Ng-êi m¸y ®ang dÇn thay thÕ c«ng nh©n trong d©y chuyÒn s¶n xuÊt nh. Nissan vµ Simpson Pope 8.85 Here like an immortal bloc the rivers and people are closely linked to the nature and people by a kind of everlasting cement. 50 robot ®· ®-îc c¸c c«ng ty cña óc sö dông ch¼ng h¹n nh. 5. A ®· ca ngîi c¸c nhµ khoa häc cña thêi ®¹i ®ã lµ c¸c nhµ truyÒn b¸ ¸nh s¸ng. Ngµy nay .®é chÝnh x¸c trong tÝnh to¸n. 1.

They have also participated in the charity work following the tradition “ the luckier should help the sufferer. light industry zone. Dung Quat Bay is to the northeast of Binh Son District. In order to encourage the banking system to play a more constructive role. 3. sea products processing zone. we are going through a period of profound social changes like that of the first industrial revolution.vµ thiÕu kü n¨ng trong nÒn c«ng nghÖ hiÖn ®¹i. The silt from the Mekong River helps to bring an ample granary representing the whole country’s source of food as well as the local inhabitants’ riverside lifestyle 2. Before 1988.” 5. Nh÷ng ý t-ëng khoa häc vÜ ®¹i nµy ®· ph¸t triÓn vµo thÕ kû 18 vµ 19. 2. B 1. the effect of the banking system on the development and macro-economic management was minimal. Today. Cuéc c¸ch m¹ng c«ng nghiÖp Anh vµo cuèi thÕ kû 18 cµng cñng cè niÒm tin vµo mét x· héi khoa häc kü thuËt mÆc dï lîi nhuËn x· héi thu vµo kh«ng bï ®-îc chi phÝ x· héi bá ra . 3. Another advantage is that Dung Quat lies about 12 km from roadway. 4. The Mekong river itself with its huge tributaries and small canals navigable for tiny boats creates a majesty landscape as it flows through VN. 10. oil refineries. nay bçng d-ng tù hä c¶m thÊy thõa d. Cïng víi viÖc c¬ giíi ho¸ ë mét sè qui tr×nh s¶n xuÊt. the government has taken new measures including the reorganization of the . railway lines. b-íc ®Çu ®· g©y ra n¹n thÊt nghiÖp víi sè l-îng lín. and a modern urban residential area with about 600000 inhabitants. the last part of its 4500 km-long journey./ with a population of about 600000. pouring into the East Sea. a number of overseas Vietnamese have contributed to the welfare of their country and taken part in relief movements to help those who suffer from natural calamities. Here will be formed / established heavy industry and chemical zones. Translate the following sentences into English. cherish a close link with their families and preserve the national identity which typifies the Vietnamese. It is 18 km long and is protected by mountain ranges. Nh÷ng nghÖ nh©n lµnh nghÒ trong ngµnh tiÓu thñ c«ng nghiÖp vèn khan hiÕm tr-íc ®©y. Thev supply of fresh water for this area is very convenient with a reserve of about 3 billion cubic meters per year taken from the Tra Bong River. power transmission line and the trans-Vietnam optic cable. QN Province. It is significant that these overseas Vietnamese always direct their attention to their homeland. To the south of the bay is an area of flat land having geographical structure with an area of tens of square kilometers. 1. In addition to their support for their relatives. 5.86 9. 4. It may be necessary for us to re-define the very notion of work itself. ASSIGNMENT 6: A.

The survey also indicates that 39% of married women used modern methods. gi¶i quyÕt . . C¸c b¸c sÜ cho thÊy lÇn ®Çu tiªn hä cã thÓ t¸i t¹o c¸c hÖ miÔn nhiÔm cña nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ nhiÔm vi rót bÖnh AIDS b¨ng c¸ch ®ét ngét t¨ng sè l-îng tÕ bµo m¸u mµ vi rót HIV huû diÖt. 2. 6. Ngµy nay con ng-êi cã khuynh h-íng lo ©u vÒ søc khoÎ thÓ chÊt. 6. Mét ng-êi khoÎ m¹nh lµ mét ng-êi khoÎ m¹nh vÒ mÆt thÓ chÊt lÉn tinh thÇn. Nh÷ng ng-êi khëi x-íng ra viÖc dïng n¨ng l-îng nguyªn tö nhÊn m¹nh r»ng thÕ giíi nµy råi ®©y ch¾c c¾n sÏ trë thµnh mét thÕ giíi cña nguyªn tö. phôc håi nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò søc khoÎ cña c¸ nh©n vµ céng ®ång. v× chÝnh nh÷ng t©m hån lµnh m¹nh ®iÒu khiÓn h-íng ®i cña hÖ thèng gi¸ trÞ.87 banking system. the most frequent method being intra uterine device (IUD). nh÷ng viÖc ®· lµm ®-îc trong nh÷ng n¨m qua ®-îc ®¸nh dÊu b»ng sù kiÖn næi bËt lµ viÖc nhiÒu chuyªn gia vÒ ®µo t¹o y khoa . 5. Tuy nhiªn t«i muèn nhÊn m¹nh tíi tÇm quan träng cña søc khoÎ t©m lý. the introduction of restrictive credit policies. Ng-êi ta còng cho r»ng nh÷ng ng-êi chèng ®èi l¹i viÖc sö dông nguyªn tö ®ang chèng l¹i trµo l-u cña lÞch sö vµ cã mèi quan hÖ gÇn gòi víi dßng hä Luddites vèn lµ nh÷ng ng-êi chñ tr-¬ng ®Ëp ph¸ m¸y mãc ngay tõ khi cuéc c¸ch m¹ng c«ng nghiÖp b¾t ®Çu. V× vËy ng-êi thÇy thuèc ®ã cÇn ph¶i biÕt ph¸t hiÖn . and new policies on interest and free trade of gold in market. real salaries have declined substantially as a result of inflation.The survey conducted by the VWU shows that traditional contraceptive methods have been widely used. B. 1. 3. 7. Ng-êi thÇy thuèc ngµy nay nªn lµ ng-êi cña søc khoÎ . nhiÒu tr-êng ®¹i häc trªn thÕ giíi ®· dÆt vÊn ®Ò ph¶i xem xÐt l¹i néi dung ®µo t¹o ®éi ngò c¸n bé y tÕ . 4. Though the monthly minimum wage increased. Râ rµng r»ng mét th©n thÓ khoÎ m¹nh gióp cho mét t©m hån lµnh m¹nh. The government implemented a comprehensive reconstructuring of wages and salaries of the governmental employees with a consolidation of consumer subsidies into the nominal wage structure. M¹nh khoÎ vÒ mÆt tinh thÇn lµ rÊt quan träng vµ lµ mét ng-êi thùc sù khoÎ m¹nh lµ ng-êi ®¹t ®-îc sù th¨ng b»ng hîp lý gi÷a thÓ chÊt vµ tinh thÇn. Trong lÜnh vùc ®µo t¹o y khoa.

it will be a supplier of raw materials and cheap labour in the international division of labour. study. Nguyen Trai. If tourists go to an ethnic minority region. Their lives have been improved and women have become less burdened. customs and unique folk culture. The humanism of the Vietnamese diplomatic line constitutes a typical characteristic. 3. Identification of the factors that leads to fast effective foreign language learning has become increasingly important because of a majority of learners who are very anxious . Tourists should have to be present about a week before the ceremony to join the local inhabitants in looking for a suitable kind of bamboo to repair the Rong House (The community House) and to make a Neu tree ( The New Year Tree) to chase evil spirits. and the efforts of each individual within the society. and diplomacy. as adults. they will have an opportunity to engage in other fascinating cultural activities typical of the rainforest region. Social welfare is a major policy of Vietnam which has its origin in the age-old national traditions of solidarity and mutual assistance. It has also helped women deal with difficult matters of every life. The achievements of the renovation process in the past ten years have provided opportunities for women to obtain their goals. Social services have helped to ease their housework and create favourable conditions for them to participate in social activities. left a legendary guiding principle which remains today: “ Using great justice to vanquish cruelty Humanism to subdue brutality” . This policy is being gradually extended to all the inhabitants in various forms. The greatest attraction to the tourists is the age-old traditions typical of the Vietnamese culture. The ceremony provides tourists with a chance to observe the decoration of jars and the way they are chosen to store wine. It has proposed to the state laws and policies that make full use of women’s potentials in the process of renovation. the community. to learn a foreign language for a specific purpose : business. 8. This is the great challenge facing Vietnam in the current international context. The basic principle of the policy is to combine the responsibility of the state. The Vietnam Women’s Union which represents Vietnamese women nationwide . If Vietnam lags far behind other countries. a national hero of the 15th century. 2. Vietnam is a large community consisting of 54 ethnic groups with different traditions . hundreds of which have high artistic and historical value . It will have to accept an inferior position and losses in the international cooperation and competition. Though the Vietnamese have been victims of countless aggressions. 7. The requirements for effective language learning may be taken into account in terms of the learners. Also. hundreds of traditional handicraft villages have produced thousands of famous handicraft and fine art products. 6. Take the buffalo stabbing ceremony as an example.88 ASSIGNMENT 7: 1. they never lose their compassion . 4. thus attracting more and more women to social activities. They also have an opportunity to observe the way people choose the buffalo for the ceremony. Thousands of historical and revolutionary relics have been graded by the government . has renovated their organization and work style . their compassion is a factor which creates the strength and the diplomacy of the nation. the teachers and the curriculum. 5. Economic backwardness and the danger of lagging behind in the economic development are the great concerns of all the Vietnamese at home and abroad .

air museum of 1930s architecture. the Peace Hotel and its venerable Jazz Band Are the best-known survivors from a more gracious age. and yet most visitors fall under the spell of this unique city where ambience is everything. The most prominent is the Oriental Pearl TV Tower . . have sprouted where the rice used to grow. trong bài diễn văn chính phát biểu tại trường Đại Học Quốc Gia Hà Nội. Tổng Bí Thư Giang Trạch Dân kêu gọi giới trẻ Việt Nam và Trung Quốc nỗ lực nhằm thắt chặt tình hữu nghị giữa hai nước.if time allows. Entrepreneurs and carpetbaggers from all over the world descended and developed it into one of the world's most cosmopolitan and sophisticated cities. but Shanghai can lay claim to the title of commercial capital. but Shanghai has many other exquisite hotels from the 1930s. when it began to develop as a trading and industrial center. The past is still tangible in sections of the former French concession. Tổng Bí Thư Giang Trạch Dân nhấn mạnh rằng mối quan hệ Việt -Trung sẽ phát triển tốt đẹp trong thế kỷ 21. It would be impossible to tour the entire treasure huose in a short visit. opened in 1996. From the 1920s on it became increasingly notorious as the place where anything could . including some of the world's tallest buildings. the panoramic views from the upper levels make an unforgettable experience.happen. trong đó nỗ lực chung của thanh niên hai nước là không thể thiếu. This whole stretch has survived the busy bulldozers and today it forms a unique open . Shanghai boasts one of the world's truly great museums. Skyscrapers. góp phần vào sự nghiệp hoà bình và phát triển ở châu Á cũng như trên toàn thế giới. with its elegant villas and tree . stones sculptures and ceramics will provide lasting memories. Tổng Bí Thư-Chủ Tịch nước Trung Quốc nói với sinh viên: “Các bạn trẻ thân mến.and usually did . Historic sites date back less than 80 years in Shanghai. ASSIGNMENT 9: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Ngày hôm qua. but even an hour in the galleries devoted to the bronzes. The very name Shanghai still sends a ripple of excitement down most spines. It was a minor weaving and fishing town until the mid 19th century.lined streets.89 ASSIGNMENT 8: Translate the following text into English Beijing may be the seat of political power. chính các bạn là những người tạo ra tương lai tươi sáng và tương lai thuộc về các bạn”. A stroll along the Bund is a must for everyone who visits what is still regarded by many as China's leading city. Banks and commercial companies of all kinds built opulent head offices for themselves overlooking what were then open rice fields beyond the banks of the Huangpu river. Around the corner from the Bund. most of which are being lovingly restored to their former glory.

after the decree of . in land and office management. As in the first year (1998). ông đi thăm cố đô Huế. Waste has really been a pressing problem of the society and one of the causes which considerably affects the economy of our country. ASSIGNMENT 10: Translate the following text into English Concerning a poor country like ours. nỗ lực vì sự nghiệp phát triển Chủ Nghĩa Xã Hội. đã được UNESCO công nhận là di sản thế giới. ông sẽ đến thăm phố cổ Hội An và công ty dệt may Hoà Thọ trước khi kết thúc chuyến đi thăm ba ngày đến Việt Nam. “practising thrift and fighting against waste” must be always the national policy. and waste also exists in the masses with costly weddings. chăm chỉ học tập. using budget. Chủ Tịch nước Giang Trạch Dân rời Hà Nội ngày hôm qua để đến miền Trung Việt Nam. là anh em”. vì sự giàu có và thịnh vượng của mỗi nước”. trao đổi và học hỏi lẫn nhau để tăng cường hiểu biết. Theo lịch trình. và gặp gỡ các đồng chí lãnh đạo của thành phố cảng Đà Nẵng. Ông nói thêm: “Hợp tác trên cơ sở hiểu biết lẫn nhau là cầu nối và cũng là mục tiêu cho tương lai thịnh vượng”. In reality. however. Ở đó. có tư tưởng vững vàng. duy trì và phát triển mối quan hệ Việt-Trung. Chủ tịch nước Giang Trạch Dân nói: “Trong lịch sử. Ông phát biểu rằng: “Giới trẻ Trung Quốc và Việt Nam cần kế thừa và phát huy mạnh mẽ tinh thần cách mạng của cha ông. giải phóng dân tộc và thống nhất đất nước”. tiền đề. in State-owned enterprises. Ông nói quan hệ Việt-Trung dựa trên cơ sở tin tưởng lẫn nhau. như Chủ Tịch Hồ Chí Minh đã từng nhấn mạnh hai dân tộc “là đồng chí. tình láng giềng thân thiện và sự bảo đảm . cả Việt Nam và Trung Quốc đều bị đế quốc xâm lược nhưng chúng ta đều đã đánh bại chúng. Waste appears in management. in basic construction investment. Ông bảo đảm Đảng và Chính phủ Trung Quốc sẽ hoàn toàn ủng hộ sự trao đổi đó.90 Ông nói: thế hệ trẻ cả hai nước phải theo đuổi lý tưởng của mình và lao động không mệt mỏi để xây dựng Chủ Nghĩa Xã Hội. waste has still been spreading everywhere. Theo ông tình hữu nghị giữa Việt Nam và Trung Quốc không chỉ xuất phát từ lịch sử mà còn từ thực tiễn. Ông hy vọng giới trẻ Trung Quốc và Việt Nam sẽ gìn giữ. sự ổn định lâu dài.

conference expenses: VND12. fax expenses: VND9. e. business expenses: VND12. telephone. ®Ò cËp mét c¸ch râ rµng ®Õn gîi ý cña chÝnh «ng tuÇn tr-íc lµ «ng Ross ®· cã ý bªnh vùc Israel. Khi ®Ò cËp ®Õn c¸c cuéc ®µm ph¸n. however. Thµnh phè Gaza.Yasser Arafat.7 billion. most of whom are public servants.Nh÷ng ng-êi l·nh ®¹o cña Israel vµ Palestin ®· tiÕn hµnh ®µm ph¸n suèt ®ªm mµ theo c¸ch nãi cña «ng Dennis Ross .8 billion. «ng nãi:’’ §ã lµ mét buæi tèi . expenses for purchasing professionally fixed assets: VND153. for conferences and receptions… “Reducing expenses” statistics while the Decree of practising thrift and fighting against waste is being carried out are really speaking numbers.dù ®Þnh sÏ trë vÒ n-íc vµo ngµy h«m qua . for instance. ¤ng A ra fat nãi :’’ Cuéc gÆp gì ®· diÔn ra theo chiÒu h-íng tÝch cùc vµ cã tÝnh x©y dùng. sím h«m qua sau 3 gê ®ång hå cã mÆt ë ®ã trong khi nh÷ng ng-êi tham dù ®µm ph¸n vÉn tiÕp tôc c¸c cuéc héi ®µm. The State’s budget in 1999 is estimated to continue economizing 10% of estimated regular expenses. which show that this campaign is taking a turn for better. ¤ng Ross. restaurants are crowded with “Gods”. expenses for purchasing office equipment.’’ ¤ng cßn nãi thªm r»ng «ng vµ «ng Ross ‘‘ ®· gi¶i quyÕt mét sè khóc m¾c gi÷a t«i vµ «ng Êy’’.57 billion. ¤ng Ross rêi khái v¨n phßng cña nhµ l·nh ®¹o Palestin.91 practising thrift and fighting against waste passed by the National Assembly’s Standing Committee 10th session in Feb 26th 1998 and taking effective since May 1st 1998.94 billion. branch forming celebration. practising thrift and fighting against waste in “subsidy spending mechanism” is a must.43 billion. because inhabitants have no such budget for those parties. gifts… At the end of the year. reduced in comparison with the balance in 1997. expenses for great reparation of fixed assets: VND80. These numbers. parties. according to reports of 12 Ministries and bodies functionally equivalent to Ministries. ASSIGNMENT 11: Translate the following text into Vietnamese 1. conferences… Such festivities have cost so much money for hiring halls. Some regular expenses have sharply fell from 30% to 70%. indicate that spending has so far been loose and that it is necessary to limit expenses. While “free” inhabitants are leading a poor life and spending thriftily. One of the most pressing and costly expenses nowadays is: expenses for medal reception.g.®ång ý r»ng:’’ Chóng t«i ®· cã mét lo¹t c¸c cuéc th¶o luËn tèt ®Ñp’’. the real expenses in 1998.Ph¸i viªn cña Hoa Kú lµ ‘‘ mét ®ªm tèt lµnh cho c«ng viÖc’’ nh»m ph¸ vì sù bÕ t¾t trong viÖc Israel tr× ho·n ruts qu©n khái thÞ trÊn West Bank cña Heebron. Financial inspections and annual balance reports helped to find out a breach of rules of administrative management of many enterprises and administrative bodies.

Israel s¾p söa rót qu©n ra khái Hebron .®· cam kÕt trong b¶n HiÖp -íc vÒ quyÒn tù trÞ ®· ®-îc ký kÕt. Ng-êi Palestin tõ chèi viÖc nèi l¹i c¸c cuéc ®µm ph¸n vµ yªu cÇu Israel tiÕp tôc rót qu©n nh. C¸c cuéc héi ®µm b¾t ®Çu vµo chiÒu Chñ NhËt ë Ze ru sa lem vµ sau ®ã chuyÓn ®Õn Gaza. Ph¸t ng«n viªn cña qu©n ®éi nãi r»ng nhiÒu ng-êi Pale stin vÉn ®ang cßn bÞ b¾t gi÷.92 lµm viÖc tèt ®Ñp. MÆc dï l-îng du kahchs t¨ng. ng-êi nµy ®· ®-îc ®-a ®Õn bÖnh viªn thµnh phè ®Ó ch÷a trÞ 2. C¸c c¬ quan truyÒn th«ng Israel pháng ®o¸n r»ng nÕu cuéc th-¬ng l-îng thµnh c«ng th× «ng Ro ss cã thÓ ho·n l¹i chuyÕn bay cña «ng vµ hai «ng Netanyahu vµ Arafat cã thÓ tæ chøc mét cuéc häp th-îng ®Ønh néi trong ngµy h«m qua hoÆc h«m nay.d©n ®ang sèng trong thÞ trÊn cña 130. nh-ng cßn mét sè vÊn ®Ò cÇn ®-îc gi¶i quyÕt.000 ng-êi ¶ rËp. Hä bÞ qu©n ®éi chÜa sóng thÈm tra vµ b¾t gi÷ trong vßng nöa giê nh-ng sau ®ã phÇn lín ®· ®-îc th¶ ra. nhãm ®¹i diÖn Palestin do «ng tr-ëng ®oµn ®µm ph¸n Saeb Erekat dÉn ®Çu tiÕp tôc c¸c cuéc bµn th¶o víi Israel do hai «ng MaJ Gen Shaul Muha faz vµ Yitzhak cè vÊn cao cÊp cña Thñ t-íng Benjamin Netanyahu dÉn ®Çu.vµo th¸ng 3 th× ph¶i ho·n l¹i sau mét lo¹t tÊn c«ng cña bän khñng bè ë Israel. nh-ng t×nh tr¹ng kh¸ch ë l¹i kh¸ch s¹n gi¶m ®¸ng kÓ so víi nh÷ng n¨m võa råi.’’ Bªn trong tßa trô së chÝnh cña «ng Arafat. Vµo ngµy Chñ NhËt t¹i Hebron. Mét ng-êi Pale stin ®ang ®i ngang qua vïng l·nh thæ Beit Hada ssah th× bÞ mét c¸i thang lµm b»ng kim lo¹i r¬i hoÆc ai ®ã nÐm tõ m¸i nhµ xuèng lµm bÞ th-¬ng. vµ næ lùc b¶o ®¶m an ninh cho 500 c. H¬n 6 n¨m qua. vïng cuèi cïng bÞ chiÕm ®ãng. c¸c kh¸ch s¹n liªn doanh vµ c¸c nhµ kh¸ch chØ khai th¸c .Sè l-îng du kh¸ch n-íc ngoµi ®Õn Viet Nam ngµy cµng t¨ng. Theo sè liÖu thèng kª gÇn ®©y cña Tæng Côc Du LÞch ViÖt Nam th× l-îng du kh¸ch t¨ng b×nh qu©n h»ng n¨m lµ 30%.. mét nh©n vËt cøng r¾n ®-îc bÇu lµm thñ t-íng vµo th¸ng 5 võa qua. ®· tr× ho·n viÖc tiÕp tôc rót qu©n. qu©n ®éi ®· v©y b¾t kho¶ng 100 ng-êi Palestin sau khi ®· cã kÎ nÐm 2 qu¶ bom vµo l·nh thæ cña ng-êi Do Th¸i nh-ng kh«ng cã ng-êi nµo bÞ th-¬ng.thµnh phè Westbank. ¤ng Netanyahu. TP Hå ChÝ Minh .

Tuy nhiªn nh÷ng ®Ò ¸n nµy vÉn ch-a ®-îc triÓn khai. Mét trong nh÷ng nguyªn nh©n chÝnh cña sù tôt gi¶m l-îng kh¸ch lµ do kh¸ch s¹n liªn doanh mäc lªn nh. ngµnh du lÞch ViÖt nam cÇn chÝnh phñ ®Çu t.nhiÒu h¬n n÷a. But t he biggest boost to Vietnamese people courageously investing their money for themselves or their children to gain an international standard education has come through the staging of a special overseas education exhibition held in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi over the past two months. exhibition featured universities. MÆc dï h»ng n¨m chÝnh phñ ®· chi h»ng chôc tØ ®ång ®Ó n©ng cÊp c¸c di tÝch lÞch sö quèc gia vµ c¸c khu nghØ m¸t. While the number of people who have already done so is relatively small . HiÖn giê chØ cßn ®¹t ë møc 60%. MÆc dï l-îng du kh¸ch vÉn t¨ng trong nh÷ng n¨m qua nh-ng sè du kh¸ch trë l¹i ViÖt nam lÇn thø hai rÊt Ýt. the. Thªm vµo ®ã.93 ®-îc tõ 85-90% sè phßng hiÖn cã. thÊp h¬n nhiÒu so víi c¸c kh¸ch s¹n cña nhµ n-íc vµ nhµ kh¸ch t. V× lý do nµy. nh-ng do sù yÕu kÐm vÒ chuyªn m«n qu¶n lý nªn nh÷ng n¬i nµy vÉn ch-a cã thÓ thóc ®Èy sù ph¸t triÓn cña ngµnh du lÞch n-íc nhµ.nÊm.2970 from mid 1992 to May this year . NhiÒu kh¸ch s¹n cã tæng doanh thu thÊp trong khi l¹i chÞu møc thuÕ cao. their own expense. few years a: the Vietnamese economy strengthens and the government streamlines the procedures to make it. France. easier.nh©n. ®ang trë thµnh g¸nh nÆng cho c¸c «ng chñ vµ cã nhiÒu kh¸ch s¹n s¾p söa buéc ph¶i ®ãng cöa. The exhibition sought to establish what training or education private Vietnamese . c¸c ®iÓm du lÞch vµ c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn ¨n ë ®i l¹i ch-a ®¹t ®Õn tiªu chuÈn quèc tÕ. Called "Edukasia". ViÖt nam hiÖn cã kho¶ng 22 tØnh vµ thµnh phè ®ang hoµn tÊt nh÷ng kÕ ho¹ch tæng thÓ chi tiÕt ®Ó x©y dùng c¸c khu nghØ m¸t cho du kh¸ch. Râ rµng r»ng ngµnh du lÞch ViÖt Nam vÉn ch-a ®ñ søc hÊp dÉn du kh¸ch. Australia. §a sè du kh¸ch n-íc ngoµi h¨m hë ®Õn ViÖt Nam ®Ó t×m mét c¸i g× ®ã míi mÎ vµ muèn ®i ®Õn nh÷ng vïng cã vÎ ®Ñp tù nhiªn vµ hoang d· trong thêi gian l-u l¹i cña hä. ®iÒu nµy dÉn ®Õn viÖc c¹nh tranh khèc liÖt vÒ gi¸ phßng vµ gi¸ dÞch vô. The United States and Switzerland. §Ó c¶i thiÖn chÊt l-îng cña c¸c nhµ nghØ vµ t¨ng c-êng ho¹t ®éng cña kh¸ch s¹n. vocational schools and school equipment suppliers from Great Britain. du lÞch ViÖt Nam cÇn tæ chøc l¹i viÖc qu¶n lý vµ ®Æt ra nh÷ng môc tiªu nh»m tháa m·n nhu cÇu hiÖn nay cña du kh¸ch. Translate the following text into English More and more Vietnamese people are seeking study abroad at. vÉn ®ang cßn ®ang ®-îc th¶o luËn.the numbers are expected to increase within the next.

about 300 USD/year. Belgium. A number of schools give priority to students with high marks in intelligence tests and offer them scholarship. The lowest level is 2500 USD/year. Courses in telecommunications. There is no limit for a maximum age studying abroad depends now only on these students willing to receive an advanced knowledge of the world. the hotel industry. machine building. such as marks obtained it each subject and health condition. Charles Wilmot.94 students were seeking and the overseas institutions companies explained what they could offer. in April this year. But 90% of tested students have to pay education fees. Some to eastern European countries and a trickle to the Netherlands. the lowest allowed aged is 13. In Great Britain especially. the USA. particularly regarding duration and the level of the courses being offered. Up until now. The remaining question depends upon a decision by the Vietnamese government. Those student who want to go abroad for study must first of all be able to speak English which is an indispensable condition for initial contact: and assimilation of knowledge: Educational standards are also set. According to Mr. Most of the private students have been going to Russia. the director of Edukasia. while the most reputed USA schools and purses generally demand 3000 USD/year to 6000 USD/year. most Vietnamese students have been going abroad for further study as recipients of international scholarship or funding from foreign government. Vietnam has been annually sending about 77 students and 160 senior level experts abroad through such officially sponsored scheme. There has been an avoidable waste of time and money. the fees are high. there are organizations specialized in helping foreign students. Most Vietnamese studying abroad begin their training at the age of 18 to 19. Fees for remote training are less. But they are reasonably calculated. While these existing avenues for Vietnamese students have required secondary school graduation and intensive courses in the relevant foreign language and computers. Denmark and Thailand. often these schemes were deficient in anticipating the problems foreign private students may encounter. depending on the institution and the courses. Wilmot stressed that in general. and graduation diplomat are also recognized as equivalent to the regular training diplomas These institutions are ready to receive Vietnamese students and to facilitate entry visas. But. More and . tourism and cooking wt-re particularly featured. the courses on offer are delivered abroad it Vietnam by correspondence or distant training. And people in underdeveloped countries have more children than people in developed countries. a temporary halt has been put. and an attrition rate. the accommodation and studying conditions of students in countries where there were Vietnamese students were very good. At "Edukasia". on private places being offered to foreign students in Russia and Eastern Europe. ASSIGNMENT 12: Translate the following text into English Poor people often have larger families than middle class and upper class people. Mr.

the executives said at the opening of a trade fair here. Their children will be adults then. When they grow old. or government help. For example. They have no insurance. ASSIGNMENT 13: Translate the following text into English China's powerful exporters are training their sights on. and they will be working. of nations. The Chinese firm is planning to trade cars for foodstuffs that will be sold in southern China but would prefer to exchange higher value goods. is an important factor in determining family size. Urban people have help with family planning. they don't receive information about ways to control family size. Vietnam. People with a lot of money have fewer children. In general. We could say that a large family is insurance for old age in some societies. On the other hand. Therefore. They can and will turn to their children.road vehicles at the fair in Hanoi in what is the first exhibition of Chinese goods here since the two countries began patching up their relations. government family planning services may not be available to poor people due to geographic location. What are the other reasons? Economic development of families and. "The market here is opening up quite quickly for our products.American auto manufacturer." Guo said. pensions. So we can say that geography where people live . Chinese executives said here Thursday. But Vietnam has a long way to go before it sees its exports to China grow as few products are likely to break into the more developed Chinese market. Why? Because they have to depend upon their children to take care of them in their old age. In some areas. BAIEC is looking to set up barter deals with Vietnam but is facing problems finding suitable moods to trade although Guo thinks he may have found the answer in the humble sweet potato. a large family is a way of planning and preparing for the future. seeing their southern neighbour as ripe for a boost in purchases of consumer goods and machinery. . a Sino . poor people in underdeveloped countries choose to have many children. where can they get help? The answer is simple. particularly as we are very competitive in pricing with our rivals.95 more experts in population growth see the strong relationship between family size and economic development. Beijing Jeep. Some 60 firms from Beijing are showing off their wares ranging from cheap plastic toys and ornaments to off . people in urban areas have much more information available to them than people living in rural areas. (BAIEC) vice president Guo Fengli. For many poor people. The children can all share the costs and other responsibilities of taking care of their parents. said Beijing Automotive Import Export Corp. on a larger scale. is hoping to squeeze into Vietnam's growing car market but is facing stiff competition from Japanese firms already entrenched here. and they have smaller families. people in rural areas may live too far away from family planning services.plays a part in determining family size: Urban families are smaller than rural families.

All schools in Saudi Arabia are free. however. Saudi Arabia is a religious nation. history. and the national language is Arabic. The government laws are Islamic law (Muslim religious law). They decided to add other subjects to the educational system. computer technology. with China enjoying a massive surplus. Before 1950. but a modern country could not develop technologically with only a traditional.96 "We don't know much about what Vietnam has to offer. Deputy Prime Minister Phan Van Khai called for both sides to replace the cross border trade with official agreements between trading companies and manufacturers that would boost sales of Vietnamese products. Vietnam wants to step up exports of coal and oil to southern China's booming manufacturing centres.000 people. "said Guo. Religion is still an important part of Saudi education. The king of Saudi Arabia is both the political leader and one of the religious leaders of the country. there were about 20.780. Khai also called for more sales of rice and other food products and for Vietnam to import more manufacturing machinery and other technology from China. The leaders still believed that religious education was very important. Cross border trade has boomed since the frontier was reopened in 1991. In 1953. the Saudi government established the Ministry of Education.853. the Islamic holy book. religious educational system. During a visit to China last week.000 students in Saudi Arabia. In 1982. In other words. science. etc. they are followers of the Islamic religion. The Islamic religion is very important in the Saudi educational system. There were no colleges or universities before 1949 and only a few elementary and secondary schools. The educational system has grown faster in Saudi Arabia than in almost any other country in the world. This was really the beginning of the modern educational system in Saudi Arabia. Before 1950 almost all education in Saudi Arabia was religious education..000 students.way trade stands at around 500 million US dollars although the illegal frontier trade is believed to b! much higher. ASSIGNMENT 15: Translate the following text into Vietnamese . Almost all of these people are Arab Muslims. Officially. Now. mathematics. Students studied the Koran. there were 1. Saudi students study all kinds of other subjects too: languages (especially English). the country started to become very wealthy. They wanted to combine traditional religious education with modern technological education from the West. which are thousands of kilometres (miles) from China's own sources of energy. They tried to memorize as much as possible from this book. ASSIGNMENT 14: Translate the following text into English Saudi Arabia has about 8. a point repeated by other traders who were more eager to sell than buy. Saudi leaders realized that Western technology was necessary for the country to develop. When engineers discovered oil in Saudi Arabia.. two .

’’ NÕu sù chó ý b©y giê lµ ‘‘khÈu hiÖu’’ ®· lµm thÊt väng c¸c c«ng ty dÇu löa n-íc ngoµi cã thÓ t¹o nguån an ñi tõ nh÷ng kh¸m ph¸ ®Çy khÝch lÖ võa qua vÒ dÇu do c«ng ty Mitsubishi vµ c«ng ty dÇu Petrornas Cairigali cña Malaisia. «ng Matherel nãi r»ng thÒm lôc ®Þa ViÖt Nam lµ mét n¬i chøa dÇu.khæng lå nh-ng l¹i nhËn ®-îc mät kho¶n lîi nhuËn cßm câi. Sù nhiÖt t×nh cña nh÷ng ng-êi th¨m dß ®ét nhiªn suy gi¶m vµo th¸ng 5 tr-íc khi c«ng ty dÇu BHP cña óc th«ng b¸o tr÷ l-îng dÇu ë vÞ trÝ má §¹i Hïng. BHP ®øn ®µu mét hiÖp héi quèc tÕ bÇu chän vµo th¸ng 4/1993 cã tr¸ch nhiÖm triÓn khai tæng kinh phÝ 1. Tuy nhiªn. T©m tr¹ng ®ã ®· gi¶m ®i trong sè nh÷ng c«ng ty n-íc ngoµi tham gia triÓn l·m tr-ng bµy c¸c mÆt hµng cña ngµnh c«ng nghÖ t¹i cuéc TriÓn l·m Dçu vµ khÝ ®èt Quèc tÕ lÇn thø hai ë Hµ Néi. ViÖc th¨m dß dÇu khÝ ë thÒm lôc ®Þa ViÖt nam lµ hÕt søc khã kh¨n. T¹i vÞ trÝ nµy. mét c«ng ty ®· ®Çu t. §iÒu ®ã lµ ‘‘mét ®ßn gi¸ng m¹nh’’ cho BHP.75% tæng sã vèn cña HiÖp häi. vµ vÒ khÝ ®èt cña BP. c«ng ty quèc doanh Petro-Vietnam chiÕm 15%. ®· lé diÖn ®Ó cã ®-îc mät c¬ may tèt nhÊt. C¸i gi¸ ®Çu t. Vµo thêi ®iÓm ®ã. Vô Tr-ëng §«ng Nam ¸ cña h·ng Total Ph¸p ®· ph¸t biÓu : ‘‘ KÕt qu¶ kh«ng ph¶i lµ tÖ. . 375 c©y sè ë §«ng nam thµnh phè HCM lµ Ýt ái h¬n so víi dù trï. BHP -íc tÝnh s¬ khëi lµ tr÷ l-îng ë ®©y kho¶ng tõ 700 ®Õn 800 triÖu thïng dÇu.mét sè ng-êi ®· hy väng. ¤ng Melchior de Matharel. chÝnh NhËt B¶n lµ kh¸ch mua hµng chÝnh cña dÇu th« ViÖt Nam. nh-ng hiÖn nay con sè Êy ®· xuèng ë 100 ®Õn 200 triÖu thïng. nh-ng kh«ng lín nh. ViÖc s¶n xuÊt ®-îc dù kiÕn b¾t ®Çu vµo th¸ng tíi. PhÇn 21.97 Sau khi ®Æt nhiÒu hi väng vµo viÖc khoan tróng c¸c má dÇu khÝ ë ngoµi kh¬i ViÖt Nam.5 tû ®« trong lÜnh vùc nµy. ë møc khiªm nh-êng lµ 25000 thïng mét ngµy.®Õn 240 triÖu ®« la ë ViÖt Nam vµ mét nöa cña kinh phÝ nµy ®· ®-îc sö dông cho dù ¸n §¹i Hïng. ë ngoµi bê biÓn nam ViÖt Nam. c¸c c«ng ty dÇu má khæng lå trªn thÕ giíi ®· nhËn ra nh÷ng rñi ro. BHP chiÕm 43. Petronas chiÕm 20%.25% cßn l¹i chia ®Òu cho c«ng ty Total (Ph¸p) vµ c«ng ty Sumitomo cña NhËt.

ViÖc th¨m dß vµ khai th¸c khÝ ®èt còng chøng tá ®ã lµ mät dÞch vô ®ang gÆp khã kh¨n. The problem was a hindrance to the $384 million space Radar Laboratory but not a danger to the astronauts.98 C«ng ty DÇu KhÝ ViÖt nam. BP 30% vµ Statoil 5% ®· tiÕn hµnh th¨m dß vµ thö nghiÖm theo mét hîp ®ång ph©n chia s¶n phÈm víi ViÖt Nam. the National Aeronautics and Space Administration said. dï c¬ may ®· mØm c-êi víi víi c«ng ty BP Anh. which are needed to fine-tune the shuttle's orbital path and precisely point cargo bay instruments at targets on the planet. phÝa nam thµnh phè HCM. c¨n cø trªn quyÒn lîi cña mçi ®èi t¸c Ch©u ¢u. called verniers. -íc tÝnh ®¹t ®-îc 57 tû mÐt khèi ë Nam C«n S¬n. mét chi nh¸nh cña tËp ®oµn dÇu khÝ Mitsubishi ®· th«ng b¸o trong th¸ng 6 lµ ®· cã mét sù kh¸m ph¸ rÊt høa hÑn t¹i vÞ trÝ R¹ng §«ng. khu vùc khai th¸c cã thÓ cã cïng chÊt l-îng nh. Officials said a fuel temperature sensor failed. Tr÷ l-îng cña B¹ch Hæ -íc tÝnh ë møc cao nhÊt lµ 3000 triÖu thïng. Nh-ng Ýt nhÊt cÇn ph¶i mét n¨m n÷a vµ cÇn ®Õn viÖc khoan dß n÷a th× míi cã thÓ x¸c ®Þnh chÝnh x¸c ®-îc môc tiªu viÖc th¨m dß cña c«ng ty NhËt. Liªn hiÖp. disabling a leak detection system in the suspect thruster and triggering a shutdown of five others. Translate the following text into English The failure of a space shuttle steering jet Wednesday forced NASA to suspend a radar survey of Earth as Endeavour's 10 day environmental research flight passed the halfway mark. mét ®¬n vÞ lÇn l-ît nhËn 5% tiÒn gãp vµo.vÞ trÝ má B¹ch Hæ ë gÇn mét ®Þa ®iÓm duy nhÊt hiÖn giê ®ang ®-îc kinh doanh khai th¸c ë ViÖt Nam. . Mission commentator Kelly Humphries late Wednesday called the scientific hiatus "temporary pause" while ground engineers hastily devised a way for shuttle computers to ignore the broken sensor. Nh÷ng ng-êi bi quan th× cho r»ng cÇn ®Õn kho¶ng 5 n¨m míi ®¸nh gi¸ ®óng vµ ®Çy ®ñ tr÷ l-îng dÇu cña ViÖt Nam. víi ONGC n¾m 55% cæ phÇn. mét ®¬n vÞ mµ trong th¸ng 9 ®· th«ng b¸o lµ ®· ph¸t hiÖn ra hai tói dÇu khÝ.NhËt b¶n (JVPC). Theo kÕt qu¶ ghi nhËn ®-îc tõ mét tõ mét giÕng dÇu th¨m dß. C«ng ty BHP vµ c«ng ty Quèc gia Na Uy Statoil ®· mua l¹i c¸c phÇn ®Æc nh-îng cña c«ng ty khÝ ®èt vµ dÇu khÝ quèc gia Ên §é (ONGC) vµo n¨m 1992.

nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ ph¸ s¶n. about 24 hours after the malfunction occurred. HiÖn nay. Nh÷ng ng-êi kh«ng cã quyÒn bÇu cö bao gåm: thµnh viªn cña hoµng gia. in the intervening time period". ë Anh hÖ thèng bÇu cö ®¬n gi¶n ®-îc sö dông trong c¸c cuéc bÇu cö quèc héi theo ph-¬ng thøc bá phiÕu kÝn. ASSIGNMENT 16: Translate the following text into Vietnamese N-íc Anh ®-îc chia lµm 651 khu vùc bÇu cö ng-êi d©n ë mçi khu vùc chän ra mét ng-êi ®¹i diÖn cho m×nh ë h¹ viÖn. C¸c øng cö viªn trong mét khu vùc bÇu cö ph¶i tr¶ mét kho¶ng tiÒn 1000 b¶ng nh. Jackson told reporters at Mission Control in Houston. ViÖc bÇu cö lµ hoµn toµn tù nguþªn.d©n n-íc ngoµi. Jackson predicted the software patch would be ready by Thursday afternoon.lµ mét kho¶ng tiÒn ®Æt cäc. Tæng bÇu cö: . mäi ng-êi d©n Anh tõ 18 tuæi trë nªn kh«ng bÞ t-íc quyÒn bÇu cö do ph¹m ph¸p. which has been working in two shifts around the clock since Friday's liftoff from Florida. gi¸o héi ScètLan vµ gi¸o héi Thiªn chóa gi¸o La M·. cã ®ñ tc¸ch th× ®Òu cã thÓ øng cö vµo quèc héi. Ngoµi ra cßn cã bÖnh nh©n n»m viÖn do cã vÊn ®Ò vÒ t©m thÇn ph¹m nh©n ®ang thi hµnh ¸n vµ nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ kÕt ¸n. hÖ thèng nµy cã nh÷ng ®iÒu chØnh ®Ó ngµy cµng trë nªn tèi -u h¬n. gi¸o héi Ai Len. gi¸o sÜ thuéc gi¸o héi Anh. according to flight director Rich Jackson. t¨ng l÷. was enjoying an unexpected time-out. trong vßng n¨m n¨m tr-íc ®ã vÒ téi tham nhòng.99 Maneuvering Endeavour with its 38 larger thrusters would consume too much full and eliminate hope of extending the natural disasters around the globe. Late Wednesday the shuttle was flying on autopilot and the crew. nh÷ng ng-êi kh«ng cã quyÒn øng cö lµ thµnh viªn cña th-îng nghÞ viÖn. NÕu dµnh ®-îc Ýt nhÊt 5% phiÕu bÇu cö th× hä sÏ ®-îc nhËn l¹i sè tiÒn ®ã. c¸c nhµ quý téc lµ thµnh viªn cña th-îng nghÞ viÖn hoÆc lµ c. Scientists said the problem would not harm the images but that it would take up to five times longer to process the radar data in their computers. "The payloads community and the flight control team are working very hard to regain venire control and minimise the impact. øng cö viªn: BÊt cø ai trªn 21 tuæi lµ c«ng d©n n-íc Anh c¸c n-íc trong khèi thÞnh v-îng chung hoÆc lµ n-íc céng hoµ Ai Len. ®Òu cã thÓ bá phiÕu bÇu cö.. ng-êi lµm dÞch vô c«ng céng vµ nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ kÕt ¸n tï tõ 1 n¨m trë lªn còng kh«ng ®-îc tham gia tranh cö.

Sau ®ã. Tæng bÇu cö th-êng ®-îc tæ chøc vµo thø 5 vµ mäi ng-êi vÉn ®i lµm nh. danh s¸ch th-êng s¾p xÕp theo thø tù anphabe ®«i khi cßn cã mét b¶n tãm t¾t vÒ tiÓu sö øng cö viªn vµ ®¶ng cña hä ®-îc ®i kÌm víi l¸ phiÕu. tõ ®ã hä cã thÓ ®iÒu chØnh c¸c chiÕn l-îc cña m×nh. c¸c phiÕu kh«ng hîp lÖ sÏ bÞ lo¹i vµ ng-êi ta sÏ tiÕn hµnh kiÓm phiÕu ®èi víi sè phiÕu hîp lÖ vµ øng cö viªn nµo nhËn ®-îc nhiÒu phiÕu ñng hé nhÊt sÏ lµ ng-êi th¾ng cuéc vµ trë thµnh thµnh viªn Quèc héi ®¹i diÖn cho khu vùc cña m×nh. N÷ Hoµng cã thÓ gi¶i t¸n Quèc héi vµ kªu gäi mét cuéc bÇu cö ®Ó lËp nªn quèc héi míi.nh©n vµ ®éc lËp vÒ mÆt tµi chÝnh ®èi víi c¸c ®¶ng ph¸i chÝnh trÞ nªn ng-êi chñ bót hoÆc ng-êi biªn tËp cã thÓ ñng hé bÊt cø ai hä muèn. s¸ch l-îc ®Ó thu hót sù ñng hé cña ng-êi d©n. C¸c øng cö viªn sö dông mäi lo¹i ph-¬ng tiÖn. Th«ng tin ®¹i chóng: Do b¸o vµ t¹p chÝ ë Anh th-êng lµ thuéc së h÷u t. nh÷ng ng-êi tiÕng ñng hé hä nh. cö tri ®-îc ph¸t phiÕu bÇu cã in tªn c¸c øng cö viªn ë khu vùc bÇu cö ®ã.100 Theo nguyªn t¾c. Nh÷ng cuéc mÝt tin nh. diÔn viªn ®Ó g©y ¶nh h-ëng ®èi cö tri. VËn ®éng tranh cö: VËn ®éng tranh cö cã nghÜa lµ nh©n viªn cña §¶ng ë ®Þa ph-¬ng ®i ®Õn tõng gia ®×nh vµ hái ng-êi d©n vÒ ý ®Þnh cña hä.th¸i ®é cña ng-êi d©n. Ngoµi ra nh©n viªn ®ã sÏ quay trë l¹i nh÷ng gia ®×nh cã ng-êi ®· høa lµ sÏ ñng hé §¶ng cña hä ®Ó thóc giôc hä bá phiÕu cho ng-êi cña §¶ng m×nh trong ngµy bÇu cö. Do ®ã. B»ng c¸ch nµy.nµh v¨n. Kh¸ch mêi cña hä bao nh÷ng ng-êi cã tÇm ¶nh h-ëng lín ttrong ®¶ng. Nh-ng c¸c cuéc bÇu cö th-êng ®-îc tæ chøc tr-íc khi kÕt thóc mét nhiÖm k× 5 n¨m. N-íc Anh ®-îc chia thµnh c¸c vïng gäi lµ khu vùc bÇu cö dùa trªn sè l-îng d©n c. ChiÕn dÞch tranh cö diÔn ra ë mäi khu vùc bÇu cö trªn toµn quèc.thÕ th-êng ®-îc ®-a trän vÑn c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn th«ng tin ®¹i chóng.xÊp xØ nhau. Thñ t-íng lµ ng-êi cã quyÒn quyÕt ®Þnh thêi gian tæ chøc tæng bÇu cö. T¹i c¸c ®Þa ®iÓm bá phiÕu. c¸c øng cö viªn cã thÓ biÕt ®-îc ý ®Þnh còng nh. bÇu cö h¹ nghÞ viÖn ®-îc tæ chøc 5 n¨m mét lÇn.th-êng lÖ. . MÝt tin: øng ®©u gåm næi víi lªn cö viªn cã thÓ tæ chøc mÝt tin bÊt cø n¬i nµo bÊt cø n¬i cã thÓ trong suèt chiÕn dÞch bÇu cö. thêi gian bÇu cö rÊt linh ®éng kÐo dµi tõ 7h ®Õn 22h ®Ó cho tÊt c¶ mäi ng-êi ®Òu cã thÓ ®Õn bá phiÕu. xem thö lµ hä ®Þnh bÇu ai. ChiÕn dÞch tranh cö: ChiÕn dÞch tranh cö diÔn ra trong vßng 3 tuÇn tr-íc ngµy tæng bÇu cö.

101 Tuy nhiªn, ®µi ph¸t thanh vµ ®µi truyÒn h×nh th× kh¸c lu«n lu«n c«ng b»ng, kh«ng thiªn vÞ. Ch-¬ng tr×nh tin tøc ®-a tin vÒ mäi mÆt cña chiÕn dÞch tranh cö cña c¸c §¶ng. Trong thêi gian nµy, c¸c øng cö viªn xuÊt hiÖn trªn ®µi vµ tivi suèt ngµy ®ªm, ta cã thÓ thÊy hä ë nhµ m¸y, xÝ nghiÖp, tr-êng häc, trung t©m thanh niªn vµ ë c¶ c¸c n«ng tr¹i. Hä ph¸t biÓu c¸c chÝnh s¸ch cña ®¶ng m×nh. Ch-¬ng tr×nh ®èi tho¹i trùc tiÕp trªn ®· cho phÐp mäi ng-êi ®Æt c©u hái cho c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o chÝnh trÞ. Bªn c¹nh ®ã, c¸c bµi t-êng thuËt, bµi b×nh luËn do c¸c phãng viªn ghi l¹i trong c¸c cuéc pháng vÊn víi c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o cña c¸c ®¶ng còng ®-îc ph¸t sãng. B¶n tuyªn ng«n: C¸c ®¶ng lín cho xuÊt b¶n b¶n tuyªn ng«n cña ®¶ng m×nh trong suèt chiÕn dÞch bÇu cö. Mçi ®¶ng ®Òu ®-a ra b¶n tuyªn ng«n cña ®¶ng m×nh nh- lµ mét Ên phÈm tham kh¶o. Nã cung cÊp cho ng-êi d©n nh÷ng th«ng tin vÒ chÝnh s¸ch cña ®¶ng, vÒ nh÷ng g× hä sÏ lµm nÕu hä ®¾c cö. C¸c b¶n tuyªn ng«n cßn bao gåm nh÷ng thµnh c«ng tr-íc ®©y cña ®¶ng. Ngoµi ra ®«i khi nã cßn chøa ®ùng sù c«ng kÝch cña ®¶ng nµy ®èi víi ®¶ng ®èi lËp.

ASSIGNMENT 17:
Translate the following text into Vietnamese Hµ Néi ®ang cè g¾ng t¨ng gÊp ®«i GDP lªn 1100 ®«la MÜ trong vßng 5 n¨m tíi. KÕ ho¹ch ®Çy tham väng nµy ®-îc ®-a ra trªn c¬ së 11,9% tØ lÖ t¨ng GDP h»ng n¨m cña thµnh phè. T¹i §¹i héi §¹i biÓu §¶ng Bé thµnh phè Hµ Néi ®-îc tæ chøc võa qua, c¸c ®¹i biÓu ®· ®-îc th«ng b¸o: nÕu tØ lÖ t¨ng tr-ëng vÉn tiÕp tôc nh- dù tÝnh th× GDP sÏ ®¹t kho¶ng 15% vµo ®Çu thÕ kØ. §iÒu ®ã cã nghÜa lµ GDP ®· t¨ng gÊp ®«i. §¹i héi còng ®Ò cËp ®Õn vÊn ®Ò c¬ së CN nhá truyÒn thèng cña nÒn kinh tÕ thñ ®« t¨ng nhanh bÞ thay thÕ bëi c¸c ho¹t ®éng CN vµ nghµnh c«ng nghiÖp dÞch vô-th-¬ng m¹i. Ngoµi ra ®¹i héi cßn ®-îc b¸o c¸o lµ kho¶ng 19% sè hé gia ®×nh ë Hµ Néi cã thÓ xÕp vµo diÖn hé giµu. Møc GDP b×nh qu©n n¨m ngo¸i cña thµnh phè ®-îc -íc tÝnh lµ kho¶ng 650 ®«la. Cao h¬n so víi 470 ®«la n¨m 1991 (tèc ®é t¨ng tr-ëng m¹nh mÏ). Sù t¨ng tr-ëng nµy lµ kÕt qu¶ cña hµng lo¹t c¸c dù ¸n ®Çu ttrong n-íc vµ n-íc ngoµi -íc tÝnh vµo kho¶ng 32,570VND (kho¶ng 3.275 triÖu USD).

102 Phã chñ tÞch héi ®ång Nh©n D©n thµnh phè Hµ Néi, «ng Lª Xu©n Hïng b¸o c¸o víi ®¹i héi r»ng: Mét phÇn cña sè vèn ®Çu t- ®· ®-îc sö dông cho qu¸ tr×nh chuyÓn giao c«ng nghÖ, ®æi míi thiÕt bÞ trong nghµnh CN. PhÇn lín sè vèn ®Çu t- cßn l¹i ®-îc dïng vµo viÖc thiÕt lËp c«ng ty liªn doanh víi ®èi t¸c n-íc ngoµi. Vµo cuèi n¨m 1995 cã ®Õn h¬n 210 dù ¸n ®Çu t- n-íc ngoµi ®· ®-îc cÊp giÊy phÐp kinh doanh trªn ®Þa bµn thµnh phè Hµ Néi víi tæng sè tiÒn lªn tíi 3,3 tØ ®«la. ¤ng Tïng nãi trong sè ®ã lµ 1 phÇn 3 tØ ®«la ®· ®-îc sö dông. §iÒu nµy ®· gióp Hµ Néi trong viÖc lùa chän h-íng c¬ cÊu l¹i c¬ së kinh tÕ theo h-íng CN-DV thay cho c¬ cÊu cñ víi vai trß trô cét cña CN nhá vµ n«ng nghiÖp truyÒn thèng. Theo lêi «ng Tïng, tØ lÖ s¶n phÈm CN, th-¬ng m¹i, dÞch vô trong ®ã tæng s¶n phÈm quèc néi cña thµnh phè Hµ Néi giai ®o¹n 1991-1995 t¨ng lªn ®Õn 33,1% ®èi víi c«ng nghiÖp vµ 61,6% ®èi víi th-¬ng m¹i vµ dÞch vô. Trong khi ®ã tØ lÖ n«ng nghiÖp l¹i gi¶m xuèng tæng GDP. cßn 5,3% trong

¤ng Tïng cßn nãi sö thay ®æi cña bé mÆt kinh tÕ Hµ Néi cßn nhê vµo sù t¨ng vät cña tØ lÖ t¨ng tr-ëng h»ng n¨m cña 5 n¨m tr-íc. ¤ng nãi tØ lÖ t¨ng tr-ëng 11,9% hµng n¨m cµng ®-îc ®¶m b¶o ch¾c ch¾n, con sè nµy cao h¬n gÊp ®«i so víi tØ lÖ ®Ò ra n¨m 1991. ¤ng Tïng b¸o c¸o víi c¸c ®¹i biÓu r»ng vµo n¨m 2000 tØ lÖ t¨ng tr-ëng cña thµnh phè sÏ ®¹t 15% 1 n¨m. GDP -íc tÝnh ®¹t kho¶ng 1000 ®« la. Vµo thêi ®iÓm ®ã tØ lÖ s¶n phÈm c«ng nghiÖp tæng sè GDP cña thµnh phè Hµ Néi sÏ ®¹t 40% t¨ng 7% so víi hiÖn t¹i. N¨m ngµnh c«ng nghiÖp ®· ®¹t ®-îc môc ®Ých trë thµnh ngµnh c«ng nghiÖp then chèt cña thµnh phè bao gåm: ngµnh s¶n xuÊt thiÕt bÞ ®iÖn, m¸y mãc, c¬ khÝ; ngµnh dÖt; chÕ biÕn thùc phÈm; ®iÖn tö; vËt liÖu x©y dùng. Trong 5 n¨m tíi Hµ Néi cÇn kho¶ng 9 tØ USD ®Ó ®Çu t- x©y dùng ph¸t triÓn nh÷ng khu c«ng nghiÖp míi, ®æi míi c¸c khu c«ng nghiÖp cñ, x©y dùng c¸c toµ nhµ lín ë trung t©m thµnh phè ®Ó lµm c¸c v¨n phßng ®¹i diÖn, khu th-¬ng m¹i, khu vui ch¬i gi¶i trÝ, Hµ Néi ®· cã kho¶ng 10 khu c«ng nghiÖp vµ 5 c¸i kh¸c ®ang ®-îc x©y dùng. NhiÒu khu c«ng nghiÖp hiÖn nay cÇn nh÷ng kho¶ng ®Çu t- theo chiÒu s©u ®Ó thay thÕ c¸c kÜ thuËt cñ, më réng x©y dùng nhiÒu nhµ m¸y h¬n n÷a.

103 Tuy nhiªn phã bÝ th- §¶ng uû thµnh phè Hµ Néi cÇn nh¾c nhë c¸c ®¹i biÓu r»ng cÇn ph¶i næ lùc h¬n n÷a ®Ó gi÷ v÷ng sù ph¸t triÓn theo h-íng ‘‘nÒn kinh tÕ thÞ tr-êng’’ theo ®Þnh h-íng x· héi chñ nghÜa. ¤ng cßn nãi ‘‘chÝnh quyÒn thµnh phè Hµ Néi ®· thÊt b¹i trong viÖc x©y dùng sù ®oµn kÕt c¸c quan hÖ s¶n xuÊt kinh doanh x· héi chñ nghÜa’’. Trong khi bé m¸y hµnh chÝnh c¸c cÊp cßn yÕu vµ ‘‘vai trß cña §¶ng trong c¸c tæ chøc kinh tÕ x· héi kh¸c nhau vÉn cßn h¹n chÕ’’. Nh÷ng tham vÊn cña «ng Tïng cßn ®-îc Tæng bÝ th- §æ M-êi còng cè thªm, «ng Tïng chØ ph¸t biÓu víi ®¹i héi r»ng: Bªn c¹nh nh÷ng thµnh c«ng ban ®Çu Hµ Néi cßn chó ý ®Õn viÖc ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ vµ x©y dùng nguån nh©n lùc. §ång chÝ nãi 6% nh©n d©n thµnh phè Hµ Néi thÊt nghiÖp lµ mét th¸ch thøc mµ thµnh phè cÇn ph¶i gi¶i quyÕt. Cã thÓ lµ b»ng c¸ch lËp nªn c¸c nhãm s¶n xuÊt ®Ó tõ ®ã h×nh thµnh c¸c c¬ së c«ng nghiÖp nhá vµ ph¸t triÓn c«ng nghiÖp dÞch vô. §ång chÝ phã bÝ th- Lª Xu©n Tïng nãi r»ng: trong giai ®o¹n 1991-1995 sè l-îng c¸c gia ®×nh giµu t¨ng lªn gÇn 19%. Sè hé nghÌo gi¶m xuèng chØ cßn kho¶ng 2%.

ASSIGNMENT 18:
Translate the following text into Vietnamese Lµm v-ên lµ mét nghÒ truyÒn thèng ë ViÖt Nam, nã xuÊt hiÖn ®ång thêi hay sím h¬n nghÒ trång lóa n-íc. Nh-ng VAC ( viÕt t¾t cña v-ên, ao, chuång) lµ mét m« h×nh kinh tÕ hiÖn ®¹i míi ®-îc ®-a vµo hoat ®éng c¸ch ®©y 10 n¨m. Ng-êi n-íc ngoµi ®Õn ViÖt Nam ®Ó nghiªn cøu m« h×nh VAC ë ®©y nãi r»ng: Tuy nã kh«ng cã hiÖu qu¶ cao trong viÖc thùc hiÖn qui m« s¶n xuÊt nh-ng lµ mét m« h×nh s¶n xuÊt ®ång bé mang l¹i lîi Ých kinh tÕ lÉn lîi Ých vÒ m«i tr-êng.Tõ nh÷ng ngµy ®Çu tiªn cña qu¸ tr×nh ho¹t ®éng, m« h×nh VAC lu«n g¾n chÆt vai trß cña m×nh trong sù ph¸t triÓn cña nÒn kinh tÕ quèc d©n. HiÖn n«ng ®ang hµng nói, nay VAC cã mÆt trªn kh¾p 53 tØnh víi h¬n 10 triÖu chñ hé sö dông m« h×nh nµy. Trong nh÷ng n¨m gÇn ®©y VAC ®· vµ ®-îc ph¸t triÓn trªn hÇu hÕt c¸c vïng kh¾p c¶ n-íc. Víi chôc ngµn hecta ®Êt canh t¸c ë c¸c tØnh Trung du vµ miÒn v-ên c©y ¨n qu¶ ®· më réng tõ 350,000 ®Õn 400,000 hecta

104 M« h×nh VAC ®-îc ¸p dông ®· trá thµnh nguån cung cÊp rau qu¶ chÝnh cho c¶ n-íc, ®ång thêi còng ®¸p øng cho nhu cÇu xuÊt khÈu..Theo FAO ( Tæ chøc L-¬ng N«ng ThÕ Giíi) th× s¶n l-îng rau qu¶ ViÖt Nam ®¹t xÊp xØ 4 triÖu tÊn mçi n¨m. S¶n l-îng rau qu¶ b×nh qu©n ®Çu ng-êi trªn thÕ giíi lµ 65 Ki l«, ch©u ¸-Th¸i B×nh D-¬ng lµ 31 kg vµ ViÖt nam lµ 61 kg. HiÖn nay VAC cã mét ý nghÜa quan träng trong viÖc xãa ®ãi gi¶m nghÌo ®èi víi c¸c n-íc chËm ph¸t triÓn, tæ chøc ho¹t ®éng t¹i chç ®Ó ng¨n ch¨n suy dinh d-ìng, t¹o dùng c¸c v-ên c©y hay ®ån ®iÒn trªn khu ®Êt trèng ®åi nói träc, t¹o ra sù ph¸t triÓn mét nÒn n«ng nghiÖp l©u dµi vµ æn ®Þnh.møc sèng cña c¸c hé n«ng d©n thùc hiÖn m« h×nh VAC ®· ®-îc c¶i thiÖn ®¸ng kÓ víi møc thu nhËp h»ng n¨m tõ ho¹t ®éng VAC ®¹t 60% tæng thu nhËp. Gi¸ trÞ s¶n phÈm VAC chiÕm 1/3 gi¸ trÞ tæng s¶n phÈm vµ sÏ t¨ng h¬n n÷a. MÆc dï m« h×nh VAC ®· ph¸t triÓn nhanh nh-ng nã ch-a ®-îc thùc hiÖn ®ång lo¹t th«n. NÕu tËp trung më réng th©m canh lo¹i c©y trång tren kh¾p c¶ n-íc, th× nam cã thÓ ®¹t ®-îc 8 triÖu tÊn mçi n¨m trong vßng 10 n¨m qua, ë tÊt c¶ c¸c vïng n«ng vµ chuyªn m«n hãa c¸c s¶n l-îng rau qu¶ ViÖt ë thÕ kû 21.

VAC nªn ®-îc xem nh- lµ mét ch-¬ng tr×nh n«ng nghiÖp quèc gia. NÕu VAC ®-îc khuyÕn khÝch ®Ó ph¸t huy hÕt mäi tiÒm n¨ng cña nã th× ch¾c ch¾n sÏ ®¹t ®-îc hiÖu qu¶ cao, gãp phÇn vµo viÖc ph¸t triÓn n-íc nhµ vµ gãp phÇn vµo viÖc b¶o vÖ m«i tr-êng.

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ASSIGNMENT 19:
Translate the following text into English Researchers said on Monday they had conclusive evidence an experimental AIDS treatment using plasma transfusions delays the onset of the disease in HIV positive patients and prolongs the lives of AIDS sufferers. DR. Abraham Karpas of the University of Cambridge's department of haematology said, however, that although Passive Immune Therapy (PIT) was "breakthrough" in treating AIDS and had no known side effects it should not be described as a cure. "It is definitely not a cure. There is no cure in sight, but it looks as if it is the best form of treatment," he said in his presentation to a London conference. Karpas said U.S. and French studies on PIT released at the conference confirmed his original research. "Their double - blind, placebo - controlled studies showed that this treatment benefits AIDS patients and prolonged their sure, survival,'' he stated in a telephone interview. He said the studies, conducted by the Hemacare Corporation of California and two Paris hospitals, also showed that PIT helped to delay the onset of full - blown AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) in people tested positive for HIV, the virus that causes the deadly disease. Under PIT, patients receive a monthly transfusion of half a litre of plasma taken from healthy HIV - positive individuals. The blood has the red and white cells removes and is free of HIV but has high levels of neutralising antibodies that kill the virus. Karpas said he first discovered in 1985 that people with HIV who were otherwise healthy had high levels of these antibodies in their blood while AIDS patients lost these neutralising antibodies and their ability to fight infections. Four patients in Cambridge were the first to receive the treatment and subsequently small scale trials were carried out in London in 1988 and 1989. But Karpras said he has failed to receive funding for his research in Britain and studies had therefore been set up in the US and France. The Hemancare trial studied the effect of PIT on 220 AIDS patients over 3 years. It found that in the first 12 months the mortality rate was greatly reduced in the group who received the plasma transfusion while those in the control group, where no treatment was given, had a death rate of five time higher. The treated group had one death in 21 people while the placebo group had six deaths in 30. Moreover, the number of AIDS - linked infections was far lower in the treated group and the blood donors themselves also appeared to benefit. The researchers said donating blood appeared to stimulate the production of neutralising antibodies in the blood of HIV - positive patients. The French studies produced similar results, Karpas said he said the U.S. and French studies represented the "first conclusive evidence that PIT is an effective AIDS treatment".

To make it worse.) Did we love our neighbours as ourselves? Did we cover our neighbour's goods? (I thought of the way I felt about the penny that Nora got every Friday. Now. all on account of that old woman. you'll have to go to confession." "Let me go!" I said. husky voice that he wanted to go to confession. Ryan that I was to go to confession myself on Saturday and be at the chapel for communion with the rest. and understood perfectly why the fellow in Mrs. But the worst of all was when she showed us how to examine our conscience. which I saw in the gaps between the houses like Adam's last glimpse of Paradise. and so far as I could see-. Then the priest knew it was a bad case. "Sure. "I don't want to go to confession at all. and just then the cock crew in the yard outside. He might have to send you up to the bishop. hoping my absence wouldn't be noticed. Jackie. being ashamed to mention it. only a smell of burning timber. Did we take the name of the Lord. in vain? Did we honour our father and our mother? (I asked her did this include grandmothers and she said it did. between one thing and another. the parish priest would be up to the house. . I must have broken the whole ten commandments. The priest was a bit frightened -naturally enough but he asked the fellow what he wanted." "But sure. if you didn't. my heart bleeds for you! How will you ever think of all your sins? Don't forget you have to tell him about the time you kicked Gran on the shin. and now it was always on his mind. God." she replied in the same regretful tone. that I'm not sorry for you. "Isn't it a terrible pity you weren't a good boy? Oh Jackie. and the sunlit hillsides beyond the valley of the river. trying to drag myself free of her. He got up to dress. I had no hope of ever doing anything else. our God. and the fellow said in a deep.. Do you remember the time you tried to kill me with the bread knife under the table? And the language you used to me? I don't know what he'll do with you at all. along comes a chap with a message from Mrs. just as I was feeling safe.) I decided that. and when the priest looked at his bed didn't he see the print of two hands burned in it! That was because the fellow had made a bad confession. Isn’t God knows. She held my hands as we went down the hill. looking for you. smiling sadly and saying how sorry she was for me. that girl had ways of tormenting me that Mother never knew of. Mother couldn't come with me and sent Nora instead. but the fellow said that last time he went to confession. and to and behold! When the priest looked round there was no sign of the fellow. it seemed to me a great shame that people wouldn't stop criticizing him. I remember that steep hill down to the church. there was one sin he kept back. Ryan's story made a bad confession." I remember thinking bitterly that she didn't know the half of what I had to tell .if I told it. because the fellow was after making a bad confession and committing a mortal sin. help us!" she moaned. This story made a shocking impression on me. but at three o'clock. I knew I couldn't tell it. The day the whole class went I let on to have a toothache. 9-n long ac. I was scared to death of confession. he remained in the house. as if she were bringing me to the hospital for an operation. The priest said it was an awkward time and wouldn't it do in the morning.106 ASSIGNMENT 20: Translate the following text into English Another day she said she knew a priest who woke one night to find a fellow he didn't recognize leaning over the end of his bed. "Oh. Jackie.

). Nh×n chung sau mét thêi gian ho¹t ®éng tr× trÖ. b¶o hiÓm x· héi chiÕm ®Õn 15% vµ b¶o hiÓm y tÕ lµ 2% trong tæng sè l-¬ng mµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp ph¶i ®ãng. C¸c c«ng nh©n lµm viÖc trong . Nora suddenly changed her tone.B¶o hiÓm x· héi: 10% ®èi víi doanh nghiÖp vµ 3% ®èi víi c«ng nh©n . the sunlight went out and gave place to deep shadow.nh©n cña Thµnh phè Hå ChÝ Minh ®· ®-îc kh«i phôc vµ ph¸t triÓn ë møc ®é nhÊt ®Þnh kÓ tõ n¨m 1991. The door with the coloured-glass panels swung shut behind me. nªn l-¬ng trung b×nh cña c«ng nh©n trong ngµnh may-thªu chØ kho¶ng 400. and the wind whistled outside so that the silence within seemed to crackle like ice under my feet. Víi sù c¹nh tranh gay g¾t hiÖn nay. She became the raging malicious devil she really was. hä kh«ng thÓ kiÓm so¸t ®-îc kÕ ho¹ch s¶n xuÊt. "There you are!" she said with a yelp of triumph. §Ó gióp c¸c doanh nghiÖp thªu-may t. nÒn c«ng nghiÖp dÖt thªu t. Nora sat in front of me by ASSIGNMENT 21: Translate the following text into Vietnamese 1.' I knew then I was lost.B¶o hiÓm y tÕ c«ng nh©n : 1% ®èi víi doanh nghiÖp vµ 1% ®èi víi Nhµ n-íc còng nªn ban hµnh mét qui ®Þnh cã liªn quan ®Õn ng-êi lao ®éng ®· ®-îc c¸c doanh nghiÖp tuyÓn dông vµ ®µo t¹o buéc ph¶i lµm viÖc tèi thiÓu lµ 2 n¨m. vµ gi¸ lao ®éng cho s¶n phÈm may mÆt bÞ c¸c ®èi t¸c n-íc ngoµi qui ®Þnh rÊt thÊp ( tiÒn c«ng lao ®éng n¨m 1995 chØ b»ng 65%-70% so víi c¸c n¨m 1991 vµ 1992.Do vËy. «ng Nam ®· ®Ò nghÞ nhµ n-íc nªn söa ®æi tû lÖ ®ãng gãp cña c¸c doanh nghiÖp ngoµi quèc doanh ®èi víi chÝnh s¸ch b¶o hiÓm x· héi nhsau: . hunting me through the church door.nh©n sèng cßn.nh©n ®Òu phô thuéc vµo ®¬n ®Æt hµng cña n-íc ngoµi. given up to eternal justice. th× gi¸ thµnh s¶n xuÊt sÏ rÊt cao g©y khã kh¨n cho c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt ViÖt Nam trong vieec c¹nh tranh cã hiÖu qu¶ vµ chiÕm lÜnh thÞ tr-êng. you dirty little baffler. when she had maneuvered me down the long flight of steps to the chapel yard.000 ®ång/th¸ng.Tuy nhiªn sù ph¸t triÓn kh«ng æn ®Þnh bëi v× hÇu hÕt c«ng viÖc cña c¸c xÝ nghiÖp t. vµ nÕu nh.kÕ ho¹ch dù kiÕn cña b¶o hiÓm x· héi ®-îc phª duyÖt.107 Then.Do tÝnh ®Æc thï cña ngµnh nµy." And I hope he'll give you the penitential psalins.

C¸c chñ doanh nghiÖp cña c¸c c«ng ty lín ë TP Hå ChÝ Minh ®· nªu ra nh÷ng khã kh¨n mµ hä ph¶i ®-¬ng ®Çu trong viÖc c¹nh tranh gay g¾t víi c¸c c«ng ty n-íc ngoµi. Mü phÈm P/S. Thø nhÊt.N-íc Ngoµi. n-íc gi¶i kh¸t Tribeco.n-íc ngoµi vÒ l·nh vùc kinh doanh vµ ph©n bè theo vïng ®Þa lý vµ kh«ng nªn khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu t. bét giÆt. C¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt bét giÆt trong n-íc. chÝnh s¸ch tiÕp thÞ vµ c¸c -u ®·i kh¸c theo luËt §Çu T. ®Æc biÖt lµ víi c¸c c«ng ty khæng lå thÕ giíi. dÖt ViÖt Th¾ng. C¸c s¶n phÈm kh¸c còng r¬i vµo hoµn c¶nh t-¬ng tù. nhµ n-íc nªn cã kÕ ho¹ch ph¸t triÓn dµnh riªng cho viÖc ®Çu t. c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt cña c¸c c«ng ty bét giÆt Tico vµ Lux. c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc ®· ®Ò nghÞ víi chÝnh phñ mét sè biÖn ph¸p.108 c¸c doanh nghiÖp ngoµi quèc doanh cÇn ph¶i ®-îc cÊp thÎ lµm viÖc. mÆc dï cã thÓ ®¸p øng nhu cÇu trong n-íc ®Õn n¨m 2000. nh-ng l¹i bÞ c¸c c«ng ty khæng lå nhProcter & Gamble vµ Unilever dån vµo thÕ bÝ. T¹i mét cuéc häp bµn vÒ : Lµm thÕ nµo ®Ó khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu tn-íc ngoµi vµ ®¶m b¶o s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc ®-îc tæ chøc t¹i TP Hå ChÝ minh tuÇn qua.c¸c doanh nghiÖp cã vèn ®Çu t.Coca-cola. viÖc cÊp giÊy phÐp nªn ®-îc ¸p dông cho c¸c c«ng ty liªn . Pep si. TÊt c¶ mäi thµnh viªn cña c¸c c«ng ty may-thªu ë Thµnh phè Hå ChÝ Minh ®Òu ®ång ý thùc hiÖn ®Çy ®ñ viÖc ®ãng gãp mét phÇn l-¬ng vµo b¶o hiÓm x· héi vµ y tÕ. giÊy vµ thuèc l¸. bia Sµi gßn vµ c«ng ty gia cÇm vËt nu«i TP Hå ChÝ Minh ®Òu thèng nhÊt mét ý kiÕn lµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc kh«ng c©n søc trong viÖc c¹nh tranh víi c¸c ®èi t¸c n-íc ngoµi v× hä kh«ng ®-îc h-ëng chÝnh s¸ch -u ®·i thuÕ nh. Thø hai. 2. nªn c¸c c«ng ty nµy ®· dÇn dÇn th©m nhËp thÞ phÇn cña c¸c nahf s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc. thÓ theo ®óng qui ®Þnh cña luËt lao ®éng.n-íc gi¶i kh¸t.n-íc ngoµi vµo viÖc s¶n xuÊt ra c¸c s¶n phÈm mµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc cã kh¶ n¨ng s¶n xuÊt ®-îc nh. ChØ 1 n¨m sau khi lÖnh cÊm vËn cña Mü ®-îc b·i bá.n-íc ngoµi. Bia Sµi Gßn ph¶i c¹nh tranh quyÕt liÖt víi c¸c c«ng ty bia liªn doanh víi n-íc ngoµi.Cola ®-îc h-ëng -u ®·i vÒ vèn. NÕu mét c«ng nh©n nµo ®ã muèn th«i viÖc th× ph¶i ®-îc doanh nghiÖp cñ qu¶n ®ång ý. §Ó b¶o vÖ viÖc s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc. c¸c c«ng ty n-íc gi¶i kh¸t khæng lå nh.

People with a lot of money have fewer children. and they will be working.nªn cã chÝnh s¸ch khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu t. So we can say that geography where people live .trong n-íc vµ cho c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc ®-îc h-ëng chÝnh s¸ch -u ®·i thuÕ nh. pensions. a large family is a way of planning and preparing for the future. ASSIGNMENT 22: Translate the following text into English Poor people often have larger families than middle class and upper class people.c¸c nhµ ®Çu t. nªn ph¸t ®éng mét chiÕn dÞch ®éng viªn ng-êi ViÖt Nam dïng hµng néi ®Þa. We could say that a large family is insurance for old age in some societies.109 doanh hay c¸c doanh nghiÖp cã 100% vèn ®Çu t. On the other hand. And people in underdeveloped countries have more children than people in developed countries. people in rural areas may live too far away from family planning services.plays a part in determining family size: Urban families are smaller than rural families. they don't receive information about ways to control family size. lµ nªn cã mét ®¹o luËt chèng ®èi viÖc c¹nh tranh kh«ng lµnh m¹nh cã thÓ dÉn ®éc quyÒn kinh doanh. Thø ba. For example. on a larger scale. In general. Why? Because they have to depend upon their children to take care of them in their old age. t¹o ®iÒu kiÖn cho c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc ph¸t triÓn. is an important factor in determining family size. Their children will be adults then. of nations. or government help. people in urban areas have much more information available to them than people living in rural areas.n-íc ngoµi. They can and will turn to their children. In some areas. Thø n¨m. ph¸ gi¸ lµm h¹i ng-êi tiªu dïng. and they have smaller families. For many poor people. government family planning services may not be available to poor people due to geographic location. When they grow old. poor people in underdeveloped countries choose to have many children. The children can all share the costs and other responsibilities of taking care of their parents.n-íc ngoµi tham gia vµo c¸c dù ¸n ®ßi hái cã nhiÒu vèn. They have no insurance. Thø t. where can they get help? The answer is simple. Therefore. More and more experts in population growth see the strong relationship between family size and economic development. What are the other reasons? Economic development of families and. ASSIGNMENT 23: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Hai c¬ quan l-¬ng thùc cña Liªn Hîp quèc ngµy h«m qua ®· cho r»ng Indonesia sÏ ®èi mÆt víi sù thiÕu hôt l-¬ng thùc trÇm . c«ng nghÖ cao hay s¶n xuÊt c¸c mÆt hµng xuÊt khÈu. Urban people have help with family planning.

S¶n l-îng n¨m nay chØ -íc ®¹t 47. ‘‘ ViÖt Nam hiÖn giê ®ang tÝch cùc chuÈn bÞ mäi ®iÒu kiÖn cÇn thiÕt ®Ó trë thµnh héi viªn chÝnh thøc cña ASEAN vµo n¨m tíi. B¶n b¸o c¸o chung cña hai tæ chøc cã v¨n phßng ®Æt t¹i Rome th× hai tæ chøc FAO vµ WFP thóc giôc c¸c n-íc tµi trî gióp Indonesia gi¶i quyÕt c¸c vÊn ®Ò liªn quan ®Õn h¹n h¸n vµ khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh.vËy víi c¸c doanh nh©n t¹i mét b÷a ¨n tr-a do DiÔn ®µn Kinh tÕ thÕ giíi (WEF) - .trªn thÕ giíi mµ nÒn kinh tÕ ®· bÞ tµn ph¸ cho r»ng :’’ Vµo kho¶ng 7. sè ng-êi thÊt nghiÖp ngµy cµng ®«ng lµm t¨ng thªm sè ng-êi sèng d-íi møc nghÌo ®ãi.5 triÖu tÊn. B¶n b¸o c¸o cho biÕt th¸ch thøc chÝnh mµ ®Êt n-íc nµy ®ang ®èi mÆt lµ b¶o ®¶m cung cÊp ®ñ l-¬ng thùc cho 7. Nhãm nµy ®· ®Õn Indonesia tõ ngµy 9 th¸ng 3 ®Õn 1 th¸ng 4 n¨m 1998.5 triÖu tÊn g¹o tõ th¸ng 4 ®Õn th¸ng 9. Sù tôt gi¶m nµy do mét trong nh÷ng ®ît h¹n h¸n nghiªm träng nhÊt ë Indonesia trong thÕ kû nµy g©y nªn. B¶n b¸o c¸o dùa trªn nh÷ng cø liÖu do mét nhãm c«ng t¸c gåm 11 thµnh viªn cña hai tæ chøc nµy. ViÖt Nam tuyªn bè lµ sÏ gia nhËp HiÖp Héi c¸c n-íc §«ng Nam ¸. Mét b¶n b¸o c¸o vÒ mét n-íc ®«ng d©n thø t. Kho¶n thiÕu hôt nµy sÏ ®-îc céng ®ång quèc tÕ gióp ®ì ®Ó nh»m cøu v·n nÒn kinh tÕ ®ang l©m vµo c¶nh khèn cïng.’’ Phã Thñ T-íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i ®· tuyªn bè nh. ASSIGNMENT 24: Translate the following text into Vietnamese H«m thø t-.6% so víi n¨m ngo¸i.5 triÖu ng-êi nghÌo ®ãi v× gi¸ g¹o vµ c¸c lo¹i l-¬ng thùc kh¸c t¨ng 50% trong vßng 12 th¸ng qua. Trong mét b¶n b¸o c¸o chung. thÊp h¬n 3. §ã lµ hËu qu¶ cña nh÷ng vô mïa thÊt thu vµ cña cuéc khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh ®· lµm t¨ng gi¸ nhËp khÈu. B¶n b¸o c¸o cßn cho biÕt mÆc dï chÝnh phñ Indonesia dù ®Þnh nhËp khÈu 1. nh»m xua ®i pháng ®o¸n lµ Hµ Néi muèn lÇn l÷a viÖc trë thµnh héi viªn chÝnh thøc cho ®Õn khi chuÈn bÞ tèt mäi ®iÒu kiÖn. nh-ng n-íc nµy vÉn cßn thiÕu 2 triÖu tÊn n÷a.5 triÖu ng-êi Indonesia nghÌo khæ ë 15 tØnh cã thÓ ph¶i sèng thiÕu ¨n trong mïa kh«’’.110 träng trong n¨m nay. nguån l-¬ng thùc chÝnh cña ®Êt n-íc. B¶n b¸o c¸o nãi thªm r»ng gi¸ l-¬ng thùc ngµy cµng t¨ng cao. tæ chøc L-¬ng N«ng thÕ giíi (FAO) vµ Ch-¬ng Tr×nh L-¬ng Thùc ThÕ Giíi (WFP) cho r»ng viÖc gióp ®ì cña thÕ giíi lµ cÇn thiÕt ®Ó gi¶i quyÕt viÖc thiÕu hôt g¹o t¹m thêi.

111 trô së ®Æt t¹i Thôy SÜ.v¨n phßng ®Æt t¹i JaKarta. Canada. Phã Thñ t-íng nãi: ‘‘ Chóng t«i hiÓu ®-îc lµ ViÖt Nam ®ang ®èi phã víi nh÷ng thö th¸ch lín lao cña sù c¹nh tranh kinh tÕ toµn cÇu vµ nh. ®· cã nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh víi nhiÒu hoµi b¶o vÒ sù hîp t¸c.Brun©y. NhËt vµ Trung Quèc. Th¸i Lan. Th«ng tÊn x· Antara ®· trÝch dÉn lêi tuyªn bè cña «ng. WEF lµ c¬ quan ®øng ra duy tr× cuéc häp kÐo dµi 3 ngµy ë ®©y.tæ chøc. C¸c viªn chøc ASEAN còng ®· hy väng lµ ViÖt Nam cã lÏ sÏ gia nhËp A SEAN tr-íc khi c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o cña 6 quèc gia thµnh viªn tham dù cuéc häp th-îng ®Ønh tæ chøc t¹i Th¸i Lan vµo th¸ng 12 n¨m 1995.thÕ chóng t«i ph¶i cè g¾ng thËt tÝch cùc ®Ó g¹t bá ®i mèi nguy c¬ tôt hËu ®»ng sau c¸c n-íc l¸ng giÒng. bao gåm c¶ viÖc ph¸t ®éng khu vùc tù do mËu dÞch A SEAN trong vßng 10 n¨m. ’’ Phã Thñ t-íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i cho biÕt chÝnh phñ cña «ng sÏ ®Èy m¹nh c¸c næ lùc b»ng nh÷ng viÖc c¶i c¸ch ®Ó hoµn thiÖn c¸c ®iÒu kiÖn cho sù ®Çu t. Mét khi chóng t«i lµ héi viªn th× chóng t«i sÏ tu©n theo mäi qui ®Þnh. A SEAN.n-íc ngoµi qua sù h×nh thµnh mét c¬ cÊu luËt ph¸p míi vµ c¸c thñ tôc hµnh ch¸nh thÝch hîp h¬n. Phillipine. ®· ph¸t biÓu r»ng «ng kh«ng muèn cã mét trë ng¹i nµo trong qu¸ tr×nh gia nhËp A SEAN. C¸c thµnh viªn APEC bao gåm c¸c quèc gia thuéc Indonesia. Xingapore vµ c¸c n-íc Mü. Phã Thñ T-íng nãi thªm r»ng Hµ Néi sÏ lµm viÖc víi c¸c n-íc kh¸c t¹i §ong Nam ¸ ®Ó b¶o ®¶m nÒn an ninh khu vùc. Malaisia.’’ ASSIGNMENT 25: Translate the following texts into English . T¹i Jakarta.cïng cuéc häp kh«ng giaAPEC sÏ ®-îc ViÖt nam ®· ®¹t ®-îc kÕt qu¶ lµ trë thµnh quan s¸t viªn ASEAN trong cuéc héi nghÞ cña khèi nµy vµo n¨m 1992. Thø tr-ëng ngo¹i giao ViÖt Nam Vò Khoan nãi r»ng n-íc «ng sÏ ®Ö ®¬n xin trë thµnh héi viªn A SEAN vßa cuèi th¸ng nµy hay ®Çu th¸ng 11. khi cã ®ñ ®iÒu kiÖn. ‘‘ §· s½n cã nh÷ng qui ®Þnh vÒ viÖc hîp t¸c trong khèi A SEAN.ký A SEAN. Phã Thñ T-íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i cho biÕt ViÖt Nam còng muèn tham gia vµo DiÔn §µn Hîp T¸c Kinh TÕ Ch©u ¸. Mét chÝnh thøc cña c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o c¸c n-íc tham tæ chøc t¹i Indonesia vµo th¸ng tíi.Th¸i B×nh D-¬ng ( APEC) víi 17 thµnh viªn. Thø tr-ëng Vò Khoan. sau khi gÆp «ng A Jit Singh Tæng th. ®· tuyªn bè lµ thiÕt tha mong muèn trë thµnh héi viªn chÝnh thøc cña tæ chøc nµy.

financial and commercial situations.the Mekong Delta. soft drink giants such as Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola. marketing policies and preferences under the Foreign Investment Law. paper and cigarettes. Other products are also in the same situation. In manufacturing and service activities the rapid growth and change occurred in and around HCM City. detergent. Much economic expansion was partially driven by an influx of investment and technology from some 2 million overseas Vietnamese in many different countries worldwide. It offers the marvel of the glittering waters coupled with the gaiety of a culture demonstrated by the local lifestyle and commercial activities. most of whom had returned to Vietnam for their investment and contacts with their relatives. For tourists. Government controls on imports promoted the development of light industries that produced consumer goods for the domestic market. 3. Its modern facilities and duty-free economic zone have attracted new export-focused industries and foreign investment 2. Businesses receive tax exemptions and other incentives in these zones. is now a huge industrial-commercial zone in Manila. The silt from the Mekong River helps to bring an ample granary representing the whole country source of food as well as the local inhabitants’ riverside lifestyle. . The success of these zones has led to the creation of other types of special economic zones. a law should be enacted against unfair competition that can lead to monopoly. although capable of meeting domestic demand to the year 2005. Saigon Beer has to compete fiercely with breweries of foreign Joint-ventures. Second. develop economic and diplomatic establishment in recent years. the Mekong Delta is one of the most fascinating tourist destinations in South-east Asia. Only a year after the US embargo was lifted. The former U. The manufacturing sector expanded significantly during the post-World War II reconstruction of the Philippine economy. The positive legal changes have had a tremendous influence on the production. in part because they are exempt from certain taxes and restrictions on foreign ownership of businesses. local producers have proposed several measures to the Government. First. dumping or price inflation that does not benefit consumers. 4. The big cities such as Can Tho. Local detergent producers. To protect domestic production. the State should devise specific development plans for foreign investment in terms of business field and geographical area and should not encourage foreign investment in products which local enterprises can produce such as soft drink. such as large industrial estates. naval base at Subic Bay.S. have driven into the corner by giants such as Procter & Gamble and Unilever. advanced technology or producing goods for export. which have enjoyed superior advantages in capital. Vietnam has sought to maintain socio-politic stability. In Vietnamese the word “nuoc” carry a double meaning of “country” and “water”. a linguistic association recognizable after a journey to the most fertile land in Vietnam. licenses should be granted only to JVs or foreign-owned enterprises which involve in projects requiring large capital. Industries in these export-processing zones receive incentives to produce traditional exports. In the 1970s the government created four special economic zones designed to stimulate manufacturing for the export market. have gradually eaten into the market shares of local producers.112 1. Third. The zones have helped to stimulate foreign investment in the Philippine economy. Vietnam ranked as the world’s secondlargest rice exporter to Thailand because its agriculture responded dramatically to free market. for example.

though) on the National Highway Number 1 to get to My Tho.113 My Tho and Long Xuyen provide a vantage for the nine provinces of the Mekong Delta while the immense network of rivers and canals is regarded as the great boon second to none in this region. It takes only a three-hour drive( by bus. the capital of Tien giang & an ideal departure point for exploring this delta region. it does not suggest any difficulty in reaching the Mekong Delta to escape the excitement of the greatest city in Southern Vietnam. . However. The exciting life in this region is not very similar to that in HCM City.

UK. Syntactic Translation.114 REFERENCES Bolinger. Dwight. Semantics. UK. Rose. Catford. UK. Halliday. Cultural Equivalences in Translation. Mouton. Reyburn. Longmans. Oxford University Press. Marilyn. USA Palmer. Prentice Hall International. 1976. London. Cohesion in English. 1975. London. 1998. UK.C. USA Steiner. 1981.A. A Textbook of Translation. Oxford University Press. D. Aspects of Language and Translation. J. Oxford University Press.R. Newmark. USA. Longman. 1985. UK. London. 1982. New York. Maryland. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. London. Cambridge University Press. Peter. London. F. Meaning and Form. 1977. 1989. State University of NY Press.University Press of America. Wayne. London. 1979. Tosh. Hertfordside. Mildred L.K. 1985. Translation Spectrum. Larson. M. The Hague. G. UK. Meaning-based Translation. USA .

By the end of the course. June 24th. This is an introductory unit. Ton Nu Nhu Huong for her encouragement. 2. The desire of the author is to make available the principles of translation which have learned through personal experience in translation and teaching translation. The material is presented in a way that it can be used in a self-teaching situation or in a classroom. to help the learners avoid some errors they may encounter when they translate a text. This unit has been written with these courses in mind. every effort is made to clarify the meaning of such vocabulary or to provide its meaning in Vietnamese. 2001 . many of these exercises involve translating from or into their mother tongue. get familiar with and effectively use the English sentence patterns in their translations. An attempt has been made to keep technical terms to a minimum. however. This has been done so that the unit can be used by any student translator. I would also like to be grateful to Dr. The lessons give an overview presenting the fundamental principles of translation and the rest of the unit illustrates these principles. The unit is designed to provide the learners with some basic principles of translation which will be generally useful to translation courses in universities and colleges. Therefore. there will be a coursebook and 20 assignments. When technical vocabulary is used. the students will be able to: 1. obtain general knowledge of the principles of translation . Tran Van Phuoc and other colleagues of the College of Foreign Languages and the English Department for their kind help. Since it is assumed that the students will be speakers of Vietnamese language. Many examples of cross-language equivalence are used to illustrate this principle. Hue. the textbooks available for such courses are few. I appreciate and welcome any criticism on the course book. to provide the learners with essential English sentence patterns that could be very useful for the learners in learning and practicing translating and to provide the learners 20 assignments related to the theory they have learned. even though his exposure to linguistic and translation theory has been minimal. Once the learner has identified the meaning of the source text. On the completion of this coursebook. Since the coursebook has been written for the students to learn either by themselves in their distant learning course or in class with a teacher. and through interaction with colleagues involved in translation projects in many universities in Central Vietnam. I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr.1 INTRODUCTION An increasing number of universities in Vietnam have added courses in translation to their curricula. Errors are unavoidable in this coursebook. his goal is to express that same meaning in the receptor/target language. The overriding principle is that translation is meaning-based rather than form-based.

2 Nguyen Van Tuan .

persuading. the contrasting forms convey meanings which cannot but fail to coincide totally. flattering. Bell). Why? orients us towards the intention of the sender.) and at different ranks (word-for-word.3 CHAPTER 1: LESSON 1: 1. the content of the signal. Something is always „lost‟ (or might one suggest „gain‟?) in the process and translators can find themselves being accused of reproducing only part of the original and so „betraying‟ the author‟s intentions. The author continues and makes the problems of equivalence very plain: Texts in different languages can be equivalent in different degrees (fully or partially different). they are different in form having different codes and rules regulating the construction of grammatical stretches of language and these forms have different meanings. . However.1. Their names were What? And Why? And When? And How? And Where? And Who? What? is the message contained in the text. Hence the traitorous nature ascribed to the translator by the notorious Italian proverb: “ Traduttore traditore”. in respect of different levels of presentation (in respect of context. of grammar. Also. etc. of lexis. sentencefor-sentence). the first verse of a short poem by Kipling. (Informing. 1. of semantics. (By Roger T. contemporary or set in the recent or remote past or future. I keep six honest serving men. to change the forms. phrase-for-phrase. Translation is the replacement of a representation of a text in one language by a representation of an equivalent text in a second language.What is translation? THEORY OF TRANSLATION FORM AND MEANING 1. Translation is the expression in another language (target language) of what has been expressed in one language (source language). etc. by definition. its place in time and space and information about the participants involved in its production and reception. why should anyone be surprised to discover a lack synonym between languages. (By Roger T. the purpose for which the text was is used. there is no absolute synonym between words in the same language. we are able to work out not only the meaning of each word and sentence but also its communicative value. (They taught me all I knew). To shift from one language to another is. languages are different from each other. We might take. Faced by a text in a language.) When? is concerned with the time of communication realized in the text and setting in its historical context. preserving semantic and stylistic equivalencies.2. Bell). as a light-hearted model of the questions we can ask of the text.

It is the structural part of language which is actually seen in print or heard in speech. In translation the form of the source language is replaced by the form of the receptor/target language. Assume that we are translating the Vietnamese sentence ‘‘ C¸m ¬n b¹n ®· gióp ®ì t«i tËn t×nh. Translation. etc. Who? refers to the participants involved in the communication. This is done by going from the form of the first language to the form of the second language by a way of semantic structure. They render written texts from one language into another language. (By Bui Tien Bao. The forms are referred to as the surface structure of a language. The form from which the translation is made will be called the source language and the form into which it is to be changed will be called the receptor language. sentences. grammatical structure. It is the purpose of this unit to familiarize the learners with the basic linguistic and sociolinguistic factors involved in translating a text from a source language into a receptor language.3. phrases.’’ into English. To do effective translation one must discover the meaning of the source language and use the receptor language forms which express the meaning in a natural way. business contracts and legal documents. consists of studying the lexicon. Let us look at an example.Hanoi National University) “ Translators are concerned with written texts. Translation is basically a change of form. Translation is rendering a written text into another language in a way that the author intended the text. How? refers to whether the text is written in a formal or informal way.4.4 Where? is concerned with the place of communication. It is meaning that is being transferred and must be held constant. the sender and receiver. 1974). grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context. and to give them enough practice in the translation process for the development of skills in cross-language transfer. (The Merriam-Webster Dictionary. then. consists of changing from one state or form to another. Only the form changes. When we speak of the form of a language. 1. paragraphs. This Vietnamese sentence has the verb ‘gióp ®ì tËn t×nh’. and then reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon. 1. Translation. by dictionary definition. But how is this change accomplished? What determines the choices of form in the translation? The purpose of this lesson is to show that translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. but to convey the same meaning in English one would use a noun phrase: „ your kind help‟.” (Bui Tien BaoHanoi National University). we are referring to the actual words. to turn into one‟s own or another‟s language. analyzing it in order to determine its meaning. . Translators are required to translate texts which arrange from simple items including birth certificates or driving licences to more complex written materials such as articles in journals of various kinds. communication situation. the physical location of the speech event realized in the text. and cultural context of the source language text.

adult and male in „ ram‟ and adult and female in „ewe‟. for example the English -s. Most words have more than one meaning. a projector was called the thing that shows pictures on the wall by the Chipara Bolivia.‟ Only the larger context determines the meaning. In Peru. In most languages there is a meaning of plurality. Third. In Vietnamese.‟ ram‟ and „ewe‟ also include the meaning „sheep‟. Characteristics of language which affect translation There are certain characteristics of languages which have a very direct bearing on principles of translation. First. Notice the following possessive phrases and the variety of meanings: my car my brother my foot my singing my book my village my train ownership kinship part-whole action ownership or authorship ( the book I own. In English. the words „lamb‟. the English possessive phrase „my house‟ may mean „the house I built‟. using „run‟ in its primary meaning. and his nose runs‟. However. This often occurs in the grammar as a suffix on the nouns or verbs or both. Second. we can say „ the boy runs‟. the Reader‟s Digest Great Encyclopedic Dictionary gives 54 meanings for the English word „run‟. For example. the word „sheep‟ occurs. using runs in its secondary meanings. but they are packaged differently in one language than in another. We can also say „ the motor runs. Meaning components are packaged into lexical items.5 2. „the house I live in‟. or. They include the addition meaning components of young (in „lamb‟. plurality is expressed in an isolated word ‘ nh‚ng/c¸c’. it is further characteristic of language that one form will be used to represent several alternative meanings. let us look at the characteristics of meaning components. This again is obvious from looking in any good dictionary. For example. the book I wrote) residence ( the village where I live) use . which a word has in context with other words. however. Many times a single word in the source language will need to be translated by several words. There will be a primary meaning-the one which usually comes to mind when the word is said in isolation-and the secondary meaningthe additional meanings. the river runs. it is characteristic of languages that the same meaning component will occur in several surface structure lexical items. „ the house I rent‟. In English. For instance. This principle is not limited to lexical items for it is also true that the same grammatical pattern may express several quite different meanings. „lamb‟ would need to be translated by „sheep its child‟. „ram‟ by „ sheep big‟ and „ewe‟ by „sheep its woman‟. or the house for which I drew up in my plans.

” Just as words have primary and secondary meanings. John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch trªn sµn John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch viÕt vÒ John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch vµo John t×m thÊy cuèn s¸ch Compare also the following uses of ‘ by’ John was stopped by the policeman. m«n to¸n. by is used to signal the meaning that the policeman is the agent of the action.” May mean either “He made (as a carpenter would make) the bed”. but it is often used with the meaning of command rather than a real question. and pillows in neat order on the bed. by is used to signal that the bookstand is the location. A simple English sentence like “ He made the bed. Others blamed the difficulty on John. thø Ba. For example. nhµ. so grammatical markers have their primary function and often have other secondary functions. For example. . or “ He put the sheets. The preposition „on‟ is used in English to signal a variety of meanings. John found the book on mathematics. John found the book on Tuesday. the meaning “ the cat is black” may be expressed by the following: the cat is black. the black cat. In the first. Others blamed John for the difficulty. blanket. A question form may be used for a nonquestion. the question: “ Mary. ®ang bµy b¸n. and may in some context be asking for information. the meaning is essentially the same in the following English sentences: Others blamed John because of the difficulty. the cat. another characteristic of languages is that a single meaning may be expressed in a variety of forms. John was stopped by the bookstand. In the second. We have seen that one form may express many meanings. John found the book on sale. which is black. Others said John was responsible for the difficulty. and. Compare the following uses of „on‟ with the corresponding form used in Vietnamese. John found the book on the floor. On the other hand. In addition. why don‟t you wash the dishes?” has a form of a question. the meanings of “ Is this place taken?” “Is there anyone sitting here?” and “ May I sit here?” are essentially the same.6 (the train I ride on) Whole sentences may also have several functions. depending on how that meaning relates to other meanings. Also.

not form is retained. A word-for-word translation which follows closely the form of the source language is called a literal translation.‟) literally into Mambila in Nigeria would be understood to mean. or give a wrong meaning in the receptor language. “ he is frightened. His heart is cold (meaning „he is unfeeling. then all lexical items and all grammatical forms would have only one meaning and a literal word-for-word and grammatical structure-for. and may even be quite meaningless. The other meanings are secondary meanings or figurative meanings. not the linguistic forms.7 Others accused John of being responsible for the difficulty. has no emotional sympathy. It is meaning that is to be carried over from the source language to the receptor language. therefore. have priority over form in translation.e. One day the things he walks in a plantation or in them the coastlands. It is unnatural and hard to understand. not quick-tempered. not known where the his or the he comes where. If there were no skewing. to translate the English sentence “ he is cold hearted” i. But the fact is that a language is a complex set of skewed relationship between meaning (semantics) and form (lexicon and grammar). It can hardly be called a translation.” The nature of language is that each language uses different forms and these forms have secondary and figurative meanings which add further complications. Words have these extended meanings and in the same way grammatical forms have extended usages (secondary and figurative function).grammatical structure translation would be possible. that is one which has the same meaning as the source language but is expressed in the natural form of the receptor language. it would mean. Each language has its own distinctive forms for representing the meaning. Therefore. The following is a literal translation of a story first told in the Quiche language of Guatemala: “It is said that being one man not from here. For example.” And if translated literally into Cinyanja in Zambia. He took the necklace this he threw in his mouth for its cause that coming the one person another to his behind ness. This characteristic of “skewing”. Only when a form being used in its primary meaning or function is there a one-to-one correlation between form and meaning. To translate the form of one language literally according to the corresponding form in another language would often change the meaning or at least result in a form which is unnatural in the second language. “ he is peaceful. The goal of a translator should be to produce a receptor language text (a translation) which is idiomatic. We have seen that even within a single language there are a great variety of ways in which form expresses meaning. The meaning. Meaning must. A literal translation does not communicate the meaning of the source text. or he thought that a little necklace the very pretty thrown on the ground in the road. he saw his appearance one little necklace. the diversity or the lack of one-to-one correlation between form and meaning is the basic reason that translation is a complicated task. that is. in translation the same meaning may have to be expressed in another language by a very different form. for his that not he encounters the one the following this way in his behindness not he knows and that the necklace the he threw in his mouth this one . It is generally no more than a string of words intended to help someone read a text in its original language.

who one day was walking in a plantation (or in the coastlands). He saw a little necklace.” Anything which can be said in one language can be said in another. He snatched up this necklace and threw this into his mouth because there was another person walking behind him and he did not want him to see the necklace. Since a meaning expressed by a particular form in one language may be expressed by quite a different form in another language. He died because he did not realize that it was a snake. lying on the road. The man died immediately. The goal of the translator is to keep the meaning constant. In the second translation. As he walked along he suddenly saw a very pretty little necklace lying on the road. He did not know that the necklace he threw into his mouth was really a snake.” Now compare the above with the following less literal translation of the same story: “ It is said that there once was a man not from here. Wherever necessary. the receptor language form should be changed in order that the source language meaning should not be distorted. The man died in short order because he did not recognize from its appearance that it was a snake.” In the first. He did not know he put a snake into his mouth rather than a necklace. or rather. The result was nonsense. “I am told that there once was a stranger from some other town who was walking in a plantation along the coast. and I do not know his town or where he came from. each quiche word was replaced by the nearest English equivalent. 3. He grabbed this necklace and threw this into his mouth because there was someone coming along behind him. Notes Form-based translation: Meaning-based translation: chuyÓn t¶i Source language: Receptor language: Context: Principle of translation: Meaning component: dÞch dùa vµo h×nh thøc hay cÊu tróc dÞch dùa vµo nghÜa.8 snake and the man this one died right now because not he knows his appearance the snake or that the he ate this not this a necklace only probably this snake. He did not know that what he had put in his mouth was not a necklace. dùa vµo néi dung cÇn ng«n ng÷ gèc ng«n ng÷ dÞch v¨n c¶nh/ ng÷ c¶nh nguyªn t¾c dÞch/kü thuËt dÞch thµnh tè nghÜa . and he did not want the other person to see it. but rather a snake. it is often necessary to change the form when translating. the natural forms of English lexicon and grammar were used to express the meaning of the Quiche story. The stranger did not know that the necklace was really a snake. what he thought was a very pretty little necklace. Below the story is again rewritten in a more idiomatic English style. It is possible to translate.

What is translation? What definition do you think is the most appropriate? Can you give your own definition of translation? 2. Some of the following pairs of sentences differ in their form. 3. Self-study 4. . He heard the cat. 6. Indicate if the primary change is in the form or in the meaning. each of which contains a word used in a secondary sense. 4. Example: They robbed the old man. Some differ in meaning.2 Exercises A. The old man was dropped by them. I bought a pair of horseshoes. I bought a pair of leather shoes.1 Questions for discussion 1. The students like studying translation. The students like to study translation. What is an idiomatic translation? Give some examples of idiomatic translations. Identify change of meaning versus change of form. What is the primary meaning? Give ten sentences. 2. What is a literal translation? Can you give some examples of literal translations? 3. Answer: Change of form 1.9 Lexical: Surface structure: Deep structure: Meaning/ sense: Primary meaning: Secondary meaning: Literal translation: One-to-one correlation: Figurative meaning: Function: Idiomatic translation: (thuéc vÒ) tõ vùng cÊu tróc bÒ mÆt cÊu tróc s©u/cÊu tróc ng÷ nghÜa nghÜa nghÜa chÝnh/nghÜa gèc nghÜa ph¸i sinh dÞch tõng tõ mét quan hÖ mét ®èi mét nghÜa bãng chøc n¨ng dÞch ®óng. What characteristics of language affect translation? 5. dÞch s¸t nghi· 4. What are the secondary meanings? Give ten sentences. He saw the bird. each of which contains a word used in a primary sense. 4.

5. With the change of lexical items.the man owns the car The man‟s eye . saw. the doctor‟s brother . the doctor‟s office 2.10 4. I came. Two weeks later he came. the doctor‟s book 4. Go to bed. Then put the same meaning into a language other than English in as many forms as you can. which is black 1. A thunderclap awakened him. a hot day 4. Phillip took a walk. The young man had an English grammar book stolen. There is a table in the book. there is a change of meaning which is signaled by that lexical item. What meaning is signaled in each of the following possessive phrases? Answer by restating. and conquered. apart from the referential meaning of the word itself. An English grammar book was stolen from the young man. 6. List as many grammatical forms as you can which realize the same meaning as the one given below. I conquered. All of the following have the same grammatical form. mother‟s long blue dress 5. I came. the jug water 2. Phillip went walking. He was awaken by a thunderclap. Example: the cat is black the black cat the cat. Peter‟s house C. B. 9. 7. There is a book on the table.the eye is part of the man 1. How can that meaning best be expressed in another language which you speak? Example: The man‟s car . the doctor‟s patient 3. I saw. 10. 8. I want you to go to bed. After two weeks he came. John bought a car 3.

(a) John is ill: he has a bad case of malaria. (b) The news very much amazed John when he heard it. (b) There is a table on the book. the doctor‟s hand 6. (b) I bought a new dress for Mary. 5. 2. (a) I bought cloth to make Mary a new dress. Example: (a) It rained all night. the same in meaning or 2. LESSON 2: KINDS OF TRANSLATION 1. 7. 6. (b) My mother and father are well. (a) My parents are well. Others do not agree. (b) Opinions are divided concerning the government. (b) The house has four rooms and a kitchen at the back. (a) John was very surprised when he heard the news. different in meaning. the doctor‟s house D. 9. (a) There is a book on the table. (b) He did not say anything. Some say they are doing well and making many improvements in the country. 3. (b) The day was hot. But there are many people who do not agree that this is so. 1. 8. (b) John is very ill indeed. (a) Peter‟s house (b) The house that belongs to Peter 4. state whether the two sentences are 1. (a) He remained silent. (a) There are four rooms in the house. 10. the government is doing well and making many improvements in the country. (a) I bought vegetables in the market. Literal versus idiomatic . For each pair of sentences. (a) In my opinion.11 5. (b) Rain fell all night. (a) It was a hot day. (b) I bought tomatoes and onions in the market.

Except for interlinear translation. The following bilingual announcement was overheard at an airport ( Barnwell 1980:18) Literal English: Madame Odette passenger with destination Domda is demanded on the telephone. However. Occasionally. as discussed in the previous lesson. the result still does not sound natural. One is form-based and the other is meaning-based. since the general grammatical form may be similar. For some purposes. as for example. This English version is a literal translation of the French. a truly literal translation is uncommon. est demandeÐ au telefon. the lexical items are translated literally. An idiomatic translation into English would be: Miss Odette. Form-based translations attempt to follow the form of the source language and are known as literal translation. I my heart fastened-her.12 Because a given text has both form and meaning. Meaning-based translations make every effort to communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language. However. Although these literal translations may be very useful for purposes related to the study of the source language. passenger for Domda. they are of little help to speakers of the receptor language who are interested in the meaning of the source language text. However. there are two main kinds of translation. You are wanted on the phone. passager µ destination de Domda. The appropriate translation would be: Would you like to come to my home? If the two languages are related. French: Madame Odette. They modify the order and grammar enough to use acceptable sentence structure in the receptor language. A literal translation sounds like nonsense and has little communication value. Most translators who tend to translate literally actually make a partially modified literal translation. the literal translation can often be understood. it is desirable to reproduce the linguistic features of the source text. This literal translation makes little sense in English. (literal) (modified literal) I fastened her in my heart. For example: Vietnamese: Literal translation: Mêi b¹n vÒ nhµ t«i ch¬i Invite friend about house me play. . in a linguistic study of that language. the literal choice of lexical items may the translation sounds foreign. An interlinear translation is a completely literal translation. these are also changed to avoid complete nonsense or to improve the communication. Notice the following example from a language in Papua New Guinea: Ro abombo ngusifu pamariboyandi. Such translations are called idiomatic translations.

but the unnaturalness still remains. Literal translations of words. “ Huong Giang Hotel has been recommended to us by a number of foreign tourists. In a modified literal translation. translations are often a mixture of a literal transfer of the grammatical units along with some idiomatic translation of the meaning of the text. a good translator will try to translate idiomatically. It is not easy to consistently translate. i. verbs. ‘‘ Cã mét sù ®ång ý chung r»ng chÝnh phñ ®· dµnh nhiÒu sù -u tiªn cho gi¸o dôc’’. lexical items being translated. It sounds like it was written originally in the receptor language.e. This is his goal. ‘‘ NhiÒu du kh¸ch n-íc ngoµi ®· giíi thiÖu cho chóng t«i vÒ kh¸ch s¹n H-¬ng Giang. The basic overriding principle is that an idiomatic translation reproduces the meaning of the source language in the natural form of the receptor language. For example.13 The modified literal translation changes the order into English structure. the translator usually adjusts the translation enough to avoid the nonsense and wrong meanings. Literal and modified literal translations consistently err in that they choose literal equivalents for the words.” It would have been translated idiomatically. 2. This would .” It was translated. It will not always be possible to translate a source language noun with a noun in the receptor language. both in the grammatical constructions and in the choice of lexical items.” Or “ I‟ve kept her memory in my heart. In one translation. Each language has its own division of the lexicon into classes such as nouns. A truly idiomatic translation does not sound like a translation. Therefore. the source text said. the sentence still does not communicate in clear English. the source text said. he will follow the form of the source text even though a different form might be more natural in the receptor language. and sometimes nonsensical translations. “ There is a general agreement that the government has given top priority to education. However. However. However.” A person who translates in a modified literal manner will change the grammatical forms when the constructions are obligatory.” The translator‟s goal should be to reproduce in a receptor language a text which communicates the same message as the source language but using the natural grammatical and lexical choices of the receptor language. An idiomatic translation would have used the form: “ I never forgot her. adjectives and so on. Different languages will have different classes and subclasses. idioms result in unclear. In one translation. “ Many foreign tourists have introduced us about Huong Giang Hotel. if he has a choice. Idiomatic translations use the natural forms of the receptor language. A translator may express some parts of his translation in very natural forms and then in other parts fall back into a literal form.’’ It was translated. Translating grammatical features Parts of speech are language specific. English has many nouns which really refer to actions while Vietnamese prefers to express actions as verbs rather than nouns. unnatural.

The nurse say to the sick child. dual and plural person even though the source language does not make this three-way distinction. In English. When verbs are used.” Such sentences are very difficult for translators who want to translate into the native language of the country. “The government wants to decrease the work it does for businesses and what it plans and the money it spends in the capital. In translating these pronouns into another language. quietly to our we‟ll walk places. An idiomatic translation was made which used verbs as in the following. trade would have to be rendered by verbs in most languages. with emphasis on agricultural development. a translator in Papua New Guinea was asked to translate the Eight Point Improvement Plan for Papua New Guinea. ‘‘Ai còng ®ång ý r»ng chÝnh phñ ®· dµnh nhiÒu -u tiªn cho gi¸o dôc. if one is translating into Kiowa (USA). activity. The translator would need to look for the natural way to communicate second person and the feeling of empathy carried by the source language. “We‟re not going to shout. then. planning. The reason for the use of we is to show empathy and understanding. “Decentralization of economic activity. Grammatical constructions also vary between the source language and the receptor language. One point reads. the first plural pronoun we is often used when the real meaning is second person you. government spending.” Most languages have a class of words which may be called pronouns. a literal translation with first person plural would probably distort the meaning. For example.” Clearly .’’ Similarly. the pronouns do not refer to the nurse or the teacher but to the children whom she is addressing you. emphasis development. The following simple sentences from Vietnamese is given with a literal English translations: ChÞ sèng ë ®©u? You live where ? . Or if a translator is translating into Balinese. must be made in order to communicate the message. the pronouns will have to indicate a different between singular. Words such as Decentralization.” Or the teacher says. “ It‟s time for us to take our medicine now. the appropriate subject and object of the verb may need to be made explicit also. may be completely reserved. for example. planning and government spending. Pronominal systems vary greatly from language to language and the translator is obliged to use the form of the receptor language even though they may have very different meanings than the pronouns of the source language. village industry.14 have been translated idiomatically. and more spending channeled through local and area bodies. The order . He will need to understand the culture of the Balinese and the cultural context of the text he is translating in order to choose correctly. better internal trade. using verbs rather than using nouns. and wants to increase what people and groups in local area do to help farmers and small businesses whose owners live in the villages. The form in the receptor language is very different from the source language form and yet this kind of adjustment. and help people in this country buy and sell things made in this country and to help local groups spend the government‟s money. he must distinguish degrees of honor even though nothing in the source language indicates these distinctions.

It will readily be seen that understandable translations into English requires a complete reversal of the order: She often wears a small blue silk shirt. ( passive) Ng-êi ta xem NguyÔn Du lµ mét nhµ th¬ vÜ ®¹i. fast-living style and bad investment. The above translated sentences are only examples to show some types of grammatical adjustments which will result if a translator translates idiomatically in the source language. and other figurative meanings. She often wears a shirt silk blue small. depending on the natural form of the receptor language. (active) B: Còng lÏ th-êng t×nh th«i. there will be times by coincidence they match.15 C« Êy th-êng mÆc ¸o s¬ mi v¶i silk mµu xanh cì nhá.sai chç. Vietnamese: A: ChuyÖn g× ®· x¶y ra víi toµn bé sè tiÒn mµ b¹n cã ®-îc sau khi gi¶i quyÕt xong chuyÖn chóc th. Certainly. 3. ¨n ch¬i hoang ®µn vµ ®Çu t. For example.vµ b¸n ®i c¶ s¶n nghiÖp. . He cooled. Vietnamese people tend to use active constructions to express their ideas whereas English people prefer to use passive constructions. secondary meanings. English: Vietnamese: (active) English: A: What has happened to all your money after the will was settled and the business was sold? (passive) B: The usual thing. For example. Languages abound in idioms. Nguyen Du is considered to be a great poet. b¹n bÌ gi¶ dèi. It is not uncommon that passive constructions will need to be translated with an active construction or vice versa. He cooled. metaphors. Translating lexical features Each language has its own idiomatic way of expressing meaning lexical items. Or: The fever was no more in him. notice the following ways in which a fever is referred to ( literal translations are given to show the source language form): Greek: Aguaruna: Vietnamese: The fever left him. false friends. but a translator should translate the meaning not concern himself with whether the forms turn out the same or not.

he stretches back his head and looks with his throat. break into society. The meaning has little to do with bull or head . In Aguaruma it would be more natural to say blind as a fox. fall in love. in Vietnamese to say that someone is cøng ®Çu cøng cæ means that the person is „stubborn‟. It could means that the person is stupid or that the person is a greedy. fall into print. He is as strong as a horse. Translators who wants to make a good idiomatic translation often find figures of speech especially challenging. The literal English is misleading. a literal translation of blind as a bat might sound really strange in a language where the comparison between a blind person and a bat has never been use as a figure of speech. All languages have idioms. For example. He is as strong as a buffalo. one cannot say the following break into debt. when the fox is trying to see. rush into a fight. step into a practice. A literal translation of strong as a horse might sound really strange in a language where the comparison between a strong person and a horse has never been use as a figure of speech. i. a string of words whose meaning is different than the meaning conveyed by the individual words. The meaning has little to do with ®Çu or cæ. In the second is an idiomatic translation. Care would need to be taken if pig were used metaphorically or a wrong meaning might result in the receptor language. There is a legend in which the sun borrowed the fox‟s eyes and then returned to heaven taking the fox‟s good eyes with him and leaving the fox with the sun‟s inferior eyes. The following are a few English idioms using in and into: run into debt. The following idioms occur in Vietnamese. In spite of all these combinations. But the comparison is often different and so the figure will be misunderstood unless some adjustment is made. stumble into acquaintance. In the first column is a literal translation from Vietnamese. The combinations are fixed as to form and their meaning comes from their combination. Figures of speech are often based on stories or historical incidents. or His temperature returned to normal. IDIOMATIC I don‟t remember you. dive into a book. The English translations of all six would be : His fever went down.e. Similarly. Names of animals are used metaphorically in most languages.16 Ilocano: The fever was no more in him. it has different meanings. In English to say that someone is bullheaded means that the person is „stubborn‟. A literal word-for-word translation of these idioms into another language will not make sense. LITERAL I don‟t have my eye on you. jump into a fight. etc. rush into print. Similarly. . That is why they say. Languages abound in such idioms. when someone is called a pig in English. but the receptor language word or phrase which has the equivalent meaning will be the correct one to use in the translation. The form cannot be kept. I have been busy with my work. dive into debt. In Vietnamese. In Vietnamese it would be more natural to say strong as a buffalo. I have buried my head into my business. it usually means he is dirty or a greedy eater.

What are the differences between a literal translation and an idiomatic translation? 2. Notes Form-based translation : Meaning-based translation: Literal translation: Idiomatic translation: Interference : Mother-tongue interference: To make adjustments: Translating grammatical features: Parts of speech: Subclass: Indo-European language: Pronominal system: dÞch dùa vµo h×nh thøc dÞch dùa vµo nghÜa dÞch tõng tõ mét dÞch ®óng nghÜa sù can thiÖp sù can thiÖp cña tiÕng mÑ ®Î hiÖu ®Ýnh/ ®iÒu chØnh ®Æc tr-ng ng÷ ph¸p dÞch tõ lo¹i nhãm nhá ng«n ng÷ Ên-¢u hÖ thèng ®¹i tõ 6. and some times brilliant translation. However.” could mean any of the following: The food is too hot to eat. He will know he is successful if the receptor language readers do not recognize his work as a translation at all.17 Some lexical combinations of the source language may be ambiguous. Self-study 6. 5. to write analysis of it. “ It is too hot to eat.1 Questions for discussion 1. Considering the complexity of language structures. but simply as a text written in the receptor language for their information and enjoyment. His goal must be to avoid literalisms and to strive for a truly idiomatic receptor language text. A translator who takes the time to study carefully the source language text. will be able to provide an adequate. a translator who is concerned with transferring the meaning will find that the receptor language has a way in which the desired meaning can be expressed even though it may be very different from the source language form. The meaning is not clear. and then to look for the equivalent way in which the same message is expressed naturally in the receptor language. the horse is too hot after running a race and does not want to eat. Conclusion It is obvious that translation is a complicated process. understanding clearly the message to be communicated. first of all. 4. such ambiguities must often be resolved and only the intended meaning communicated. For example. the weather is too hot for us to feel like eating. What should you do to translate a text idiomatically? . how can a translator ever hope to produce an adequate translation? Literal translation can only be avoided by careful analysis of the source language: by. In the process of making an idiomatic translation.

too. who are searching diligently for the thief. What lexical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas. 1. He told the one little story. 7. (b) He then his mishap reported to the police. (b) The storekeeper promised to refund our money. The forms used shows examples of how their mother-tongue language . Suggest a more idiomatic way of saying it. a time not long but like a century. which is more idiomatic English. many foreign countries have been investing in Vietnam. a or b? How would the meaning be expressed idiomatically in the language you speak? 1. Each of the following are sentences written by some Vietnamese who are not yet fluent English speakers. Foreign tourists usually at Kinh Do Hotel for their friends have introduced to them very much about this hotel. I left my village for three years. 10. All of these examples are from published translated material. 2.(a) A certain boy told me this little story at a party. The third-year students often visit the schools in the city for the attendance of the class. And how many hot children‟s tears have not been shed on spelling? 4. 8. I feel my house absent anybody. 4.2 Exercises A. This is a game he said. 4. 9. What grammatical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas. A robbery took place of a motorcycle rider at Kampung early yesterday morning. (b) He is one boy. who are the thief searching intensively B.(a) He then reported his misfortune to the police. Look for literalisms in the following translations into English and underline the words or phrases that do not sound natural in English. After saying lies many times. he lost our belief in him. 2. 6. Every time my mother goes to work . In each of the following pairs of sentences. C.18 3. 5. 3. How many children have shed hot tears about spelling? (b) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform .(a) The storekeeper said that we will refund your money. 3. The participants discussed about the causes of pollution environment.(a) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform as well. Hue is famous about its delicious dishes and beautiful landscapes. 5. Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam. One thing makes me proud of my village is a large green field that provides one part of life for people. Why do you have to take the time to read the source language text carefully before translating it? 6.

( Sir. ( I have now lived in Hanoi for 12 years. please don‟t forget the problems we discussed before.) 3. .trong ý nghÜa : to mean/ to signify .chiÕm cø : take up/ to be situated/ to occupy . send me a letter to Saigon. 1. ( I am very happy to be able to send/write you this letter.) l¹i ®ång nghÜa. I am very grateful to inform you with this letter.. th× ‘‘n-íc’’ (trong s«ng.) 5.cha «ng: ancestors . §µ L¹t chiÕm cø mét vïng ®Êt réng trªn cao nguyªn L©m Viªn.) 4. . Trong tiÕng ViÖt. the problems of before don‟t forget.19 structures have been carried over into English.xung quanh: to be surrounded by/ with 4. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh. Cha «ng ta ®· uèng n-íc s«ng Hång. Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ cña ViÖt Nam ph¶i ®-îc xÐt trong hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh kÐo dµi.) D. ®ång ©m víi ‘‘n-íc’’ trong ý nghÜa tæ quèc quª h-¬ng.cao nguyªn : plateau . trong hå. s«ng Cöu Long vµ ®· sèng chÕt víi s«ng n-íc nµy. I am a man who has been to Hanoi for 12 years.tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta.®ång ©m : homonym . trong biÓn.) 2.®ång nghÜa : synonym/ synonymous .thèng nhÊt : uniformity . Sir. I will think you time to time day and day. What changes were made in correcting the English? These changes point out some of the differences between Vietnamese and English. If there is any means. Hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh Êy ®· g©y ra ..tæ quèc quª h-¬ng: homeland/ fatherland/ motherland . The same information is then given in parenthesis in idiomatic English. xung quanh toµn lµ nói ®åi hïng vÜ. send a letter to me in Saigon. ( I will be thinking about you often every day. ChÞ may ¸o s¬ mi nµy ë ®©u vËy? 2. s«ng §µ.. 1. Translate the following Vietnamese sentences as idiomatically as possible. (If there is any way to do so.sèng chÕt: to try hard to protect them/ to spare no pain to protect them 3.

cã tõ l©u ®êi nh.c«ng tr×nh c«ng céng : public facilities .thµnh lËp : to establish/ set up . Ngµy nay thÕ giíi ®ang ®-ong ®Çu víi nhiÒu vÊn ®Ò nghiªm träng cho dï ®· cã nhiÒu b-íc tiÕn ®¸ng kÓ trong lÜnh vùc khoa häc.truyÒn nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh : to relay the transmissions . nh-ng ng-êi ta ph¶i thùc hiÖn nhiÒu chuyÖn kh¸c ®Ó c¶i thiÖn t×nh tr¹ng søc khoÎ. Nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh nµy sÏ truyÒn nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh quan träng cña ®µi truyÒn h×nh trung -¬ng vµ ph¸t ch-¬ng tr×nh cña ®µi m×nh.tµi s¶n : property . .l©u ®êi: long-standing .ph¸t: to broadcast 7.®-¬ng ®Çu : to face .®-îc xÐt : to be viewed/ to be considered/ to be taken into account .g©y ra thiÖt h¹i : to cause damage to .vÊn ®Ò nghiªm träng : serious problem . .®Þa vÞ : status . cßn cã 25 ®µi thuéc c¸c tØnh ®-îc thµnh lËp vµo n¨m 1988. D©n sè ®ang t¨ng theo cÊp sè nh©n trong lóc s¶n xuÊt hµng ho¸ l¹i t¨ng theo cÊp sè céng.sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ : the economic development . M¹ng l-íi truyÒn h×nh ®ang x©y dùng réng kh¾p c¶ n-íc.®µi truyÒn h×nh : television station .c¸c c«ng tr×nh c«ng céng vµ tµi nguyªn.cã nh÷ng b-íc tiÕn kú diÖu: to be dramatically improved . .20 nhiÒu thiÖt h¹i vÒ sinh m¹ng vµ tµi s¶n còng nh. . ®Æc biÖt ë c¸c n-íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn. c«ng nghÖ vµ tri thøc. Mét trong nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò ®ã lµ sù bïng næ d©n sè.m¹ng l-íi : network .tµi nguyªn : resources 5.hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh kÐo dµi : in the context of the long period of war .®µi truyÒn h×nh Hµ Néi vµ Thµnh Phè Hå ChÝ Minh.dinh d-ìng : nutrition 6.cã nhiÒu b-íc tiÕn ®¸ng kÓ : to take great strikes . Ngoµi nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh t-¬ng ®èi hiÖn ®¹i. dinh d-ìng vµ gi¸o dôc cho phô n÷. MÆc dï ®Þa vÞ cña phô n÷ ®· cã nh÷ng b-íc tiÕn kú diÖu.

sù bïng næ d©n sè : population explosion/ population boom .Quèc Héi : the National Assembly .giai cÊp trung l-u vµ h¹ l-u : the middle and lower classes 9. Do chÝnh s¸ch më cöa.chÞu ¶nh h-áng : to be affected by .®-îc quyÒn lµm g× : to have the right to do something . Héi Liªn HiÖp Phô vµ chñ tÞch héi ®-îc Héi §ång Bé Tr-ëng ®Ó ®iÒu lÖ liªn quan ®Õn N÷ ViÖt Nam ®-îc cö ®¹i diÖn ë Quèc Héi quyÒn tham dù c¸c cuéc häp th-êng kú cña bµy tá quan ®iÓm cña Héi vµ ®Ò nghÞ nh÷ng phô n÷.tr-êng ph¸i hiÖn thùc phª ph¸n : the school of critical realism .21 .giµu vµ nghÌo : wealth and poverty .cö ®¹i diÖn : to be represented .x· héi t. .Héi Liªn HiÖp Phô N÷ ViÖt Nam : The Vietnam‟s Women Union . Gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam chÞu ¶nh h-áng râ rÖt cña nÒn v¨n minh n«ng nghiÖp. thuéc tr-êng ph¸i hiÖn thùc phª ph¸n thÕ kû 19.s¶n xuÊt hµng ho¸ : the production of goods 8.sù phª ph¸n : criticism .s¶n Anh lóc bÊy giê. nÒn v¨n minh c«ng nghiÖp ®ang t¸c ®éng tõng ngµy.t¨ng theo cÊp sè céng : to grow in arithmetic progression . ThÕ giíi mµ «ng ta miªu t¶ lµ thÕ giíi cña giai cÊp trung l-u vµ h¹ l-u ë Lu©n §«n. .téi ¸c : evil . . §iÒu mµ chóng ta ®¸nh gi¸ cao vÒ nh÷ng t¸c phÈm cña Dickens lµ sù phª ph¸n vÒ téi ¸c vµ sù t-¬ng ph¶n gi÷a giµu vµ nghÌo cña x· héi t.t¨ng theo cÊp sè nh©n : to grow in geometric progression . Charles Dickens lµ mét trong nh÷ng nhµ viÕt tiÓu thuyÕt lín nhÊt thÕ giíi.®iÒu lÖ : regulations 10.sù t-¬ng ph¶n : contrast .bµy tá quan ®iÓm : express one‟s points of view .Héi §ång Bé Tr-ëng : the Council of Ministers .cuéc häp th-êng kú : regular meeting .nhµ viÕt tiÓu thuyÕt : novelist . tõng giê vµo cuéc sèng gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam.s¶n Anh : the English boutgeois society .®¸nh gi¸ cao : to value/ highly appreciate .

Texts are chosen to be translated for various reasons. Not all these need to be found in one person. however. Most often it is to communicate certain information to people speaking another language. a consultant. Will it be used in school. The team may consist of 1. The text refers to the source language document which is to be translated.nÒn v¨n minh n«ng nghiÖp : agricultural civilization . There are various kinds of programs which may be set up depending on the abilities and backgrounds of those who will be involved. But even so there should be other available for evaluation and consultation. . The translator should examine his reasons for choosing the text and the potential for its use by the receptor language audience. or 2. If a person is a competent speaker of both the source language and the receptor language.t¸c ®éng tõng ngµy tõng giê : to have daily and hourly impact /influence on LESSON 3: STEPS IN A TRANSLATION PROJECT Before beginning an actual translation. and people‟s attitudes towards their languages. where one is a specialist in the source language and the other a specialist in the receptor language. It may. co-translators. or read orally in a meeting or at home? The team refers to the people who will be involved in the project.the text. bilingualism. there are a number of matters which need to be clearly understood by all who will be involved. and who has an understanding of translation principles. Most translation projects require a team. The desirability of translating a particular text must be determined.chÝnh s¸ch më cöa : the open-door policy . a committee working together with specific responsibilities delegated to each one. These can be summarized under four T‟s. the team. educational level. and the tools. a number of people who are going to contribute to the translation at some stage in the project. testers.Establishing the project Before one considers beginning a translation project. The team may include the translators. or 3. Each of these steps will be elaborated on in more detail in the last section of the book. it is important to have in mind the total translation project and what is involved in producing a good translation. the target. There are certain essentials to any translation project. it may be that the project can be done completely by one person. and reviewers. The working relationship between these people needs to be established before the project gets underway. in business. Which kind of program is developed will depend on who is available and qualified to determine the meaning of the source language. who is most skilled at drafting in the receptor language. For whom is the translation prepared? The form of translation will be affected by questions of dialect. age level. a translator with capability to handle both source language and receptor language matters and an advisor or consultant. The target refers to the audience.22 . 1. also change as the project moves along and new factors come into focus. or it may be to share the enjoyment of the source text.

he must always keep his target audience in mind. grammars. These need to be decided upon and may need to be checked with other speakers of the receptor language.. determines the content of the source language message. 2. . studying key words. he will be looking for the author‟s purpose and the theme of the text. when grammatical structures are being used in a secondary function. but whatever is available should be there to make the work easier. etc. there will be a wealth of materials that can be used to help in interpreting the source language text and in finding equivalents in the receptor language.. Some translators prefer to do a quick rough translation so that the material flows naturally. The purpose is to understand the text as a whole. Once he has done this. and no omissions or additions. These include. The transfer results in the initial draft. . interpreting figurative senses. The analysis of the source text will include resolving ambiguity. being sure that all the information all the information is accounted for. the related communication situation matters. Transfer and initial draft After a careful analysis of the source language text. that is. the key terms must be determined. It is the step which includes the preparation and analysis which must be done before anything at all can be written in the receptor language. and all other factors which will need to be understood in order to produce an equivalent translation. then by reading other materials that may help in understanding the culture or language of the source text. 3. there may be a scarcity of such material. etc. any dictionaries. The translator carefully studies the source language text and using all the available tools. section by section. There are two ways of approaching the transfer and initial draft. of both the source language and receptor language which are available. In preparing this draft. The goal of exegesis is to determine the meaning which is to be communicated in the receptor language text. the translator begins drafting piece by piece. As he reads the text. the receptor language text is more apt to be in the natural style of the receptor language. as indicated above. Before any extensive drafting can be done. in addition to the document to be translated. cultural descriptions. the translator is transferring from the source language into the receptor language. The text must be understood completely. The team will want as much in formation available as possible while translating. He will look for the larger groupings or sections. and then reword it for naturalness. identifying implicit information. lexicons. For other projects. This is the process which takes place in moving from the source language form to the meaning of the text. Others prefer to prepare a proposition-like semantic draft. The translator should begin by reading the text several times. It will involve doing the kind of analysis which this book is all about.23 Tools refer to the written source materials which will be used by the translators as helps. As he does so. Exegesis Exegesis is used to refer to the process of discovering the meaning of the source language text which is to be translated. He may want to outline the text. Every text has a set of words which re crucial to the content and correct communication of the theme. All of these tools should be brought to the translation site in preparation for the project. recognizing when words are being used in a secondary sense. For some projects. Then they go back and tighten up the details to be sure that there is no wrong information. he is ready to work on the material a section at a time. In this way.

and that the form chosen will communicate to the desired audience. 5. If any key words are changed. It may be necessary to rework the initial draft several times before the team is satisfied that all the adjustments needed have been made. Another way to check is by asking questions of those who read the text . and the relevant facts of the text. The translation team now works through this material . or to whom it is read. they arrange for copies to be made so that adequate evaluation. 4. The translator will want to have receptor language speakers read the text and then tell back what the text communicated to them. may have expressed misunderstanding. Is the form of the translation easy to read and natural receptor language grammar and style? Those helping with the evaluation should be mother-tongue speakers of the receptor language. It is very important that sufficient time and effort be given to evaluation. While making and reworking this draft. honestly accepting the evaluation . Those with whom the translator has checked may have suggested many rewordings. Any wrong understanding should be noted and then checked with others as well. the text will need to be checked carefully for consistency in the change made. It is especially advantageous to have a consultant check over the material. Questions need to be carefully formed so that they bring out the theme. Evaluation The purpose of evaluation is threefold: accuracy. and rewording the material accordingly. Does the audience for whom the translation is intended understand it clearly? 3. Any time there is an indication of a problem in reading . by adding more information to clarify participants or theme or whatever. the author‟s purpose . There are a number of kinds of evaluations which need to be done. and naturalness. there will be parts that are hard to read or hard to understand. The translator will want to compare the translation with the source text at several points during the translation process to be sure no additions. this should be noted for further checking . Either method will lead to an idiomatic translation if careful work is done. The questions to be answer are: 1. Revised After evaluation is done carefully. Does the back translation carry the same information as the original source language text? Any difference will need to be checked further. that the text communicates clearly in the receptor language. they may need to be made easier by more redundancy( or less redundancy in another language). deletions or change of in formation have crept in . Others may help with this work. etc. If some parts were hard for people to read. Once the translation team has sufficiently reworked the initial draft. As they read. How much re-drafting will be needed will vary depending on the results of the evaluation. If many of the people who will eventually be using the receptor language text can be involved in the evaluation process.24 reword it in the idiomatic form of the receptor language. but know both the source language and receptor language. clearness. the audience must always be kept in mind. this will also create interest in the translated material when it is finally published. It is best to have someone who has not worked on the translation. Does the translation communicate the same meaning as the source language? 2. there will need to be a revised draft made on the basis of the feedback received. Consultation . translate back from the receptor language into the source language without the reference to the original source language text. 6. that no information is wrong or omitted.

Some matters may need special testing before the final draft is prepared. However. effect on the receptor language audience. Final draft The translator incorporates into the translated text the suggestions made by the consultant. but will help him do better transfer drafts on the sections of the document remaining to be done. The time spent in careful checking and preparation of the final draft will improve quality and will make the translation more acceptable to the audience for whom it is being prepared. 8.accuracy of content 2. and do large amounts of translation work without this kind of a check. naturalness of style. 7. and makes any other minor changes which have come to his attention. they will miss out on the training which a consultant can give as they go over the material together. there are advisors or consultants who are willing to help the translator. these will need evaluation. and 3. decisions about format need to be discussed with the whole translation team. Notes Target: Target language audience: Dialect: Educational level: Bilingualism: To come into focus: Co-translator: Specialist: Tools: Lexicon: Exegesis: Initial draft: Revised draft: ®äc gi¶ ng-êi ®äc b¶n dÞch ph-¬ng ng÷ tr×nh ®é häc vÊn song ng÷ chó ý/ tËp trung ng-êi cïng dÞch chuyªn gia tµi liÖu tham kh¶o khi dÞch tù ®iÓn tõ vùng hiÓu nghÜa v¨n b¶n tr-íc khi dÞch b¶n th¶o ®Çu tiªn b¶n th¶o ®· d-îc hiÖu ®Ýnh . the potential publisher and those who will promote distribution. It is important that translators check their materials with a trained consultant after completing a section or two of a long document. the consultant. If a special size of print is being recommended. The translator(s) will expect that the consultant is interested in three matters:1. a number of copies should be prepared and distributed for proofreading by various people before the actual printing takes place. If the publication is to include pictures. A final editing for spelling and punctuation will need to be made. When all matters are cared for. it will need to be tested. before he prepares the final draft.25 In many translation projects. If they continue . checks them again with mother-tongue speakers to be sure they are warranted. Every translator wants his final copy to be as accurate as possible. Asking a consultant to work through the material with him will give the translator insights which will not only help his final draft of the material being worked on.

cash crops. commercial logging operations. 3. DEFORESTATION Population growth is one factor in rainforest destruction. Explain what is meant by exegesis. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil. shifting cultivators. Do you have any difficulty in finding the equivalent Vietnamese structures of the following English sentences? a.1 Questions for discussion 1. external debt payment. it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor. The majority of deforestation in Latin America. What are the goals of the translator as he prepares the initial draft? 4. What kinds of evaluation checks can be made? 6. Do you have any difficulty in finding the Vietnamese meaning of the English words : subsistence agriculture. How will the final draft be different from the revision draft done earlier? 8. Read the English text and answer the questions. However. and not by „shifting‟ cultivators or landless peasants. What is the purpose of the evaluation? 5. Self-study 9. hamburger connection ? 5. which affect the poor the most. ranch-style cattle grazing property. How many times have you read the text to understand it completely? 4. How is the revision draft different from the initial draft? 9. 2. However. have arisen largely from external loans taken out to finance the purchase of luxury items and arms by military and governing elite. What is the consultant concerned about when he checks a translation? 7. where tropical forest has been converted to grazing land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. affluent society.2 Exercises A. landless peasants. 1. What is the author‟s purpose of writing this text? 2. Name and discuss the four T‟s of a translation project. The establishment of large ranch-style cattle grazing properties is the principal reason for the elimination of 20000 square kilometers of rainforest each year in Central or South America. military and governing elites. much of the timber being exported to the United States and Japan. Each year commercial logging eliminates 45000 square kilometers of forest. The cleared land is mainly devoted to the export of beef for the fast-food industries in North America. it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor. . What is the text about? 3. South-east Asia and the Pacific is caused by clearing land to grow cash crops for export and by commercial logging operations. These heavy payments.26 9.the aptly named „hamburger connection‟. Europe and Japan.

®ång ©m víi ‘‘n-íc’’ trong ý nghÜa tæ quèc quª h-¬ng.Nh-ng ë ViÖt Nam. ë ViÖt Nam th× ‘‘n-íc’’( trong s«ng. hå. 6. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil. Do you have any difficulty in finding the English meaning of the Vietnamese words : cha «ng. dï bÊt kú ë ®©u. Trªn thÕ giíi. 1. B. hÔ gÆp nhau lÇn ®Çu nãi lµ hiÓu nhau ngay. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh. lßng yªu n-íc th-¬ng nßi. where tropical forest has been converted to grazing land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. ng-êi Nam kÎ B¾c. sèng chÕt. biÓn. Translate the text into Vietnamese.tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta.tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. kÕt hîp chÆt chÏ. Translate the text into English. ng-êi Nam kÎ B¾c. Do you have any difficulty in finding the equivalent English structures of the following Vietnamese sentences? a.27 b. xi m¨ng tr-êng tån. cã nhiÒu quèc gia tõ tØnh nä sang tØnh kia nãi lµ kh«ng hiÓu nhau råi.mét khèi bÊt tö bÊt diÖt bëi mét thø xi m¨ng tr-êng tån. S«ng n-íc vµ con ng-êi ë ®©y kÕt hîp víi thiªn nhiªn vµ lÞch sö nh. S«ng Cöu Long vµ tõng sèng chÕt víi s«ng n-íc nµy. b. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh. §ã lµ lßng yªu n-íc th-¬ng nßi cña d©n téc ViÖt Nam. S«ng §µ. hÔ gÆp nhau lÇn ®Çu nãi lµ hiÓu nhau ngay. hiÓu nhau? 5. Read the Vietnamese text and answer the questions. What is the author‟s purpose of writing this text? 2. NON N¦íC Cha «ng ta ®· uèng n-íc s«ng Hång. dï bÊt kú ë ®©u.) l¹i ®ång nghÜa. How many times have you read the text to understand it completely? 4. What is the text about? 3. 6. . Nh-ng ë ViÖt Nam. sù thèng nhÊt.

the English word alone is not enough to determine the appropriate Vietnamese translation. English makes distinctions among mopeds. depending on whether one is planting it. “matrix” is better translated ‘‘b¶n’’. 1. its animate ( e. For example. and motorcycles. refers to all two-wheel. Vietnamese. 1. in the hand. which is a more general word used to classify a written plan or formula. Vietnamese has many words that mean “ to carry” with distinction being made depending on the size and shape of the object. and others involved in translating as ways to approach difficulties in translations from English into Vietnamese. the English word for “rice” can be translated by many different Vietnamese words.3 Translating by cultural substitution This strategy involves replacing a culture-specific item or expression with one of the different meanings but similar impact in the translated text. In these cases..g. This usually involves choosing among several different words. which translates the word “matrix” by the Vietnamese word ‘‘ma trËn’’. as it should be clear from the context which of these words is meant. harvesting it. Another difficulty is that. as in the case of „gender‟.. or “leg” may all be translated by the Vietnamese word ‘‘ch©n’’.g. which does not suggest any problems of comprehension in Vietnamese. Similarly. a child as opposed to a box). on the one hand. and a very difficult concept to understand and explain in many languages. and how it is carried (e.). 1. it may be appropriate to use a more general word to translate an English word with no specific Vietnamese equivalent. or in the arms. For instance. which is. ‘‘ma trËn’’ has a specific use in mathematics only. cooking it. Another example can be found in a manual on community development. In this example. in Vietnamese. as there may be many Vietnamese words that correspond to the general category or meaning expressed by English word. It may also be that the concept is known or understood but there is no specific word in Vietnamese used to express it. commissioners of translations. in fact. It may be that the concept or idea is new to Vietnamese translators. 1.28 LESSON 4: STRATEGIES FOR TRANSLATORS The following strategies have been suggested by translators. it may be appropriate or necessary to use a more specific word to translate an English word into Vietnamese. the English words “paw”. Similarly. a relatively new concept in general. motorized vehicles as ‘‘ xe m¸y’’. “foot”. in addition to their concrete meaning. and it is necessary to examine the English context.2 Translating by a more general word In other cases. However. scooters. the latter having larger wheels and engines than both mopeds and scooters. some words have special connotations that are not conveyed by the Vietnamese word for the same thing. Because of their self-described “respect” . and does not have the additional sense of a model or a plan according to which something is developed. or eating it. The strategies listed below can be used to handle cases of non-equivalence.1 Translating by a more specific word In some cases. STRATEGY 1 : How to deal with non-equivalence at lexical level It is often the case that no direct equivalents can be found in Vietnamese for English words.

some of which are not conveyed by the Vietnamese words alone. as many translator prefer to coin new words in Vietnamese rather than borrow English words. Another example is that the English words „abuse‟ and „neglect‟ signify a whole range of behaviors. and from abandonment and negligence in their care.” cannot be translated as simply as ‘‘trÎ em nªn ®-îc b¶o vÖ khái sù l¹m dông vµ l¬ lµ.” 1. or when the Vietnamese term for it does not include all the meanings conveyed by the English term for the same concept. or ORS. Because these words have been in common used in Vietnam for a long time.4 Translating by using a loan word plus explanation There is some objection to this strategy in Vietnam. However.”. a farmer‟s manual that has been translated into Vietnamese suggests the planting of different types of fruit trees which are not even grown in Vietnam. Whenever a loan word is used . which was developed in other parts in Asia. This is especially true for words that would require lengthy explanations. this sentence reads. it is sometimes appropriate to omit words or phrases that are not essential to the meaning or impact of the text. this is normally written in English with an explanation in Vietnamese : ORS (muèi bï mÊt n-íc) 1. they are often used without any accompanying explanation. For instance. which must be unpacked for better understanding.5 Translating by using a paraphrase This strategy can be used when we translate an English word or concept that does not exist in Vietnamese. this is not only the burden of the translator. For example. and proper names of diseases or medicines that are widely known in English names. bá mÆc hoÆc xao nh·ng trong viÖc ch¨m sãc’’. as they are referred to by their English names in almost every part of the world. Back translated roughly into English. Another example is the acronym for oral dehydration salts. was not modified at all for the Vietnamese context. the English „alcohol‟ includes all alcoholic drinks in its meaning. the English sentence: “Children should be protected from abuse and neglect. the translator is in fact playing an important role in this task. Though some translators argue that it is not the responsibility of the translator to chance the text in this way. HIV and AIDS are two loan words that are frequently used in Vietnamese. this strategy is very useful when the translator deal with concepts or ideas that are new to Vietnamese audience.29 for the original text. even though it is in appropriate. which is printed on every package and hence easily recognized. This can be done by paraphrasing as a translator has attempted in the following translation: ‘‘trÎ em cÇn b¶o vÖ chèng l¹i mäi h×nh thøc b¹o lùc. awkward paraphrases. As a result. : “Children must be protected from all forms of violence causing harm or offense. The Vietnamese word ‘r­îu’ does not include beer in its definition. 1. For example. The original manual.’’. However.6 Translating by omission Though some translators may reject this strategy as too drastic. g©y tæn th-¬ng hay xóc ph¹m. in the sentence: “ Pregnant women should avoid alcohol. culturespecific items. but also of the commissioners of the translation and the editor. This translation does not account for their full meaning . Translators should be encouraged to consider the appropriateness of the documents they are translating and suggest changes to make them more culturally appropriate. it is better to give an explanation. or literal and unnatural translations. most Vietnamese translators object to this strategy and tend to translate directly. so the Vietnamese translation should add the word beer to reflect the full meaning of the source language sentence. which would interrupt the flow of the text and could distract .

however. By substituting a similar Vietnamese idiom.” The meaning here is clearly the same for both idioms. and which is expressed in the same way. it would be difficult to restate concisely in English. The difference in meaning between “ being physically present” and being present” is so minimal that it does not justify translation into Vietnamese. In fact. the sentence “ Much can be done even without being physically present in the meeting. It is ideal if such a match can be found. The expression “packaging up the problem” caused the problems in translation. STRATEGY 2 : How to deal with idioms and set expressions Idioms and set expressions can be dealt with in the ways similar to those mentioned above.2 Using an idiom or a set expression of similar meaning but different form It is possible and easy to find a Vietnamese idiom with a similar meaning for an English idiom or set expression. which is expressed using the same words in Vietnamese: ‘‘ c·i nhau nh. which is translated : ‘‘Thµ muén cßn h¬n kh«ng ®Õn’’. even if this phrase were clearly understood. For example. there is another difficulty that the translator may not realize that s/he is dealing with an idiomatic expression. then. paraphrasing may be the best way to deal with an idiom or set expression in English. another is “ Better than never. This phrase is best dealt with by paraphrasing.but the way in which each language expresses is bound to be the culture of that language. but this kind of correspondence is not common. ‘‘ nhiÒu viÖc cã thÓ lµm ngµy c¶ khi kh«ng cã mÆt t¹i cuéc häp’’ which omit the word “physically” in the translation. which would unduly interrupt the flow of the text and greatly diminish the idiom‟s impact. and would not do so by emphasizing the physicality of a person‟s presence. which does . it would be difficult to find a precise equivalent in Vietnamese. 2. A good example can be found in an article on maternal mortality. It is far more cumbersome to translate this idiom literally into Vietnamese with an explanation that Newcastle is a well-known coal-producing city in England (as was suggested by some Vietnamese translators).3 Translating by paraphrasing When Vietnamese equivalents cannot be found. 2.’’. which includes the sentence.30 the reader from the overall meaning. However. and it is usually necessary to use other strategies in dealing with idioms and set expressions. With idioms. “ But before the new estimates replace the old as a way of packaging up the problem. it should be said that a mistake has been made in allowing statistics such as these to slip into easy language. 2. One example is the idiom “ to fight like cats and dogs”. the flow and the impact of the source text are retained in the translation.which is translated as “ to carry firewood to the forest.”. which cannot easily express the slight emphasis implied here by the author. as it was misinterpreted to mean “assembling” or “gathering”.to bring something to a place that has an abundance of that thing. A good example can be found is the translation for to carry coals to Newcastle”: ‘‘Chë cñi vÒ rõng.chã víi mÌo.” is best translated into Vietnamese by. since more idioms may make sense when translated literally." . which in English could be understood as something like “summing up the problem by referring to it simply as a number.1 Using an idiom or a set expression of similar meaning and form It is sometimes possible to find a Vietnamese idiom or expression with a similar meaning to an English idiom or expression.

2. STRATEGY 3 : How to deal with voice. The meaning of the phrase could be that a person is suffering from positive HIV and that s/he should have an optimistic outlook on life. one translator has suggested the translation: ‘‘H·y Sèng Yªu §êi Dï NhiÔm HIV’’. English : Vietnamese: A is/was/has been done by B (i) A ®-îc+ ®éng tõ+(bëi B) A ®-îc/do+(B)+®éng tõ (ii) A bÞ +®éng tõ + bëi B A bÞ +(B) + ®éng tõ Example: This house was built by Frank in 1930 Ng«I nhµ nµy do Frank x©y n¨m 1930 Tom is given a present by Mary Tom ®-îc Mary tÆng mét mãn quµ . for it would not be possible to translate both meanings by one Vietnamese phrase. This strategy has also be used when we translate phases which has two meanings one of the meanings may be sacrificed for the other. a book entitled “ Being Positive-Living with HIV/AIDS” causes problems in translate because of the double meaning of “ being positive”. the double meaning should be made clear through collaboration with the commissioner.31 not reflect its true magnitude or impact. who may interpret the phrase to mean that this book is for and about people who are HIV positive. This may be clear to the translator . or literal and unnatural translation. as a literal translation into Vietnamese would be meaningless.1 Voice The passive voice is used very often in English and poses some problems in Vietnamese translation. For instance.4 Translating by omission This strategy could be used when we translate words or phrases that would require lengthy explanations. awkward paraphrases. after which a choice must be made between the two meanings. This translation expresses the notion of being positive about life without mentioning anything about being HIV positive status. number and person 2.” The expression “to slip into easy usage” is problematic for the same reasons. and is also best dealt with by paraphrasing. Passive voice can be translated from English into Vietnamese in the following ways: a. As the emphasis is on positive outlook on life but not on the fact of being HIV positive. However.

there are some cases where one can see the words ®-îc/bÞ but they are not translated into English passive sentences at all. Vietnamese: MÌo. Tom míi ®-îc ®Ì b¹t gÇn ®©y. Hä Ng-êi d©n téc H¬ M«ng kh«ng thÝch bÞ gäi lµ d©n thÝch ®-îc gäi lµ d©n téc H¬ M«ng. . They prefer to be called H‟Mong.32 Tom was attacked by a stranger last night Tom bÞ mét kÎ l¹ mÆt tÊn c«ng tèi h«m qua b.English : Vietnamese: A is/was/has been done. On the other hand. téc In Vietnamese.Anh Êy bÞ ng·. so it is difficult to know what way used to translate into Vietnamese. ChiÕc ®Üa CD ®· bÞ vì/ Ai ®ã ®· lµm vì chiÕc ®Üa CD. . Example: .H«m nay chóng ta ®-îc ®¸nh chÐn no nª.’’. or ‘‘C¸c ch¸u bÞ tiªm. Example: The children were given injections. : He fell. Vietnamese translation : ‘‘C¸c ch¸u ®-îc tiªm. : . when the positive or negative connotation of the sentence is clear it is more appropriate to retain the passive voice in Vietnamese. The CD has been broken. Lan has a cough.ChÞ Lan bÞ ho. (i) (ii) (iii) A ®-îc+ ®éng tõ A bÞ+ ®éng tõ Ng-êi ta/ai ®ã + ®éng tõ + A Example: Tom has been promoted recently. Example: The H‟Mong people do not like to be called Meo.’’ depending on whether the receiving injection is considered a positive or negative experience. The positive and negative connotation is not often conveyed in English.

age. hiÖn ®¹i hãa. It + to be + Adj + to infinitive 4.3 Person Participants‟ roles and forms of address are expressed in Vietnamese through a very complicated system of personal pronouns based largely on kinship terms. STRATEGY 4 : How to deal with non-subject sentences ( Vietnamese. These distinctions are not always explicitly expressed in English and can usually be determined by the context in which the language operates.3. the attention should be focused on the tone and the overall purpose of the text to be translated. that is. each language has its own way to express these notions.’’mçi’’ can be used in addition to the noun. some plural markers such as ‘‘c¸c’’. Example: A book on health-care contains many sections written especially for children and adults. If it is clear from the English context which of these plural markers should be used in the Vietnamese. Unlike English pronouns. social status. ‘‘nh÷ng’’. Passive voice 4. In Vietnamese. whereas ‘‘nh÷ng’’ refers only to some of the total number of things being discussed. ‘‘c¸c’’ generally means all of the given category of things. If it is not possible to determine the distinctions of the English pronouns. . 4. then the translator should choose accordingly.33 We had and enormous meal today.4.1. In English.2. 2. 4.English translation) The following techniques could be used to translate the non-subject sentences in Vietnamese texts: 4. 2. ‘‘Mçi’’ emphasizes the identity of the individual member of the category without indicating anything of their totality. however. Vietnamese pronouns bear a number of semantic components depending on the relationship within a family. sex. There + to be. no such distinction is grammatically made. ‘‘mäi’’ expresses both the individuality of the items and the totality of the category. there are different grammatical forms for singular and plural nouns. number is expressed as a grammar category.2 Number Though both languages have similar notions of number and countability.. Example : Phô n÷: can mean either woman or women In Vietnamese. In the sections for adults. “you” should be translated as ‘‘chóng ta’’ . tÊt c¶’’. familiarity. Use the subject that is found in the previous sentence(s) Example: CÇn ®¶y m¹nh c«ng nghiÖp hãa. ‘‘mäi" .. In the sections for children the pronoun “you” is translated as “em” or ‘‘c¸c em’’. and even one‟s particular mood or attitude in a given situation.

34 Industrialization promoted. . Oil Price To Rise? Gi¸ dÇu sÏ t¨ng 4. Present participle = event in progress 5. There has been no cure for AIDS.5. To infinitive = future events 5. a lexical item. characteristics of newspaper headlines are as 5. 5. STRATEGY 5 : How to deal with newspaper headlines Some main follows. Or: It is modernization necessary to promote industrialization and and modernization should be VÉn ch-a cã c¸ch ch÷a khái bÖnh AIDS. Past participle = passive voice 5. any feature of the source language – notably a syntactic structure.1. 5.2.6.4. Three More Investment Projects Licensed This Year Investment Boom See You In Court HÑn gÆp t¹i tßa Thªm ba dù ¸n ®Çu t. a metaphor. Chinese Professors Turn To Business C¸c gi¸o s. 6. US President Visiting Vietnam Tæng thèng Hoa Kú ®ang th¨m ViÖt Nam 3. interference in translation takes place when apparently. Nouns 5.3.n÷a ®-îc cÊp giÊy phÐp trong n¨m nay Bïng næ ®Çu t- LESSON 5: PATTERNS AND SOURCES OF ERRORS MADE BY VIETNAMESE TRANSLATORS What is mother tongue interference in translation? In the narrow definition.Trung Quèc chuyÓn sang kinh doanh 2. and idiom. Verb + noun Example: 1. Present tense = past events 5.

1. a “false friend”. interference includes cases when sentence length. proper names. In a wider definition. punctuation. it can be categorized as follows. LINGUISTIC ERRORS The linguistic errors can be divided into the following groups: . culture words are evidently transferred in the translation in fact all cases where the language of the translation is manifestly affected whether appropriately or not by the language of the original. a mark of the effect of the source language (SL) or the SL culture. When the mother tongue interference is an error.35 word order or culture is carried over or literally translated as the case may be into the target language(TL) text. a sign of the translator‟s ignorance.

in sentence (1) the word ‘‘t×m’’ has an equivalent in English as “discover”.1. Michael Faraday invented the generator. “clergy” translated as ‘‘gi¸o sÜ’’ for Catholicism but ‘‘giíi t¨ng ®å’’ for Buddhism. the word “ head” in isolation means something like” the upper part of the body”. For example. he has no head. The New World was discovered by Christopher. Example: 1.1 Lexical Errors Lexical interference traps are common enough but more invidious are innocent looking collocations which appear to make sense until one asks oneself what they mean in particular context. The three above-mentioned sentences can be translated as follows. 1. their meaning should be solved in the context. ( leader-intelligence) . T«i ®ang t×m cuèn s¸ch. In sentence (2) the word ‘‘t×m’’ is understood as “look for”. in a text written about Buddhism in which there are two words “clergy” and “death”. “search for”. There are many ways of translating of some nouns related to professions. E. “find”. Some translated transferred “clergy” as ‘‘gi¸o sÜ’’ and “death” as ‘‘c¸i chÕt’’ for Buddha. Kha Lu©n Bè ®· t×m ra T©n thÕ giíi vµo n¨m 1842. b. c. Therefore. He is the former head of the Chemistry Section of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. The word “death” is normally translated as ‘‘c¸i chÕt’’ but ‘‘vua b¨ng hµ’’ in “King‟s death” and as for Buddhism this word should be translated as ‘‘viªn tÞch’’. there are many equivalents in English for the word ‘‘t×m’’ such as “seek”. It is characteristic of word that a single lexical item may have several meanings. fields in society. search for” or “seek”. 3. there are two more words related to this meaning: “to invent” and “ to discover”. Obviously. When translators are asked to translate these sentences into English a. classes. In fact. “look for”.1 Context The context itself determines the meaning of words. It sounds strange and funny. “find out”. It is commonly known that a word may have equivalents and accordingly the analysis of its meaning has to be made carefully in order to pick out the most appropriate word. Michael Faraday ®· t×m ra m¸y ph¸t ®iÖn. In sentence (3) the word ‘‘t×m’’ has an equivalent as “invent”. However. But the same word used in the context of talking about a company or an organization has nothing to do with the human body though the idea of the upper position of something still remains.g. In addition. in English “ to cook an account” translated as ‘‘nÊu sæ s¸ch’’ is meanigless and it must be translated as ‘‘gi¶ m¹o sæ s¸ch’’. 1. ( leader) 2. Although he is the head of the company. 2. Lexical interference is very dangerous because it can distort the meaning of a sentence. I am looking for my book.36 1. For example.

in English these are clear distinction as follows: Drink beer/ water/ wine/ coffee. medicine and even poison. “The Prime Minister has also assigned relevant agencies to formulate a law on industrial zones to provide a complete legal background/frame for the operation of Izs and EPZs in Vietnam. while the word “handsome” often goes with boys or men. words should be solved in context and the analysis of their meaning has to be made carefully to pick out the most appropriate equivalent. However.’’ In brief. a word in source language has many equivalents in target language. “foundation’’ ‘‘nÒn mãng. the word “ pretty” often goes with girls and women. chi nh¸nh’’. In fact.” was translated ‘‘Thñ t-íng ®· bæ nhiÖm nh÷ng chÝnh s¸ch thÝch hîp ®Ó ®-a ra luËt vÒ khu c«ng nghiÖp ®Ó cung cÊp mét bèi c¶nh hoµn toµn hîp ph¸p cho c¸c ho¹t ®éng cña khu c«ng nghiÖp. cã liªn quan’’. For example. Therefore. in this context it should be chosen the most appropriate equivalents to create an idiomatic translation: ‘‘ Thñ t-íng ®· giao cho c¸c c¬ quan cã liªn quan ban hµnh bé luËt vÒ khu c«ng nghiÖp nh»m cung cÊp mét sè c¬ së ph¸p lý hoµn chØnh cho viÖc ho¹t ®éng cña khu c«ng nghiÖp vµ khu chÕ xuÊt ë ViÖt Nam. In order to avoid committing errors of context. ‘‘lêi chµo hái’’ “hello”. khu chÕ xuÊt ViÖt Nam. Say hello/ goodbye/ yes/ no. in Vietnamese the word ‘‘uèng’’ (drink) can go with many different kinds of liquid including water. major commodities were not sold out leading to stockpile. nÒn t¶ng. This translation is quite vague in Vietnamese.2 Word collocation Word collocation consists of the associations a word acquires on account of the meanings of words which tend to occur in its environment. in English it is quite different.’’ 2. For instance. ‘‘dèi’’ “a lie”. the sentence should be translated as ‘‘ N¨m 1999 mét sè mÆt hµng chñ yÕu bÞ tån kho do chÊt l-îng kÐm. “In 1999. For this reason. due to poor quality. . Take medicine/ poison.37 The following examples show that the translators do not treat words in context but rely on the meaning in dictionary: 1. Each of language has its own principle in word collocation. However. Another example indicates that in Vietnamese the word ‘‘nãi’’ (say) can be collocated with ‘‘lêi t¹m biÖt’’ “goodbye”. ‘‘sù thËt’’ “ the truth”. thÝch hîp. 1. ‘‘tiÕng Ph¸p’’ “French”. some major commodities were stockpiled because of poor quality. c¬ quan. In fact. beer. Tell a lie/ the truth/ a story.1. the translators have a habit of translating literally and depending largely on the meaning in dictionary due to the mother-tongue interference.” It is not accurate at all when “stockpiled” was translated ‘‘l-u tr÷’’. The word “ assign” is equivalent with ‘‘ph©n c«ng/ bæ nhiÖm’’. c¬ së’’. which leads to wrong and funny collocation. alcohol. Some translators do not realize this. “ relevant with ‘‘thÝch ®¸ng. ’’. ‘‘ agency’’ with ‘‘ ®¹i lý.

” should be corrected as “The government has taken many measures to stop the drug smuggling.” . the above-mentioned examples should be translated more accurately and idiomatically as follows. The following examples show the wrong collocations of some translators: 1.vµo c¸c lÜnh vùc kh¸c nhau. ChÝnh phñ ®· tiÕn thùc hiÖn nhiÒu biÖn ph¸p nh»m ng¨n chÆn viÖc bu«n lËu ma tóy. ‘‘gia sóc’’ (cattle).tö/ nai Similarly. we decided to launch an impressive product which can compete against the imported ones. “The government has made many measures to stop the drug smuggling. chóng t«i quyÕt ®Þnh ®-a ra thÞ tr-êng mét s¶n phÈm g©y Ên t-îng cã søc c¹nh tranh víi hµng ngo¹i nhËp. (Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam many foreign countries have been investing in many different fields.) 3. (The government has made many measures to stop the drug smuggling. A flock of birds/ sheep: §µn chim/ cõu A herd of cattle/ buffaloes: §µn gia sóc/ tr©u A pack of dogs/ calves: §µn chã/ bª A school of fish/ chickens: §µn c¸/ gµ A pride of lions/ deer : §µn s. Tõ khi Mü bá lÖnh cÊm vËn ViÑt Nam. the word “decision” can be collocated with many word such as “to make/ to reach/ to arrive at/ to come to. each language has its own principles of word collocation.) 2. Chóng t«i ph¶i hoµn thµnh nhiÖm vô tr-íc khi tæ kiÓm tra chÊt l-îng s¶n phÈm.) It is the mother tongue interference that leads to the mechanic collocation which is unacceptable in target language. nhiÒu n-íc trªn thÕ giíi ®x ®Çu t. “We have to complete our duty before the investigators control the product quality. the word ‘‘®µn’’ can be collocated with many different nouns such as ‘‘c¸’’(fish) “chim” ( bird). On the contrary. Sau khi nghiªn cøu thÞ tr-êng.. in English there are many words meaning ‘‘®µn’’ as follows. 1. ( We have to complete our duty before the investigators control the product quality..38 Speak English/ French/ Chinese.) 4. (After making a market research. In Vietnamese. a decision”.tö’’ (lion). ‘‘s.” 2. Neither English nor Vietnamese is an exception.” should be corrected “We have to fulfill our duty before the investigators control the product quality. In fact. As a result.

A mother was taking care of her child in hospital. b¸c. his plant currently produces lubricants under the API (American Petroleum Institute) standards” (Theo «ng ThiÖn th× hiÖn nay nhµ m¸y cña «ng ®ang s¶n xuÊt dÇu nhên d-íi tiªu chuÈn cña . the meaning of a preposition in English depends on its preceding word. The social status.3 Misuse of personal pronouns and prepositions In Vietnamese.” Which was translated as ‘‘ Em yªu anh l¾m .39 3.1. . sex. d×. thÝm. 1. This is reflected in a distinguished clearly and systematically. On the contrary. quÝ vÞ. “According to Mr Thien. mµy. “Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam many foreign countries have been investing in many different fields. ngµi. we decided to launch an impressive product which can compete against the imported ones.’’ In Vietnamese. “ proud about”. She said: “ I love you very much. This difference leads to errors in using prepositions of TL. c-ng µ. it is inevitable for the translators to obey the principles of English and Vietnamese word collocations. adjective or verb proceeding it. there are many ways to express the thoughts and feelings or attitude which differ from those in English. This is reflected in a number of words for addressing such as ‘‘cô. chÞ. anh. chó. cËu.’’ instead of ‘‘ MÑ yªu con l¾m. c-ng µ. the translator should read as many English books and magazines to take notes of collocated words under the English standard.’’ such words are generally expressed by English people in one word “you”. dear. bµ. In order to avoid this type of errors.” should be corrected “Since the USA lifted the embargo against Vietnam many foreign countries have been investing in many different fields. «ng. em. These are the typical errors made by the translators: 1.. c«.” should be corrected “After doing a market research. For example.” In a word. the Vietnamese preposition ‘‘vÒ’’ can be expressed by different prepositions in English: a talk on history : be disappointed in : be interested in : lay emphasis/ stress on : be worried about : be proud of/ take pride in : be famous for : mét cuéc nãi chuyÖn vÒ lÞch sö thÊt väng vÒ quan t©m vÒ nhÊn m¹nh vÒ lo l¾ng vÒ tù hµo vÒ næi tiÕng vÒ instead of “disappointed about”. and the family order are distinguished clearly and systematically. “famous about” as the translator may use. The following examples show clearly that the translator sometimes do not master the relationship between the speaker and the hearer leading to a funny translation. “After making a market research. age.” 4. we decided to launch an impressive product which can compete against the imported ones. each preposition has a fixed meaning which does not change regardless of the noun. d-îng.

) 3.” Due to the mother tongue interference. If they do not know how to use prepositions exactly.) 2.” As can be seen from the above-mentioned examples.) 4. ‘‘Chóng t«i thµnh thËt chia buån vÒ viÖc ra ®i cña bè b¹n.’’ (We really condole with you about the loss of your father. 1.” 5. «ng Nam cã nhiÒu kinh nghiÖm vÒ viÖc gi¶ng d¹y häc sinh. ‘‘Chóng t«i thµnh thËt chia buån vÒ viÖc ra ®i cña bè b¹n.” 5.’’ should be translated (The People‟s Court decided to condemn them to 15 years imprisonment for the drug smuggling. ‘‘Lµ gi¸o viªn -u tó trong nhiÒu n¨m. ‘‘Tßa ¸n Nh©n D©n quyÕt ®Þnh kÕt ¸n chóng 15 n¨m vÒ téi bu«n lËu ma tóy.) 4.’’ (The People‟s Court decided to condemn them to 15 years imprisonment about the drug smuggling. adjectives or verbs by heart. the translators found themselves in a confusing situation when they use prepositions n English.” is equivalent with (Nãi chuyÖn qua ®iÖn tho¹i th× dÔ bÞ hiÓu nhÇm. Mr.’’ should be translated (As a qualified teacher for many years.40 ViÖn x¨ng dÇu Mü. In order to avoid this type of errors the translators should learn the prepositions going with nouns.” ( Nãi chuyÖn trªn diÖn tho¹i th× dÔ bÞ hiÓu nhÇm.’’ should be translated (We really condole with you for the loss of your father. «ng Nam cã nhiÒu kinh nghiÖm vÒ viÖc gi¶ng d¹y häc sinh. ‘‘Lµ gi¸o viªn -u tó trong nhiÒu n¨m. “It is so easy to be misunderstood when talking on the phone. These errors could be corrected as follows.Nam is experienced about educating and teaching the pupils.’’ (As a qualified teacher for many years. the translators tended to choose the English prepositions basing on Vietnamese meanings without paying attention to their variations.) 3. Mr Nam is experienced in educating and teaching the pupils. they tend to the Vietnamese ones into English or vice versa. ‘‘Tßa ¸n Nh©n D©n quyÕt ®Þnh kÕt ¸n chóng 15 n¨m vÒ téi bu«n lËu ma tóy.) 2. “According to Mr Thien. his plant currently produces lubricants under the API ( American Petroleum Institute) standards” should be translated (Theo «ng ThiÖn th× hiÖn nay nhµ m¸y cña «ng ®ang s¶n xuÊt dÇu nhên theo tiªu chuÈn cña ViÖn x¨ng dÇu Mü. “It is so easy to be misunderstood when talking on the phone. As a result. the translators should be provided with as many structures with .

( acceptable) “ The river is deep. The following can be seen as the misuse of the synonyms by some of the inexperienced translators. “CËu bÐ nµy rÊt b-íng bØnh. In Example 2 “stubborn” fails to evoke the features of positive meaning which praises the Vietnamese people on their heroism expressing the speaker‟s admiration.’’ (The Vietnamese people are really stubborn. “Ng-êi ViÖt Nam cã tinh thÇn bÊt khuÊt.’’ (The government plans to build thousands of homes for homeless people. However. Take “famous’’(næi tiÕng) and “notorious” (khÐt tiÕng) as an example.) (wrong) 3. The misuse of synonyms makes the meaning of one of the following sentences unacceptable. In fact. To some extent. the pairs of synonyms share at least one sense in common but do not share all their senses.4 Misuse of synonyms Some translators depend largely on the meaning in dictionary picking out the synonyms without paying much to the context.There is no place like home.Home is where the heart is.) ( wrong) In Example 1 “stubborn” synonymous to “unyielding” means ‘‘cøng ®Çu/b-íng bØnh’’ in Vietnamese. meaning ‘‘nhµ’’ in Vietnamese. While “famous” means “well-known/ celebrated”. “House” refers to the building or structure while “home” refers to the atmosphere or feeling found in the house.) .’’ (This boy is very stubborn/unyielding. “notorious” means “well-known” especially for unfavorable reason & negative meaning. “ You have my deep/ profound sympathy. they can hardly substitute for each other.) . (Nhµ lµ n¬i con tim tró ngô.41 prepositions systematically as possible to help them take notes and draw out the formation and rules. 1. 1.) ( right) 2. in terms of the connotational meaning they are quite different. which leads to the distorting of the meaning of the sentence. In Example 3 “home” and “house” are places where one lives. (Ch¼ng cã n¬i ®©u nh. it expresses the speaker‟s anger and discontent. ChÝnh phñ cã kÕ ho¹ch x©y hµng ngµn ng«i nhµ cho ng-êi v« gia c-.1. Example: .ë nhµ.”( acceptable) “ The river is very profound.” (unacceptable) Another example shows that some translators do not realize the connotational meaning. and therefore contains some features of positive meaning. In contrast.

it would be better for the translator to consider the differences of the pairs of synonyms when translating.’’ The above-mentioned translations could be improved as follows.’’ 2.5 Idioms & terminologies The meanings of idioms are not definitely related to grammatical rules or the lexical meaning of each word because they feature the metaphor and figures of speech. For example.” was translated as ‘‘C« Êy hiÕm khi tiÕt kiÖm thêi gian ®Ó lµm bµi tËp ë nhµ. On the second thought. If we stick to each word. On the second thought. “At first we intended to stay at home.” should be translated as ‘‘Mçi khi nhê hä ký giÊy khai sinh t¹i ñy ban nh©n d©n ph-êng. 1. For instance.b¸nh nãng”. “At first we intended to stay at home.42 Most of the synonyms have the same meaning in certain context. It is very important to be aware that we must not choose the equivalents of every word forming the idiom but we do find the equivalent ways of expression which exist in both languages. chóng t«i ph¶i ®i qua nhiÒu b¨ng ®á. 1. Trong lÇn suy nghÜ thø hai chóng t«i quyÕt ®Þnh ®i ra ngoµi. C« th-êng ®Ó cá mäc d-èi ch©n. idioms can be translated satisfactorily by considering the context. “to sell like a hot cake” is usually translated as ‘‘b¸n ®¾t nh. “ She rarely saves her time to do her homework. In addition. we decided to go out. the translator should carefully take the synonyms into consideration before using them. 1.’’ 3.1. unnatural and funny. it is difficult to find the exact meaning. If a translator use synonyms without referring to the context. we decided to go out. we have our children‟s birth certificates signed at the local People‟s committee. “Every time. Sau khi suy ®i tÝnh l¹i.(s)he can make wrong & funny for his readers. chóng t«i quyÕt ®Þnh ®i ra ngoµi.’’ 2.’’ .b©y giê’’.” was translated as ‘‘Mçi khi nhê hä ký giÊy khai sinh t¹i ñy ban nh©n d©n ph-êng. “ wet blanket” should be translated ‘‘ng-êi rÇu rÜ’’ instead of “c¸i ch¨n -ít’’ or “to read one‟s palm” translated as ‘‘xem chØ tay’’ instead of ‘‘®äc c¸i g× ë lßng bµn tay’’. The following errors were found in some of the translated texts and should be corrected.” was translated as ‘‘Tho¹t ®Çu chóng t«i cã ý ®Þnh ë nhµ. “Live and learn” is usually translated as ‘‘cßn sèng cßn häc’’ instead of ‘‘sèng vµ häc’’. chóng t«i ph¶i lµm nhiÒu thñ tôc giÊy tê r-êm rµ. An English idiom must be translated into Vietnamese by an equivalent one. In fact. we have to go though a lot of red tape. we have our children‟s birth certificates signed at the local People‟s committee. “Every time. In order to avoid the misuse. “ There is no time like present. the meaning becomes strange. She often lets the grass grow under her feet.” should be translated as ‘‘Tho¹t ®Çu chóng t«i cã ý ®Þnh ë nhµ. we have to go though a lot of red tape. if not.t«m t-¬i.” is usually translated as ‘‘viÖc h«m nay chí ®Ó ngµy mai’’ instead of ‘‘kh«ng cã thêi gian nh.” Instead of ‘‘b¸n nh.

some inexperienced translators committed the lexical errors mentioned above including those of context.’’ instead of ‘‘C¸m ¬n anh ®· tÆng em mãn quµ ®¸ng yªu. the synonyms are those of the context in which the are operating . For example. that equivalent hardly keeps the meaning of the word itself but that of context.” was translated as ‘‘C¸m ¬n anh v× mãn quµ ®¸ng yªu. For instance.sales promotion campaign: l-u l-îng tiÒn mÆt hîp ®ång b¶o hiÓm giÊy b¸o cho biÕt ®· nhËn ®-îc nh÷ng ®iÒu kho¶n tÝn dông ®ång tiÒn m¹nh biªn tÕ chªnh lÖch gi÷a gi¸ mua vµ tæng sè vèn l-u ®éng chiÕn dÞch khuyÕn m¹i In conclusion.” was translated as: .acknowledgement: . they thought that although English is different from Vietnamese. prepositions. in terms of translation.’’ In addition to this. word collocation. synonyms and idioms & terminologies. It is obvious that these units link together to create a larger unit of meaning in a given text to be translated. However. “The USA is said to be a powerful country. adverbs.’’ In addition. In some dictionaries. Even more. Structural Errors Each language has its own division of lexicon into classes such as nouns. It is not always possible to translate a SL noun with a noun in TL. At the same time. In practice. adjectives. “She rarely saves her time to do her homework.2. They are committed by those who have little knowledge of both source language(SL) and target language (TG). Another problem is that some translators did not realize the linking meaning of word units. 1. due to the limited knowledge of social background and some special fields. “Thank you for your pretty present.marginal: gi¸ b¸n) . C« th-êng ®Ó n-íc ®Õn ch©n míi nh¶y. some translators mistranslated the terminologies causing vagueness. .credit terms: .cash flow: . etc. She often lets the grass grow under her feet. there is a tendency of using more nominal structures while verbal structures are used more in Vietnamese. the authors present series of synonyms of SL in comparison with TL. it can be chosen the only one appropriate equivalent from this into that language. both languages have a one-to-one correlation of lexical items.total working capital: . inaccuracy to readers.hard currency: . The linking meaning itself does not exist in separate word units but in the link of the units constituting the whole text. It is not very easy for some translators to translate the following terminologies if they are not familiar with business texts.insurance policy: . In English. there is also a tendency of using more passive constructions in English than in Vietnamese. leading to vagueness in TL texts. verbs.” should be translated as ‘‘C« Êy hiÕm khi tiÕt kiÖm thêi gian ®Ó lµm bµi tËp ë nhµ.43 3. Some translators keep the same structures when translating.

) 3. 4.cho em. ( Hµng kh«ng ViÖt Nam gÆp ph¶i nh÷ng khã kh¨n do cuéc khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh vïng trÇm träng. Thank you for your letter. 5. In fact.) The above-mentioned translations do not sound Vietnamese. (T«i ®· ®-îc th-ëng mét chuyÕn ®i ®Õn Nha Trang bëi bè mÑ cña t«i sau mét n¨m lµm viÖc vÊt v¶.. 1.) 2. lacking the coherence and smoothness. UNESCO ®· c«ng nhËn HuÕ lµ di s¶n v¨n hãa thÕ giíi vµo n¨m 1994. 1. The most important thing is that the translations must be done on the basis of the TL grammar that is familiar to the readers.’’ 4. This principle suggests that the translator should not depend largely on the structures of the SL but break them . It would be more idiomatic to translate as follows. It is commonly known that in some languages. Sau mét n¨m häc hµnh ch¨m chØ. For example.?”. 2.’’ instead of ‘‘Ng-êi ta nãi r»ng Mü lµ mét c-êng quèc. Another problem is that some translators was not aware of the relationship between form and function of language. The Vietnamese Airlines has coped with difficulties due to the regional financial crisis. 3. “If I were .) 5. it is not necessary to keep the form at all. in English the way of giving an advice could be expressed by a number of structures : “Why don‟t you. Tr-êng häc d¹y to¸n v× to¸n häc ®ãng vai trß rÊt quan träng. some translators focused on the structures of SL so much that they fail to convey all the implicit meaning of TL. on function is expressed by many forms and vice versa. “You should/ ought to. nªn H·ng Hµng Kh«ng VN ph¶i ®-¬ng ®Çu víi nh÷ng khã kh¨n.. ( C¸m ¬n l¸ th. C¶m ¬n em ®· viÕt th. Schools teach mathematics because of its very important roles. bè mÑ ®· th-ëng cho t«i mét chuyÕn du lÞch ®Õn thµnh phè Nha Trang. As can be seen from the examples mentioned above.’’ The following examples of structural errors were made by some of translators. ( Tr-êng häc d¹y to¸n v× tÇm quan träng cña nã.”. not conveying the desired meaning of the SL sentences. Hue was recognized as the world‟s cultural heritage by UNESCO in 1994.44 ‘‘Mü ®-îc nãi lµ mét c-êng quèc. I was rewarded with a trip to Nha Trang by my parents after a year of hard work. Do ¶nh h-ëng cña cuéc khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh trÇm träng trong khu vùc. conveying the meaning as much as possible in an appropriate structures in the TL. ( HuÕ ®-îc xem lµ di s¶n v¨n hãa thÕ giíi bëi UNESCO vµo n¨m 1994.cña em.

In addition. Why did you say so? ( You should not have said so) 5. LÏ ra anh kh«ng nªn nãi nh.. long and complex sentences. I‟d. attraction for readers in the translations. Why don‟t we go to the cinema? ( a suggestion) 4.” (Kho¶ng c¸ch lín gi÷a ng-êi giµu vµ ng-êi nghÌo còng nh. What‟s the time? ( Why are you so late?) 2. th× ®õng hßng t«i tr¶ l-¬ng cho h¾n.vËy! 5. The translators were not aware of dividing or combining the sentences within a text to be translated. “You‟d better” or “ I advise you to. If they try to keep the same punctuation of the SL text. 1.45 you.sù tham nhòng vµ t×nh tr¹ng bÊt an cña x· héi g©y ra do sù ph©n bè l¹i d©n c.) 3. “ It is also necessary to invest in increasing capability of battery production establishments to meet the demand for automobile and motorbike manufacturing and assembling in accordance with the localization program.”.” . Mµy ®ßi lµm thÇy cña tao µ? 3. Are you my teacher? ( You want to teach me. These are the translated sentences with their structural errors made by some of inexperienced translators. It is much better to divide long sentences into short ones aiming at creating coherence. Cã biÕt mÊy giê råi kh«ng? 2. As mentioned in the previous part. I will not pay him for this.ë c¸c khu c«ng nghiÖp ®· lµm cho nhiÒu ng-êi ph¶i do dù khi chÊp nhËn nh÷ng thay ®æi lín.) Those sentences should be translated as follows. 1.(If he has not done. some translators did not realize the conversational implicature understood implicitly as follows. the structural difference between the SL and the TL is likely to make it difficult for the translators. Chóng ta ®i xem phim hÌ? 4. have made many people hesitate in further changes.”. run-together. Unless he has done the work to my satisfaction. the correspondent TL text will have clumsy. “The dividing gap between the rich and the poor as well as corruption and social unrest caused by the relocation of people in industrialized areas.) 2. NÕu h¾n kh«ng lµm viÖc võa ý t«i . 1.

) All above translated sentences should be corrected as follows.vµo viÖc t¨ng n¨ng suÊt cña nh÷ng c¬ së s¶n xuÊt ¾c qui ®Ó ®¸p øng nhu cÇu d©y chuyÒn s¶n xuÊt vµo viÖc chÕ t¹o « t« vµ xe m¸y phï hîp víi ch-¬ng tr×nh ë trong n-íc lµ rÊt cÇn thiÕt.” ( Ph¶i mÊt nhiÒu thêi gian ®Ó ph©n phèi hµng hãa ®Õn c¸c vïng xa x«i b»ng c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn giao th«ng l¹c hËu. 1. “ It is also necessary to invest in increasing capability of battery production establishments to meet the demand for automobile and motorbike manufacturing and assembling in accordance with the localization program. 2. the most effective way for translators is to master the structures of bot languages. “It takes much time to deliver goods to remote areas by backward means of transport.the informal language used in informal situations .) In order to overcome this type of structural errors. STYLE ERRORS Styles play an important role informal translation and strongly affect the second language meaning.vµo viÖc t¨ng n¨ng suÊt cña nh÷ng c¬ së s¶n xuÊt ¾c qui ®Ó ®¸p øng nhu cÇu d©y chuyÒn s¶n xuÊt vµo viÖc chÕ t¹o « t« vµ xe m¸y phï hîp víi ch-¬ng tr×nh ë trong n-íc.” (Sù thay ®æi chç ë t¹i c¸c vïng c«ng nghiÖp hãa ®· lµm cho kho¶ng c¸ch gi÷a ng-ßi giµu vµ ng-êi nghÌo còng nh.” (Nã lÊy nhiÒu thêi gian ®Ó ph©n phèi hµng hãa ®Õn c¸c vïng xa x«i b»ng c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn giao th«ng l¹c hËu.” ( §Çu t. formal .) 3. have made many people hesitate in further changes.46 ( Nã còng rÊt cÇn thiÕt ®Ó ®Çu t.sù tham nhòng vµ t×nh tr¹ng bÊt an cña x· héi ngµy cµng lín. familiar language used among friends. “It takes much time to deliver goods to remote areas by backward means of transport. ChÝnh ®iÒu nµy ®· lµm cho nhiÒu ng-êi ph¶i miÔn c-ìng nh÷ng thay ®æi lín h¬n n÷a. colloquials used in spoken language. It is clear that a translator who is proficient in English cannot help being good at Vietnamese and vice versa. members in a family. the levels of language in translation can be different .) 3. “The dividing gap between the rich and the poor as well as corruption and social unrest caused by the relocation of people in industrialized areas. text-type and audience.) 2. Due to the context. relatives.

The examples given below clearly indicate that the same massage could be expressed in different styles. legal documents.47 language used in formal texts such as speeches in conference. research papers. business letter & documents. .

Instead of using “soft price” . It is burning hot in summer while it chills to the bones in winter. It could be said that we will not translate from this to that language perfectly unless we know its relation to its culture. 3. community organization. attitude. Mïa hÌ trêi nãng nh. spiritural life. There are translators did not master the difference when using various styles such as conversational.) It is impossible to use informal style to tanslate a formal text. behaviour. some translators translated mechanically “ ao dai” into “ a dress”. liÖu doanh nghiÖp anh cã b¸n víi gi¸ rÎ kh«ng? (If we place substantial orders. In the broad sense. How funny it is! It would be preferredcto . However. 7. and moral conceptions. Instead of using “burning hot” . knowledge of nature and society. Drop me a line. scientific. Language . Their parents can‟t keep an eye on them. (The weather in Hue is favorable for the old. can your enterprise get us with soft price?) It is impossible to use informal style in a business letter. Thêi tiÕt ë HuÕ kh«ng thÝch hîp cho ng-êi giµ. emotions. the translator should use “cheaper price”. It is common ly known that “ao dai” is a traditional costume of the Vietnamese women and we never find an equivalent word in English to translate “ao dai”. formal) These are some style errors taken out from some Vietnamese. Many translators failed when coming across the unfamiliar styles due to being unaware of degrees of formality (informal or formal style). 6. They can escape from family suprvision. 2. 1. production activities. usage of vocabulary ( informal. trong khi mïa ®«ng l¹nh ®Õn x-¬ng tñy. They are armed to teeth. 3. of the member of a particular society. (colloquial) Style error is an acute problem to the translators. Language is regarded as both a component of a culture and network through which other elements of culture operate. 4. Remember to write me a letter. academic. it includes mode of production. the translator should use “exceedingly hot”. NÕu chóng t«i ®Æt hµng víi sè l-îng lín.thiªu ®èt.English translations. 2. colloquial. CULTURAL ERRORS Culture could be understood as the total set of beliefs. ( informal language ) ( neutral) ( informal language ) ( formal) ( formal) ( colloquial) 5.48 1. literary styles. social habits etc. customs. therefore uses almost all other cultural elements so as to perfect its universal and self-sufficient nature. I look forward to your letter. They are completely armed.

’’ should be translated as “ The traditional costume of the Vietnamese women is ‘‘ao dai’’ which symbolises the grace. the title will be considered after the other aspects as all other cultural implications need to be examined before reaching relevant conclusions. The cultural implications for translation may take several forms ranging from lexical content and syntax to ideologies and ways of life in a given culture. The translation process will also be treated using specific examples found in the ST before discussing the success of aforementioned theoretical methods applied to the TT." As this statement implies. this essay will examine the importance of culture in translation through a literature review. Before applying these methods to the chosen text. Although corresponding to cultural categories examined. highlighting. The translator also has to decide on the importance given to certain cultural aspects and to what extent it is necessary or desirable to translate them into the TL. or excluding certain aspects.49 writing down “ao dai” to express the cultural feature to making foreign people misunderstand “ao dai” as”a dress”. Due to these considerations. The aims of the ST will also have implications for translation as well as the intended readership for both the ST and the target text (TT). * ‘‘ Trang phôc truyÒn thèng cña ng-êi phô n÷ ViÖt Nam lµ chiÕc ¸o dµi t-îng tr-ng cho sù duyªn d¸ng. Considering the cultural implications for a translated text implies recognising all of these problems and taking into account several possibilities before deciding on the solution which appears the most appropriate in each specific case. . The different general procedures of treating the cultural implications for translation will be examined as well as analysing the ST and the aims of the author. Translation is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions. translators are permanently faced with the problem of how to treat the cultural aspects implicit in a source text (ST) and of finding the most appropriate technique of successfully conveying these aspects in the target language (TL). These problems may vary in scope depending on the cultural and linguistic gap between the two (or more) languages concerned. the title will be considered separately in order to determine the pertinence of conserving.

50 CHAPTER 2: ASSIGNMENT 1: I. B. . 3. 4. The young man had an English grammar book stolen. 4. each of which contains a word used in a primary sense. each of which contains a word used in a secondary sense. Example: They robbed the old man. I came. Go to bed. and conquered. The students like studying translation. EXERCISES: A. Answer: Change of form 1. Indicate if the primary change is in the form or in the meaning. Some of the following pairs of sentences differ in their form. I conquered. I came. An English grammar book was stolen from the young man. 5. 3.THEORY: ASSIGNMENTS 1. What is an idiomatic translation? Give some examples of idiomatic translations. List as many grammatical forms as you can which realize the same meaning as the one given below. Identify change of meaning versus change of form. He saw the bird. The students like to study translation. II. The old man was dropped by them. What are the secondary meanings? Give ten sentences. I want you to go to bed. What is the primary meaning? Give ten sentences. Some differ in meaning. saw. 2. I saw. Then put the same meaning into a language other than English in as many forms as you can. He heard the cat. What is translation? What definition do you think is the most appropriate? Can you give your own definition of translation? 2.

A hot day 4. The doctor‟s hand 6. (a) John was very surprised when he heard the news. The water jug 2. (a) It was a hot day. Peter‟s house C. the same in meaning or 2.the eye is part of the man 1. 4. For each pair of sentences.the man owns the car The man‟s eye . The doctor‟s book 4. 1. apart from the referential meaning of the word itself. there is a change of meaning which is signaled by that lexical item. different in meaning. (b) Rain fell all night. Mother‟s long blue dress 5.51 Example: The cat is black The black cat The cat. 2. With the change of lexical items. All of the following have the same grammatical form. The doctor‟s patient 3. The doctor‟s brother 5. What meaning is signaled in each of the following possessive phrases? Answer by restating. 5. The doctor‟s house D. 3. (b) The day was hot. How can that meaning best be expressed in another language which you speak? Example: The man‟s car . (a) There is a book on the table. (a) It rained all night. (b) The news very much amazed John when he heard it. (b) There is a table on the book. state whether the two sentences are 1. The doctor‟s office 2. John bought a car 3. (a) Peter‟s house (b) The house that belongs to Peter . which is black 1.

II. 8. thuéc tr-êng ph¸i hiÖn thùc phª ph¸n thÕ kû 19. nh-ng ng-êi ta ph¶i thùc hiÖn nhiÒu chuyÖn kh¸c ®Ó c¶i thiÖn t×nh tr¹ng søc khoÎ. (b) He did not say anything. (b) John is very ill indeed. §iÒu mµ chóng ta ®¸nh gi¸ cao vÒ nh÷ng t¸c phÈm cña Dickens lµ sù phª ph¸n vÒ téi ¸c vµ sù t-¬ng ph¶n gi÷a giµu vµ nghÌo cña x· héi t. ThÕ giíi mµ «ng ta miªu t¶ lµ thÕ giíi cña giai cÊp trung l-u vµ h¹ l-u ë Lu©n §«n. (a) I bought cloth to make Mary a new dress. He told the one little story. a or b? How would the meaning be expressed idiomatically in the language you speak? 1. 5. E. 7. c«ng nghÖ vµ tri thøc. (b)The storekeeper promised to refund our money. (b) I bought a new dress for Mary. Translate the following sentences into English. 9. (a) The storekeeper said that we will refund your money. ASSIGNMENT 2: I. which is more idiomatic English. (a) My parents are well. In each of the following pairs of sentences. 2. D©n sè ®ang t¨ng theo cÊp sè nh©n trong lóc s¶n xuÊt hµng ho¸ l¹i t¨ng theo cÊp sè céng. (a) John is ill: he has a bad case of malaria.52 6. dinh d-ìng vµ gi¸o dôc cho phô n÷. (b) My mother and father are well. ChÞ may ¸o s¬ mi nµy ë ®©u vËy? 2.THEORY: 1. Mét trong nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò ®ã lµ sù bïng næ d©n sè. What grammatical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas. Charles Dickens lµ mét trong nh÷ng nhµ viÕt tiÓu thuyÕt lín nhÊt thÕ giíi. (a) A certain boy told me this little story at a party. §µ L¹t chiÕm cø mét vïng ®Êt réng trªn cao nguyªn L©m Viªn. EXERCISES: A. xung quanh toµn lµ nói ®åi hïng vÜ. 4. (a) He remained silent. (b) He is one boy. Ngµy nay thÕ giíi ®ang ®-ong ®Çu víi nhiÒu vÊn ®Ò nghiªm träng cho dï ®· cã nhiÒu b-íc tiÕn ®¸ng kÓ trong lÜnh vùc khoa häc. 3. ®Æc biÖt ë c¸c n-íc ®ang ph¸t triÓn. What are the differences between a literal translation and an idiomatic translation? 2. 1. . MÆc dï ®Þa vÞ cña phô n÷ ®· cã nh÷ng b-íc tiÕn kú diÖu.s¶n Anh lóc bÊy giê. This is a game he said.

(If there is any way to do so. A robbery took place of a motorcycle rider at Kampung early yesterday morning. 2. many foreign countries have been investing in Vietnam. send a letter to me in Saigon. who are the thief searching intensively. I am a man who has been to Hanoi for 12 years. 4. Hue is famous about its delicious dishes and beautiful landscapes. If there is any means. 1. 1. 1. And how many hot children‟s tears have not been shed on spelling? 4. Sir. 3. ( Sir. ( I will be thinking about you often every day.) 5. (a) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform as well. C. Th¸c M¬ lµ c«ng tr×nh thuû ®iÖn cã c«ng suÊt thiÕt kÕ 150. I am very grateful to inform you with this letter. The forms used shows examples of how their mother-tongue language structures have been carried over into English.too. Translate the following sentences into Englisgh. Suggest a more idiomatic way of saying it. send me a letter to Saigon.000 Kw. the problems of before don‟t forget.) 4. The participants discussed about the causes of pollution environment.) D. please don‟t forget the problems we discussed before. How many children have shed hot tears about spelling? (b) An International Alphabet would inevitably bring about a spelling reform. I will think you time to time day and day.) 3. Foreign tourists usually at Kinh Do Hotel for their friends have introduced to them very much about this hotel. (b) He then his mishap reported to the police. Each of the following are sentences written by some Vietnamese who are not yet fluent English speakers. ( I have now lived in Hanoi for 12 years.53 3. Look for literalisms in the following translations into English and underline the words or phrases that do not sound natural in English. B. What changes were made in correcting the English? These changes point out some of the differences between Vietnamese and English. who are searching diligently for the thief. ( I am very happy to be able to send/write you this letter. . The same information is then given in parenthesis in idiomatic English. 5 . (a) He then reported his misfortune to the police.) 2. s¶n l-îng ®iÖn trung b×nh hµng n¨m 600 triÖu Kw giê. All of these examples are from published translated material. Since the USA abolished the embargo against Vietnam.

with investment capital from the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. miÒn Nam ®· tho¸t khái t×nh tr¹ng ®ãi ®iÖn. Tõ ngµy khëi c«ng ®Õn nay. 8. There have been four foreign invested projects in education. 7. 9. . n¨m 1994. 2. It is projected to extend integration opportunities to 3000 disabled children in three provinces. 5. It is more likely that schools in the southern provinces have more computer labs used in teaching foreign languages than schools in the northern provinces.000 mÐt khèi tÇng läc.000 mÐt khèi bª t«ng cèt thÐp vµ l¾p ®Æt gÇn 7. 7. Trung tuÇn th¸ng 11/1993. its traditional friend and stragic partner in Southeast Asia. 6. Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese 1. Nh. trade. E.vËy. ®¾p h¬n 350.vËy sÏ cã mét sù trïng hîp cã ý nghÜa lµ cïng mét thêi ®iÓm víi viÖc khëi ®éng tæ m¸y sè 1 thuû ®iÖn th¸c M¬.54 2. 5. Efforts are being made to raise women‟s awareness of their rights to have labour safety or hygiene conditions at work through an expanded communication network. ®æ kho¶ng 220. hÖ thèng t¶i ®iÖn 500 Kw B¾c Nam còng ®-îc hoµn thµnh. one in mountainous areas. They discussed a series of measures intended to ensure comprehensive cooperation in economy.000 tÊn thiÕt bÞ vµ kÕt cÊu kim lo¹i. Theo «ng NguyÔn B¸ MÉn. ®æ kho¶ng 40% khèi l-îng bª c«ng cèt thÐp. it is still far below the demand to fully equip schools and improve training quality. science and technology. 4. ViÖc chÆn dßng s«ng BÐ tiÕn hµnh vµo th¸ng 12 nµy. nh-ng chÝnh phñ quyÕt ®Þnh ph¶i hoµn thµnh viÖc thi c«ng trong hai n¨m do nhu cÇu cung cÊp ®iÖn cho c¸c ®Þa ph-¬ng phÝa Nam ®· trë nªn hÕt søc cÊp b¸ch. 4. 3. Thñ t-íng Vâ V¨n KiÖt ®· ®Õn kiÓm tra t×nh h×nh thi c«ng c«ng tr×nh thuû ®iÖn th¸c M¬. Víi khèi l-îng c«ng viÖc lín nh. c¸c ®¬n vÞ thi c«ng ®· thùc hiÖn ®-îc kho¶ng 90% khèi l-îng ®µo ®Êt. Tr-ëng ban Qu¶n lý c«ng tr×nh. Nh÷ng ng-êi l·nh ®¹o c«ng tr×nh kh¼ng ®Þnh víi Thñ t-íng r»ng ®· cã ®Çy ®ñ c¬ së ®Ó ®¶m b¶o khëi ®éng tæ m¸y sè 1 vµo th¸ng 6 n¨m 1994. §Ó x©y dùng c«ng tr×nh nµy cÇn ph¶i ®µo ®¾p gÇn 15 triÖu m3 ®Êt ®¸. one in the central coast and one in remote areas. th× hÇu hÕt c¸c h¹ng môc c¨n b¶n ®Òu ®¹t ®óng yªu cÇn vÒ tiÕn ®é thi c«ng. 3. Víi c¸c c«ng tr×nh nµy. 6. Although the state budget for teaching aids at schools of all levels has been icreased since 1990. President Putin affirmed that Russia has always attacted importance to its relations with Vietnam. 10.

Of 50 foreign language students surveyed recently by the Vietnam Courier. 10.55 8. 38 said they are not interested in working for foreign invested companies. Most recently the government has offered incentives like tax reduction or preferential loans to employers who have employed a large number of women. Vietnam and China agreed to set up negotiations for the signing of a land border agreement delineating the sea boundary in the Bac Bo ( Tonkin ) Gulf no later than 2000. 9. .

Qu¶ng B¸ víi nhiÒu lo¹i : ®µo hång th¾m. 1. S¸t víi vïng Néi Thµnh lµ vïng hoa NhËt T©n . ®ñ ®¸p øng nhu cÇu cña ng-êi Hµ Néi vÒ hoa c¶nh. 4. TiÕc thay. The whole area around the temple was virtually packed with people. the government has launched a program of community-based education and integration. n¬i ®©y lµ rõng hoa. Hµ Néi thêi më cöa ®ang ®æi thay. Mong sao Hµ néi vµ ng-êi Hµ Néi m·i m·i xøng danh víi m¶nh ®Êt ngµn n¨m v¨n hiÕn. Ch¼ng cßn nghi ngê g× n÷a. . 7. What lexical features should be considered when you translate a text? Give some examples to support your ideas. 1. quÊt vµng méng. 9. ng-êi th× tù bá vèn hoÆc lµ liªn kÕt víi ng-êi bá vèn hïn h¹p x©y dùng c¸c biÖt thù sang träng dïng lµm kh¸ch s¹n mi ni phôc vô kh¸ch n-íc. cá hoa cho viÖc vç bÐo lîn.56 ASSIGNMENT 3: I. To reduce the costs while increasing accessibility of education for disabled children. THEORY: 1. Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese. 2. B. Ng-êi th× b¸n ®¸t bá nghÒ. The centerpiece of the festivities was a show entitled “ A Flock of Birds to Good Land” staged simultaneously on the three different grand stages in the downtown area. leaving only a small opening for the rituals to proceed. Vµi ba n¨m trë vÒ tr-íc. 3. Translate the following sentences into English.nÊm ®ñ lo¹i hµng ho¸ tõ b×nh d©n ®Õn cao cÊp. Cã lÏ bµ con n«ng d©n ngo¹i thµnh lµ ng-êi c¶m nhËn thÊy TÕt h¬n ai hÕt bëi tõ viÖc vun xíi rau qu¶. Cöa hµng. 6. Why do you have to take the time to read the source language text carefully before translating it? II. tim tÝm vi«lÐt vµ ®á rùc hoa ®ång tiÒn. 10. Bµ con vïng nµy lµ nh÷ng nghÖ nh©n cã truyÒn thèng trång hoa l©u ®êi. gµ ®Ìu nh»m phôc vô tÕt. cöa hiÖu mäc lªn nh. Nghi Tµm. ta sÏ nh×n thÊy b¹t ngµn hoa xu©n. 5. EXERCISES: A. 2. NÕu ®i tõ phÝa Kinh B¾c xuèng. nhÊt lµ lay¬n khoe s¾c ®ñ mµu. ®ang ph¸t triÓn. 3. ®Êt trång hoa hiÖn nay bÞ thu hÑp dÇn do sù chuyÓn h-íng lµm ¨n cña kh«ng Ýt nghÖ nh©n. 2. Ngay tõ nh÷ng ngµy ®Çu th¸ng Ch¹p ( ¢m lÞch) TÕt ®· l¶ng v¶ng ë vïng ngo¹i thµnh Hµ Néi. 8.

The television network is being established throughout the country. Deforestation Population growth is one factor in rainforest destruction. But out of the four marketplaces targeted. These relay the important transmissions of the central TV stations and broadcast their own program. However. However. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil. South-east Asia and the Pacific is caused by clearing land to grow cash crops for export and by commercial logging operations. The majority of deforestation in Latin America. Explain what is meant by exegesis. Apart from the relatively modern and long-standing television stations in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. and not by „shifting‟ cultivators or landless peasants. ASSIGNMENT 4: I. down from 4. Name and discuss the four T‟s of a translation project. Regular expenditure has been ensured. Due to the open-door policy. The budget deficit has been kept at a permissible level of 3. much of the timber being exported to the United States and Japan. II. THEORY: 1. Hanoi removed a number of unofficial marketplaces into designated areas. floods and droughts have been made. The Vietnamese families have been affected by the agricultural civilization. to restore public order. 7.2% in 1997.57 4. The Vietnam‟s Women Union is represented in the National Assembly and its president is entitled to attend the regular meeting of The Council of Ministers where she can express the Women Union‟s view-points and propose the regulations related to the Union. only Dong Tam market was moved from the Dong Da residential quarter to the Dai La area. The economic development of Vietnam has to be viewed in the context of long periods of wars. 10. State budget revenues have approximately achieved the level originally set. it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor. these sources made up only 13% and 21% of the state budget for general education schools and universities respectively. 5. 9.6% of GDP in 1998. 6. In recent years. Read the English text and answer the questions. Each year commercial logging eliminates 45000 square kilometers of forest. while irregular spending in support of area hit by storms. 25 provincial stations were set up in 1988. It is the context of long periods of wars that has caused loss of people‟s lives and damage to property. Besides the investment from the State budget. public facilities and resources. 2. 8. the industrial civilization has exerted a daily and hourly effect on the life of Vietnamese families. EXERCISES: A. where tropical forest has been converted to grazing . all the schools had to look for other financial sources to buy teaching equipment.

Read the Vietnamese text and answer the questions. ®ång ©m víi ‘‘n-íc’’ trong ý nghÜa tæ quèc quª h-¬ng. hå. S«ng n-íc vµ con ng-êi ë ®©y kÕt hîp víi thiªn nhiªn vµ lÞch sö nh. Europe and Japan. What is the text about? 3. ë ViÖt Nam th× ‘‘n-íc’’( trong s«ng.) l¹i ®ång nghÜa. affluent society. hÔ gÆp nhau lÇn ®Çu nãi lµ hiÓu nhau ngay. it is a myth to assume that the expansion of subsistence agriculture to feed more mouths is the main factor. commercial logging operations. B. Trªn thÕ giíi. Translate the text into Vietnamese. S«ng Cöu Long vµ tõng sèng chÕt víi s«ng n-íc nµy. How many times have you read the text to understand it completely? . NON N¦íC Cha «ng ta ®· uèng n-íc s«ng Hång. where tropical forest has been converted to grazing land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. 6. shifting cultivators. The establishment of large ranch-style cattle grazing properties is the principal reason for the elimination of 20000 square kilometers of rainforest each year in Central or South America. 1. S«ng §µ. biÓn. No clearer connection between deforestation and the demands of affluent societies can be found than in Central America and Brazil. which affect the poor the most. have arisen largely from external loans taken out to finance the purchase of luxury items and arms by military and governing elite. What is the author‟s purpose of writing this text? 2. external debt payment. However. These heavy payments. cã nhiÒu quèc gia tõ tØnh nä sang tØnh kia nãi lµ kh«ng hiÓu nhau råi. hamburger connection ? 5.mét khèi bÊt tö bÊt diÖt bëi mét thø xi m¨ng tr-êng tån. Do you have any difficulty in finding the equivalent Vietnamese structures of the following English sentences? a. 1.58 land because cattle raising offers export earnings that help with external debt payments. dï bÊt kú ë ®©u. §ã lµ lßng yªu n-íc th-¬ng nßi cña d©n téc ViÖt Nam. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh. military and governing elites. What is the text about? 3. cash crops. landless peasants.tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. ranch-style cattle grazing property. ng-êi Nam kÎ B¾c. How many times have you read the text to understand it completely? 4. Nh-ng ë ViÖt Nam. What is the author‟s purpose of writing this text? 2.the aptly named „hamburger connection‟. Do you have any difficulty in finding the Vietnamese meaning of the English words : subsistence agriculture. b. The cleared land is mainly devoted to the export of beef for the fast-food industries in North America.

sù thèng nhÊt. 2. Translate the text into English. and telephones were foreseen. b. Robot machines are replacing assembly line workers in manufacturing. Ford. Until the 17th century. lßng yªu n-íc th-¬ng nßi. ng-êi Nam kÎ B¾c. sèng chÕt. The forerunner of modern computer goes back some 5000 years to the first calculating machine invented by the Chinese. Nissan and Simpson Pope. 3.59 4. kÕt hîp chÆt chÏ. 7. ASSIGNMENT 5: I. In the human history. 50 robots were in use in Australia by companies such as General Motors. and to increase human understanding of the world. By 1980. submarines. Do you have any difficulty in finding the equivalent English structures of the following Vietnamese sentences? a. 5. 4. EXERSISES: A. xi m¨ng tr-êng tån. Why is this revolution occuring? What will be its social consequences? To answer these questions . 6. Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese. They have already done so in the Fiat car factory in Italy and the Nissan car plant in Japan. utopian invetions such as aircrafts. science has been seen as having a mission to liberate people from ignorance and superstition. What kinds of evaluation checks can be made? II. Do you have any difficulty in finding the English meaning of the Vietnamese words : cha «ng. Many of the jobs now being performed by people in the manufacturing and service sectors of our economy can be done faster and more cheaply by modern computers or electronic devices controlled by computers. The News Atlantic hailed the scientists of the time as merchants of light who would penetrate the darkness and open the way to man‟s control over nature. hiÓu nhau? 5.Nh-ng ë ViÖt Nam. Europe had nothing to rival the abacus for speed and accuracy of calculation. At that time. England and the USA to aid the speedy and accurate calculations necessary to decode the enemy‟s messages during the Second World War. C¸c b¹n thö nghÜ xem rÊt Ýt ng«n ng÷ trªn thÕ giíi l¹i cã sù thèng nhÊt nh. . Computers were developed simultaneously in Germany. What is the purpose of the evaluation? 3. What are the goals of the translator as he prepares the initial draft? 2.tiÕng mÑ ®Î cña chóng ta. hÔ gÆp nhau lÇn ®Çu nãi lµ hiÓu nhau ngay. to lessen human misery.the abacus. it is necessary to consider briefly the history of computers. THEORY: 1. 1. dï bÊt kú ë ®©u. 6. People involved in the computer industry believe we are experiencing a computer revolution.

khu chÕ biÕn h¶i s¶n. 9. although the social costs and benefits were far from equal share.THEORY: 1.60 8. Translate the following sentences into English. “cottage industry” artisans suddenly found themselves redundant and de-skilled by the new technology. cã kÕt cÊu ®Þa lý æn ®Þnh víi diÖn tÝch hµng chôc c©y sè vu«ng. t-îng tr-ng cho nguån l-¬ng thùc cña c¶ . which was wiped out by electronic watches in a couple of years. Translate the following sentences into English. 4. With the mechanization of some work processes. víi nguån n-íc tõ s«ng Bång. Why does a translator often make structural and lexical errors when he/she translates a text? 3. skilled. The Industrial Revolution. viÖc ®Þnh nghÜa l¹i kh¸i niªm viÖc lµm cã lÏ lµ cÇn thiÕt. ®-êng t¶i ®iÖn vµ c¸p quang xuyªn ViÖt kho¶ng 12 ViÖc cung cÊp n-íc ngät cho khu nµy lµ hÕt søc thuËn lîi tr÷ l-îng lµ 3 tØ mÐt khèi /n¨m. The heroic image of science grew through the 18th and 19th centuries. Firms that do not adopt the new computer technology are enable to compete with their cheaper electronic rivals. nhµ m¸y läc dÇu. Mét diÒu kiÖn thuËn lîi n÷a lµ Dung QuÊt n»m c¸ch ®-êng ®-êng s¾t. 1. which started in England in the late 18th century. Previously. N¬i ®©y sÏ h×nh thµnh c¸c khu c«ng nghiÖp nÆng vµ ho¸ chÊt.®« thÞ hiÖn ®¹i víi kho¶ng 60 v¹n d©n. 2. Bê phÝa nam vÞnh lµ mét vïng ®¸t b»ng ph¼ng. the new factories initially resulted in large-scale structural unemployment. Such has been the fate of the $200 million a year Swiss watch industry. Give some examples of errors in word collocation that a translator could make when he/she translate a text. 10. VÞnh cã chiÒu dµi 18 km vµ ®-îc che chë kÝn ®¸o bëi c¸c d·y nói tù nhiªn. EXERCISES: A. Do phï sa båi ®¾p cña dßng s«ng Cöu Long ®· lam phong phó vùa lóa ®Çy ¾p nµy. B. Ngµy nay chóng ta ®ang tr·i qua mét cuéc biÕn ®æi x· héi rÊt s©u s¾c nh. Name some kinds of errors that a translator could make when he/she translates a text. VÞnh Dung QuÊt n»m ë phÝa ®«ng b¾c huyÖn B×nh S¬n. much sought-after. bé. khu chÕ biÕn n«ng s¶n. 3. 2. II. 1.sù thay ®æi trong cuéc c¸ch m¹ng c«ng nghiÖp lÇn thø nhÊt. víi Trµ 5. khu c«ng nghiÖp nhÑ vµ mét khu d©n c. ASSIGNMENT 6: I. km. tØnh Qu¶ng Ng·i. Do vËy. strongly reinforced faith in a technological society.

Tõ nh÷ng dßng s«ng réng lín ®Õn nh÷ng m-¬ng r¹ch m¶nh mai chØ tiÖn cho nh÷ng chiÕc thuyÒn nhá bÐ ra v«. 7.’’ 5. §Ó khuyÕn khÝch hÖ thèng ng©n hµng ho¹t ®éng cã môc ®Ých h¬n.The nuclear energy proponents also pressed the theme that it was inevitable that the world would increasingly go nuclear. and rehabilitate the health of the individuals and the community.61 n-íc còng nh. MÆc dï møc l-¬ng tèi thiÓu hµng th¸ng t¨ng. Tr-íc n¨m 1988. Today. Cuéc ®iÒu tra cho thÊy r»ng 39% phô n÷ cã gia ®×nh dïng ph-¬ng ph¸p hiÖn ®¹i. chÝnh s¸ch míi vÒ l·i suÊt vµ cho phÐp tù do bu«n b¸n vµng trªn thÞ tr-êng. tr¹m cuèi cïng cña hµnh tr×nh 4500km n¬i cöa ngâ biÓn §«ng. nhiÒu kiÒu bµo cßn ®ãng gãp x©y dùng quª h-¬ng. ®-a vµo c¸c chÝnh s¸ch tÝn dông h¹n ®Þnh. 3. the physicians should be considered as men of health. 2. chÝnh phñ ®· ®Ì ra c¸c biÖn ph¸p míi bao gåm tæ chøc l¹i hÖ thèng ng©n hµng. In the field of medicine training. 4. yªu quÝ vµ gi÷ g×n b¶n s¾c v¨n ho¸ vµ hun ®óc nªn tÝnh c¸ch con ng-êi ViÖt Nam. who broke machines. 4. §iÒu ®¸ng quÝ lµ kiÒu bµo lu«n h-íng vÒ tæ quèc. 6. h-ëng øng viÖc cøu trî nh÷ng n¬i trong n-íc bÞ thiªn tai vµ tham gia c¸c viÖc nghÜa víi truyÒn thèng ‘‘ nhiÔu ®iÒu phñ lÊy gi¸ g-¬ng. 2. ®Êt n-íc. the responsibility of the physicians is to know how to discover. It is suggested that the opponents were standing against the tide of history and were akin to the Luddites at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.phong c¸ch sinh ho¹t kÒ cËn s«ng n-íc cña c. nh-ngl-¬ng thùc tÕ vÉn gi¶m xuèng ®¸ng kÓ do l¹m ph¸t. what was done in the past years has been remarked by distinguished fact that many specialists and medical colleges in different countries set forth the necessity for reconsidering training subjects for health workers. ph-¬ng ph¸p th-êng dïng nhÊt lµ ®Æt vßng tr¸nh thai B. 3. Cuéc ®iÒu tra do héi phô n÷ ViÖt Nam tiÕn hµnh cho thÊy r»ng nh÷ng ph-¬ng ph¸p tr¸nh thai truyÒn thèng ®ang ®-îc ¸p dông réng r·i. . ¶nh h-ëng cña hÖ thèng ng©n hµng ®èi víi sù ph¸t triÓn vµ qu¶n lý kinh tÕ vÜ m« lµ kh«ng ®¸ng kÓ. dramatically increasing the blood cells that HIV destroys. Ngoµi viÖc gióp ®ì ng-êi th©n ë n-íc nhµ. Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese 1. Doctors have shown for the first time they can rebuild the immune systems of people infected with the AIDS virus. Hence. g¾n bã víi gia ®×nh quª h-¬ng.d©n trong vïng. S«ng Cöu Long cho ta mét c¶nh quan hoµnh tr¸ng khi nã ch¶y vµo ViÖt Nam. cure. ChÝnh phñ ®¨ xóc tiÕn mét cuéc t¸i thiÕt toµn diÖn vÒ l-¬ng bæng cña c«ng nh©n viªn nhµ n-íc b»ng c¸ch chØnh ®èn l¹i nh÷ng kho¶n bao cÊp cho ng-êi tiªu dïng trªn danh nghÜa ho¹ch ®Þnh l¹i chÕ ®é l-¬ng.

NhËn ra nh÷ng nh©n tè t¹o nªn viÖc häc ngo¹i ng÷ nhanh vµ hiÖu qu¶ ngµy cµng trë nªn quan träng v× ®a sè ng-êi häc lµ ng-êi lín rÊt lo l¾ng khi häc mét ngo¹i ng÷ chuyªn ngµnh sö dông trong th-¬ng m¹i. 4. Sù hiÖn diÖn cña hµng tr¨m lµng nghÒ truyÒn thèng ®· s¶n xuÊt ra hµng ngh×n lo¹i s¶n phÈm thñ c«ng mü nghÖ næi tiÕng. . 2. Nowadays people are inclined to worry too much about their physical health. Trong nh÷ng ngµy ®ã du kh¸ch cßn ®-îc quan s¸t c¸ch chän c¸c vß r-îu cÇn vµ nhÊt lµ viÖc chän tr©u ®Ó ®©m.Søc hÊp dÉn lín nhÊt ®èi víi du kh¸ch lµ b¶n s¾c v¨n hãa cña d©n téc ViÖt Nam. and a truly healthy man is one who can enjoy the proper equilibrium between his body and mind. However. NÕu du kh¸ch ®Õn víi c¸c vïng d©n téc thiÓu sè th× cßn cã thÓ tham dù vµo nh÷ng sinh ho¹t v¨n hãa kú thó cña vïng nói rõng nhiÖt ®íi. C¸c dÞch vô x· héi ®· gióp phô n÷ bít nhäc nh»n trong c«ng viÖc nhµ vµ t¹o ®IÒu kiÖn cho phô n÷ tham gia vµo c¸c ho¹t ®éng x· héi . ViÖt Nam lµ mét céng ®ång cña 54 d©n téc víi nhiÒu phong tôc. SÏ ph¶i cã mÆt tr-íc lÔ héi hµng tuÇn cïng ng-êi d©n ®i t×m tre ®Ó söa nhµ r«ng.Nh÷ng thµnh tùu cña qu¸ tr×nh ®æi míi trong thËp niªn võa qua ®· t¹o ra nh÷ng c¬ héi cho phô n÷ ®¹t ®-îc môc ®Ých cña m×nh. Héi còng ®Ö tr×nh lªn nhµ n-íc nh÷ng ®iÒu luËt vµ chÝnh s¸ch nh»m ph¸t huy mäi tiÒm n¨ng cña phô n÷ trong tiÕn tr×nh ®æi míi. trong ®ã hµng tr¨m di tÝch cã gi¸ trÞ lÞch sö vµ nghÖ thuËt cao. I would like to lay stress on the importance of psychological health. Cuéc sèng cña phô n÷ ®· ®-îc c¶i thiÖn vµ phô n÷ bít nhäc nh»n h¬n. Being mentally healthy is very important.nghiªn cøu vµ ngo¹I giao.62 5. Hµng ngh×n di tÝch lÞch sö. 5. A healthy man should be healthy not only physically but also mentally. ASSIGNMENT 7: Translate the following texts into English 1. Héi phô n÷ ViÖt nam ®¹I diÖn cho phô n÷ ViÖt Nam trong c¶ n-íc ®· ®æi míi tæ chøc vµ c¸ch lµm viÖc v× vËy ®· thu hót ngµy cµng nhiÒu phô n÷ tham gia vµo c«ng t¸c x· héi. di tÝch c¸ch m¹ng ®· ®-îc nhµ n-íc xÕp h¹ng. H«Þ phô n÷ gióp cho phô n÷ gi¶i quyÕt nh÷ng khã kh¨n trong cuéc sèng h»ng ngµy. Nhu cÇu ®Ó häc mét ngäai ng÷ cã hiÖu qu¶ cÇn ®-îc xem xÐt theo khÝa c¹nh ng-êi häc. ng-êi d¹y vµ ch-¬ng tr×nh gi¶ng d¹y. tËp qu¸n. ®Ó lµm c©y nªu xua ®uæi ma quû. Mét lÔ héi ®©m tr©u ch¼ng h¹n. 3. It is obvious that a healthy body helps a sound mind because it is the sound minds that direct the orientation of the values systems. 6. v¨n hãa nghÖ thuËt d©n gian ®Æc s¾c.

®ang sinh sèng ë n-íc ngoµi. MÆc dï lµ n¹n nh©n cña biÕt bao nhiªu cuéc x©m l-îc.’’ ASSIGNMENT 8: Translate the following text into English Cã lÏ B¾c Kinh lµ n¬i tËp trung quyÒn lùc chÝnh trÞ nh-ng Th-îng H¶i còng cã quyÒn tù hµo lµ mét thñ ®« th-¬ng m¹i. ChØ riªng c¸i tªn Th-îng H¶i còng ®· dËy nªn mét lµn sãng nhá niÒm thÝch thó v« tËn.63 6. cña céng ®ång vµ mçi c¸ nh©n tù v-¬n lªn hßa nhËp v¬I x· h«Þ. B¾c Kinh cã lÏ lµ n¬i tËp trung quyÒn lùc chÝnh trÞ nh-ng danh hiÖu mét thñ ®« th-¬ng m¹i l¹i thuéc vÒ Th-îng H¶i. tuy thÕ hÇu hÕt du kh¸ch ®Òu bÞ chinh phôc tr-íc vÎ quyÕn rò cña thµnh phè ®Æc biÖt nµy. Tõ nh÷ng n¨m 1920 trë ®i. C¸c ng©n hµng vµ c¸c c«ng ty th-¬ng m¹i ®ñ lo¹i tù x©y dùng cho hä nh÷ng trô së chÝnh sang träng tr«ng ra n¬i mµ sau ®ã lµ nh÷ng c¸nh ®ång lóa mªnh m«ng tr¶i dµi hai bê s«ng Hoµng Phè. 7. §ã thùc lµ mét th¸ch thøc lín ®èi víi d©n téc ViÖt Nam trong bèi c¶nh quèc tÕ ngµy nay. 8.lµ mét n¬i mµ bÊt cø viÖc g× còng cã thÓ x¶y ra. chÝnh lßng nh©n ¸I lµ nh©n tè t¹o nªn søc m¹nhcña d©n téc vµ nÒn ngo¹I giao ViÖt Nam. Sù l¹c hËu vµ nguy c¬ tôt hËu h¬n vÒ kinh tÕ ®ang lµ nçi tr¨n trë canh c¸nh trong lßng mçi ng-êi ViÖt Nam ë trong n-íc còng nh. LÊy chÝ nh©n thay c-êng b¹o. Th-îng H¶i vÉn lµ mét thµnh phè nhá chuyªn nghÒ ®¸nh c¸ vµ dÖt m·i cho ®Õn nöa thÕ kû 19 khi nã b¾t ®Çu ph¸t triÓn nh. NguyÔn Tr·I . Nh÷ng ng-êi chñ h·ng bu«n vµ c¸c øng cö viªn chÝnh trÞ tõ kh¾p n¬i trªn thÕ giíi ®æ vÒ ®©y vµ ph¸t triÓn nã thµnh mét trong nh÷ng thµnh phè quèc tÕ sµnh ®iÖu nhÊt thÕ giíi. chÞu lÐp vÕ . ChÝnh s¸ch nµy ®ang tõng b-íc më ra cho mäi ®èi t-îng víi nhiÒu h×nh thøc kh¸c nhau. H¬n thÕ n÷a . nã trë nªn ngµy cµng tai tiÕng nh. Nguyªn t¾c c¬ b¶n cña chÝnh s¸ch nµy lµ kÕt hîp tr¸ch nhiÖm cña nhµ n-íc. n¬i mµ m«i tr-êng lµ tÊt c¶. ng-êi anh hïng d©n téc cña thÕ kû 15 ®· ®Ó l¹I ph-¬ng ch©m l-u truyÒn cho m·I ®Õn h«m nay : ‘‘ LÊy ®¹I nghÜa th¾ng hung tµn. Phóc lîi x· héi lµ chÝnh s¸ch x· héi lín cña ViÖt Nam dùa trªn truyÒn thèng t-¬ng th©n t-¬ng ¸i gióp ®ì lÉn nhau cã tõ ngµn x-a. B¶n chÊt nh©n v¨n cña tr-êng ph¸i ngo¹i giao ViÖt Nam lµ mét nÐt ®Æc thï. NÕu tôt hËu xa h¬n cã nghÜa lµ r¬I vµo sè phËn cña mét n-íc cung cÊp nguyªn liÖu vµ nh©n c«ng trong sù ph©n c«ng lao ®éng quèc tÕ. nh-ng ng-êi ViÖt Nam kh«ng bao giê mÊt ®I lßng nh©n ¸i. . thua thiÖt trong hîp t¸c c¹nh tranh. Nh÷ng ®Þa ®iÓm lÞch sö chØ míi cã tõ gÇn 80 n¨m tr-íc ë Th-îng H¶i.mét trung t©m c«ng nghiÖp vµ th-¬ng m¹i.

Th-îng H¶i së h÷u mét trong nh÷ng b¶o tµng thËt sù lín cña thÕ giíi.nÕu thêi gian cho phÐp. nh-ng thËm chÝ chØ cÇn mét giê trong nh÷ng phßng tr-ng bµy ®å ®ång. phÇn lín ®ang ®-îc phôc håi nh÷ng nÐt ®¸ng yªu tõ thêi hoµng kim tr-íc ®©y cña chóng. leader Jiang urged the youth of Vietnam and China to work for strengthening the friendship between the two countries and contribute to peace and development in Asia and the world. Nh-ng Th-îng H¶i còng cßn cã nhiÒu kh¸ch s¹n tuyÖt vêi kh¸c tõ nh÷ng n¨m 1930. tõng ®o¹n qu¸ khø nh. n¬i mµ vÉn ®-îc nhiÒu ng-êi c«ng nhËn lµ thµnh phè träng ®iÓm cña Trung Quèc. Nh÷ng toµ nhµ chäc trêi. §iÓm næi bËt nhÊt lµ th¸p truyÒn h×nh Hßn Ngäc ViÔn §«ng . the young people. Mét cuéc t¶n bé däc bê ®ª lµ kh«ng thÓ thiÕu ®èi víi nh÷ng ai ®Õn th¨m n¬i ®©y. he said. The younger generation in both our countries must stick to their ideals and work tirelessly for socialism. Trong mét thêi gian ng¾n kh«ng thÓ tham quan hÕt toµ nhµ gi¸ trÞ nµy ®-îc. mét c¸i nh×n toµn c¶nh tõ nh÷ng tÇng cao cña th¸p sÏ lµ mét kû niÖm khã quªn.vÉn cßn hiÖn h÷u ®©u ®ã trong nh÷ng biÖt thù tao nh· vµ nh÷ng con ®-êng rîp bãng c©y. ®-îc më cña vµo n¨m 1996.” the Chinese General Secretary and State President told the students. Vßng qua gãc ®ª. kh¸ch s¹n Hoµ B×nh vµ ban nh¹c Jazz ®¸ng kÝnh cña nã lµ nh÷ng chøng tÝch næi tiÕng cña mét thêi kú hµo hiÖp. / Du kh¸ch kh«ng thÓ bá qua mét cuéc t¶n bé däc bê ®ª khi ®Õn th¨m n¬i ®©y.64 Toµn bé d¶i ®Êt nµy vÉn cßn tån t¹i sau nh÷ng thêi kú san b»ng å ¹t vµ ngµy nay nã lµm nªn mét b¶o tµng më ®éc ®¸o vÒ kiÕn tróc cña nh÷ng n¨m 1930. . Jiang stressed that a better future awaited China-Vietnam relations in the 21st century. and the future belongs to you. and joint efforts by the youth of both countries cannot be separated from this. ASSIGNMENT 9: Translate the following text into Vietnamese In a keynote speech at Hà Nội National University (HNU) yesterday. ®iªu kh¾c ®¸ vµ ®å gèm còng ®· ®ñ ®em l¹i nh÷ng kû niÖm khã phai. “A bright future will be created by you. bao gåm mét vµi toµ nhµ cao nhÊt thÕ giíi ®· mäc lªn ë chÝnh n¬i mµ x-a kia lóa ®· tõng mäc. D-íi sù nh-îng bé cña ng-êi Ph¸p tr-íc ®©y.

study hard. He pledged that the Chinese party and Government would fully back such exchanges. lãng phí trong đầu tư xây dựng cơ bản. He expressed his hope that the Chinese and Vietnamese young people will cherish. sử dụng ngân sách. that the two peoples are “comrades and brothers”. thì vấn đề “tiết kiệm chống lãng phí” phải luôn được coi là quốc sách. both Vietnam and China have suffered invasion by the imperialists but we both successfully fought off the imperialists. Nhưng trong thực tế.” said Jiang. liberated our peoples and unified our countries. là một trong những nguyên nhân gây ảnh hưởng lớn tới nền kinh tế của đất nước. vẫn còn tràn lan những hiện tượng lãng phí. ASSIGNMENT 10: Translate the following text into English Đối với một đất nước còn nhiều khó khăn như chúng ta. He said that the friendship between Vietnam and China derives not only from history but also the fact. “In history. the pre-condition. The foundation of China-Vietnam ties was mutual trust. and for the wealth and prosperity of their respective motherlands. and friendly neighborliness. He is scheduled to visit the ancient port town of Hội An and the Hoà Thọ Textile Company before concluding his three-day visit to Việt Nam.” he said. to strive for the cause of developing socialism. lãng phí trong lĩnh vực doanh nghiệp Nhà nước và rồi lãng phí còn len lỏi trong dân chúng với những thủ tục cưới xin đầy tốn kém… “Lãng phí” thực sự đã và đang là vấn đề bức xúc của xã hội. as noted by Hồ Chí Minh. the guarantee. have more exchanges and learn from each other to enhance mutual understanding. and met with leaders of the port city of Đà Nẵng.65 “The youth of China and Vietnam need to inherit and bring into full play the revolutionary spirit of their elders. maintain and promote China-Vietnam relations. Bởi vì trong năm đầu (1998) sau khi có pháp . Nào là lãng phí trong quản lý. he said. he added. lãng phí trong quản lý đất đai. long-term stability. trụ sở làm việc. những năm qua khắp nơi. recognized by the UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. to be persistent in ideology. “Comprehensive co-operation is the bridge and the target a prosperous future”. Jiang left Hanoi yesterday Central Vietnam where he toured the ancient imperial capital of Huế.

thực sự là những con số biết nói. báo cáo quyết toán hàng năm đã phát hiện nhiều cơ quan đơn vị hành chính sự nghiệp. He added that he and Ross "solved some of the obstacles which were between me and him.three hours after he arrived . ASSIGNMENT 11: Translate the following texts into Vietnamese GAZA CITY -Israel and palestinians negotiated through the night in what US envoy Dennis Ross termed "a good evening of work" aimed at breaking an impasse over Israel's delayed pullout from the West Bank town of Hebron.66 lệnh thực hành tiết kiệm. Qua thanh tra tài chính." Arafat said. Một trong những vấn đề chi tiêu được coi là bức xúc và có thể nói là hết sức tốn kém hiện nay là: Chi tiêu đối với các lễ đón nhận huân huy chương. số chi thực năm 1998 giảm so với quyết toán năm 1997. doanh nghiệp vi phạm các nguyên tắc quản lý hành chính. chi phí sửa chữa lớn TSCĐ: 80. quà biếu… Vào dịp cuối năm này.57 tỉ đồng. Một số khoản chi thường xuyên đã giảm mạnh từ 30% đến 70% như chi mua sắm thiết bị làm việc.7 tỉ đồng. nào tiền thuê hội trường.but negotiators stayed behind to corntinue talks. cơ quan ngang Bộ. cụ thể như: Hội nghị phí: 12. Ross left Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat's office early yesterday . Dự toán NSNN năm 1999 tiếp tục thực hiện tiết kiệm 10% dự toán chi thường xuyên." . "The meeting was positive (and) constructive.43 tỉ đồng. tiền ăn uống. ngày thành lập ngành.8 tỉ đồng. song điều đó cũng chứng tỏ bấy lâu nay việc chi tiêu còn quá buông lỏng. fax: 9. but there are still issues to be overcome.94 tỉ đồng." apparently referring to his own suggestion last week that Ross was biased toward Israel. công tác phí: 12." Referring to the negotiations. cho thấy tín hiệu đáng mừng về sự chuyển biến trong công tác này. agreed that "We had a good set of discussions. chi mua sắm tài sản cố định phục vụ chuyên môn nghiệp vụ: 153. who was to leave later yesterday. người ta còn thấy các nhà hàng chật kín bởi các “thượng đế” hầu hết là các “cán bộ” chứ người dân thường thì lấy đâu ra “ngân quỹ” mà vui vẻ như vậy! Trong khi cuộc sống của những người dân “tự do” còn đang vất vả bươn chải từng ngày với những chi tiêu hạn hẹp thì việc tiết kiệm chống lãng phí trong “cơ chế chi bao cấp” là việc nhất thiết cần phải làm. chi phí điện thoại. chống lãng phí được Uỷ Ban thường vụ Quốc Hội khóa X thông qua ngày 26-02-1998 và có hiệu lực thi hành từ ngày 1-5-1998. chi hội nghị lễ tân… Những số liệu “giảm chi” trong khi thực hiện Pháp lệnh thực hành tiết kiệm chống lãng phí thời gian qua. qua số liệu báo cáo của 12 Bộ. nên thắt chặt lại các khoản chi tiêu là việc cần làm. Ross. he said : "This has been a good evening of work. hội thảo… Mỗi cuộc “đình đám” như vậy tốn không biết bao là tiền của.

joint . For this reason. Netanyahu. The talks began on Sunday afternoon in Jerusalem and moved to Gaza. In Hebron on Sunday. Gen. . A rate which is much worse than that of state . it grows by 30 per cent a year. according to recent statisties released from Viet Nam Tourism Administration.houses.rates and hotel services. many are about to be forced to close down. Israeli media speculated that if the meeting was successful. and also seek to link the Israeli redeployment to a further pullout elsewhere in the West Bank that was also promised in the signed autonomy accords. HCM CITY . but delayed it after a series of terrorist attacks in Israel.67 Inside Arafat's headquarters.venture hotels and guest houses operated at an average capacity rate of 85 to 90 per cent.The number of foreign tourists arriving in Viet Nam has been increasing year after year. On average. Over the past six years. the army rounded up about 100 Palestinians after two fire bombs were thrown at a Jewish enclave without causing injuries. led by Maj. Ross might delay his departure and Netanyahu and Arafat might hold a summit either yesterday or today.the last West Bank city under occupation in March. They are now operating at a capacity rate of only 60 per cent. Though the number of tourists is on the rise. The army spokesman said several Palestinians were arrested. and he was taken to the city hospital. Several hotels have become burdens to their owners. A Palestinian walking past the Beit Hadassah enclave was hit and injured by a metal ladder that fell or was thrown from the roof. Shaul Muhfaz and Yitzhak Molcho. Viet Nam's tourist industry needs to reorganise its management and set goals in order to satisfy the current demands of tourists. the Palestinian team led by chief negotiator Saeb Erekat continued deliberations with Israel's delegation. a hardliner elected in May. has delayed the pullout further. One of the main reasons for the decline in hotel capacity rates is the muchrooming of joint venture hotels which has caused severe competition among hotels for room . Israel was to have pulled out of Hebron . trying to tighten security for the 500 settlers who live in the town of 130. but most were released. with low gross earnings and high taxes.000 Arabs. a top advisor to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. They were questioned and held at gunpoint for about an hour.owned hotels and private guest . occupancy rates of hotels have dropped significantly as compared to previous years. Most foreign visitors have come here eager to experience something new and to travel to places of wild and natural beauty during their stay. The Palestiians have refused to reopen the existing agreement.

BØ. Translate the following text into English Cµng ngµy cµng cã nhiÒu ng-êi ViÖt nam t×m c¸ch ®i häc n-íc ngoµi b»ng chi phÝ riªng cña m×nh. However.68 Though there has been growth in the number of tourists over the past several years. Viet Nam's tourism industry now requires more investment from the government. sè ng-êi tù bá tiÒn ra häc cßn Ýt. Tõ gi÷a n¨m 1992 dÕn th¸ng 5 n¨m nay. Hoa Kú vµ Thôy SÜ. PhÇn lín nh÷ng sinh viªn ®i häc tù tóc ®· ®i häc ë Nga. C¸c khãa häc vÒ viÔn th«ng.x©y dùng b»ng c¬ giíi. the number of visitors that come for a second visit is low. It is evident that the attraction of Viet Nam's tourist industry is still inadequate and tourist sites. nh-ng hy väng sè l-îng sÏ t¨ng trong vßng 5 n¨m tíi v× nÒn kinh tÕ ViÖt Nam tèt h¬n vµ chÝnh phñ hîp lý hãa c¸c thñ tôc lµm cho viÖc häc tù tóc dÔ dµng h¬n. To improve quality of tourist resorts and to boost hotel operations. óc. ngµnh kh¸ch s¹n du lÞch vµ nÊu ¨n ®· ®-îc ®Æc biÖt ®Ò cao. Even though each year the government has spent tens of billion of dongs on upgrading national historical relics and tourist resorts. transport and accommodation facilities have not yet reached international standards. Nh-ng cuéc qu¶ng c¸o lín nhÊt nh»m thóc ®Èy nh÷ng ng-êi ViÖt Nam m¹nh d¹n ®Çu t. §an M¹ch vµ Th¸i Lan.The country now has some 22 provinces and cities which have completed detailed master plans for tourist resorts. Ph¸p. Hoa Kú. c¸c suÊt häc bæng riªng dµnh cho c¸c sinh viªn n-íc ngoµi ë Nga vµ §«ng ¢u ®· t¹m ngõng. cuéc triÓn l·m ®· ®Ò cao c¸c tr-êng ®¹i häc. these sites have failed to help boost the development of the tourist industry. Cho ®Õn b©y giê hÇu hÕt nh÷ng sinh viªn ViÖt nam ®· ®i ra n-íc ngoµi häc thªm theo häc bæng quèc tÕ hay cña mét chÝnh phñ n-íc ngoµi cÊp. Cuéc triÓn l·m ®Ò cËp ®Õn ch-¬ng tr×nh ®µo t¹o vµ nÒn gi¸o dôc mµ c¸c sinh viªn tù tóc ViÖt Nam ®ang t×m kiÕm vµ lêi gi¶i ®¸p cña nh÷ng c¬ së ®µo t¹o nµy ë n-íc ngoµi ®èi víi nh÷ng th¾c m¾c cña sinh viªn. §-îc gäi lµ ‘‘ Educasia’’. due to a lack of management expertise and investment knowledge. Nh-ng vµo th¸ng t. Hiªn . c¸c tr-êng h-íng nghiÖp vµ c¸c nhµ cung cÊp thiÕt bÞ tr-êng häc cña c¸c n-íc Anh. H»ng n¨m ViÖt Nam göi ®i kho¶ng 77 sinh viªn vµ 100 chuyªn viªn bËc cao ra n-íc ngoµi th«ng qua nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh häc bæng ®-îc chÝnh thøc b¶o trî.n¨m nay. these projects are yet to be developed and are still under discussion.tiÒn b¹c cho b¶n th©n hoÆc con c¸i cña m×nh ®Ó ®-îc häc trong mét nÒn gi¸o duc ®¹t chuÈn quèc tÕ lµ nhê vµo viÖc më mét cuéc triÓn l·m ®Æc biÖt vÒ gi¸o dôc ë n-íc ngoµi tæ chøc t¹i thµnh phè Hå ChÝ Minh vµ Hµ Néi trong hai th¸ng võa qua. mét sè ®i c¸c n-íc §«ng ¢u vµ mét sè rÊt Ýt ®i häc ë Hµ Lan.

At least. English is the national language of the United States. "Bilingual education is too expensive. they can take all of their classes in English with English speaking students. They speak many different languages. mathematics. at the same time. everyone will learn English a lot faster. and other people do not like it. so they often became discouraged and dropped out of school. The people against bilingual education say. "It helps students to understand their school work in history." In other words. Bilingual education is "controversial. ASSIGNMENT 12: Translate the following text into Vietnamese The United States is a country of immigrants. the government spends too much money on bilingual education.69 nay ®· cã nh÷ng ®iÒu kiÖn dµnh cho sinh viªn ViÖt Nam muèn häc ë n-íc ngoµi lµ ph¶i tèt nghiÖp phæ th«ng vµ ph¶i theo häc c¸c khãa häc ngo¹i ng÷ phï hîp vµ ph¶i cã kiÕn thøc vÒ vi tÝnh.tiÒn b¹c kh«ng thÓ tr¸nh khái. §· cã nh÷ng l·ng phÝ vÒ thêi gian còng nh. ®Æc biÖt lµ vÊn ®Ò vÒ thêi gian vµ tr×nh ®é mµ c¸c khãa häc ®ßi hái. They were not able to get good jobs without a good education. new immigrants had a hard time in American schools. Vµ d©n ë c¸c n-íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn th× cã nhiÒu con h¬n d©n cña c¸c n-íc ph¸t triÓn.. After a period of time. should learn to speak English as quickly as possible. In the past. science. They say. These immigrants come from all over the world. "It's a waste of time and government money. they say. The Spanish-speaking students study their subjects in both English and Spanish. Tuy nhiªn vÉn cßn thiÕu nh÷ng th«ng tin vÒ c¸c r¾c rèi mµ sinh viªn tù tóc ë n-íc ngoµi th-êng gÆp ph¶i. Now. Ngµy cµng cã nhiÒu chuyªn gia vÒ d©n sè thÊy ®-îc mèi quan hÖ kh¨ng khÝt gi÷a sè con trong gia ®×nh vµ sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ." These people say bilingual education helps students succeed in school. ("Bi" means "two" and "lingual" means "language"." This means some people like it. many schools in the United States have bilingual programs.) For example. They could not understand their school work in English." Everyone living in the United States. Translate the following text into English Ng-êi nghÌo th-êng cã nhiÒu con h¬n nh÷ng ng-êi thuéc giíi trung l-u vµ th-îng l-u. etc. In such programs. They want to put the money for bilingual programs into English programs. They can get better jobs and be better citizens after graduation. . they are learning English. those against bilingual education think so. Students in bilingual programs continue their general education and learn English at the same time. A school with a large Chinese population might have an English Chinese bilingual program. a school with many Spanish-speaking students might have a bilingual program. The people in favor of bilingual education say.

’’ Kho¶ng 60 c«ng ty ë B¾c Kinh ®· tr-ng bµy nh÷ng mÆt hµng cña hä tõ ®å ch¬i b»ng nhùa rÎ tiÒn vµ c¸c ®å trang trÝ cho ®Õn . T¹i sao? Do hä ph¶i lÖ thuéc vµo sù ch¨m sãc cña con c¸i khi vÒ giµ.ng-êi d©n ë n«ng th«n sèng qu¸ xa trung t©m kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh. mét gia ®×nh ®«ng con lµ mét c¸ch thøc ®Ó ho¹ch ®Þnh cho t-¬ng lai. Chóng ta cã thÓ nãi r»ng gia ®×nh ®«ng con lµ nguån b¶o hiÓm cho tuæi giµ. Do vËy hä kh«ng nhËn ®-îc th«ng tin vÒ c¸ch thøc h¹n chÕ sinh ®Î. V× thÕ chóng ta cã thÓ nãi r»ng vÞ trÝ ®Þa lý n¬i mµ ng-êi d©n sèng ®ãng mét vai trß qan träng trong viÖc quyÕt dÞnh mät gia ®×nh nªn sinh bao nhiªu con: Gia ®×nh sèng ë thµnh thÞ th× cã Ýt con h¬n gia ®×nh sèng ë n«ng th«n. nhËn ra n-íc l¸ng giÒng ë ph-¬ng nam nh®· chÝn muåi cho mét kÕ ho¹ch qu¶ng c¸o trong viÖc mua s¾m hµng hãa tiªu dïng vµ m¸y mãc. c¸c nhµ qu¶n lý ®iÒu hµnh Trung Quèc ®· ph¸t biÕn nh. Ch¼ng h¹n nh. lµ mét nh©n tè quan träng trong viÖc quyÕt ®Þnh sè con trong gia ®×nh. C¸c nhµ qu¶n lý Trung Quèc ®· nãi trong buæi lÔ khai m¹c héi chî tæ chøc t¹i Hµ Néi : ‘‘ Nh-ng ViÖt Nam ®· cã mét kinh nghiÖm l©u dµi tr-íc khi nhËn ra hµng xuÊt khÈu cña m×nh vµo Trung Quèc t¨ng lªn khi mét vµi s¶n phÈm lµ cã thÓ x©m nhËp vµo thÞ tr-êng Trung quèc ®· më réng h¬n. TÊt c¶ con c¸i cña hä ®Òu ph¶i chia sÏ vµ g¸nh v¸c tr¸ch nhiÖm ch¨m sãc cha mÑ. vµ hä cã gia ®×nh Ýt con h¬n. Ng-îc l¹i. C©u tr¶ lêi rÊt ®¬n gi¶n. Nh÷ng lý do kh¸c lµ g×? Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ gia ®×nh. Con c¸i cña hä b©y giê ®· trë thµnh ng-êi lín vµ ®ang ®i lµm viÖc. tiÒn h-u. Nh×n chung th× d©n thµnh thÞ cã nhiÒu th«ng tin h¬n d©n n«ng th«n. Ng-êi cã nhiÒu tiÒn th× cã Ýt con. Khi hä giµ c¶ th× ai sÏ gióp hä.thÕ vµo h«m thø n¨m.70 T¹i mét vµi vïng. dÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh cña chÝnh phñ cã lÏ kh«ng cã ®èi víi d©n nghÌo do ®iÒu kiÖn ®Þa lý. hay ë mét ph¹m vi lín h¬n lµ cña mét n-íc. D©n ë thµnh thÞ ®-îc hæ trî dÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh. Hä kh«ng cã b¶o hiÓm. §èi vãi nhiÒu ng-êi nghÌo. hay sù gióp ®ì cña chÝnh phñ. ng-êi nghÌo ë n-íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn muèn cã nhiÒu con. Hä cã thÓ vµ sÏ quay sang nhê con c¸i gióp ®ì. ASSIGNMENT 13: Translate the following text into English C¸c nhµ xuÊt khÈu cã uy thÕ cña Trung Quèc ®ang chÜa tÇm ng¾m cña m×nh vµo ViÖt Nam.

Trong chuyÕn viÕng th¨m Trung Quèc tuÇn tr-íc. n¬i xa nguån n¨ng l-îng cña Trung Quèc c¶ hµng ngµn c©y sè. phã chñ tÞch c«ng ty XuÊt NhËp KhÈu ¤ t« B¾c Kinh ®· ph¸t biÓu nh. Tuy nhiªn hä vÉn thÝch trao ®æi nh÷ng mÆt hµng cã gi¸ trÞ cao h¬n.71 c¸c lo¹i xe cé t¹i héi chî ë Hµ Néi. C«ng ty Trung Quãc dù kiÕn trao ®æi xe h¬i lÊy l-¬ng thùc.’’ BAIEC ®ang mong muèn thiÕt lËp quan hÖ mËu dÞch víi ViÖt Nam nh-ng còng ®ang ph¶i ®èi ®Çu víi viÖc t×m kiÕm c¸c mÆt hµng thÝch hîp ®Ó buon b¸n. mÆc dï lµ «ng Guo nghÜ lµ cã thÓ t×m ra lêi gi¶i ®¸p cho mét vÊn ®Ò b×nh th-êng. hi väng sÏ chen ch©n vµo thÞ tr-êng xe h¬i ®ang lín m¹nh t¹i ViÖt Nam. Jeep.’’ «ng Guo ®· nãi ®Õn ®iÒu nµy. ‘‘ Chóng t«i kh«ng biÕt nhiÒu vÒ nh÷ng g× mµ ViÖt Nam mêi chµo. Trung quèc ®-îc h-ëng mät gi¸ trÞ thÆng d. vµ sè l-¬ng thùc nµy sÏ ®em b¸n ë Nam Trung Quèc. Phã thñ t-íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i kªu gäi hai bªn thay thÕ viÖc bu«n b¸n qua biªn giíi b»ng nh÷ng tháa hiÖp chÝnh thøc gi÷a c¸c c«ng ty th-¬ng m¹i vµ c¸c nhµ chÕ t¹o mµ c¸ch lµm nµy sÏ lµm t¨ng gi¸ cña c¸c s¶n phÈm ViÖt Nam. ®Æc biÖt lµ khi gi¸ c¶ cña chóng t«i thùc sù c¹nh tranh ®-îc víi c¸c ®èi thñ cña chóng t«i. mét liªn doanh s¶n xuÊt « t« Trung-Mü. Nh÷ng ng-êi n«n nãng b¸n hµng h¬n lµ mua hµng. Nãi mét c¸ch chÝnh thøc th×. «ng Guo Fengli.B¾c Kinh. mét quan ®iÓm ®-îc c¸c nhµ doanh th-¬ng kh¸c nh¾c l¹i nhiÒu lÇn.vËy. ViÖc bu«n b¸n qua biªn giíi ®· t¨ng vät kÓ tõ ngµy hai n-íc më l¹i biªn giíi vµo n¨m 1991. Theo lêi cña «ng Guo th× ‘‘ thÞ tr-êng ë ®©y ®ang më ra kh¸ nhanh cho c¸c s¶n phÈm cña chóng t«i. viÖc bu«n b¸n hai chiÒu cã gi¸ trÞ kho¶ng 500 triÖu ®« la dï cho viÖc bu«n b¸n bÊt hîp ph¸p cã thÓ cao h¬n nhiÒu. ViÖt Nam muèn ®Èy m¹nh h¬n n÷a viÖc xuÊt khÈu than vµ dÇu khÝ cho c¸c trung t©m s¶n xuÊt ®ang bïng ph¸t ë Nam Trung Quèc. mét héi chî ®Çu tiªn triÓn l·m c¸c mÆt hµng Trung Quèc kÓ tõ khi hai n-íc cã quan hÖ trë l¹i víi nhau. nh-ng ®ang ®èi mÆt víi mät sù c¹nh tranh kh¾c nghiÖt víi thÞ tr-êng xe h¬i NhËt B¶n ®· ‘‘ x©y phßng tuyÕn xung quanh’’ ë ®©y. .to lín.

.72 ¤ng Phan V¨n Kh¶i cßn nhÊn m¹nh thªm vÒ gi¸ g¹o vµ c¸c mÆt hµng thùc phÈm kh¸c vµ phÝa ViÖt Nam nhËp nhiÒu h¬n n÷a c¸c m¸y mãc chÕ t¹o vµ c¸c c«ng nghÖ kh¸c cña Trung Quèc.

Vµo n¨m 1953. Hay nãi c¸ch kh¸c. N¨m 1982 con sè nµy lªn tíi 1780000. ChÝnh phñ còng cho sinh viªn cao ®¼ng vµ ®¹i häc thªm tiÒn ®Ó nh»m ®éng viªn hä. nh-ng mét n-íc hiÖn ®¹i kh«ng thÓ ph¸t triÓn c«ng nghÖ mµ chØ dùa vµo mét hÖ thèng gi¸o dôc t«n gi¸o truyÒn thèng. VÞ vua cña n-íc nµy võa lµ mét ng-êi l·nh ®¹o chÝnh trÞ võa lµ mét nhµ l·nh ®¹o t«n gi¸o cña ®Êt n-íc. C¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o vÉn tin r»ng nÒn gi¸o dôc t«n gi¸o lµ rÊt quan träng. chÝnh phñ A RËp thµnh lËp Bé Gi¸o Dôc. vi tÝnh v. Tr-íc n¨m 1950. khoa häc. Häc sinh häc Kinh Koran. Tuy nhiªn c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o t«n gi¸o kh«ng thÝch cho phô n÷ ®i häc. hÇu nh. Tr-íc n¨m 1949. §a sè lµ nh÷ng ng-êi A RËp Håi gi¸o. §©y thùc sù lµ b-íc më ®Çu cho mét nÒn gi¸o dôc hiÖn ®¹i cho n-íc nµy. ®Ó lµm cho c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o t«n gi¸o chÊp nhËn cho phñ n÷ ®i häc th× chÝnh phñ ph¶i dÆt viÖc gi¸o dôc phô n÷ theo c¸c t«n chØ cña c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o t«n gi¸o.: ng«n ng÷ ( ®Æc biÖt lµ tiÕng Anh). s¸ch kinh th¸nh cña d¹o Håi. . C¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o cña n-íc nµy b¾t ®Çu nhËn thÊy r»ng c«ng nghÖ Ph-¬ng T©y lµ cÇn thiÕt ®Ó gióp ®Êt n-íc ph¸t triÓn. §¹o Håi rÊt quan träng ®èi víi nÒn gi¸o dôc cña A RËp.v. Chóng ph¶i cè g¾ng nhí nh÷ng ®iÒu trong cuèn s¸ch nµy cµng nhiÒu cµng tèt. Hä quyÕt ®Þnh bæ sung c¸c m«n häc kh¸c vµo hÖ thèng gi¸o dôc. HÖ thèng gi¸o dôc cña A RËp ph¸t triÓn nhanh h¬n bÊt kú mét n-íc nµo trªn thÕ giíi. kh«ng cã bÊt kú mét tr-êng cao ®¼ng hay ®¹i häc nµo mµ chØ cã mét vµi tr-êng tiÓu häc vµ trung häc ë n-íc nµy. vµ ng«n ng÷ cña n-íc nµy lµ tiÕng A RËp. Do vËy. Tuy nhiªn hiÖn nay häc sinh. D¹o luËt cña chÝnh phñ ®-a ra lµ luËt cña Håi gi¸o. hä lµ nh÷ng tÝn ®å Håi gi¸o. sinh viªn A RËp còng hocj tÊt c¶ c¸c m«n häc kh¸c nh. sinh viªn ë A RËp. TÊt c¶ c¸c tr-êng häc ë a RËp lµ miÔn phÝ. Hä muèn kÕt hîp nÒn gi¸o dôc t«n gi¸o truyÒn thèng víi nÒn gi¸o dôc c«ng nghÖ hiÖn ®¹i cña Ph-¬ng T©y. Khi nh÷ng kü s. T«n gi¸o vÉn lµ mét yÕu tè quan träng trong nÒn gi¸o dôc cña A RËp. lÞch sö..toµn bé nÒn gi¸o dôc cña A RËp lµ nÒn gi¸o dôc t«n gi¸o. A RËp lµ mät quèc ®¹o.ph¸t hiÖn ra dÇu ë A RËp th× ®Êt n-íc nµy trë nªn giµu cã. Tr-íc n¨m 1950 chØ cã 20000 häc sinh. to¸n häc.73 ASSIGNMENT 14: Translate the following text into English D©n sè cña A RËp Xa U §i lµ 8853000 ng-êi. Hä cho r»ng phô n÷ cã häc cã thÓ g©y nh÷ng ¶nh h-ëng xÊu cho gia ®×nh vµ x· héi.

V× kh«ng cã ®ñ gi¸o viªn n÷ nªn chÝnh phñ cho phÐp gi¸o viªn nam gi¶ng d¹y phô n÷ A RËp th«ng qua ph-¬ng tiÖn truyÒn h×nh. the meagre rewards. "Oil exploration is plainly hazardous. but they. Hä trë thµnh c¸c gi¸o viªn. mét vµi sinh viªn n÷ nãi r»ng hä thùc sù kh«ng muèn lµm viÖc cïng nam giíi.nam giíi.74 Phô n÷ theo häc c¸c tr-êng cao ®¼ng vµ ®Æc biÖt lµ theo häc ë c¸c khoa vÒ phô n÷ ë c¸c tr-êng ®¹i häc dµnh riªng cho phô n÷. "said Melchior de Matharel. c¸c nhµ khoa häc vµ nhiÒu viÖc kh¸c n÷a. so far. when BHP Petroleum of Australia announced the reserves at the Dai Hung ("Great Bear") site. Nh-ng mét vµi phô n÷ kh«ng muèn cïng lµm viÖc víi nam giíi. ThÇy gi¸o vµ sinh viªn n÷ kh«ng ®-îc phÐp gÆp nhau. But the good news is that the Vietnamese basin is oilbearing". phô n÷ theo dâi c¸c bµi gi¶ng trªn v« tuyÕn vµ sau ®ã hä cã thÓ nãi chuyÖn víi thÇy gi¸o qua ®iÖn tho¹i ®Ó hái vÒ nh÷ng th¾c m¾c. c¸c nhµ ho¹t ®éng x· héi. b¸c sÜ. Matharel said. "encouraging" discoveries of oil made by Mitsubishi Oil and the Malaysian firm Petronas Carigali. at a modest level of 25.còng t¸ch rêi phô n÷ víi nam giíi. Tr-íc hÕt.000 barrels per day. It has already invested 240 million dollars in Vietnam.the immense coot of investment and. Gi¸o viªn ë ®©y lµ n÷. Prospectors enthusiasm was abruptly dampened last May.and half of it went into the first phase of the Dai Hung project. If caution is now the watchword. were far smaller than projected.. 375 kilometers (235 miles) southeast of Ho Chi Minh City. phô n÷ A RËp cã nhiÒu c¬ héi xin viÖc gièng nh.. The mood was subdued among foreign companies exhibiting their technological wares this week at the second International Oil and Gas Fair in Hanoi. §iÒu ®ã cã nghÜa lµ phô n÷ vµ nam giíi kh«ng ®-îc phÐp lµm viÖc cïng mét chç chØ trõ ë bÖnh viÖn. the world's oil giants have now glumly awoken to the hazards. Trong mét bµi b¸o gÇn ®©y d¨ng trong mét t¹p chÝ cã tªn gäi T¹p ChÝ Trung §«ng. That was a tough -blow for BHP. ASSIGNMENT 15: Translate the following text into Vietnamese After getting high on the hopes of striking black gold off the shores of Vietnam. N¬i lµm viÖc hÇu nh. Production is scheduled to begin neat month. Sau khi tèt nghiÖp. BHP initially estimated the site to contain 700 million to 800 million barrels of oil. are not as great as some had hoped. Phñ n÷ A RËp muons cã nhiÒu c¬ héi t×m viÖc lµm h¬n. but has now downgraded it to 100 million to 200 million. and of gas made by British Petroleum (BP). "The results aren't bad. disappointed foreign petroleum companies may draw comfort from the recent. off the coast of southern Vietnam. . head of Southeast Asia operations with the French firm Total.

who appear to have had the best luck. south of Ho Chi Minh City. which in turn has taken a five percent stake on the interests of each of the European partners. According to the results of an exploratory well. kh«ng ph¸t hiÖn ®-îc mét hÖ thèng rß ritrong bé phËn ddaayr bÞ nghi lµ nguyªn nh©n lµm ng-ng ho¹t ®éng n¨m bé phËn kh¸c gäi lµ vÐcnª (verniers) cÇn thiÕt ®Ó chØnh l¹i cho ®óng ®-êng ®i cña tµu con thoi trong quyx ®¹o vµ chØ dÉn chÝnh x¸c khÝ cô trong khoang hµng ®Õn môc tiªu trªn hµnh tinh. and Statoil five percent. The remaining 21. The Japan Vietnam Petroleum Co. has conducted exploration and tests under a shared . BHP holds 43.5 billion dollars.25-percent share is equally split between Total and the Japanese firm Sumitomo. C¸c viªn chøc nãi r»ng bé phËn chïm ®iÖn tö kiÓm tra nhiªn liÖu bÞ hang. C¬ quan Qu¶n TrÞ Hµng Kh«ng vµ Khong Gian Quèc Gia cho biÕt vÊn ®Ò nµy lµ mét tr¬ lùc ®èi víi phßng thÝ nghiÖm Radar trÞ gi¸ 384 triÖu ®«la. Pessimists say it will take four to five years in all to gauge Vietnam's oil potentially. the field may be "of the same caliber" as neighbouring Bach Ho ("White Tiger") the only site now being commercially exploited in Vietnam. Bach Ho's reserves are estimated at a maximum of :300 million barrels. a branch of the Mitsubishi Oil group. (JVPC). Gas exploration and exploitation have also proven to be a risk business.75 BHP headed an international consortium. although fortune has so far smiled on British Petroleum. and state .995 billion cubic feet).buéc c¬ quan NA SA ph¶i ho·n mét cuéc kh¶o s¸t tr¸i ®Êt b»ng radar khi chuyÕn bay nghiªn cøu m«i sinh 10 ngµy cña tµu Endeavour bay qua mèc nöa phi tr×nh. with Petronas holding 20 percent. it is the Japanese. industry experts in Honoi cautioned. nh-ng kh«ng g©y ra mét nguy hiÓm nµo ®èi víi c¸c nhµ du hµnh vò trô. announced in June a "very promising" discovery at the Rang Dong (:Dawn) site. Translate the following text into English ViÖc háng hãc cña mét bé phËn tµu vò trô con thoi ®iÒu khiÓn b»ng ph¶n lùc vµo h«m thø t. in Nam Con Son. which announced in September the discovery of two gas pockets. ng-êi thuyÕt minh chuyÕn bay. The consortium.the main buyers of Vietnam's crude oil. in 1992. with ONGC holding 55 percent. to develop the field at a total cost estimated at 1. BHP and the Norwegian national company. (ONGC). selected in April 1993. vµo chiÒu h«m thø t. estimated to be 57 billion cubic metres (1.owned PetroVietnam 15 percent.production contract with PetroVietnam. bought shares in the offshore concession.75 percent of the consortium. Statoil. held by the Indian state firm Oil and Natural Gas Co. BP 30 percent.®· gäi sù gi¸n ®o¹n mang tÝnh khoa häc nµy lµ ‘‘sù nghØ . For the moment. Kelly Humphries.But et will take at least another year and other drillings to precisely determine the scope of the Japanese discovery.

Theo «ng Rich Jackson. Gi¸m ®èc ®iÒu khiÓn chuyÕn bay th× con tµu Endeavour víi 38 bé phËn ®Èy lín h¬n sÏ tiªu thô qu¸ nhiÒu nhiªn liÖu vµ lo¹i trõ ®iÒu mong ®îi con tµu sÏ lµm lan ra tai häa thiªn nhiªn quanh ®Þa cÇu. kho¶ng 24 giê sau khi trôc trÆc kü thuËt x¶y ra. tµu con thoi bay theo ph-¬ng thøc tù l¸i (hoa tiªu tù ®éng) vµ phi hµnh ®oµn ®· lµm viÖc theo hai ca suèt 24 giê liÒn kÓ tõ lóc cÊt c¸nh khái Florida vµo h«m thø s¸u.trªn mÆt ®Êt véi nghÜ ra mét c¸ch ®Ó c¸c m¸y tÝnh cña con thoi kh«ng ®Ó ý ®Õn bé phËn kiÓm tra nhiªn liÖu bÞ háng. Vµo chiÒu h«m thø t-. ®· h-ëng mät giê nghØ gi¶i lao bÊt ngê. nh-ng sÏ ph¶i mÊt mét thêi gian l©u ®Õn gÊp 5 lÇn ®Ó xö lý c¸c d÷ liÖu ra ®a vµ m¸y tÝnh cña chóng. ¤ng Jackson dù ®o¸n r»ng kho¶ng phÇn mÒm sÏ s½n sµng lµm viÖc vµo chiÒu thø ba. .’’ C¸c nhµ khoa häc nãi r»ng sù trôc trÆc nµy kh«ng lµm h.76 t¹m thêi’’ trong lóc c¸c kÜ s. «ng Jackson cho biÕt: ‘‘ Bé phËn chÊt hµng vµ nhãm kiÓm so¸t chuyÕn bay ®ang lµ viÖc rÊt tÝch cùc ®Ó phôc håi viÖc kiÓm so¸t c¸c vecnª vµ gi¶m thiÓu ¶nh h-ëng trong thêi gian cã sù cè.háng c¸c h×nh ¶nh. Nãi víi c¸c phãng viªn t¹i tr¹m kiÓm so¸t chuyÕn bay t¹i Houston.

usually in alphabetical order. spoiled ballots are eliminated. Neither are bankrupts. General Elections In theory. or a citizen of another commonwealth country or the Irish Republic. After that. In this way. and sometimes with a brief description of the candidates‟ backgrounds or their parties. Then the queen formally dissolves parliament and calls for the election of the new one. Candidates resort to different means to attract their supporters. General elections often happen on a Thursday and people still go to word as usual. Candidates Anyone aged 21 or over holding British citizenship. about £1. Church of Scotland and the Roman Catholic Church. People who are disqualified include those who are kept in hospital for mental health reasons people serving prison sentences and people convicted within the previous five years of corruption. elegy of the Church of England. All British people who are 18 years of age or over and not legally barred from voting can vote. Therefore.77 ASSIGNMENT 16: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Britain is divided into 651 constituencies and people in each constituency select one person to represent them in the House of Commons. The Campaign Three weeks before a general election is the time for the campaign. The campaign takes place in every constituency all over Britain. Party workers also revisit those who have promised to support their party and urge them to do so on polling day. elections are usually held before the end of the five-year term. to give voters are given a ballot paper with the names of the candidates for that constituency. as a deposit and if they get at least 5% of the votes they will get the money back. candidates can know people‟s voting intentions and attitudes so that they can adapt their campaign tactics. Church of Ireland. who is qualified. Britain is divided into areas called constituencies of roughly equal population. But. the hours of voting are flexible. Candidates in a constituency have to pay a sum of money. The simple majority system of voting is used in parliamentary elections in Britain and voting is by secret ballot. There are moves to have this changed to a preferential system. . from 07:00 to 22:00. Canvassing Canvassing means local party workers go from door to door and ask people how they intend to vote. Voting is voluntary. The legal ballot papers are counted and the candidate with the most support is the winner and becomes the Member of Parliament for the constituency.000. the election for or seats in the House of Commons takes place every five years. The Prime Minister has the right to decide when to hold a general election. People who are not qualified are members of the House of Lords. May stand for election to Parliament. Members of the Royal Family peers and peeresses who are members of the House of Lords and foreign nationals are not allowed to vote. public servants and officials and those who have been sentenced to more than one year‟s imprisonment.

They invite guests including influential members of their parties.78 Public meetings Candidates have the right to hold public meetings whenever and wherever available during an election campaign.257 billion). candidates appear on television and radio day and night. The sharp rise was due to massive investments from both foreign and domestic sources estimated as VND32. however. Participants at yesterday‟s Ha Noi Communist Party Conference were told if the current growth rate continues as expected. but radio and television are required to be impartial. giving speeches about their party policies. and wellknow people such as writers. Talkback radio allows people to pose questions to political leaders. ASSIGNMENT 17: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Ha Noi. the owners and the editors can decide to support any party they like. The mass media Because newspapers and magazines in Britain are privately owned and financially independent of the political parties. By the end of 1995.100 per capita over the next five years. to the meetings and try to influence voters. The major part of the investment.3billion of prescribed capital. was for setting up new joint ventures with foreign partners. On these occasions. Of this amount $1. and the farms.Ha Noi is trying to nearly double its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to US$1. school. and reports and commentaries from journalists holding interviews with leading figures from all the parties are broadcast. who support them. Manifestos might include the past achievements of the party and can attack the policies of the their opponents. youth centers. They are televised in factories. Tung said.3billion has been consumed. 570 (about $3. News programmes cover all aspects of the major parties‟ campaigns. and that about 19 per cent of Hanoi families could now be classified as well-off. The conference was also told the traditional rural and small industry base of the capital city‟s economy had rapidly been replaced by industrial endeavor and the trading and services industries. Last year‟s average GDP was estimated at $650 per capita compared with $470 in 1991. Manifesto are often launched by each party at a press conference and inform people of their policies and what they will do if they win the election. up to 210 foreign investment projects had been licensed to operate in Ha Noi involving $3. . Manifestos The main parties publish manifestos during the election campaign. Such meetings are often covered in detail by the media. it should reach 15 per cent by the turn of the century. The ambitious projection has been based on the current annual GDP growth rate of 11. actors and actresses. This should translate into a doubling of the GDP. Deputy Secretary of the Ha Noi Party Committee Le Xuan Tung told participants at the conference yesterday that part of the investment was spent on transfer of new technology and renovating equipment in existing industrial plants.9 per cent. according to a senior Ha Noi party official.

Tung said. Ha Noi should be more aware of economic development and human resource development. the food processing industry electronics. The proportion of industries and that of trade and services in Ha Noi GDP in the 1991-1995 period rose sharply to 33. Do Muoi said. Hanoi has about 10 established and five new industrial zones. Tung‟s comments were supported by Party General Secretary Do Muoi. Many of the existing industrial areas need intensive-investment to replace old technology. Part of the solution was to set up production groups. Meanwhile the agricultural share fell to just 5. By that stage the industrial share in Ha Noi GDP should reach 40 per cent.1 per cent and 61. About six per cent of Hanoi‟s population remained unemployed which.6 per cent respectively. which is almost double the figure set for the same period by the Ha Noi Party Committee back in 1991.3 per cent of the total GDP share. However the deputy party secretary for Hanoi reminded participants to the conference that more effort was needed to keep development in line with what he termed as a socialistoriented market economy. up seven per cent on the current rate. The party leader told the Ha Noi conference that despite its initial success. Five industries have been targeted as the key industries for the city. which could be engaged in small industries and the services industry. and expand their premises for more plants. Tung said. . Ha Noi authorities had “failed to pay due attention to the consolidation of socialist production relationships” while the administration at all levels remained weak and “the role of the Party in different economic and social organizations remained limited. renovate existing industrial zones and build more high rise buildings in the inner city for office space. They include mechanical engineering and electrical equipment production. who also addressed the conference. In the next five years Ha Noi would need up to $9 billion in investment to develop new industrial zones. He said that a growth rate of 11. and construction materials. textiles. Deputy Secretary Tung said that in the 1991-1995 period the number of well-to-do families increased to nearly 19 per cent while those families classified as financially needy dropped to about two per cent. was a challenge Ha Noi had to tackle.” he said. Tung said the change in the economic face of Hanoi was because of the sharp increase in the annual growth rate for the past five years. trade centers and entertainment centers.9 per cent was ensured year after year.79 This has helped Ha Noi along its chosen path to restructure its economic base towards industries and services rather than rely on its traditional agricultural and small industry underpinning.100. garments and leather goods. Tung told participants that by the year 2000 the growth rate would reach 15 per cent per year and GDP per capita would be estimated at $1.

VAC has now become significant for the country's poverty alleviation and hunger eradication campaign providing on . but has not penetrated all rural areas. VAC should be considered as a national agricultural programme. with over 10 million farmer households using the model. “ao” (pond for keeping fish) and “chuong” (husbandary) is an economic model that was introduced only 10 years ago. In recent years. permanent agriculture and settlement and for plantations for bare hills and barren land. If VAC is encouraged to reach its full potential. VAC output value accounts for one of third of agricultural output value and will probably in-crease further.000 ha.80 ASSIGNMENT 18: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Gardening is a traditional occupation in Vietnam and appeared at the same time or earlier than water rice cultivation.spot jobs. Vietnam's fruit output is at nearly four million tones per year. This application of VAC became the main fruit suppliers for the country.the . Living standards of VAC households have improved greatly with revenue from VAC operations usually providing 60% of household's total income. Asia Pacific 31 kg and Vietnam 61 kg. Tens of thousands of hectares (on average) farms were set up in 13 midland and mountainous provinces) and -orchards were expanded to 350000-400. But VAC (abbreviation for “vuon” (garden). it will certainty obtain further effective growth contributing to the national economy and the environmental protection. VAC has been expanded in most localities throughout the country. Vietnam's fruit output could reach 8 million tones per year in the 21st century. If intensive cultivation and crop specialization was carried out through out the country. From its first days of operation VAC has continually cemented its role in the national economic development. prevention of malnutrition. VAC now operates in 53 provinces. world's fruit output per capital at 65 kg. VAC has made rapid growth in the last 10 years. but is a uniform cultivation model bringing both economic benefit and environmental advantages. According to the FAO. . simultaneously meeting export demand. Foreigners who have come to Vietnam to learn about VAC in Vietnam say it is not very efficient in production scale and performance.

nã lµ h×nh thøc ch÷a trÞ tèt nhÊt.mét ph-¬ng ph¸p ch÷a trÞ. «ng Abraham ë khoa huyÕt häc cña §H Cambridge. c¸c nhµ nghiªn cøu cho r»ng hä ®· cã b»ng chøng ®Ó kÕt luËn r»ng ph-¬ng ph¸p ®iÒu trÞ thùc nghiÖm b»ng c¸ch truyÒn huyÕt t-¬ng lµm cho bÖnh ph¸t triÓn chËm lai cho bÖnh nh©n nhiÔm HIV d-¬ng tÝnh vµ kÐo dµi thªm thêi gian sèng cho c¸c bÖnh nh©n AIDS. Bèn bÖnh nh©n ë Cambridge lµ nh÷ng ng-êi ®Çu tiªn ®-îc ch÷a trÞ theo c¸ch nµy vµ sau ®ã c¸c thö nghiÖm trªn qui m« nhá ®-îc . Ch¼ng thÊy g× lµ ch÷a trÞ c¶.’’ ¤ng Karpasnãi viÖc nghiªn cøu cña Ph¸p vµ Mü vÒ c¸ch ch÷a bÖnh miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng ®-îc th«ng b¸o t¹i héi nghÞ ®· lµm cho nghiªn cøu ban ®Çu cña «ng v÷ng ch¾c h¬n. nãi r»ng mÆc dï c¸ch ch÷a bÖnh miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng lµ sù ®ét ph¸ trong viÖc ®iÒu trÞ bÖnh AID S vµ kh«ng g©y ph¶n øng phô nµo.’’ Qua c¸ch ch÷a trÞ miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng. lo¹i vi rót g©y ra bÖnh chÕt ng-êi nµy.’’ ¤ng nãi r»ng nh÷ng nghiªn cøu do c«ng ty Hemacare ë Califonia vµ hai bÑnh viÖn ë Pa ri tiÕn hµnh còng cho they r»ng c¸ch ch÷a trÞ miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng gióp lµm chem. L¹i sù tÊn c«ng d÷ déi cuarv bÖnh AIDS ë c¸c bÖnh nh©n khi xÐt nghiÖm they cã HIV d-¬ng tÝnh. M¸u ®-îc lÊy hÕt c¸c hång cÇu vµ b¹ch hang cÇu vµ kh«ng cã vi rót HIV.81 ASSIGNMENT 19: Translate the following text into English H«m thø Hai võa råi. hµng th¸ng c¸c bÖnh nh©n ®-îc truyÒn nöa lÝt huyÕt t-¬ng lÊy tõ ng-êi kháe m¹nh cã nhiÔm HIV d-¬ng tÝnh. Trong phÇn tr×nh bµy cña m×nh t¹i mét héi nghÞ ë Lu©n §«n «ng nãi:’’Døt kho¸t ®ã kh«ng ph¶i lµ mét ph-¬ng ph¸p ch÷a trÞ. nh-ng h×nh nh. ¤ng tuyªn bè trong mét cuéc pháng vÊn qua ®iÖn tho¹i r»ng:’’ ViÖc nghiªn cwuws cã tÝnh chÊt mß mÉm vµ h¹n chÕ b»ng thuèc trÊn an chøng tá r»ng viÖc ch÷a trÞ nµy cã lîi cho bÖnh nh©n m¾c bÖnh AID S vµ kÐo dµi thªm thêi gian sèng cña hä. Tuy nhiªn. ¤ng Karpras nãi lµ lÇn ®Çu tiªn vµo n¨m 1985 «ng ®· ph¸t hiÖn nh÷ng ng-êi kháe m¹nh nh-ng bÞ nhiÔm HIV cã søc ®Ò kh¸ng nµy ë møc cao trong m¸u trong khi c¸c bÖnh nh©n AID S mÊt c¸c kh¸ng thÓ trung hßa nµy cã kh¶ n¨ng chèng l¹i bÖnh truyÒn nhiÔm. th× còng kh«ng nªn m« t¶ nã nh. nh-ng cã scws ®Ò kh¸ng trung hßa cao diÖt ®-îc vi rót.

H¬n n÷a. sè bÖnh l©y nhiÔm do bÖnh AID S g©y ra thÊp h¬n nhiÒu trong nhãm ®-îc ®iÒu trÞ vµ chÝnh b¶n th©n nh÷ng ng-êi hiÕn m¸u h×nh nh. ‘‘Th-a. Mét chót lo sî. ng-êi ®µn «ng ®¸p. vÞ gi¸o sÜ ®· b×nh tÜnh hái xem ng-êi ®ã muèn g×. Ng-êi ®µn «ng ®ã ®· thiÕu thµnh thËt khi x-ng téi vµ cã lÏ «ng ta sÏ ph¶i nhËn l·nh téi chÕt. «ng ta ®· thøc giÊc vµ thÊy mét ng-êi l¹ mÆt ®ang dùa vµo cuèi gi-êng «ng. con muèn x-ng téi‘‘.kÝch thÝch viÖc s¶n sinh c¸c kh¸ng thÓ trung hßa trong m¸u cña c¸c bÖnh nh©n nhiÔm HIV d-¬ng tÝnh. trong nhãm ng-êi ®-îc ®iÒu trÞ b»ng thuèc trÊn an th× cã 6 trong tæng sè 30 bÞ tö vong. bµ l¹i kÓ vÒ mét gi¸o sÜ bµ biÕt. víi mét giäng khµn khµn.hä còng they cã lîi. nh-ng v× xÊu hæ.’’ còng tiªu c¸ch bÖnh ®em biÓu ch÷a AIDS l¹i cña trÞ h÷u ASSIGNMENT 20: Translate the following text into English H«m kh¸c.82 tiÕn hµnh ë Lu©n §«n vµo n¨m 1988 vµ 1989. Trong 12 th¸ng ®Çu cuéc thùc nghiÖm cho they møc tö vong gi¶m rÊt nhiÒu trong khi bÖnh nh©n ®-îc truyÒn huyÕt t-¬ng. Vµo mét ®ªm. Thö nghiÖm cña Hemancare nghiªn cøu tÝnh hiÖu qu¶ cña c¸ch ch÷a trÞ miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng ®-îc tiÕn hµnh trªn 220 bÖnh nh©n AIDS h¬n 3 n¨m. «ng nh×n quanh nh-ng kh«ng thÊy ng-êi . con ®· kh«ng nh¾c ®Õn mét téi lçi con ®· g©y ra. Nhãm ®-îc ®iÒu trÞ cã 1 ng-êi bÞ chÕt trong sè 21 ng-êi. ¤ng Karpras nãi r»ng c¸c nghiªn cøu cña Ph¸p nh÷ng kÕt qu¶ t-¬ng tù. ‘‘ VÞ gi¸o sÜ biÕt ®©y lµ mét tr-êng hîp rÊt tåi tÖ. trong khi bÖnh nh©n trong nhãm kiÒm chÕ b»ng thuèc trÊn an kh«ng ®-îc ch÷a trÞ th× tû lÖ tö vong cao gÊp 5 lÇn. VÞ gi¸o sÜ b¶o ng-êi ®ã r»ng h·y ®îi ®Õn s¸ng mai v× lóc nµy kh«ng tiÖn ®Ó x-ng téi. ¤ng nãi lµ c¸c nghiªn cøu Mü vµ Ph¸p cho b»ng chøng kÕt luËn ®Çu tiªn lµ miÔn nhiÔm thô ®éng lµ mét ph-¬ng ph¸p ®iÌu trÞ hiÖu. Tuy nhiªn «ng Karpras nãi r»ng «ng kh«ng nhËn ®-îc quyx dµnh cho c¸c nghiªn cøu nµy ë n-íc Anh do ®ã viÖc nghiªn cøu ph¶i ®-îc tiÕn hµnh ë Mü vµ Ph¸p.VÞ gi¸o sÜ choµng dËy vµ chuÈn bÞ ¸o quÇn. vµ ®iÒu nµy ®· lu«n ¸m ¶nh trong t©m trÝ con cho ®Õn giê. Ng-êi ®µn «ng l¹i th-a: ‘‘LÇn tr-íc con ®· ®Õn x-ng téi. §Õn lóc tiÕng gµ b¾t ®Çu g¸y ngoµi s©n. C¸c nhµ nghiªn cøu cho r»ng viÖc hiÕn m¸u cã vÎ nh.

§iÒu tåi tÖ nhÊt lµ lóc bµ Ryan bµy cho chóng t«i c¸ch ®Ó ph¸n xÐt l-¬ng t©m. Vµ ®Õn b©y giê t«i cã thÓ nhËn ra r»ng chõng nµo néi t«i cßn ë trong nhµ t«i. ®õng quªn x-ng c¸i téi em ®· ph¹m víi bµ ®Êy nhÐ! ‘‘ ‘‘§Ó em ®i! ‘‘. võa nãi t«i cè giËt tay m×nh ra khái tay Nora. ‘‘Mµ còng ch¼ng cã g× ®¸ng tiÕc v× em ®©u ph¶i lµ mét ®øa bÐ ngoan ph¶i kh«ng Jackie? ¤i. lÊy tay t«i khi chóng t«i xuèng ch©n ®åi. Chóng ta kªu tªn §øc Chóa Trêi cã v« cí kh«ng? Chóng ta cã ph¶i th¶o kÝnh víi cha mÑ kh«ng? (T«i ®· hái bµ ta lµ cã ph¶i kÝnh träng «ng bµ kh«ng vµ bµ b¶o lµ cã!) Cã yªu th-¬ng hµng xãm nh. Nh-ng vµo lóc 3 giê. khi t«i ®ang c¶m thÊy yªn æn th× mét anh chµng ch¹y dÕn. ®Õn bÖnh Nora ®· cã c¸ch lµm t«i ®au ®ín mÇ mÑ kh«ng hÒ biÕt. tÊt c¶ chØ v× bµ néi t«i. ‘‘ .thÓ chÞ ®ang ®-a t«i viÖn cho mét ca mæ. Giê ®©y. cïng víi lêi nh¾n cña bµ Ryan b¶o r»ng t«i ph¶i x-ng téi vµo ngµy thø b¶y t¹ nhµ nguyÖn cïng ví nh÷ng ng-êi cßn l¹i. em ph¶i ®i Jackie ¹!‘‘ Nora còng ®¸p l¹i víi giäng ®iÖu ®µy vÎ th-¬ng h¹i ®ã.) TÝnh l¹i th× t«i còng ®· vi ph¹m 10 ®iÒu r¨n. mÑ t«i kh«ng ®i cïng t«i mµ l¹i lµ Nora. chØ ngöi thÊy mïi gç ch¸y.thÕ nµo vÒ téi lçi cña m×nh nhØ? Nµy. LÝ do lµ v× ng-êi ®µn «ng ®ã ®· thiÕu ch©n thµnh lóc x-ng téi. tim chÞ ®ang nhãi ®au v× em ®©y! Em sÏ nghØ nh. Nora n¾m buån b·. t«i gi¶ vê ®au r¨ng. ¤ng nh×n l¹i gi-êng nh-ng còng kh«ng thÊy dÊu ®«i bµn tay ®ang bÞ ch¸y. mØm c-êi ChÞ Êy tá vÎ th-¬ng h¹i t«i nh. T«i sî x-ng téi ®Õn mÊt hån vÝa. chÞ kh«ng c¶m thÊy téi cho em chót nµo c¶. ‘‘Em kh«ng muèn ®i x-ng téi ®©u‘‘ ‘‘Sao l¹i kh«ng. ‘‘¤i Chóa ¬i! Xin h·y gióp chóng con! ‘‘ Nora rªn rØ. Tåi tÖ h¬n n÷a. Cã Chóa míi biÕt. Cã thÓ Cha sÏ göi em cho ®øc Gi¸m Môc.chÝnh cho b¶n th©n m×nh kh«ng? (T«i l¹i nghÜ ®Õn sè tiÒn mµ Nora cã ®-îc vµo thø s¸u hµng tuÇn. Ngµy c¶ líp ®i. Em cã nhí c¸i lÇn em ®· cè giÕt chÞ b»ng con dao c¾t b¸nh m× kh«ng? Vµ c¶ nh÷ng lêi lÏ em ®· nãi n÷a? ChÞ kh«ng biÕt råi Cha sÏ lµm g× víi em. ‘‘Em ph¶i ®i. C©u chuyªn ®· ®Ó l¹i trong t«i mét nçi kinh hoµng.83 ®©u c¶. nÕu kh«ng cha xø sÏ ®Õn nhµ t×m em ®Êy. Jackie. chõng ®ã t«i vÉn cßn tiÕp tôc ph¹m téi. hy väng sù v¾ng mÆt cña t«i sÏ kh«ng g©y sù chó ý.

Khi Nora ®· kÐo t«i xuèng hÕt nh÷ng bËc tam cÊp ®Õn s©n nhµ thê.vËy.in c¸i ®åi cã con dèc dÉn xuèng nhµ thê. cã thÓ t«i sÏ kh«ng x-ng téi mét c¸ch thµnh thËt.®øng ®ã. Giã cø xµo x¹c bªn ngoµi lµm cho sù im lÆng bªn trong d-êng nh. Cßn t«i. khi quay nh×n l¹i nh÷ng kho¶ng kh«ng cña nh÷ng ng«i nhµ n»m c¸ch nhau. Nh-ng dï sao. Khi t«i b-íc vµo. . T«i cßn nhí c¶ nh÷ng ¸nh tµ d-¬ng tr¶i dµi hai bªn ngän ®åi n»m xa xa c¸i thung lòng bªn bê s«ng. ‘‘ Råi th× t«i biÕt m×nh ®· bÞ l¹c lâng thËt sù. T«i nghÜ nÕu t«i cã ®i x-ng téi th× chÞ Êy sÏ kh«ng biÕt ®Õn mét nöa nh÷ng g× t«i sÏ ph¶i nãi vµ lóc Êy t«i bçng hiÓu t¹i sao c¸i anh chµng trong c©u chuyÖn cña bµ Ryan ®· x-ng téi mét c¸ch kh«ng thµnh thËt. ‘‘§Õn råi ®ã’’ Nora cÊt cao giäng rÊt tù m·n råi quay manh ng-êi ®i nhanh vµo cöa nhµ thê. c¸ch cöa víi nh÷ng « kÝnh ®Çy mµu s¾c bçng ®ãng sÇm sau l-ng t«i. §óng lµ ®å h®èn. m¾t dâi lªn cao cÇu nguyÖn víi mét giäng rÊt ®çi thèng hèi. Nora ngåi ®ã. Råi bçng nhiªn. D-êng nhuwtooi còng c¶m th¸y rÊt xÊu hæ v× mäi ng-êi ®· kh«ng ngõng chª tr¸ch anh chµng ¸y.vì ra l¹nh gi¸ d-íi ch©n t«i. Ýt ra anh ta ®· ®Õn ®©y ®Ó x-ng téi. C¸i bãng ®en míi ®Õn . vßng tay l¹i. T«i ®ang ®øng tr-íc ‘‘Tßa ph¸n xÐt‘‘. Nora trë nªn hung d÷ vµ ®éc ¸c nhchÝnh con ng-êi thËt cña chÞ Êy. råi t«i sÏ bÞ chÕt ®i trong bãng ®ªm vµ liªn tôc trë vÒ ®Ó ph¸ ph¸ch ®å ®¹c. t«i bæng liªn t-ëng ®Õn c¸i nh×n cuèi cïng cña Adam vÒ v-ên ®Þa ®µng. chÞ Êy bçng ®æi giäng. bªn c¹ch tßa x-ng téi. Tr-íc Nora cã thªm hai cô giµ n÷a.mét ng-êi ®µn «ng.84 M·i tËn b©y giê t«i vÉn cßn nhí lµ t«i ®· suy nghÜ mét c¸ch cay ®¾ng ®Õn thÕ nµo.xö mét c¸ch th¶m th-¬ng nh. Khi s¾p b-íc ®i. Lóc Êy t«i tù hái m×nh liÖu «ng Êy cã ph¶i lµ ng-êi còng gièng néi t«i kh«ng. Bëi v× chØ cã bµ míi khiÕn cho mét chµng trai ph¶i c. Trong c¶nh t-îng Êy. T«i vÉn cßn nhí nh. anh Êy vÉn tèt h¬n t«i. chÞ kh«ng quªn nÐm mét c©u n÷a: ‘‘Vµ tau hi väng Cha sÏ cho mµy ®äc thËt nhiÒu kinh hèi lçi. ®èi diÖn víi cËu bÐ Jackie. mét bãng ®en tr«ng rÊt th¶m h¹i ®ang di ®Õn ®øng sau l-ng t«i cø nh. ¸nh mÆt trêi vôt t¾t ®Ó nh-êng chç cho bãng tèi th¼m s©u.thÓ kÑp t«i vµo gi÷a ®Ó t«i kh«ng thÓ nµo tho¸t ®-îc dÉu t«i cã can ®¶m ®Õn ®©u.

Viet Thang Textiles. detergent. which local enterprises can produce such as soft drink. Business leaders of big companies in HCMC have voiced difficulties they are facing with in the fierce competition against foreign companies. Saigon Beer has to compete fiercely with breweries of foreign Joint-ventures.State ventures to Social Insurance schemes. and labour price for making garments is limited by foreign partners (the labour cost of 1995 is equal to 65 . 3% by employee. P/S Cosmetics. especially world giants. To help private textile embroidery businesses survive. . in compliance with the Labour Code.1992). Other products are also in the same situation. the State should devise specific development plans for foreign investment in terms of business field and geographical area and should not encourage foreign investment in products. Yet development is not stable because most private units work according to foreign orders.Medical Insurance: 1 % by enterprises. after a time of stagnation.State ventures should be given a work card. It is necessary that employees working at non-. Tribeco Soft Drink. have gradually eaten into the market shares of local producers. which have enjoyed superior advantages in capital. 2.Social Insurance: 10% by enterprise. and are obligated to work for at least two years. To protect domestic production. Nam has suggested. if the proposed social insurance scheme comes into effect. making it difficult for Vietnamese ventures to compete effectively and occupy the market. Saigon Beer and HCMC Poultry Company. HCMC' s private textile embroidery industry has recovered and develop somewhat since 1991. marketing policies and preferences under the Foreign Investment Law. paper and .Embroidery Association agree on the implementation of contributing a part of total wages to Social and Medical Insurance. will push up production costs to very high levels. have driven into the corner by giants such as Procter & Gamble and Unilever. All members of HCMC's Textile .000 per month. 1 % by employee The State should also issue a regulation concerning employees who are trained and recruited by an enterprise. they can't control their production plan. Only a year after the US embargo was lifted. the State should amend the contribution rate of non .85 ASSIGNMENT 21: Translate the following texts into Vietnamese 1.70% of that in 1991 . Local detergent producers. although capable of meeting domestic demand to the year 2000. Mr. Employer agreement may be required if an employee want to leave his or her job. Generally. Under the current fierce competition. soft drink giants such as Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola. the average wage of those working in this branch is only about VND 400. Due to the very nature of the industry. local producers have proposed several measures to the Government. as follows: . the amount of 15% of total wages for social insurance and 2% for medical insurance that enterprises must contribute. Consequently. First. had the same opinion that local enterprises are not in an equal footing in competing with foreign counterparts as they do not enjoy tax incentives as foreign-invested enterprises. producers of Tico and Lux Detergent. At a meeting on "How to encourage foreign investment and protect domestic production" held in HCMC last week.

ng-êi d©n ë n«ng th«n sèng qu¸ xa trung t©m kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh. Ngµy cµng cã nhiÒu chuyªn gia vÒ d©n sè thÊy ®-îc mèi quan hÖ kh¨ng khÝt gi÷a sè con trong gia ®×nh vµ sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ. Nh÷ng lý do kh¸c lµ g×? Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ gia ®×nh. Ng-êi cã nhiÒu tiÒn th× cã Ýt con. Fifth. Second. hay ë mét ph¹m vi lín h¬n lµ cña mét n-íc. TÊt c¶ con c¸i cña hä ®Òu ph¶i chia sÏ vµ g¸nh v¸c tr¸ch nhiÖm ch¨m sãc cha mÑ. lµ mét nh©n tè quan träng trong viÖc quyÕt ®Þnh sè con trong gia ®×nh. Do vËy hä kh«ng nhËn ®-îc th«ng tin vÒ c¸ch thøc h¹n chÕ sinh ®Î. Hä kh«ng cã b¶o hiÓm. which involve in projects requiring large capital. Third. hay sù gióp ®ì cña chÝnh phñ. advanced technology or producing goods for export. Chóng ta cã thÓ nãi r»ng gia ®×nh ®«ng con lµ nguån b¶o hiÓm cho tuæi giµ. Ng-îc l¹i. creating conditions for domestic enterprises to develop. vµ hä cã gia ®×nh Ýt con h¬n. licenses should be granted only to JVs or 100% foreign-owned enterprises. . Nh×n chung th× d©n thµnh thÞ cã nhiÒu th«ng tin h¬n d©n n«ng th«n. ng-êi nghÌo ë n-íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn muèn cã nhiÒu con. T¹i mét vµi vïng.86 cigarettes. Vµ d©n ë c¸c n-íc kÐm ph¸t triÓn th× cã nhiÒu con h¬n d©n cña c¸c n-íc ph¸t triÓn. Ch¼ng h¹n nh. mét gia ®×nh ®«ng con lµ mét c¸ch thøc ®Ó ho¹ch ®Þnh cho t-¬ng lai. a law should be enacted against unfair competition that can lead to monopoly. Khi hä giµ c¶ th× ai sÏ gióp hä. Hä cã thÓ vµ sÏ quay sang nhê con c¸i gióp ®ì. there should be a policy to encourage domestic investment and to grant domestic enterprises the same tax incentives as foreign investors enjoy. tiÒn h-u. V× thÕ chóng ta cã thÓ nãi r»ng vÞ trÝ ®Þa lý n¬i mµ ng-êi d©n sèng ®ãng mét vai trß qan träng trong viÖc quyÕt dÞnh mät gia ®×nh nªn sinh bao nhiªu con: Gia ®×nh sèng ë thµnh thÞ th× cã Ýt con h¬n gia ®×nh sèng ë n«ng th«n. T¹i sao? Do hä ph¶i lÖ thuéc vµo sù ch¨m sãc cña con c¸i khi vÒ giµ. a campaign to motivate local consumers to use domestic goods should be launched. D©n ë thµnh thÞ ®-îc hæ trî dÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh. dumping or price inflation that does not benefit consumers. ASSIGNMENT 22: Translate the following text into English Ng-êi nghÌo th-êng cã nhiÒu con h¬n nh÷ng ng-êi thuéc giíi trung l-u vµ th-îng l-u. §èi vãi nhiÒu ng-êi nghÌo. Fourth. C©u tr¶ lêi rÊt ®¬n gi¶n. Con c¸i cña hä b©y giê ®· trë thµnh ng-êi lín vµ ®ang ®i lµm viÖc. dÞch vô kÕ ho¹ch hãa gia ®×nh cña chÝnh phñ cã lÏ kh«ng cã ®èi víi d©n nghÌo do ®iÒu kiÖn ®Þa lý.

The shortfall would have to be made up by the international community in order to help the country to revive its battered economy.and financial crisis.5 million poor people since rice and overall food prices have increased by about 60 percent in the last 12 months. the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the world Food programme (WFP) said large . the report said. ASSIGNMENT 24: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Vietnam on Wednesday said it would join the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) next year.most populous country whose economy has been shattered. which visited the country from March 9 to April 1 in 1998. 3. The shortfall was due to one of Indonesia's worst droughts this century.5 million tones of rice between April and September but this would still leave a deficit of two million tones." Deputy Prime Minister Phan Van Khai told business people over lunch organised by the Switzerland . " FA0 . the country's main staple food. two UN food agencies said yesterday. .scale international assistance would be needed to meet a short fall in rice.based World Economic Forum (WEF).WFP urge donor countries to assist Indonesia in managing its drought. Khai said that Hanoi would also participate in other regional organisations and would join the 17 . which is hosting a three day meeting here. Steep food price increases and rapidly growing unemployment were adding large numbers of people to those already living below the poverty line. "Vietnam is now actively preparing all necessary conditions to become a full member of ASEAN next year.related food problems " the report by the two Rome . The report said the Indonesian government planned to import about 1.member Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum "When it is possible". " Approximately 7.member mission from the two agencies.based organizations said. the report added. This year‟s yield would be about 47. The major challenge facing the country was to ensure the food supply for some 7. dispelling speculation that Hanoi might put off membership until it.5 million tones. In a joint report.6 percent below last year's production.87 ASSIGNMENT 23: Translate the following text into Vietnamese “Indonesia will face a record food deficit this year as a result of lower harvests and a financial crisis that has raised the cost of imports”. was better prepared. said the report on the world's fourth .5 million poor Indonesians in 15 provinces may experience acute food short ages during the upcoming dry season ". The report was based on findings of an 11-.

. adding that Hanoi would work with others in Southeast Asia to ensure regional peace. Canada. Singapore and Thailand. which has ambitious programmes for cooperation.Brunei. has said it is keen to become a full member of the group. Indonesia. who was speaking after meeting Jakarta . Xây dựng thành công những đặc khu kinh tế này đã tạo tiền đề cho sự ra đời các khu công nghiệp có qui mô lớn hơn. chính phủ đã xây dựng bốn đặc khu kinh tế nhằm tăng cường sản xuất hàng hoá xuất khẩu. Japan and China. An informal APEC leaders meeting will be held in Indonesia next month. Kinh tế phát triển mạnh một phần nhờ vào nguồn đầu tư vốn và công nghệ của gần 2 triệu Việt Kiều ở các nước trên thế giới. "We deeply understand that Vietnam is facing great challenges of global economic competition and so must try hard to do away with the danger of being left far behind by neighbouring countries. the Philippines. Đa số họ đã quay trở về Việt Nam để đầu tư và liên lạc với bà con. APEC 's members include the ASEAN countries. căn cứ hải quân Subic Bay của Mỹ trước đây nay đã trở thành một khu thương mại-công nghiệp khổng lồ ở Manila. Ngành sản xuất đã phát triển đáng kể trong thời kỳ tái thiết nền kinh tế của Philippines sau Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ II. ASEAN officials had hoped that Vietnam might join ASEAN before leaders of the group 's six current members hold their next summit in Thailand in December 1995. phát triển kinh tế và quan hệ ngoại giao trong những năm gần đây. Nhờ nông nghiệp thích ứng với thị trường tự do nên Việt Nam được xếp là nước xuất khẩu gạo lớn thứ hai trên thế giới sau Thái Lan.88 In Jakarta. tài chính và thương mại.. which gained observer status in ASEAN in 1992.as well as the United States." Khai told reporters later.general Ajil. Singh. "There are already regulations for cooperation in ASEAN. said he did not expect any difficulties in joining. including the launch of an ASEAN Free Trade Area within 10 years. Việc kiểm soát hàng hoá nhập khẩu của chính phủ đã thúc đẩy sự phát triển ngành công nghiệp nhẹ sản xuất các mặt hàng tiêu dùng cho thị trường trong nước. 2. Khoan. Việt Nam đã nổ lực duy trì sự ổn định chính trị xã hội. Các ngành công nghiệp trong các khu chế xuất này được khuyến khích sản xuất các mặt hàng xuất khẩu truyền thống. Vào những năm 70. "he said ASSIGNMENT 25: Translate the following texts into Vietnamese 1. Khai said his government would push ahead with reforms to improve conditions for foreign investment by putting a new legal framework and better administrative procedures in place. Malaysia. Một khu công nghiệp-thương mại lớn với cơ sở hạ tầng hiện đại và được miễn thuế đã thu hút các ngành công nghiệp sản xuất hàng xuất khẩu và đầu tư nước ngoài. Những đặc khu kinh tế này đã thu hút vốn đầu tư của nước ngoài vào Philippines một phần nhờ vào chính sách miễn thuế cho các doanh nghiệp có vốn đầu tư nước ngoài. as quoted by the Antara news agency.. Tại Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh và vùng phụ cận những hoạt động dịch vụ và sản xuất đã phát triển và thay đổi nhanh chóng. Vietnam. Once we are a member we will follow all regulations. Chẳng hạn như. Những thay đổi tích cực của luật pháp đã ảnh hưởng không nhỏ đến tình hình sản xuất.based ASEAN Secretary . Vietnamese Deputy Foreign Minister Vu Khoan was quoted as saying that his country would file an application for ASEAN membership by the end of this month or early in November.

bét giÆt. Bia Sµi Gßn ph¶i c¹nh tranh quyÕt liÖt víi c¸c c«ng ty bia liªn doanh víi n-íc ngoµi.n-íc ngoµi vµo viÖc s¶n xuÊt ra c¸c s¶n phÈm mµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc cã kh¶ n¨ng s¶n xuÊt ®-îc nh. Long Xuyên lập thành thế vững cho các tỉnh của Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long thì mạng lưới kênh rạch mênh mông lại là cái duyên có một không hai của vùng này. lµ nªn cã mét ®¹o luËt chèng ®èi viÖc c¹nh tranh kh«ng lµnh m¹nh cã thÓ dÉn ®éc quyÒn kinh doanh. viÖc cÊp giÊy phÐp nªn ®-îc ¸p dông cho c¸c c«ng ty liªn doanh hay c¸c doanh nghiÖp cã vèn ®Çu t. nh-ng l¹i bÞ c¸c c«ng ty khæng lå nh.n-íc gi¶i kh¸t. Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long là một trong những địa chỉ tham quan đẹp nhất Đông Nam Á.89 3. C¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt bét giÆt trong n-íc. giÊy vµ thuèc l¸. nªn c¸c c«ng ty nµy ®· dÇn dÇn th©m nhËp thÞ phÇn cña c¸c nhà s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc. Trong khi những thành phố lớn như Cần Thơ. tượng trưng cho nguồn lương thực của cả nước cũng như phong cách sinh hoạt kề cận sông nước của cư dân trong vùng. §Ó b¶o vÖ viÖc s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc. Chỉ mất chừng ba giờ đồng hồ bằng xe đò trên Quốc lộ 1 là bạn là bạn đến Mỹ Tho. Pep si. C¸c s¶n phÈm kh¸c còng r¬i vµo hoµn c¶nh t-¬ng tù. c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc ®· ®Ò nghÞ víi chÝnh phñ mét sè biÖn ph¸p. Mỹ Tho. . chÝnh s¸ch tiÕp thÞ vµ c¸c -u ®·i kh¸c theo luËt §Çu T. Thø nhÊt. Thø ba. Tuy nhiên điều đó không có nghĩa là phải khó khăn lắm mới tới được Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long để thoát khỏi cái ồn ào náo nhiệt của thành phố lớn nhất Miền Nam này. ChØ 1 n¨m sau khi lÖnh cÊm vËn cña Mü ®-îc b·i bá.N-íc Ngoµi. c«ng nghÖ cao hay s¶n xuÊt c¸c mÆt hµng xuÊt khÈu. nhµ n-íc nªn cã kÕ ho¹ch ph¸t triÓn dµnh riªng cho viÖc ®Çu t. từ “nước” vừa có ý nghĩa là quốc gia.n-íc ngoµi vÒ l·nh vùc kinh doanh vµ ph©n bè theo vïng ®Þa lý vµ kh«ng nªn khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu t. 5. kết hợp cái kỳ ảo của vùng sông nước lung linh với cảnh quan đầy phấn khởi của một nền văn hoá vui tươi thể hiện qua cách sinh hoạt của dân địa phương cùng hoạt động thương mại. Sinh hoạt vui nhộn của vùng này không giống mấy với cách sinh hoạt của Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh.n-íc ngoµi tham gia vµo c¸c dù ¸n ®ßi hái cã nhiÒu vèn. một liên kết về ngôn ngữ mà mối ràng buộc càng thấy rõ ràng sau một chuyến đi thăm vùng đất phì nhiêu nhất Việt Nam: Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long. Thø hai.Procter & Gamble vµ Unilever dån vµo thÕ bÝ.Coca-cola. ph¸ gi¸ lµm h¹i ng-êi tiªu dïng. Do phù sa bồi đắp của dòng sông Cửu Long làm phong phú vựa lúa đầy ắp này.Cola ®-îc h-ëng -u ®·i vÒ vèn. thủ phủ của tỉnh Tiền Giang và là điểm xuất phát tốt cho cuộc thăm dò vùng đồng bằng này. 4. mÆc dï cã thÓ ®¸p øng nhu cÇu trong n-íc ®Õn n¨m 2005. c¸c c«ng ty n-íc gi¶i kh¸t khæng lå nh. Đối với du khách. vừa có ý nghĩa là nước. Trong tiếng Việt.

the day is hot/ the day. the same in meaning 10. the hand is part of the doctor 6. the relative of the doctor/ the kinship 5. the same in meaning 2. different in meaning E. the same in meaning 5. the same in meaning 7. 8. the place where doctor works/ the docter owns the office 2 someone is treated by the doctor 3. change of meaning 3. the house of Peter/ Peter is the owner of the house/ Peter owns the house C.90 CHAPTER 3: ASSIGNMENT 1: II. a blue long dress of mother/ mother has a blue long dress 10. the same in meaning 4 . different in meaning 9. change of form 2. different in meaning 3. change of form B ASSIGNMENT KEYS 6. .the jug contains water/ the jug of water/ 7. 1. change of meaning 5. the same in meaning 8. the doctor owns the house D. the same in meaning 6. EXERCISES: A. a car was bought by John/ John owned a car/ A car belonged to John. change of form 4. 1. thec doctor owns the book 4. 1. which is hot 9.

omitting relative clause D. 1. who belongs to the school of critical realism. 2. The world he describes is that of the middle and lower classes in London. Nowadays. 3.91 1. To construct this. Charles Dickens. 1. Hue is famous for its delicious dishes and beautiful landscapes. Thac Mo is a hydroelectric works with a designed of 150000 KW. technologyand knowledge. A motorcycle rider was robbed at Kampung early yesterday morning. change word order 2. 4. Despite the great improvement in the woman status. annually produce 600 million KWH/ has an average annual output of 150000 KWH.a . 4. nearly 15 million cubic meters of earth and stone must be dug up and banked up. change structure/ change word collocation 3. b. over 350000 cubic meters of filtering layers were embanked. C. Da Lat. Since the USA lifted the embargo against Vietnam. What we value in his works is the criticism about evils and the contrast between the wealth and poverty in the English bougeois society of his time. A. about 220000 cubic 2. 1. One of the problems is the population explosion/boom in the developing countries. is one of the greatest novelists in the world. nutrition and education. Where did you have/ get your shirt made? 2. takes up/covers/is situated in a large area on the Lam Vien Plateau. The participants discussed the causes of pollution environment.a 3. The population is growing in geometric progression while thee production of goods is growing in arithmetic prgression . which is surrounded by the great/imposing hills and mountains. ASSIGNMENT 2: II. 5 . many foreign countries have been investing in Vietnam. 5. B. 1. 3. Foreign tourists usually at Kinh Do Hotel for this hotel has been recommended by their friends. change set expression 4. change the meaning of the verb and adjective 5. a 4. other things must be done to improve women‟s health. the world has been facing a number of serious problems in spite of the fact that there have been dramatic progress in science. 2.

MÆc dï kÓ tõ n¨m 1990. the South will basically free itself from the hunger for electricity. nearly all the basic items have met the demand in construction speed. 6. Râ rµng r»ng c¸c tr-êng häc ë c¸c tØnh phÝa nam cã nhiÒu phßng m¸y vµ phßng thùc hµnh ®-îc dïng vµo viÖc ngo¹i ng÷ h¬n c¸c tr-êng ë c¸c tØnh phÝa B¾c. Hä ®· th¶o luËn mét lo¹t c¸c biÖn ph¸p nh»m môc ®Ých b¶o ®¶m sù hîp t¸c toµn diÖn vÒ kinh tÕ.92 meters of concrete were used and nearly 7000 tons of equipment and metal structures were installed. The field leaders assured the Prime Minister that they already have grounds to ensure the operation of Turbine 1 in June 1994. khoa häc vµ kü thuËt. Thus. In mid November 93. Ng-êi ta lËp dù ¸n ®Ó t¨ng thªm c¬ héi héi nhËp cho 3000 trÎ em khuyÕt tËt ë ba tØnh . mét ë vïng nói. Ng-êi ta ®ang thùc hiÖn mäi næ lùc ®Ó n©ng cao nhËn thøc cña phô n÷ vÒ viÖc hä cã quyÒn ®-îc h-ëng sù an toµn lao ®éng . . 6. With these sources of power in 1994. the Prime Minister Vo Van Kiet came to inspect the building of Thac Mo Hydroelectric works. the government has decided to have the construction finished in two years since the demand in power supply of southern localities has become very pressing. The North-South 500 KV transmission line will also be completed simultaneously. Nguyen Ba Man. Despite such enormous volume. th-¬ng m¹i. the construction units have carried out about 90% of the dug-up earth volume. According Mr. there will be a significant coincidence when Turbine 1 of Thac Mo Hydro-electric Plant starts operating.n-íc ngoµi cho gi¸o dôc. 3. §· cã bèn dù ¸n ®Çu t. The task of blocking the current of Song Be River will start in December. 1. D. 5. 8. 5. 4. So far. ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc dµnh cho c¸c tr-êng häc ®· ®-îc t¨ng lªn nh-ng vÉn cßn rÊt thÊp so víi nhu cÇu trang bÞ ®Çy ®ñ cho tr-êng häc vµ c¶i tiÕn chÊt l-îng ®µo t¹o. Vèn ®Çu tchñ yÕu tõ Ng©n Hµng ThÕ Giíi vµ Ng©n hµng Ph¸t triÓn Ch©u ¸. 3. ng-êi b¹n truyÒn thèng vµ lµ ®èi t¸c chiÕn l-îc ë §«ng Nam ¸. mét ë vïng duyªn h¶i MiÒn Trung vµ mét ë vïng s©u vïng xa 4. head of the work managing committee. 7. concreted some 40% of the concrete volume. 9. 2. hay ®iÒu kiÖn vÖ sinh lao ®éng th«ng qua m¹ng l-íi truyÒn th«ng më réng. 7. Tæng thèng Putin kh¼ng ®Þnh r»ng n-íc Nga lu«n coi träng mèi quan hÖ víi ViÖt Nam . 10.

purplish violet and bright red gerbera . ASSIGNMENT 3: Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese 1. The local inhabitants have long been artisans devoting their lives to growing flowers. Tet has already roamed around the vicinities of Hanoi. grass. Moving down from Kinh Bac. 5. Others have turned to building luxury villas rented out as mini hotels to foreign tourists with their own capital or in cooperation with those who have capital. It is a regret to see the narrowing flower acreage due to a change in business of a number of artisans. Mµn tr×nh diÔn chÝnh cña lÔ héi lµ mét mµn diÔn mang tªn ‘‘ §Êt Lµnh Chim §Ëu’’ d-îc tr×nh diÔn ®ång thêi ë ba s©n khÊu lín ë khu trung t©m. The peasants in the suburbs are probably the ones to feel the presence of Tet before anyone else because all their tasks from taking care of vegetables. juicy golden kamquat. Míi ®©y chÝnh phñ ®· d-a ra biÖn ph¸p khÝch lÖ nh. Stores and shops have musroomed. 2. 9. Toµn bé khu vùc quanh ®Òn tËp trung ®Æc kÝn ng-êi. 10. Hanoi and its people will always deserve the land of age-old culture. 10 No wonder why Hanoi has changed and been developed in the open-door time. flowers to fattening pigs and poultry are for Tet‟s sake. fruits. A few year ago. Since early in the last lunar month. 38 trong sè 50 sinh viªn ngo¹i ng÷ ®-îc b¸o Vietnam Courier nãi r»ng hä kh«ng thÝch lµm viÖc cho c¸c c«ng ty ®-îc n-íc ngoµi ®Çu t-. Adjacent to the inner city are flower districts: Nhat Tan. Quang Ba with a number of varieties: dark pink peach blossoms. here was a vast land of flowers sufficiently meeting the need of ornamental plants for Hanoi people.93 8. 4. ViÖt Nam vµ Trung Quèc ®ång ý më c¸c cuéc ®µm ph¸n ®Ó ký kÕt mét hiÖp ®Þnh vÒ l·nh thæ vµ biªn giíi vµ mét hiÖp ®Þnh vÒ l·nh h¶i tr-íc n¨m 2000. 8. chØ chõa méy kho¶ng nhá cho nh÷ng nghi lÔ ®-îc tiÕn hµnh. 2. selling all kinds of goods from the most popular to the top-graded ones. 9. Hopefully.gi¶m thuÕ hoÆc cho vay -u ®·i cho nh÷ng chñ nh©n sö dông nhiÒu c«ng nh©n n÷. B 1. . 6. Some have sold their land and left their occupations forever. we will see immense fields of flowers especially gladioli of all colors. 7. 3. Nghi Tam.

4.®µi truyÒn h×nh Hµ Néi vµ Thµnh Phè Hå ChÝ Minh. 7. th× chØ cã chî §ång T©m ®-îc dêi tõ khu d©n c. nÒn v¨n minh c«ng nghiÖp ®ang t¸c ®éng tõng ngµy.. M¹ng l-íi truyÒn h×nh ®ang x©y dùng réng kh¾p c¶ n-íc. Héi Liªn HiÖp Phô N÷ ViÖt Nam ®-îc cö ®¹i diÖn ë Quèc Héi vµ chñ tÞch héi ®-îc quyÒn tham dù c¸c cuéc häp th-êng kú cña Héi §ång Bé Tr-ëng ®Ó bµy tá quan ®iÓm cña Héi vµ ®Ò nghÞ nh÷ng ®iÒu lÖ liªn quan ®Õn phô n÷. chÝnh phñ ®· ph¸t ®éng ch-¬ng tr×nh gi¸o dôc vµ héi nhËp céng ®ång. 8. tÊt c¶ c¸c tr-êng häc ph¶i t×m c¸c nguån tµi chÝnh kh¸c ®Ó mua ®å dïng d¹y häc. 9. 6. Nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh nµy sÏ truyÒn nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh quan träng cña ®µi truyÒn h×nh trung -¬ng vµ ph¸t ch-¬ng tr×nh cña ®µi m×nh. Gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam chÞu ¶nh h-áng râ rÖt cña nÒn v¨n minh n«ng nghiÖp. ASSIGNMENT 4: . Tæng thu nhËp ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc ®¹t xÊp xØ møc ®Ò ra ban ®Çu.tõ ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc. 5. h¹n h¸n vÉn ®-îc thùc hiÖn. §Ó gi¶m bít chi phÝ trong viÖc t¨ng kh¶ n¨ng tiÕp cËn c¶u trÎ em tµn tËt víi gi¸o dôc. tõng giê vµo cuéc sèng gia ®×nh ViÖt Nam. ViÖc th©m hôt ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc ®-îc gi÷ ë møc cho phÐp lµ 3. cßn cã 25 ®µi thuéc c¸c tØnh ®-îc thµnh lËp vµo n¨m 1988. Trong nh÷ng n¨m gÇn ®©y ®Ó lËp l¹i trËt tù c«ng céng. thÊp h¬n n¨m 1997 lµ 4. 10. Ngoµi viÖc ®Çu t.6% tæng thu nhËp quèc néi vµo n¨m 1998. Tuy nhiªn. Hµ Néi ®· dêi mét sè khu chî t¹m ®Õn nh÷ng vïng ®· ®-îc qui ®Þnh.94 3. c¸c nguån nµy chØ b»ng 13% ng©n s¸ch nhµ n-íc dµnh cho c¸c tr-êng phæ th«ng vµ 21% cho c¸c tr-êng ®¹i häc.2%. Hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh Êy ®· g©y ra nhiÒu thiÖt h¹i vÒ sinh m¹ng vµ tµi s¶n còng nh. Nh÷ng nguån chi tiªu b×nh th-êng vÉn ®-îc ®¶m b¶o. Do chÝnh s¸ch më cöa. Ngoµi nh÷ng ®µi truyÒn h×nh t-¬ng ®èi hiÖn ®¹i.§èng §a sang khu vùc §¹i La. Nh-ng trong sè 4 khu chî ®¨ ®-îc qui ®Þnh . Sù ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ cña ViÖt Nam ph¶i ®-îc xÐt trong hoµn c¶nh chiÕn tranh kÐo dµi. lôt.c¸c c«ng tr×nh c«ng céng vµ tµi nguyªn. trong khi ®ã c¸c kho¶n chi bÊt th-êng cho c¸c vïng bÞ b·o. cã tõ l©u ®êi nh.

. 1.95 A.yes 6. Mèi liªn hÖ gi÷a n¹n ph¸ rõng vµ nhu cÇu thµnh lËp x· héi phån vinh ®-îc thÊy râ nÐt nhÊt ë Trung Mü vµ Brazin n¬i nh÷ng c¸nh rõng nhiÖt ®íi ®· bÞ biÕn thµnh ®ång cá ch¨n th¶ v× viÖc nu«i gia sóc mang l¹i c¸c kho¶n lîi nhuËn xuÊt khÈu gióp tr¶ nî n-íc ngoµi. chø kh«ng ph¶i do n¹n du canh. th× ®©y lµ mét gi¶i thÝch v« c¨n cø. ViÖc x©y dùng c¸c ®iÒn trang ch¨n th¶ réng lín lµ nguyªn nh©n chÝnh dÉn ®Õn viÖc ph¸ huû 2000 km2 rõng nhiÖt ®íi hµng n¨m ë Trung vµ Nam Mü. phÇn lín gç ®-îc xuÊt khÈu sang Mü vµ NhËt. 4. In Vietnam.vïng xøng víi tªn gäi lµ ‘‘vïng giao l-u hamburger’’ A. 5. about Vietnam. du c. it is about deforestation. yes/ a bilingual dictionary and the context could help to discover the meanings of these words. nÕu cho r»ng viÖc më réng mét nÒn n«ng nghiÖp tù cung tù cÊp ®Ó nu«i sèng nhiÒu miÖng ¨n h¬n lµ nguyªn nh©n chÝnh. §Êt khai hoang chñ yÕu dïng cho viÖc nu«i bß xuÊt khÈu phôc vô cho ngµnh c«ng nghiÖp thøc ¨n nhanh ë B¾c Mü. 1. Da River. to give information 2. about invironmental protection / to be more exact.yes COUNTRY Our ancestors drank the water from the Red River. Ch©u ¢u vµ NhËt. Me Kong River and tried hard/ spare no pain to protect them. Just think about the fact that very few languages in the world enjoy the uniformity as in the case of our mother tongue. the word “nuoc” (in the river. 5. §N¸ vµ Th¸i B×nh D-¬ng bÞ tµn ph¸ lµ do viÖc khai hoang ®Ó trång c¸c lo¹i n«ng s¶n xuÊt khÈu vµ do c¸c ho¹t ®éng bu«n b¸n gç . §¹i bé phËn rõng ë Ch©u Mü La Tinh. Tuy nhiªn. yes/ a bilingual dictionary and the context could help to discover the meanings of these words. It depends on the leaners‟ ability. lake and sea) have a synonym and homonym of the word “nuoc” signifying homeland. to give information 2. 4. Hµng n¨m ho¹t ®éng bu«n b¸n gç ®· ph¸ huû 4500 km2 rõng.vµ t¸ ®iÒn g©y nªn.its language and people 3. Kho¶n nî n-íc ngoµi khæng lå ®ang ®Ì nÆng lªn vai d©n nghÌo chñ yÕu ®-îc dïng ®Ó trang tr¶i cho c¸c kho¶n mua s¾m xa xØ cña chÝnh phñ vµ qu©n ®éi. 3. It depends on the leaners‟ ability. ` N¹N PH¸ RõNG Sù gia t¨ng d©n sè lµ mét nh©n tè g©y ra n¹n ph¸ rõng nhiÖt ®íi.

Tê N. In the world. 6. 7. That is the patriotism of the Vietnamese people. there are many countries where people cannot communicate with one another when they travel from one province to another. sù mª tÝn. M¸y tÝnh ®Çu tiªn -bµn tÝnh . M¸y tÝnh ®-îc ph¸t triÓn ®ång thêi ë §øc. ASSIGNMENT 5: A. Nh÷ng ai quan t©m ®Õn ngµnh c«ng nghÖ m¸y tÝnh tin rµng chóng ta ®ang tr·i qua mét cuéc c¸ch m¹ng vÒ m¸y tÝnh. C«ng ty nµo kh«ng sö dông c«ng nghÖ m¸y tÝnh ®Òu kh«ng thÓ c¹nh tranh ®-îc víi c¸c ®èi thñ ¸p dông c«ng nghÖ nµy. nh÷ng ph¸t minh kh«ng t-ëng nh.h·ng General Motors Ford.®é chÝnh x¸c trong tÝnh to¸n. Vµo n¨m 1980. B»ng chøng lµ sù thÊt b¹i cña c«ng nghiÖp s¶n xuÊt ®ång hå Thuþ SÜ trong 2 n¨m võa qua do bÞ ®ång hå ®iÖn tö c¹nh tranh nªn ®· thÊt thu 200 triÖu ®« la mçi n¨m. 2. do ng-êi Trung Quèc ph¸t minh c¸ch ®©y 5000 n¨m lµ tiÒn th©n cña m¸y tÝnh hiÖn ®¹i sau nµy.®é chÝnh x¸c trong tÝnh to¸n cÇn cho viÖc gi¶i m· th«ng ®iÖp cña kÎ thï.nhµ m¸y chÕ t¹o « t« Fiat cña ý vµ Nissan cña NhËt. tµu ngÇm vµ ®iÖn tho¹i ®· ®-îc dù b¸o tr-íc. 1. cÇn phØa s¬ l-îc vÒ lÞch sö m¸y tÝnh. Ng-êi m¸y ®ang dÇn thay thÕ c«ng nh©n trong d©y chuyÒn s¶n xuÊt nh. Cho ®Õn thÕ kû thø 17.96 Here like an immortal bloc the rivers and people are closely linked to the nature and people by a kind of everlasting cement. Nissan vµ Simpson Pope 8. . T¹i sao cuéc c¸ch m¹ng nµy x¶y ra ? §iÒu nµy cã mang l¹i hËu qu¶ g× cho x· héi? §Ó tr¶ lêi nh÷ng c©u hái nµy. 5. no matter where they are from. Anh vµ Mü ®Ó t¨ng thªm tèc ®é còng nh. Trong thêi kú ®ã. people are able to understand one another right at the first meeting. Trong lÞch sö loµi ng-êi khoa häc ®-îc xem nh. nh÷ng ng-êi sÏ xua tan bãng ®ªm vµ më ra con ®-êng cho con ng-êi chinh phôc thiªn nhiªn. Ngµy nay . A ®· ca ngîi c¸c nhµ khoa häc cña thêi ®¹i ®ã lµ c¸c nhµ truyÒn b¸ ¸nh s¸ng. nhiÒu c«ng viÖc trong c¸c kh©u s¶n xuÊt vµ dÞch vô do con ng-êi ®¶m tr¸ch cã thÓ ®-îc thùc hiÖn nhanh h¬n vµ Ýt tèn kÐm h¬n nhê sù trî gióp cña c«ng nghÖ m¸y tÝnh vµ c¸c thiÕt bÞ ®-îc m¸y tÝnh kiÓm so¸t. on the contrary. ë Ch©u ¢u ch-a cã g× cã thÓ s¸nh b»ng bµn tÝnh vÒ tèc ®é còng nh. 4. the north or the south.cã sø mÖnh gi¶i phãng con ng-êi khái sù ngu dèt. 3. In Vietnam.m¸y bay. gi¶m ®ãi nghÌo vµ t¨ng tÇm hiÓu biÕt cña con ng-êi vÒ thÕ giíi. 50 robot ®· ®-îc c¸c c«ng ty cña óc sö dông ch¼ng h¹n nh.

Dung Quat Bay is to the northeast of Binh Son District. QN Province. 3. Nh÷ng nghÖ nh©n lµnh nghÒ trong ngµnh tiÓu thñ c«ng nghiÖp vèn khan hiÕm tr-íc ®©y. To the south of the bay is an area of flat land having geographical structure with an area of tens of square kilometers. sea products processing zone. It may be necessary for us to re-define the very notion of work itself. light industry zone./ with a population of about 600000. Thev supply of fresh water for this area is very convenient with a reserve of about 3 billion cubic meters per year taken from the Tra Bong River. In order to encourage the banking system to play a more constructive role.97 9. 2. pouring into the East Sea. nay bçng d-ng tù hä c¶m thÊy thõa d. 3. Translate the following sentences into English. 5. the government has taken new measures including the reorganization of the . Another advantage is that Dung Quat lies about 12 km from roadway. They have also participated in the charity work following the tradition “ the luckier should help the sufferer. ASSIGNMENT 6: A. the effect of the banking system on the development and macro-economic management was minimal. 10. b-íc ®Çu ®· g©y ra n¹n thÊt nghiÖp víi sè l-îng lín. railway lines. 4. In addition to their support for their relatives. B 1.vµ thiÕu kü n¨ng trong nÒn c«ng nghÖ hiÖn ®¹i. 4. a number of overseas Vietnamese have contributed to the welfare of their country and taken part in relief movements to help those who suffer from natural calamities. oil refineries. Before 1988. It is 18 km long and is protected by mountain ranges. The silt from the Mekong River helps to bring an ample granary representing the whole country‟s source of food as well as the local inhabitants‟ riverside lifestyle 2.” 5. Cuéc c¸ch m¹ng c«ng nghiÖp Anh vµo cuèi thÕ kû 18 cµng cñng cè niÒm tin vµo mét x· héi khoa häc kü thuËt mÆc dï lîi nhuËn x· héi thu vµo kh«ng bï ®-îc chi phÝ x· héi bá ra . The Mekong river itself with its huge tributaries and small canals navigable for tiny boats creates a majesty landscape as it flows through VN. Here will be formed / established heavy industry and chemical zones. It is significant that these overseas Vietnamese always direct their attention to their homeland. Nh÷ng ý t-ëng khoa häc vÜ ®¹i nµy ®· ph¸t triÓn vµo thÕ kû 18 vµ 19. 1. the last part of its 4500 km-long journey. we are going through a period of profound social changes like that of the first industrial revolution. Today. Cïng víi viÖc c¬ giíi ho¸ ë mét sè qui tr×nh s¶n xuÊt. and a modern urban residential area with about 600000 inhabitants. power transmission line and the trans-Vietnam optic cable. cherish a close link with their families and preserve the national identity which typifies the Vietnamese.

Nh÷ng ng-êi khëi x-íng ra viÖc dïng n¨ng l-îng nguyªn tö nhÊn m¹nh r»ng thÕ giíi nµy råi ®©y ch¾c c¾n sÏ trë thµnh mét thÕ giíi cña nguyªn tö. phôc håi nh÷ng vÊn ®Ò søc khoÎ cña c¸ nh©n vµ céng ®ång. Trong lÜnh vùc ®µo t¹o y khoa. Râ rµng r»ng mét th©n thÓ khoÎ m¹nh gióp cho mét t©m hån lµnh m¹nh. V× vËy ng-êi thÇy thuèc ®ã cÇn ph¶i biÕt ph¸t hiÖn . Though the monthly minimum wage increased. B. nh÷ng viÖc ®· lµm ®-îc trong nh÷ng n¨m qua ®-îc ®¸nh dÊu b»ng sù kiÖn næi bËt lµ viÖc nhiÒu chuyªn gia vÒ ®µo t¹o y khoa . 1. Mét ng-êi khoÎ m¹nh lµ mét ng-êi khoÎ m¹nh vÒ mÆt thÓ chÊt lÉn tinh thÇn. . 6. C¸c b¸c sÜ cho thÊy lÇn ®Çu tiªn hä cã thÓ t¸i t¹o c¸c hÖ miÔn nhiÔm cña nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ nhiÔm vi rót bÖnh AIDS b¨ng c¸ch ®ét ngét t¨ng sè l-îng tÕ bµo m¸u mµ vi rót HIV huû diÖt. 6. M¹nh khoÎ vÒ mÆt tinh thÇn lµ rÊt quan träng vµ lµ mét ng-êi thùc sù khoÎ m¹nh lµ ng-êi ®¹t ®-îc sù th¨ng b»ng hîp lý gi÷a thÓ chÊt vµ tinh thÇn. Tuy nhiªn t«i muèn nhÊn m¹nh tíi tÇm quan träng cña søc khoÎ t©m lý. nhiÒu tr-êng ®¹i häc trªn thÕ giíi ®· dÆt vÊn ®Ò ph¶i xem xÐt l¹i néi dung ®µo t¹o ®éi ngò c¸n bé y tÕ . v× chÝnh nh÷ng t©m hån lµnh m¹nh ®iÒu khiÓn h-íng ®i cña hÖ thèng gi¸ trÞ. Ng-êi ta còng cho r»ng nh÷ng ng-êi chèng ®èi l¹i viÖc sö dông nguyªn tö ®ang chèng l¹i trµo l-u cña lÞch sö vµ cã mèi quan hÖ gÇn gòi víi dßng hä Luddites vèn lµ nh÷ng ng-êi chñ tr-¬ng ®Ëp ph¸ m¸y mãc ngay tõ khi cuéc c¸ch m¹ng c«ng nghiÖp b¾t ®Çu. 3.The survey conducted by the VWU shows that traditional contraceptive methods have been widely used. real salaries have declined substantially as a result of inflation. 4. 5. the introduction of restrictive credit policies. The government implemented a comprehensive reconstructuring of wages and salaries of the governmental employees with a consolidation of consumer subsidies into the nominal wage structure. Ngµy nay con ng-êi cã khuynh h-íng lo ©u vÒ søc khoÎ thÓ chÊt. the most frequent method being intra uterine device (IUD).98 banking system. Ng-êi thÇy thuèc ngµy nay nªn lµ ng-êi cña søc khoÎ . gi¶i quyÕt . and new policies on interest and free trade of gold in market. 7. The survey also indicates that 39% of married women used modern methods. 2.

their compassion is a factor which creates the strength and the diplomacy of the nation. customs and unique folk culture. thus attracting more and more women to social activities. This policy is being gradually extended to all the inhabitants in various forms. The greatest attraction to the tourists is the age-old traditions typical of the Vietnamese culture. 7. study. the community. 3. Take the buffalo stabbing ceremony as an example. the teachers and the curriculum. 4. and the efforts of each individual within the society. it will be a supplier of raw materials and cheap labour in the international division of labour. The humanism of the Vietnamese diplomatic line constitutes a typical characteristic. to learn a foreign language for a specific purpose : business. Also. The ceremony provides tourists with a chance to observe the decoration of jars and the way they are chosen to store wine. They also have an opportunity to observe the way people choose the buffalo for the ceremony. Identification of the factors that leads to fast effective foreign language learning has become increasingly important because of a majority of learners who are very anxious . It has proposed to the state laws and policies that make full use of women‟s potentials in the process of renovation. It will have to accept an inferior position and losses in the international cooperation and competition. It has also helped women deal with difficult matters of every life. Economic backwardness and the danger of lagging behind in the economic development are the great concerns of all the Vietnamese at home and abroad . The achievements of the renovation process in the past ten years have provided opportunities for women to obtain their goals.99 ASSIGNMENT 7: 1. Nguyen Trai. has renovated their organization and work style . left a legendary guiding principle which remains today: “ Using great justice to vanquish cruelty Humanism to subdue brutality” . as adults. If tourists go to an ethnic minority region. The basic principle of the policy is to combine the responsibility of the state. 5. Social welfare is a major policy of Vietnam which has its origin in the age-old national traditions of solidarity and mutual assistance. Though the Vietnamese have been victims of countless aggressions. If Vietnam lags far behind other countries. Social services have helped to ease their housework and create favourable conditions for them to participate in social activities. Vietnam is a large community consisting of 54 ethnic groups with different traditions . Their lives have been improved and women have become less burdened. they will have an opportunity to engage in other fascinating cultural activities typical of the rainforest region. This is the great challenge facing Vietnam in the current international context. hundreds of traditional handicraft villages have produced thousands of famous handicraft and fine art products. a national hero of the 15th century. they never lose their compassion . The requirements for effective language learning may be taken into account in terms of the learners. Thousands of historical and revolutionary relics have been graded by the government . 8. The Vietnam Women‟s Union which represents Vietnamese women nationwide . Tourists should have to be present about a week before the ceremony to join the local inhabitants in looking for a suitable kind of bamboo to repair the Rong House (The community House) and to make a Neu tree ( The New Year Tree) to chase evil spirits. 6. hundreds of which have high artistic and historical value . 2. and diplomacy.

Historic sites date back less than 80 years in Shanghai. opened in 1996.if time allows. most of which are being lovingly restored to their former glory. It would be impossible to tour the entire treasure huose in a short visit. trong bài diễn văn chính phát biểu tại trường Đại Học Quốc Gia Hà Nội. Banks and commercial companies of all kinds built opulent head offices for themselves overlooking what were then open rice fields beyond the banks of the Huangpu river. It was a minor weaving and fishing town until the mid 19th century. Entrepreneurs and carpetbaggers from all over the world descended and developed it into one of the world's most cosmopolitan and sophisticated cities. but Shanghai can lay claim to the title of commercial capital. but even an hour in the galleries devoted to the bronzes.air museum of 1930s architecture. the panoramic views from the upper levels make an unforgettable experience. Around the corner from the Bund. Tổng Bí Thư-Chủ Tịch nước Trung Quốc nói với sinh viên: “Các bạn trẻ thân mến. including some of the world's tallest buildings. Tổng Bí Thư Giang Trạch Dân nhấn mạnh rằng mối quan hệ Việt -Trung sẽ phát triển tốt đẹp trong thế kỷ 21. have sprouted where the rice used to grow. stones sculptures and ceramics will provide lasting memories. The very name Shanghai still sends a ripple of excitement down most spines. The most prominent is the Oriental Pearl TV Tower . Shanghai boasts one of the world's truly great museums. This whole stretch has survived the busy bulldozers and today it forms a unique open . A stroll along the Bund is a must for everyone who visits what is still regarded by many as China's leading city. góp phần vào sự nghiệp hoà bình và phát triển ở châu Á cũng như trên toàn thế giới. with its elegant villas and tree . when it began to develop as a trading and industrial center. . ASSIGNMENT 9: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Ngày hôm qua. but Shanghai has many other exquisite hotels from the 1930s. and yet most visitors fall under the spell of this unique city where ambience is everything. From the 1920s on it became increasingly notorious as the place where anything could . Tổng Bí Thư Giang Trạch Dân kêu gọi giới trẻ Việt Nam và Trung Quốc nỗ lực nhằm thắt chặt tình hữu nghị giữa hai nước. the Peace Hotel and its venerable Jazz Band Are the best-known survivors from a more gracious age.and usually did . Skyscrapers.lined streets. trong đó nỗ lực chung của thanh niên hai nước là không thể thiếu. The past is still tangible in sections of the former French concession.100 ASSIGNMENT 8: Translate the following text into English Beijing may be the seat of political power. chính các bạn là những người tạo ra tương lai tươi sáng và tương lai thuộc về các bạn”.happen.

As in the first year (1998). Theo lịch trình. nỗ lực vì sự nghiệp phát triển Chủ Nghĩa Xã Hội. Waste has really been a pressing problem of the society and one of the causes which considerably affects the economy of our country. ông đi thăm cố đô Huế. là anh em”. “practising thrift and fighting against waste” must be always the national policy. Ở đó. chăm chỉ học tập. sự ổn định lâu dài. and waste also exists in the masses with costly weddings. trao đổi và học hỏi lẫn nhau để tăng cường hiểu biết. đã được UNESCO công nhận là di sản thế giới. Ông nói quan hệ Việt-Trung dựa trên cơ sở tin tưởng lẫn nhau. vì sự giàu có và thịnh vượng của mỗi nước”. như Chủ Tịch Hồ Chí Minh đã từng nhấn mạnh hai dân tộc “là đồng chí. tình láng giềng thân thiện và sự bảo đảm . in land and office management. waste has still been spreading everywhere. có tư tưởng vững vàng. Ông bảo đảm Đảng và Chính phủ Trung Quốc sẽ hoàn toàn ủng hộ sự trao đổi đó. however. ông sẽ đến thăm phố cổ Hội An và công ty dệt may Hoà Thọ trước khi kết thúc chuyến đi thăm ba ngày đến Việt Nam. Ông phát biểu rằng: “Giới trẻ Trung Quốc và Việt Nam cần kế thừa và phát huy mạnh mẽ tinh thần cách mạng của cha ông. Chủ tịch nước Giang Trạch Dân nói: “Trong lịch sử. using budget. in State-owned enterprises. Chủ Tịch nước Giang Trạch Dân rời Hà Nội ngày hôm qua để đến miền Trung Việt Nam. giải phóng dân tộc và thống nhất đất nước”. Theo ông tình hữu nghị giữa Việt Nam và Trung Quốc không chỉ xuất phát từ lịch sử mà còn từ thực tiễn. after the decree of . Waste appears in management. In reality.101 Ông nói: thế hệ trẻ cả hai nước phải theo đuổi lý tưởng của mình và lao động không mệt mỏi để xây dựng Chủ Nghĩa Xã Hội. ASSIGNMENT 10: Translate the following text into English Concerning a poor country like ours. Ông hy vọng giới trẻ Trung Quốc và Việt Nam sẽ gìn giữ. Ông nói thêm: “Hợp tác trên cơ sở hiểu biết lẫn nhau là cầu nối và cũng là mục tiêu cho tương lai thịnh vượng”. tiền đề. và gặp gỡ các đồng chí lãnh đạo của thành phố cảng Đà Nẵng. in basic construction investment. cả Việt Nam và Trung Quốc đều bị đế quốc xâm lược nhưng chúng ta đều đã đánh bại chúng. duy trì và phát triển mối quan hệ Việt-Trung.

expenses for purchasing office equipment. reduced in comparison with the balance in 1997. business expenses: VND12. Khi ®Ò cËp ®Õn c¸c cuéc ®µm ph¸n.8 billion.Ph¸i viªn cña Hoa Kú lµ ‘‘ mét ®ªm tèt lµnh cho c«ng viÖc’’ nh»m ph¸ vì sù bÕ t¾t trong viÖc Israel tr× ho·n ruts qu©n khái thÞ trÊn West Bank cña Heebron. according to reports of 12 Ministries and bodies functionally equivalent to Ministries. conference expenses: VND12.’’ ¤ng cßn nãi thªm r»ng «ng vµ «ng Ross ‘‘ ®· gi¶i quyÕt mét sè khóc m¾c gi÷a t«i vµ «ng Êy’’. «ng nãi:’’ §ã lµ mét buæi tèi . gifts… At the end of the year.94 billion. While “free” inhabitants are leading a poor life and spending thriftily. Some regular expenses have sharply fell from 30% to 70%.7 billion. branch forming celebration. because inhabitants have no such budget for those parties.®ång ý r»ng:’’ Chóng t«i ®· cã mét lo¹t c¸c cuéc th¶o luËn tèt ®Ñp’’. sím h«m qua sau 3 gê ®ång hå cã mÆt ë ®ã trong khi nh÷ng ng-êi tham dù ®µm ph¸n vÉn tiÕp tôc c¸c cuéc héi ®µm.57 billion.43 billion. Financial inspections and annual balance reports helped to find out a breach of rules of administrative management of many enterprises and administrative bodies. indicate that spending has so far been loose and that it is necessary to limit expenses. The State‟s budget in 1999 is estimated to continue economizing 10% of estimated regular expenses.Nh÷ng ng-êi l·nh ®¹o cña Israel vµ Palestin ®· tiÕn hµnh ®µm ph¸n suèt ®ªm mµ theo c¸ch nãi cña «ng Dennis Ross . e. ¤ng A ra fat nãi :’’ Cuéc gÆp gì ®· diÔn ra theo chiÒu h-íng tÝch cùc vµ cã tÝnh x©y dùng.102 practising thrift and fighting against waste passed by the National Assembly‟s Standing Committee 10th session in Feb 26th 1998 and taking effective since May 1st 1998. ¤ng Ross. Thµnh phè Gaza.dù ®Þnh sÏ trë vÒ n-íc vµo ngµy h«m qua . however. for conferences and receptions… “Reducing expenses” statistics while the Decree of practising thrift and fighting against waste is being carried out are really speaking numbers. restaurants are crowded with “Gods”. telephone. ®Ò cËp mét c¸ch râ rµng ®Õn gîi ý cña chÝnh «ng tuÇn tr-íc lµ «ng Ross ®· cã ý bªnh vùc Israel. ¤ng Ross rêi khái v¨n phßng cña nhµ l·nh ®¹o Palestin.Yasser Arafat. fax expenses: VND9.g. the real expenses in 1998. ASSIGNMENT 11: Translate the following text into Vietnamese 1. parties. most of whom are public servants. for instance. expenses for great reparation of fixed assets: VND80. These numbers. expenses for purchasing professionally fixed assets: VND153. practising thrift and fighting against waste in “subsidy spending mechanism” is a must. conferences… Such festivities have cost so much money for hiring halls. One of the most pressing and costly expenses nowadays is: expenses for medal reception. which show that this campaign is taking a turn for better.

nh-ng cßn mét sè vÊn ®Ò cÇn ®-îc gi¶i quyÕt. vïng cuèi cïng bÞ chiÕm ®ãng. Mét ng-êi Pale stin ®ang ®i ngang qua vïng l·nh thæ Beit Hada ssah th× bÞ mét c¸i thang lµm b»ng kim lo¹i r¬i hoÆc ai ®ã nÐm tõ m¸i nhµ xuèng lµm bÞ th-¬ng.000 ng-êi ¶ rËp.thµnh phè Westbank. qu©n ®éi ®· v©y b¾t kho¶ng 100 ng-êi Palestin sau khi ®· cã kÎ nÐm 2 qu¶ bom vµo l·nh thæ cña ng-êi Do Th¸i nh-ng kh«ng cã ng-êi nµo bÞ th-¬ng. Ph¸t ng«n viªn cña qu©n ®éi nãi r»ng nhiÒu ng-êi Pale stin vÉn ®ang cßn bÞ b¾t gi÷. H¬n 6 n¨m qua.®· cam kÕt trong b¶n HiÖp -íc vÒ quyÒn tù trÞ ®· ®-îc ký kÕt. mét nh©n vËt cøng r¾n ®-îc bÇu lµm thñ t-íng vµo th¸ng 5 võa qua. C¸c c¬ quan truyÒn th«ng Israel pháng ®o¸n r»ng nÕu cuéc th-¬ng l-îng thµnh c«ng th× «ng Ro ss cã thÓ ho·n l¹i chuyÕn bay cña «ng vµ hai «ng Netanyahu vµ Arafat cã thÓ tæ chøc mét cuéc häp th-îng ®Ønh néi trong ngµy h«m qua hoÆc h«m nay.103 lµm viÖc tèt ®Ñp. Vµo ngµy Chñ NhËt t¹i Hebron. ®· tr× ho·n viÖc tiÕp tôc rót qu©n. vµ næ lùc b¶o ®¶m an ninh cho 500 c. ¤ng Netanyahu. Theo sè liÖu thèng kª gÇn ®©y cña Tæng Côc Du LÞch ViÖt Nam th× l-îng du kh¸ch t¨ng b×nh qu©n h»ng n¨m lµ 30%. MÆc dï l-îng du kahchs t¨ng. c¸c kh¸ch s¹n liªn doanh vµ c¸c nhµ kh¸ch chØ khai th¸c .d©n ®ang sèng trong thÞ trÊn cña 130.Sè l-îng du kh¸ch n-íc ngoµi ®Õn Viet Nam ngµy cµng t¨ng. ng-êi nµy ®· ®-îc ®-a ®Õn bÖnh viªn thµnh phè ®Ó ch÷a trÞ 2. Hä bÞ qu©n ®éi chÜa sóng thÈm tra vµ b¾t gi÷ trong vßng nöa giê nh-ng sau ®ã phÇn lín ®· ®-îc th¶ ra. Israel s¾p söa rót qu©n ra khái Hebron .vµo th¸ng 3 th× ph¶i ho·n l¹i sau mét lo¹t tÊn c«ng cña bän khñng bè ë Israel. nh-ng t×nh tr¹ng kh¸ch ë l¹i kh¸ch s¹n gi¶m ®¸ng kÓ so víi nh÷ng n¨m võa råi. nhãm ®¹i diÖn Palestin do «ng tr-ëng ®oµn ®µm ph¸n Saeb Erekat dÉn ®Çu tiÕp tôc c¸c cuéc bµn th¶o víi Israel do hai «ng MaJ Gen Shaul Muha faz vµ Yitzhak cè vÊn cao cÊp cña Thñ t-íng Benjamin Netanyahu dÉn ®Çu. C¸c cuéc héi ®µm b¾t ®Çu vµo chiÒu Chñ NhËt ë Ze ru sa lem vµ sau ®ã chuyÓn ®Õn Gaza. Ng-êi Palestin tõ chèi viÖc nèi l¹i c¸c cuéc ®µm ph¸n vµ yªu cÇu Israel tiÕp tôc rót qu©n nh. TP Hå ChÝ Minh .’’ Bªn trong tßa trô së chÝnh cña «ng Arafat..

Râ rµng r»ng ngµnh du lÞch ViÖt Nam vÉn ch-a ®ñ søc hÊp dÉn du kh¸ch.104 ®-îc tõ 85-90% sè phßng hiÖn cã. few years a: the Vietnamese economy strengthens and the government streamlines the procedures to make it.the numbers are expected to increase within the next. ®iÒu nµy dÉn ®Õn viÖc c¹nh tranh khèc liÖt vÒ gi¸ phßng vµ gi¸ dÞch vô. Mét trong nh÷ng nguyªn nh©n chÝnh cña sù tôt gi¶m l-îng kh¸ch lµ do kh¸ch s¹n liªn doanh mäc lªn nh. MÆc dï l-îng du kh¸ch vÉn t¨ng trong nh÷ng n¨m qua nh-ng sè du kh¸ch trë l¹i ViÖt nam lÇn thø hai rÊt Ýt.nh©n. Tuy nhiªn nh÷ng ®Ò ¸n nµy vÉn ch-a ®-îc triÓn khai. ViÖt nam hiÖn cã kho¶ng 22 tØnh vµ thµnh phè ®ang hoµn tÊt nh÷ng kÕ ho¹ch tæng thÓ chi tiÕt ®Ó x©y dùng c¸c khu nghØ m¸t cho du kh¸ch. NhiÒu kh¸ch s¹n cã tæng doanh thu thÊp trong khi l¹i chÞu møc thuÕ cao. The United States and Switzerland. c¸c ®iÓm du lÞch vµ c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn ¨n ë ®i l¹i ch-a ®¹t ®Õn tiªu chuÈn quèc tÕ. easier. exhibition featured universities. MÆc dï h»ng n¨m chÝnh phñ ®· chi h»ng chôc tØ ®ång ®Ó n©ng cÊp c¸c di tÝch lÞch sö quèc gia vµ c¸c khu nghØ m¸t. vÉn ®ang cßn ®ang ®-îc th¶o luËn. du lÞch ViÖt Nam cÇn tæ chøc l¹i viÖc qu¶n lý vµ ®Æt ra nh÷ng môc tiªu nh»m tháa m·n nhu cÇu hiÖn nay cña du kh¸ch. France. While the number of people who have already done so is relatively small . Translate the following text into English More and more Vietnamese people are seeking study abroad at. ngµnh du lÞch ViÖt nam cÇn chÝnh phñ ®Çu t. Australia. Thªm vµo ®ã.nÊm. §a sè du kh¸ch n-íc ngoµi h¨m hë ®Õn ViÖt Nam ®Ó t×m mét c¸i g× ®ã míi mÎ vµ muèn ®i ®Õn nh÷ng vïng cã vÎ ®Ñp tù nhiªn vµ hoang d· trong thêi gian l-u l¹i cña hä. The exhibition sought to establish what training or education private Vietnamese . thÊp h¬n nhiÒu so víi c¸c kh¸ch s¹n cña nhµ n-íc vµ nhµ kh¸ch t. vocational schools and school equipment suppliers from Great Britain. Called "Edukasia". nh-ng do sù yÕu kÐm vÒ chuyªn m«n qu¶n lý nªn nh÷ng n¬i nµy vÉn ch-a cã thÓ thóc ®Èy sù ph¸t triÓn cña ngµnh du lÞch n-íc nhµ. HiÖn giê chØ cßn ®¹t ë møc 60%. the. §Ó c¶i thiÖn chÊt l-îng cña c¸c nhµ nghØ vµ t¨ng c-êng ho¹t ®éng cña kh¸ch s¹n. V× lý do nµy.nhiÒu h¬n n÷a. But t he biggest boost to Vietnamese people courageously investing their money for themselves or their children to gain an international standard education has come through the staging of a special overseas education exhibition held in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi over the past two months.2970 from mid 1992 to May this year . ®ang trë thµnh g¸nh nÆng cho c¸c «ng chñ vµ cã nhiÒu kh¸ch s¹n s¾p söa buéc ph¶i ®ãng cöa. their own expense.

Some to eastern European countries and a trickle to the Netherlands. But 90% of tested students have to pay education fees. Courses in telecommunications. and graduation diplomat are also recognized as equivalent to the regular training diplomas These institutions are ready to receive Vietnamese students and to facilitate entry visas. Those student who want to go abroad for study must first of all be able to speak English which is an indispensable condition for initial contact: and assimilation of knowledge: Educational standards are also set. Belgium. depending on the institution and the courses. in April this year. and an attrition rate. while the most reputed USA schools and purses generally demand 3000 USD/year to 6000 USD/year. But. machine building. Fees for remote training are less. Mr.105 students were seeking and the overseas institutions companies explained what they could offer. More and . Most of the private students have been going to Russia. Up until now. often these schemes were deficient in anticipating the problems foreign private students may encounter. In Great Britain especially. such as marks obtained it each subject and health condition. At "Edukasia". the hotel industry. Vietnam has been annually sending about 77 students and 160 senior level experts abroad through such officially sponsored scheme. Wilmot stressed that in general. The remaining question depends upon a decision by the Vietnamese government. ASSIGNMENT 12: Translate the following text into English Poor people often have larger families than middle class and upper class people. And people in underdeveloped countries have more children than people in developed countries. particularly regarding duration and the level of the courses being offered. According to Mr. the USA. Denmark and Thailand. A number of schools give priority to students with high marks in intelligence tests and offer them scholarship. Charles Wilmot. there are organizations specialized in helping foreign students. about 300 USD/year. While these existing avenues for Vietnamese students have required secondary school graduation and intensive courses in the relevant foreign language and computers. There has been an avoidable waste of time and money. the lowest allowed aged is 13. the director of Edukasia. most Vietnamese students have been going abroad for further study as recipients of international scholarship or funding from foreign government. The lowest level is 2500 USD/year. Most Vietnamese studying abroad begin their training at the age of 18 to 19. tourism and cooking wt-re particularly featured. a temporary halt has been put. the fees are high. the accommodation and studying conditions of students in countries where there were Vietnamese students were very good. the courses on offer are delivered abroad it Vietnam by correspondence or distant training. There is no limit for a maximum age studying abroad depends now only on these students willing to receive an advanced knowledge of the world. But they are reasonably calculated. on private places being offered to foreign students in Russia and Eastern Europe.

they don't receive information about ways to control family size. of nations. They can and will turn to their children. For many poor people. on a larger scale. seeing their southern neighbour as ripe for a boost in purchases of consumer goods and machinery.American auto manufacturer. Therefore. Their children will be adults then. Vietnam. . and they have smaller families. (BAIEC) vice president Guo Fengli. a Sino . But Vietnam has a long way to go before it sees its exports to China grow as few products are likely to break into the more developed Chinese market. Why? Because they have to depend upon their children to take care of them in their old age. What are the other reasons? Economic development of families and. Some 60 firms from Beijing are showing off their wares ranging from cheap plastic toys and ornaments to off . Chinese executives said here Thursday. and they will be working. Urban people have help with family planning. When they grow old. where can they get help? The answer is simple. people in urban areas have much more information available to them than people living in rural areas.106 more experts in population growth see the strong relationship between family size and economic development. particularly as we are very competitive in pricing with our rivals. The children can all share the costs and other responsibilities of taking care of their parents. is an important factor in determining family size.road vehicles at the fair in Hanoi in what is the first exhibition of Chinese goods here since the two countries began patching up their relations. poor people in underdeveloped countries choose to have many children. BAIEC is looking to set up barter deals with Vietnam but is facing problems finding suitable moods to trade although Guo thinks he may have found the answer in the humble sweet potato. In some areas. pensions. ASSIGNMENT 13: Translate the following text into English China's powerful exporters are training their sights on. a large family is a way of planning and preparing for the future. the executives said at the opening of a trade fair here. "The market here is opening up quite quickly for our products. said Beijing Automotive Import Export Corp. or government help. The Chinese firm is planning to trade cars for foodstuffs that will be sold in southern China but would prefer to exchange higher value goods. government family planning services may not be available to poor people due to geographic location. On the other hand.plays a part in determining family size: Urban families are smaller than rural families. For example. is hoping to squeeze into Vietnam's growing car market but is facing stiff competition from Japanese firms already entrenched here." Guo said. People with a lot of money have fewer children. We could say that a large family is insurance for old age in some societies. They have no insurance. So we can say that geography where people live . people in rural areas may live too far away from family planning services. In general. Beijing Jeep.

This was really the beginning of the modern educational system in Saudi Arabia. there were about 20. The educational system has grown faster in Saudi Arabia than in almost any other country in the world. "said Guo.. Cross border trade has boomed since the frontier was reopened in 1991. Students studied the Koran. however. Vietnam wants to step up exports of coal and oil to southern China's booming manufacturing centres. In 1982. When engineers discovered oil in Saudi Arabia.107 "We don't know much about what Vietnam has to offer. with China enjoying a massive surplus. a point repeated by other traders who were more eager to sell than buy. etc. Before 1950 almost all education in Saudi Arabia was religious education. In other words. There were no colleges or universities before 1949 and only a few elementary and secondary schools.853. science. there were 1. the Saudi government established the Ministry of Education. ASSIGNMENT 14: Translate the following text into English Saudi Arabia has about 8.780. The king of Saudi Arabia is both the political leader and one of the religious leaders of the country. which are thousands of kilometres (miles) from China's own sources of energy. Before 1950.000 people. The Islamic religion is very important in the Saudi educational system. The leaders still believed that religious education was very important. Saudi leaders realized that Western technology was necessary for the country to develop. ASSIGNMENT 15: Translate the following text into Vietnamese . the Islamic holy book. During a visit to China last week. mathematics. The government laws are Islamic law (Muslim religious law). All schools in Saudi Arabia are free. They decided to add other subjects to the educational system. Deputy Prime Minister Phan Van Khai called for both sides to replace the cross border trade with official agreements between trading companies and manufacturers that would boost sales of Vietnamese products. They wanted to combine traditional religious education with modern technological education from the West. Khai also called for more sales of rice and other food products and for Vietnam to import more manufacturing machinery and other technology from China.. Officially. religious educational system. Saudi Arabia is a religious nation. they are followers of the Islamic religion. two . history. and the national language is Arabic. the country started to become very wealthy.000 students in Saudi Arabia. They tried to memorize as much as possible from this book. Saudi students study all kinds of other subjects too: languages (especially English).way trade stands at around 500 million US dollars although the illegal frontier trade is believed to b! much higher.000 students. Now. Almost all of these people are Arab Muslims. Religion is still an important part of Saudi education. but a modern country could not develop technologically with only a traditional. In 1953. computer technology.

’’ NÕu sù chó ý b©y giê lµ ‘‘khÈu hiÖu’’ ®· lµm thÊt väng c¸c c«ng ty dÇu löa n-íc ngoµi cã thÓ t¹o nguån an ñi tõ nh÷ng kh¸m ph¸ ®Çy khÝch lÖ võa qua vÒ dÇu do c«ng ty Mitsubishi vµ c«ng ty dÇu Petrornas Cairigali cña Malaisia. T¹i vÞ trÝ nµy. T©m tr¹ng ®ã ®· gi¶m ®i trong sè nh÷ng c«ng ty n-íc ngoµi tham gia triÓn l·m tr-ng bµy c¸c mÆt hµng cña ngµnh c«ng nghÖ t¹i cuéc TriÓn l·m Dçu vµ khÝ ®èt Quèc tÕ lÇn thø hai ë Hµ Néi. ë ngoµi bê biÓn nam ViÖt Nam.mét sè ng-êi ®· hy väng. .®Õn 240 triÖu ®« la ë ViÖt Nam vµ mét nöa cña kinh phÝ nµy ®· ®-îc sö dông cho dù ¸n §¹i Hïng. BHP -íc tÝnh s¬ khëi lµ tr÷ l-îng ë ®©y kho¶ng tõ 700 ®Õn 800 triÖu thïng dÇu.25% cßn l¹i chia ®Òu cho c«ng ty Total (Ph¸p) vµ c«ng ty Sumitomo cña NhËt. BHP ®øn ®µu mét hiÖp héi quèc tÕ bÇu chän vµo th¸ng 4/1993 cã tr¸ch nhiÖm triÓn khai tæng kinh phÝ 1. Petronas chiÕm 20%. mét c«ng ty ®· ®Çu t. Sù nhiÖt t×nh cña nh÷ng ng-êi th¨m dß ®ét nhiªn suy gi¶m vµo th¸ng 5 tr-íc khi c«ng ty dÇu BHP cña óc th«ng b¸o tr÷ l-îng dÇu ë vÞ trÝ má §¹i Hïng. chÝnh NhËt B¶n lµ kh¸ch mua hµng chÝnh cña dÇu th« ViÖt Nam. ViÖc s¶n xuÊt ®-îc dù kiÕn b¾t ®Çu vµo th¸ng tíi. ViÖc th¨m dß dÇu khÝ ë thÒm lôc ®Þa ViÖt nam lµ hÕt søc khã kh¨n. ë møc khiªm nh-êng lµ 25000 thïng mét ngµy. «ng Matherel nãi r»ng thÒm lôc ®Þa ViÖt Nam lµ mét n¬i chøa dÇu. ¤ng Melchior de Matharel.75% tæng sã vèn cña HiÖp häi. Vµo thêi ®iÓm ®ã.5 tû ®« trong lÜnh vùc nµy. ®· lé diÖn ®Ó cã ®-îc mät c¬ may tèt nhÊt. vµ vÒ khÝ ®èt cña BP.108 Sau khi ®Æt nhiÒu hi väng vµo viÖc khoan tróng c¸c má dÇu khÝ ë ngoµi kh¬i ViÖt Nam. §iÒu ®ã lµ ‘‘mét ®ßn gi¸ng m¹nh’’ cho BHP. nh-ng kh«ng lín nh. C¸i gi¸ ®Çu t. PhÇn 21. BHP chiÕm 43. 375 c©y sè ë §«ng nam thµnh phè HCM lµ Ýt ái h¬n so víi dù trï. Tuy nhiªn. nh-ng hiÖn nay con sè Êy ®· xuèng ë 100 ®Õn 200 triÖu thïng.khæng lå nh-ng l¹i nhËn ®-îc mät kho¶n lîi nhuËn cßm câi. c¸c c«ng ty dÇu má khæng lå trªn thÕ giíi ®· nhËn ra nh÷ng rñi ro. Vô Tr-ëng §«ng Nam ¸ cña h·ng Total Ph¸p ®· ph¸t biÓu : ‘‘ KÕt qu¶ kh«ng ph¶i lµ tÖ. c«ng ty quèc doanh Petro-Vietnam chiÕm 15%.

khu vùc khai th¸c cã thÓ cã cïng chÊt l-îng nh. mét ®¬n vÞ lÇn l-ît nhËn 5% tiÒn gãp vµo. Translate the following text into English The failure of a space shuttle steering jet Wednesday forced NASA to suspend a radar survey of Earth as Endeavour's 10 day environmental research flight passed the halfway mark.vÞ trÝ má B¹ch Hæ ë gÇn mét ®Þa ®iÓm duy nhÊt hiÖn giê ®ang ®-îc kinh doanh khai th¸c ë ViÖt Nam. The problem was a hindrance to the $384 million space Radar Laboratory but not a danger to the astronauts.109 C«ng ty DÇu KhÝ ViÖt nam. víi ONGC n¾m 55% cæ phÇn.NhËt b¶n (JVPC). dï c¬ may ®· mØm c-êi víi víi c«ng ty BP Anh. BP 30% vµ Statoil 5% ®· tiÕn hµnh th¨m dß vµ thö nghiÖm theo mét hîp ®ång ph©n chia s¶n phÈm víi ViÖt Nam. ViÖc th¨m dß vµ khai th¸c khÝ ®èt còng chøng tá ®ã lµ mät dÞch vô ®ang gÆp khã kh¨n. called verniers. Theo kÕt qu¶ ghi nhËn ®-îc tõ mét tõ mét giÕng dÇu th¨m dß. -íc tÝnh ®¹t ®-îc 57 tû mÐt khèi ë Nam C«n S¬n. mét chi nh¸nh cña tËp ®oµn dÇu khÝ Mitsubishi ®· th«ng b¸o trong th¸ng 6 lµ ®· cã mét sù kh¸m ph¸ rÊt høa hÑn t¹i vÞ trÝ R¹ng §«ng. Nh÷ng ng-êi bi quan th× cho r»ng cÇn ®Õn kho¶ng 5 n¨m míi ®¸nh gi¸ ®óng vµ ®Çy ®ñ tr÷ l-îng dÇu cña ViÖt Nam. the National Aeronautics and Space Administration said. Liªn hiÖp. Mission commentator Kelly Humphries late Wednesday called the scientific hiatus "temporary pause" while ground engineers hastily devised a way for shuttle computers to ignore the broken sensor. mét ®¬n vÞ mµ trong th¸ng 9 ®· th«ng b¸o lµ ®· ph¸t hiÖn ra hai tói dÇu khÝ. . Tr÷ l-îng cña B¹ch Hæ -íc tÝnh ë møc cao nhÊt lµ 3000 triÖu thïng. C«ng ty BHP vµ c«ng ty Quèc gia Na Uy Statoil ®· mua l¹i c¸c phÇn ®Æc nh-îng cña c«ng ty khÝ ®èt vµ dÇu khÝ quèc gia Ên §é (ONGC) vµo n¨m 1992. c¨n cø trªn quyÒn lîi cña mçi ®èi t¸c Ch©u ¢u. which are needed to fine-tune the shuttle's orbital path and precisely point cargo bay instruments at targets on the planet. Officials said a fuel temperature sensor failed. Nh-ng Ýt nhÊt cÇn ph¶i mét n¨m n÷a vµ cÇn ®Õn viÖc khoan dß n÷a th× míi cã thÓ x¸c ®Þnh chÝnh x¸c ®-îc môc tiªu viÖc th¨m dß cña c«ng ty NhËt. disabling a leak detection system in the suspect thruster and triggering a shutdown of five others. phÝa nam thµnh phè HCM.

HiÖn nay. "The payloads community and the flight control team are working very hard to regain venire control and minimise the impact. Scientists said the problem would not harm the images but that it would take up to five times longer to process the radar data in their computers. mäi ng-êi d©n Anh tõ 18 tuæi trë nªn kh«ng bÞ t-íc quyÒn bÇu cö do ph¹m ph¸p. in the intervening time period". Tæng bÇu cö: .lµ mét kho¶ng tiÒn ®Æt cäc. ng-êi lµm dÞch vô c«ng céng vµ nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ kÕt ¸n tï tõ 1 n¨m trë lªn còng kh«ng ®-îc tham gia tranh cö. Nh÷ng ng-êi kh«ng cã quyÒn bÇu cö bao gåm: thµnh viªn cña hoµng gia. gi¸o sÜ thuéc gi¸o héi Anh. Jackson predicted the software patch would be ready by Thursday afternoon. øng cö viªn: BÊt cø ai trªn 21 tuæi lµ c«ng d©n n-íc Anh c¸c n-íc trong khèi thÞnh v-îng chung hoÆc lµ n-íc céng hoµ Ai Len. ASSIGNMENT 16: Translate the following text into Vietnamese N-íc Anh ®-îc chia lµm 651 khu vùc bÇu cö ng-êi d©n ë mçi khu vùc chän ra mét ng-êi ®¹i diÖn cho m×nh ë h¹ viÖn. was enjoying an unexpected time-out. gi¸o héi Ai Len.. c¸c nhµ quý téc lµ thµnh viªn cña th-îng nghÞ viÖn hoÆc lµ c. ®Òu cã thÓ bá phiÕu bÇu cö. gi¸o héi ScètLan vµ gi¸o héi Thiªn chóa gi¸o La M·. according to flight director Rich Jackson. nh÷ng ng-êi kh«ng cã quyÒn øng cö lµ thµnh viªn cña th-îng nghÞ viÖn.110 Maneuvering Endeavour with its 38 larger thrusters would consume too much full and eliminate hope of extending the natural disasters around the globe. t¨ng l÷. about 24 hours after the malfunction occurred. hÖ thèng nµy cã nh÷ng ®iÒu chØnh ®Ó ngµy cµng trë nªn tèi -u h¬n. C¸c øng cö viªn trong mét khu vùc bÇu cö ph¶i tr¶ mét kho¶ng tiÒn 1000 b¶ng nh. cã ®ñ tc¸ch th× ®Òu cã thÓ øng cö vµo quèc héi. NÕu dµnh ®-îc Ýt nhÊt 5% phiÕu bÇu cö th× hä sÏ ®-îc nhËn l¹i sè tiÒn ®ã.d©n n-íc ngoµi. ViÖc bÇu cö lµ hoµn toµn tù nguþªn. Late Wednesday the shuttle was flying on autopilot and the crew. ë Anh hÖ thèng bÇu cö ®¬n gi¶n ®-îc sö dông trong c¸c cuéc bÇu cö quèc héi theo ph-¬ng thøc bá phiÕu kÝn. trong vßng n¨m n¨m tr-íc ®ã vÒ téi tham nhòng. Ngoµi ra cßn cã bÖnh nh©n n»m viÖn do cã vÊn ®Ò vÒ t©m thÇn ph¹m nh©n ®ang thi hµnh ¸n vµ nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ kÕt ¸n. Jackson told reporters at Mission Control in Houston. which has been working in two shifts around the clock since Friday's liftoff from Florida. nh÷ng ng-êi bÞ ph¸ s¶n.

thêi gian bÇu cö rÊt linh ®éng kÐo dµi tõ 7h ®Õn 22h ®Ó cho tÊt c¶ mäi ng-êi ®Òu cã thÓ ®Õn bá phiÕu. . Sau ®ã. cö tri ®-îc ph¸t phiÕu bÇu cã in tªn c¸c øng cö viªn ë khu vùc bÇu cö ®ã.th¸i ®é cña ng-êi d©n. Do ®ã. Tæng bÇu cö th-êng ®-îc tæ chøc vµo thø 5 vµ mäi ng-êi vÉn ®i lµm nh. B»ng c¸ch nµy. VËn ®éng tranh cö: VËn ®éng tranh cö cã nghÜa lµ nh©n viªn cña §¶ng ë ®Þa ph-¬ng ®i ®Õn tõng gia ®×nh vµ hái ng-êi d©n vÒ ý ®Þnh cña hä.111 Theo nguyªn t¾c. danh s¸ch th-êng s¾p xÕp theo thø tù anphabe ®«i khi cßn cã mét b¶n tãm t¾t vÒ tiÓu sö øng cö viªn vµ ®¶ng cña hä ®-îc ®i kÌm víi l¸ phiÕu. Nh÷ng cuéc mÝt tin nh.nh©n vµ ®éc lËp vÒ mÆt tµi chÝnh ®èi víi c¸c ®¶ng ph¸i chÝnh trÞ nªn ng-êi chñ bót hoÆc ng-êi biªn tËp cã thÓ ñng hé bÊt cø ai hä muèn. N÷ Hoµng cã thÓ gi¶i t¸n Quèc héi vµ kªu gäi mét cuéc bÇu cö ®Ó lËp nªn quèc héi míi. C¸c øng cö viªn sö dông mäi lo¹i ph-¬ng tiÖn. N-íc Anh ®-îc chia thµnh c¸c vïng gäi lµ khu vùc bÇu cö dùa trªn sè l-îng d©n c. ChiÕn dÞch tranh cö: ChiÕn dÞch tranh cö diÔn ra trong vßng 3 tuÇn tr-íc ngµy tæng bÇu cö. ChiÕn dÞch tranh cö diÔn ra ë mäi khu vùc bÇu cö trªn toµn quèc. s¸ch l-îc ®Ó thu hót sù ñng hé cña ng-êi d©n.th-êng lÖ. tõ ®ã hä cã thÓ ®iÒu chØnh c¸c chiÕn l-îc cña m×nh. Ngoµi ra nh©n viªn ®ã sÏ quay trë l¹i nh÷ng gia ®×nh cã ng-êi ®· høa lµ sÏ ñng hé §¶ng cña hä ®Ó thóc giôc hä bá phiÕu cho ng-êi cña §¶ng m×nh trong ngµy bÇu cö. nh÷ng ng-êi tiÕng ñng hé hä nh. T¹i c¸c ®Þa ®iÓm bá phiÕu. MÝt tin: øng ®©u gåm næi víi lªn cö viªn cã thÓ tæ chøc mÝt tin bÊt cø n¬i nµo bÊt cø n¬i cã thÓ trong suèt chiÕn dÞch bÇu cö. c¸c øng cö viªn cã thÓ biÕt ®-îc ý ®Þnh còng nh.nµh v¨n. Nh-ng c¸c cuéc bÇu cö th-êng ®-îc tæ chøc tr-íc khi kÕt thóc mét nhiÖm k× 5 n¨m. c¸c phiÕu kh«ng hîp lÖ sÏ bÞ lo¹i vµ ng-êi ta sÏ tiÕn hµnh kiÓm phiÕu ®èi víi sè phiÕu hîp lÖ vµ øng cö viªn nµo nhËn ®-îc nhiÒu phiÕu ñng hé nhÊt sÏ lµ ng-êi th¾ng cuéc vµ trë thµnh thµnh viªn Quèc héi ®¹i diÖn cho khu vùc cña m×nh. diÔn viªn ®Ó g©y ¶nh h-ëng ®èi cö tri.xÊp xØ nhau. Th«ng tin ®¹i chóng: Do b¸o vµ t¹p chÝ ë Anh th-êng lµ thuéc së h÷u t. Kh¸ch mêi cña hä bao nh÷ng ng-êi cã tÇm ¶nh h-ëng lín ttrong ®¶ng. bÇu cö h¹ nghÞ viÖn ®-îc tæ chøc 5 n¨m mét lÇn. xem thö lµ hä ®Þnh bÇu ai. Thñ t-íng lµ ng-êi cã quyÒn quyÕt ®Þnh thêi gian tæ chøc tæng bÇu cö.thÕ th-êng ®-îc ®-a trän vÑn c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn th«ng tin ®¹i chóng.

Trong thêi gian nµy. vÒ nh÷ng g× hä sÏ lµm nÕu hä ®¾c cö. kh«ng thiªn vÞ. Bªn c¹nh ®ã. Cao h¬n so víi 470 ®«la n¨m 1991 (tèc ®é t¨ng tr-ëng m¹nh mÏ).570VND (kho¶ng 3. Ch-¬ng tr×nh ®èi tho¹i trùc tiÕp trªn ®· cho phÐp mäi ng-êi ®Æt c©u hái cho c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o chÝnh trÞ. ®µi ph¸t thanh vµ ®µi truyÒn h×nh th× kh¸c lu«n lu«n c«ng b»ng. c¸c ®¹i biÓu ®· ®-îc th«ng b¸o: nÕu tØ lÖ t¨ng tr-ëng vÉn tiÕp tôc nh.lµ mét Ên phÈm tham kh¶o. §¹i héi còng ®Ò cËp ®Õn vÊn ®Ò c¬ së CN nhá truyÒn thèng cña nÒn kinh tÕ thñ ®« t¨ng nhanh bÞ thay thÕ bëi c¸c ho¹t ®éng CN vµ nghµnh c«ng nghiÖp dÞch vô-th-¬ng m¹i. ASSIGNMENT 17: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Hµ Néi ®ang cè g¾ng t¨ng gÊp ®«i GDP lªn 1100 ®«la MÜ trong vßng 5 n¨m tíi. . C¸c b¶n tuyªn ng«n cßn bao gåm nh÷ng thµnh c«ng tr-íc ®©y cña ®¶ng. §iÒu ®ã cã nghÜa lµ GDP ®· t¨ng gÊp ®«i. KÕ ho¹ch ®Çy tham väng nµy ®-îc ®-a ra trªn c¬ së 11.dù tÝnh th× GDP sÏ ®¹t kho¶ng 15% vµo ®Çu thÕ kØ. c¸c øng cö viªn xuÊt hiÖn trªn ®µi vµ tivi suèt ngµy ®ªm. xÝ nghiÖp. Ngoµi ra ®¹i héi cßn ®-îc b¸o c¸o lµ kho¶ng 19% sè hé gia ®×nh ë Hµ Néi cã thÓ xÕp vµo diÖn hé giµu. Møc GDP b×nh qu©n n¨m ngo¸i cña thµnh phè ®-îc -íc tÝnh lµ kho¶ng 650 ®«la. ta cã thÓ thÊy hä ë nhµ m¸y.112 Tuy nhiªn. trung t©m thanh niªn vµ ë c¶ c¸c n«ng tr¹i. Nã cung cÊp cho ng-êi d©n nh÷ng th«ng tin vÒ chÝnh s¸ch cña ®¶ng. bµi b×nh luËn do c¸c phãng viªn ghi l¹i trong c¸c cuéc pháng vÊn víi c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o cña c¸c ®¶ng còng ®-îc ph¸t sãng. T¹i §¹i héi §¹i biÓu §¶ng Bé thµnh phè Hµ Néi ®-îc tæ chøc võa qua.9% tØ lÖ t¨ng GDP h»ng n¨m cña thµnh phè. B¶n tuyªn ng«n: C¸c ®¶ng lín cho xuÊt b¶n b¶n tuyªn ng«n cña ®¶ng m×nh trong suèt chiÕn dÞch bÇu cö. Ch-¬ng tr×nh tin tøc ®-a tin vÒ mäi mÆt cña chiÕn dÞch tranh cö cña c¸c §¶ng. Ngoµi ra ®«i khi nã cßn chøa ®ùng sù c«ng kÝch cña ®¶ng nµy ®èi víi ®¶ng ®èi lËp.275 triÖu USD). tr-êng häc. c¸c bµi t-êng thuËt. Sù t¨ng tr-ëng nµy lµ kÕt qu¶ cña hµng lo¹t c¸c dù ¸n ®Çu ttrong n-íc vµ n-íc ngoµi -íc tÝnh vµo kho¶ng 32. Hä ph¸t biÓu c¸c chÝnh s¸ch cña ®¶ng m×nh. Mçi ®¶ng ®Òu ®-a ra b¶n tuyªn ng«n cña ®¶ng m×nh nh.

Trong khi ®ã tØ lÖ n«ng nghiÖp l¹i gi¶m xuèng tæng GDP. th-¬ng m¹i. khu th-¬ng m¹i.3% trong ¤ng Tïng cßn nãi sö thay ®æi cña bé mÆt kinh tÕ Hµ Néi cßn nhê vµo sù t¨ng vät cña tØ lÖ t¨ng tr-ëng h»ng n¨m cña 5 n¨m tr-íc. §iÒu nµy ®· gióp Hµ Néi trong viÖc lùa chän h-íng c¬ cÊu l¹i c¬ së kinh tÕ theo h-íng CN-DV thay cho c¬ cÊu cñ víi vai trß trô cét cña CN nhá vµ n«ng nghiÖp truyÒn thèng. Vµo cuèi n¨m 1995 cã ®Õn h¬n 210 dù ¸n ®Çu t. . chÕ biÕn thùc phÈm.cßn l¹i ®-îc dïng vµo viÖc thiÕt lËp c«ng ty liªn doanh víi ®èi t¸c n-íc ngoµi. khu vui ch¬i gi¶i trÝ. «ng Lª Xu©n Hïng b¸o c¸o víi ®¹i héi r»ng: Mét phÇn cña sè vèn ®Çu t. tØ lÖ s¶n phÈm CN. NhiÒu khu c«ng nghiÖp hiÖn nay cÇn nh÷ng kho¶ng ®Çu t. m¸y mãc.6% ®èi víi th-¬ng m¹i vµ dÞch vô. vËt liÖu x©y dùng.3 tØ ®«la.113 Phã chñ tÞch héi ®ång Nh©n D©n thµnh phè Hµ Néi. dÞch vô trong ®ã tæng s¶n phÈm quèc néi cña thµnh phè Hµ Néi giai ®o¹n 1991-1995 t¨ng lªn ®Õn 33. N¨m ngµnh c«ng nghiÖp ®· ®¹t ®-îc môc ®Ých trë thµnh ngµnh c«ng nghiÖp then chèt cña thµnh phè bao gåm: ngµnh s¶n xuÊt thiÕt bÞ ®iÖn.n-íc ngoµi ®· ®-îc cÊp giÊy phÐp kinh doanh trªn ®Þa bµn thµnh phè Hµ Néi víi tæng sè tiÒn lªn tíi 3. ¤ng Tïng b¸o c¸o víi c¸c ®¹i biÓu r»ng vµo n¨m 2000 tØ lÖ t¨ng tr-ëng cña thµnh phè sÏ ®¹t 15% 1 n¨m.1% ®èi víi c«ng nghiÖp vµ 61. ¤ng nãi tØ lÖ t¨ng tr-ëng 11. Trong 5 n¨m tíi Hµ Néi cÇn kho¶ng 9 tØ USD ®Ó ®Çu t. c¬ khÝ. ®æi míi thiÕt bÞ trong nghµnh CN. më réng x©y dùng nhiÒu nhµ m¸y h¬n n÷a.x©y dùng ph¸t triÓn nh÷ng khu c«ng nghiÖp míi. con sè nµy cao h¬n gÊp ®«i so víi tØ lÖ ®Ò ra n¨m 1991. Theo lêi «ng Tïng. x©y dùng c¸c toµ nhµ lín ë trung t©m thµnh phè ®Ó lµm c¸c v¨n phßng ®¹i diÖn.9% hµng n¨m cµng ®-îc ®¶m b¶o ch¾c ch¾n. ¤ng Tïng nãi trong sè ®ã lµ 1 phÇn 3 tØ ®«la ®· ®-îc sö dông. GDP -íc tÝnh ®¹t kho¶ng 1000 ®« la. ngµnh dÖt. ®æi míi c¸c khu c«ng nghiÖp cñ. cßn 5. Vµo thêi ®iÓm ®ã tØ lÖ s¶n phÈm c«ng nghiÖp tæng sè GDP cña thµnh phè Hµ Néi sÏ ®¹t 40% t¨ng 7% so víi hiÖn t¹i. PhÇn lín sè vèn ®Çu t.theo chiÒu s©u ®Ó thay thÕ c¸c kÜ thuËt cñ. ®iÖn tö.®· ®-îc sö dông cho qu¸ tr×nh chuyÓn giao c«ng nghÖ. Hµ Néi ®· cã kho¶ng 10 khu c«ng nghiÖp vµ 5 c¸i kh¸c ®ang ®-îc x©y dùng.

«ng Tïng chØ ph¸t biÓu víi ®¹i héi r»ng: Bªn c¹nh nh÷ng thµnh c«ng ban ®Çu Hµ Néi cßn chó ý ®Õn viÖc ph¸t triÓn kinh tÕ vµ x©y dùng nguån nh©n lùc.000 hecta . nay VAC cã mÆt trªn kh¾p 53 tØnh víi h¬n 10 triÖu chñ hé sö dông m« h×nh nµy. ASSIGNMENT 18: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Lµm v-ên lµ mét nghÒ truyÒn thèng ë ViÖt Nam.Lª Xu©n Tïng nãi r»ng: trong giai ®o¹n 1991-1995 sè l-îng c¸c gia ®×nh giµu t¨ng lªn gÇn 19%. ao. Ng-êi n-íc ngoµi ®Õn ViÖt Nam ®Ó nghiªn cøu m« h×nh VAC ë ®©y nãi r»ng: Tuy nã kh«ng cã hiÖu qu¶ cao trong viÖc thùc hiÖn qui m« s¶n xuÊt nh-ng lµ mét m« h×nh s¶n xuÊt ®ång bé mang l¹i lîi Ých kinh tÕ lÉn lîi Ých vÒ m«i tr-êng. Nh-ng VAC ( viÕt t¾t cña v-ên. ¤ng cßn nãi ‘‘chÝnh quyÒn thµnh phè Hµ Néi ®· thÊt b¹i trong viÖc x©y dùng sù ®oµn kÕt c¸c quan hÖ s¶n xuÊt kinh doanh x· héi chñ nghÜa’’.114 Tuy nhiªn phã bÝ th. §ång chÝ nãi 6% nh©n d©n thµnh phè Hµ Néi thÊt nghiÖp lµ mét th¸ch thøc mµ thµnh phè cÇn ph¶i gi¶i quyÕt. Trong nh÷ng n¨m gÇn ®©y VAC ®· vµ ®-îc ph¸t triÓn trªn hÇu hÕt c¸c vïng kh¾p c¶ n-íc.§æ M-êi còng cè thªm. HiÖn n«ng ®ang hµng nói. m« h×nh VAC lu«n g¾n chÆt vai trß cña m×nh trong sù ph¸t triÓn cña nÒn kinh tÕ quèc d©n. Cã thÓ lµ b»ng c¸ch lËp nªn c¸c nhãm s¶n xuÊt ®Ó tõ ®ã h×nh thµnh c¸c c¬ së c«ng nghiÖp nhá vµ ph¸t triÓn c«ng nghiÖp dÞch vô. Trong khi bé m¸y hµnh chÝnh c¸c cÊp cßn yÕu vµ ‘‘vai trß cña §¶ng trong c¸c tæ chøc kinh tÕ x· héi kh¸c nhau vÉn cßn h¹n chÕ’’. §ång chÝ phã bÝ th.Tõ nh÷ng ngµy ®Çu tiªn cña qu¸ tr×nh ho¹t ®éng. nã xuÊt hiÖn ®ång thêi hay sím h¬n nghÒ trång lóa n-íc.§¶ng uû thµnh phè Hµ Néi cÇn nh¾c nhë c¸c ®¹i biÓu r»ng cÇn ph¶i næ lùc h¬n n÷a ®Ó gi÷ v÷ng sù ph¸t triÓn theo h-íng ‘‘nÒn kinh tÕ thÞ tr-êng’’ theo ®Þnh h-íng x· héi chñ nghÜa. Nh÷ng tham vÊn cña «ng Tïng cßn ®-îc Tæng bÝ th. chuång) lµ mét m« h×nh kinh tÕ hiÖn ®¹i míi ®-îc ®-a vµo hoat ®éng c¸ch ®©y 10 n¨m.000 ®Õn 400. Víi chôc ngµn hecta ®Êt canh t¸c ë c¸c tØnh Trung du vµ miÒn v-ên c©y ¨n qu¶ ®· më réng tõ 350. Sè hé nghÌo gi¶m xuèng chØ cßn kho¶ng 2%.

th× nam cã thÓ ®¹t ®-îc 8 triÖu tÊn mçi n¨m trong vßng 10 n¨m qua.Theo FAO ( Tæ chøc L-¬ng N«ng ThÕ Giíi) th× s¶n l-îng rau qu¶ ViÖt Nam ®¹t xÊp xØ 4 triÖu tÊn mçi n¨m.møc sèng cña c¸c hé n«ng d©n thùc hiÖn m« h×nh VAC ®· ®-îc c¶i thiÖn ®¸ng kÓ víi møc thu nhËp h»ng n¨m tõ ho¹t ®éng VAC ®¹t 60% tæng thu nhËp. tæ chøc ho¹t ®éng t¹i chç ®Ó ng¨n ch¨n suy dinh d-ìng. NÕu tËp trung më réng th©m canh lo¹i c©y trång tren kh¾p c¶ n-íc. HiÖn nay VAC cã mét ý nghÜa quan träng trong viÖc xãa ®ãi gi¶m nghÌo ®èi víi c¸c n-íc chËm ph¸t triÓn. ë tÊt c¶ c¸c vïng n«ng vµ chuyªn m«n hãa c¸c s¶n l-îng rau qu¶ ViÖt ë thÕ kû 21.lµ mét ch-¬ng tr×nh n«ng nghiÖp quèc gia. VAC nªn ®-îc xem nh.. t¹o dùng c¸c v-ên c©y hay ®ån ®iÒn trªn khu ®Êt trèng ®åi nói träc. Gi¸ trÞ s¶n phÈm VAC chiÕm 1/3 gi¸ trÞ tæng s¶n phÈm vµ sÏ t¨ng h¬n n÷a. t¹o ra sù ph¸t triÓn mét nÒn n«ng nghiÖp l©u dµi vµ æn ®Þnh. gãp phÇn vµo viÖc ph¸t triÓn n-íc nhµ vµ gãp phÇn vµo viÖc b¶o vÖ m«i tr-êng.115 M« h×nh VAC ®-îc ¸p dông ®· trá thµnh nguån cung cÊp rau qu¶ chÝnh cho c¶ n-íc. ch©u ¸-Th¸i B×nh D-¬ng lµ 31 kg vµ ViÖt nam lµ 61 kg. . ®ång thêi còng ®¸p øng cho nhu cÇu xuÊt khÈu. S¶n l-îng rau qu¶ b×nh qu©n ®Çu ng-êi trªn thÕ giíi lµ 65 Ki l«. NÕu VAC ®-îc khuyÕn khÝch ®Ó ph¸t huy hÕt mäi tiÒm n¨ng cña nã th× ch¾c ch¾n sÏ ®¹t ®-îc hiÖu qu¶ cao. MÆc dï m« h×nh VAC ®· ph¸t triÓn nhanh nh-ng nã ch-a ®-îc thùc hiÖn ®ång lo¹t th«n.

Karpas said he said the U. There is no cure in sight. Abraham Karpas of the University of Cambridge's department of haematology said. . The French studies produced similar results." he said in his presentation to a London conference. He said the studies. The treated group had one death in 21 people while the placebo group had six deaths in 30. Karpas said he first discovered in 1985 that people with HIV who were otherwise healthy had high levels of these antibodies in their blood while AIDS patients lost these neutralising antibodies and their ability to fight infections. where no treatment was given. but it looks as if it is the best form of treatment. had a death rate of five time higher. also showed that PIT helped to delay the onset of full . "Their double . The Hemancare trial studied the effect of PIT on 220 AIDS patients over 3 years.linked infections was far lower in the treated group and the blood donors themselves also appeared to benefit. Four patients in Cambridge were the first to receive the treatment and subsequently small scale trials were carried out in London in 1988 and 1989. and French studies represented the "first conclusive evidence that PIT is an effective AIDS treatment". DR. that although Passive Immune Therapy (PIT) was "breakthrough" in treating AIDS and had no known side effects it should not be described as a cure. "It is definitely not a cure. conducted by the Hemacare Corporation of California and two Paris hospitals. however.116 ASSIGNMENT 19: Translate the following text into English Researchers said on Monday they had conclusive evidence an experimental AIDS treatment using plasma transfusions delays the onset of the disease in HIV positive patients and prolongs the lives of AIDS sufferers.'' he stated in a telephone interview. the number of AIDS .S.blind. But Karpras said he has failed to receive funding for his research in Britain and studies had therefore been set up in the US and France. The researchers said donating blood appeared to stimulate the production of neutralising antibodies in the blood of HIV .blown AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) in people tested positive for HIV. and French studies on PIT released at the conference confirmed his original research. placebo . patients receive a monthly transfusion of half a litre of plasma taken from healthy HIV .positive patients.controlled studies showed that this treatment benefits AIDS patients and prolonged their sure. It found that in the first 12 months the mortality rate was greatly reduced in the group who received the plasma transfusion while those in the control group. Moreover. Under PIT.S. survival. the virus that causes the deadly disease. Karpas said U.positive individuals. The blood has the red and white cells removes and is free of HIV but has high levels of neutralising antibodies that kill the virus.

he remained in the house." she replied in the same regretful tone. you'll have to go to confession.) I decided that. only a smell of burning timber. and the fellow said in a deep. Jackie. "Isn't it a terrible pity you weren't a good boy? Oh Jackie. Ryan's story made a bad confession. and so far as I could see-. smiling sadly and saying how sorry she was for me." "But sure. The day the whole class went I let on to have a toothache. there was one sin he kept back. "I don't want to go to confession at all. and just then the cock crew in the yard outside. Isn‟t God knows. husky voice that he wanted to go to confession. I remember that steep hill down to the church. Now. I was scared to death of confession. which I saw in the gaps between the houses like Adam's last glimpse of Paradise. being ashamed to mention it. and now it was always on his mind. Do you remember the time you tried to kill me with the bread knife under the table? And the language you used to me? I don't know what he'll do with you at all. He got up to dress. looking for you. if you didn't. Did we take the name of the Lord.if I told it. Mother couldn't come with me and sent Nora instead. my heart bleeds for you! How will you ever think of all your sins? Don't forget you have to tell him about the time you kicked Gran on the shin. 9-n long ac. God. because the fellow was after making a bad confession and committing a mortal sin. and the sunlit hillsides beyond the valley of the river. but the fellow said that last time he went to confession. between one thing and another. in vain? Did we honour our father and our mother? (I asked her did this include grandmothers and she said it did. He might have to send you up to the bishop. The priest was a bit frightened -naturally enough but he asked the fellow what he wanted. just as I was feeling safe.117 ASSIGNMENT 20: Translate the following text into English Another day she said she knew a priest who woke one night to find a fellow he didn't recognize leaning over the end of his bed. "Oh. To make it worse. that girl had ways of tormenting me that Mother never knew of. Then the priest knew it was a bad case. hoping my absence wouldn't be noticed." "Let me go!" I said. all on account of that old woman. the parish priest would be up to the house. trying to drag myself free of her. The priest said it was an awkward time and wouldn't it do in the morning. that I'm not sorry for you.." I remember thinking bitterly that she didn't know the half of what I had to tell . She held my hands as we went down the hill. and to and behold! When the priest looked round there was no sign of the fellow. This story made a shocking impression on me.) Did we love our neighbours as ourselves? Did we cover our neighbour's goods? (I thought of the way I felt about the penny that Nora got every Friday. Ryan that I was to go to confession myself on Saturday and be at the chapel for communion with the rest. along comes a chap with a message from Mrs. but at three o'clock. and understood perfectly why the fellow in Mrs. I knew I couldn't tell it. help us!" she moaned. I must have broken the whole ten commandments. as if she were bringing me to the hospital for an operation. But the worst of all was when she showed us how to examine our conscience. Jackie. our God. and when the priest looked at his bed didn't he see the print of two hands burned in it! That was because the fellow had made a bad confession. "Sure. . I had no hope of ever doing anything else. it seemed to me a great shame that people wouldn't stop criticizing him.

th× gi¸ thµnh s¶n xuÊt sÏ rÊt cao g©y khã kh¨n cho c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt ViÖt Nam trong vieec c¹nh tranh cã hiÖu qu¶ vµ chiÕm lÜnh thÞ tr-êng. Víi sù c¹nh tranh gay g¾t hiÖn nay. "There you are!" she said with a yelp of triumph. The door with the coloured-glass panels swung shut behind me. hä kh«ng thÓ kiÓm so¸t ®-îc kÕ ho¹ch s¶n xuÊt." And I hope he'll give you the penitential psalins. nªn l-¬ng trung b×nh cña c«ng nh©n trong ngµnh may-thªu chØ kho¶ng 400.B¶o hiÓm x· héi: 10% ®èi víi doanh nghiÖp vµ 3% ®èi víi c«ng nh©n .).nh©n ®Òu phô thuéc vµo ®¬n ®Æt hµng cña n-íc ngoµi. vµ nÕu nh. Nora sat in front of me by ASSIGNMENT 21: Translate the following text into Vietnamese 1.nh©n sèng cßn.Tuy nhiªn sù ph¸t triÓn kh«ng æn ®Þnh bëi v× hÇu hÕt c«ng viÖc cña c¸c xÝ nghiÖp t. you dirty little baffler.kÕ ho¹ch dù kiÕn cña b¶o hiÓm x· héi ®-îc phª duyÖt. «ng Nam ®· ®Ò nghÞ nhµ n-íc nªn söa ®æi tû lÖ ®ãng gãp cña c¸c doanh nghiÖp ngoµi quèc doanh ®èi víi chÝnh s¸ch b¶o hiÓm x· héi nhsau: . vµ gi¸ lao ®éng cho s¶n phÈm may mÆt bÞ c¸c ®èi t¸c n-íc ngoµi qui ®Þnh rÊt thÊp ( tiÒn c«ng lao ®éng n¨m 1995 chØ b»ng 65%-70% so víi c¸c n¨m 1991 vµ 1992. She became the raging malicious devil she really was. §Ó gióp c¸c doanh nghiÖp thªu-may t.000 ®ång/th¸ng. when she had maneuvered me down the long flight of steps to the chapel yard. hunting me through the church door. the sunlight went out and gave place to deep shadow. C¸c c«ng nh©n lµm viÖc trong . b¶o hiÓm x· héi chiÕm ®Õn 15% vµ b¶o hiÓm y tÕ lµ 2% trong tæng sè l-¬ng mµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp ph¶i ®ãng.Do tÝnh ®Æc thï cña ngµnh nµy. and the wind whistled outside so that the silence within seemed to crackle like ice under my feet. nÒn c«ng nghiÖp dÖt thªu t.nh©n cña Thµnh phè Hå ChÝ Minh ®· ®-îc kh«i phôc vµ ph¸t triÓn ë møc ®é nhÊt ®Þnh kÓ tõ n¨m 1991. Nora suddenly changed her tone.Do vËy.B¶o hiÓm y tÕ c«ng nh©n : 1% ®èi víi doanh nghiÖp vµ 1% ®èi víi Nhµ n-íc còng nªn ban hµnh mét qui ®Þnh cã liªn quan ®Õn ng-êi lao ®éng ®· ®-îc c¸c doanh nghiÖp tuyÓn dông vµ ®µo t¹o buéc ph¶i lµm viÖc tèi thiÓu lµ 2 n¨m. given up to eternal justice.' I knew then I was lost.118 Then. Nh×n chung sau mét thêi gian ho¹t ®éng tr× trÖ.

ChØ 1 n¨m sau khi lÖnh cÊm vËn cña Mü ®-îc b·i bá.119 c¸c doanh nghiÖp ngoµi quèc doanh cÇn ph¶i ®-îc cÊp thÎ lµm viÖc. C¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt bét giÆt trong n-íc. NÕu mét c«ng nh©n nµo ®ã muèn th«i viÖc th× ph¶i ®-îc doanh nghiÖp cñ qu¶n ®ång ý. §Ó b¶o vÖ viÖc s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc. c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt cña c¸c c«ng ty bét giÆt Tico vµ Lux.Coca-cola.N-íc Ngoµi. nh-ng l¹i bÞ c¸c c«ng ty khæng lå nhProcter & Gamble vµ Unilever dån vµo thÕ bÝ.n-íc gi¶i kh¸t. Pep si. Thø hai. C¸c s¶n phÈm kh¸c còng r¬i vµo hoµn c¶nh t-¬ng tù. 2. thÓ theo ®óng qui ®Þnh cña luËt lao ®éng. TÊt c¶ mäi thµnh viªn cña c¸c c«ng ty may-thªu ë Thµnh phè Hå ChÝ Minh ®Òu ®ång ý thùc hiÖn ®Çy ®ñ viÖc ®ãng gãp mét phÇn l-¬ng vµo b¶o hiÓm x· héi vµ y tÕ. Thø nhÊt. C¸c chñ doanh nghiÖp cña c¸c c«ng ty lín ë TP Hå ChÝ Minh ®· nªu ra nh÷ng khã kh¨n mµ hä ph¶i ®-¬ng ®Çu trong viÖc c¹nh tranh gay g¾t víi c¸c c«ng ty n-íc ngoµi. Bia Sµi Gßn ph¶i c¹nh tranh quyÕt liÖt víi c¸c c«ng ty bia liªn doanh víi n-íc ngoµi. bét giÆt. T¹i mét cuéc häp bµn vÒ : Lµm thÕ nµo ®Ó khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu tn-íc ngoµi vµ ®¶m b¶o s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc ®-îc tæ chøc t¹i TP Hå ChÝ minh tuÇn qua. viÖc cÊp giÊy phÐp nªn ®-îc ¸p dông cho c¸c c«ng ty liªn .n-íc ngoµi vµo viÖc s¶n xuÊt ra c¸c s¶n phÈm mµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc cã kh¶ n¨ng s¶n xuÊt ®-îc nh. chÝnh s¸ch tiÕp thÞ vµ c¸c -u ®·i kh¸c theo luËt §Çu T. nªn c¸c c«ng ty nµy ®· dÇn dÇn th©m nhËp thÞ phÇn cña c¸c nahf s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc.Cola ®-îc h-ëng -u ®·i vÒ vèn. Mü phÈm P/S. mÆc dï cã thÓ ®¸p øng nhu cÇu trong n-íc ®Õn n¨m 2000. c¸c nhµ s¶n xuÊt trong n-íc ®· ®Ò nghÞ víi chÝnh phñ mét sè biÖn ph¸p. bia Sµi gßn vµ c«ng ty gia cÇm vËt nu«i TP Hå ChÝ Minh ®Òu thèng nhÊt mét ý kiÕn lµ c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc kh«ng c©n søc trong viÖc c¹nh tranh víi c¸c ®èi t¸c n-íc ngoµi v× hä kh«ng ®-îc h-ëng chÝnh s¸ch -u ®·i thuÕ nh. giÊy vµ thuèc l¸. ®Æc biÖt lµ víi c¸c c«ng ty khæng lå thÕ giíi. dÖt ViÖt Th¾ng. c¸c c«ng ty n-íc gi¶i kh¸t khæng lå nh. nhµ n-íc nªn cã kÕ ho¹ch ph¸t triÓn dµnh riªng cho viÖc ®Çu t.n-íc ngoµi. n-íc gi¶i kh¸t Tribeco.c¸c doanh nghiÖp cã vèn ®Çu t.n-íc ngoµi vÒ l·nh vùc kinh doanh vµ ph©n bè theo vïng ®Þa lý vµ kh«ng nªn khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu t.

lµ nªn cã mét ®¹o luËt chèng ®èi viÖc c¹nh tranh kh«ng lµnh m¹nh cã thÓ dÉn ®éc quyÒn kinh doanh. ph¸ gi¸ lµm h¹i ng-êi tiªu dïng. or government help.c¸c nhµ ®Çu t. Thø n¨m. and they will be working. In general.plays a part in determining family size: Urban families are smaller than rural families. pensions. Thø t. For example. a large family is a way of planning and preparing for the future. Therefore. c«ng nghÖ cao hay s¶n xuÊt c¸c mÆt hµng xuÊt khÈu. And people in underdeveloped countries have more children than people in developed countries. We could say that a large family is insurance for old age in some societies. people in urban areas have much more information available to them than people living in rural areas.nªn cã chÝnh s¸ch khuyÕn khÝch ®Çu t. and they have smaller families. More and more experts in population growth see the strong relationship between family size and economic development. On the other hand. In some areas. When they grow old. ASSIGNMENT 22: Translate the following text into English Poor people often have larger families than middle class and upper class people. They have no insurance. What are the other reasons? Economic development of families and. ASSIGNMENT 23: Translate the following text into Vietnamese Hai c¬ quan l-¬ng thùc cña Liªn Hîp quèc ngµy h«m qua ®· cho r»ng Indonesia sÏ ®èi mÆt víi sù thiÕu hôt l-¬ng thùc trÇm . Their children will be adults then. government family planning services may not be available to poor people due to geographic location. t¹o ®iÒu kiÖn cho c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc ph¸t triÓn. Why? Because they have to depend upon their children to take care of them in their old age.120 doanh hay c¸c doanh nghiÖp cã 100% vèn ®Çu t. Urban people have help with family planning. Thø ba. poor people in underdeveloped countries choose to have many children. nªn ph¸t ®éng mét chiÕn dÞch ®éng viªn ng-êi ViÖt Nam dïng hµng néi ®Þa. People with a lot of money have fewer children. For many poor people. They can and will turn to their children.n-íc ngoµi.n-íc ngoµi tham gia vµo c¸c dù ¸n ®ßi hái cã nhiÒu vèn. they don't receive information about ways to control family size. people in rural areas may live too far away from family planning services. of nations. on a larger scale. where can they get help? The answer is simple. So we can say that geography where people live . is an important factor in determining family size.trong n-íc vµ cho c¸c doanh nghiÖp trong n-íc ®-îc h-ëng chÝnh s¸ch -u ®·i thuÕ nh. The children can all share the costs and other responsibilities of taking care of their parents.

S¶n l-îng n¨m nay chØ -íc ®¹t 47. B¶n b¸o c¸o nãi thªm r»ng gi¸ l-¬ng thùc ngµy cµng t¨ng cao.5 triÖu ng-êi nghÌo ®ãi v× gi¸ g¹o vµ c¸c lo¹i l-¬ng thùc kh¸c t¨ng 50% trong vßng 12 th¸ng qua. ASSIGNMENT 24: Translate the following text into Vietnamese H«m thø t-.6% so víi n¨m ngo¸i. Trong mét b¶n b¸o c¸o chung. nh»m xua ®i pháng ®o¸n lµ Hµ Néi muèn lÇn l÷a viÖc trë thµnh héi viªn chÝnh thøc cho ®Õn khi chuÈn bÞ tèt mäi ®iÒu kiÖn.121 träng trong n¨m nay. B¶n b¸o c¸o chung cña hai tæ chøc cã v¨n phßng ®Æt t¹i Rome th× hai tæ chøc FAO vµ WFP thóc giôc c¸c n-íc tµi trî gióp Indonesia gi¶i quyÕt c¸c vÊn ®Ò liªn quan ®Õn h¹n h¸n vµ khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh. nguån l-¬ng thùc chÝnh cña ®Êt n-íc. sè ng-êi thÊt nghiÖp ngµy cµng ®«ng lµm t¨ng thªm sè ng-êi sèng d-íi møc nghÌo ®ãi.vËy víi c¸c doanh nh©n t¹i mét b÷a ¨n tr-a do DiÔn ®µn Kinh tÕ thÕ giíi (WEF) - . Kho¶n thiÕu hôt nµy sÏ ®-îc céng ®ång quèc tÕ gióp ®ì ®Ó nh»m cøu v·n nÒn kinh tÕ ®ang l©m vµo c¶nh khèn cïng.5 triÖu tÊn g¹o tõ th¸ng 4 ®Õn th¸ng 9.trªn thÕ giíi mµ nÒn kinh tÕ ®· bÞ tµn ph¸ cho r»ng :’’ Vµo kho¶ng 7. Sù tôt gi¶m nµy do mét trong nh÷ng ®ît h¹n h¸n nghiªm träng nhÊt ë Indonesia trong thÕ kû nµy g©y nªn. ViÖt Nam tuyªn bè lµ sÏ gia nhËp HiÖp Héi c¸c n-íc §«ng Nam ¸. B¶n b¸o c¸o cßn cho biÕt mÆc dï chÝnh phñ Indonesia dù ®Þnh nhËp khÈu 1. B¶n b¸o c¸o cho biÕt th¸ch thøc chÝnh mµ ®Êt n-íc nµy ®ang ®èi mÆt lµ b¶o ®¶m cung cÊp ®ñ l-¬ng thùc cho 7.5 triÖu ng-êi Indonesia nghÌo khæ ë 15 tØnh cã thÓ ph¶i sèng thiÕu ¨n trong mïa kh«’’.’’ Phã Thñ T-íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i ®· tuyªn bè nh.5 triÖu tÊn. §ã lµ hËu qu¶ cña nh÷ng vô mïa thÊt thu vµ cña cuéc khñng ho¶ng tµi chÝnh ®· lµm t¨ng gi¸ nhËp khÈu. Mét b¶n b¸o c¸o vÒ mét n-íc ®«ng d©n thø t. Nhãm nµy ®· ®Õn Indonesia tõ ngµy 9 th¸ng 3 ®Õn 1 th¸ng 4 n¨m 1998. ‘‘ ViÖt Nam hiÖn giê ®ang tÝch cùc chuÈn bÞ mäi ®iÒu kiÖn cÇn thiÕt ®Ó trë thµnh héi viªn chÝnh thøc cña ASEAN vµo n¨m tíi. thÊp h¬n 3. nh-ng n-íc nµy vÉn cßn thiÕu 2 triÖu tÊn n÷a. tæ chøc L-¬ng N«ng thÕ giíi (FAO) vµ Ch-¬ng Tr×nh L-¬ng Thùc ThÕ Giíi (WFP) cho r»ng viÖc gióp ®ì cña thÕ giíi lµ cÇn thiÕt ®Ó gi¶i quyÕt viÖc thiÕu hôt g¹o t¹m thêi. B¶n b¸o c¸o dùa trªn nh÷ng cø liÖu do mét nhãm c«ng t¸c gåm 11 thµnh viªn cña hai tæ chøc nµy.

tæ chøc.Brun©y. ®· cã nh÷ng ch-¬ng tr×nh víi nhiÒu hoµi b¶o vÒ sù hîp t¸c. Thø tr-ëng ngo¹i giao ViÖt Nam Vò Khoan nãi r»ng n-íc «ng sÏ ®Ö ®¬n xin trë thµnh héi viªn A SEAN vßa cuèi th¸ng nµy hay ®Çu th¸ng 11. Malaisia.Th¸i B×nh D-¬ng ( APEC) víi 17 thµnh viªn. ®· tuyªn bè lµ thiÕt tha mong muèn trë thµnh héi viªn chÝnh thøc cña tæ chøc nµy. ’’ Phã Thñ t-íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i cho biÕt chÝnh phñ cña «ng sÏ ®Èy m¹nh c¸c næ lùc b»ng nh÷ng viÖc c¶i c¸ch ®Ó hoµn thiÖn c¸c ®iÒu kiÖn cho sù ®Çu t. Th«ng tÊn x· Antara ®· trÝch dÉn lêi tuyªn bè cña «ng. ®· ph¸t biÓu r»ng «ng kh«ng muèn cã mét trë ng¹i nµo trong qu¸ tr×nh gia nhËp A SEAN. C¸c thµnh viªn APEC bao gåm c¸c quèc gia thuéc Indonesia. sau khi gÆp «ng A Jit Singh Tæng th.’’ ASSIGNMENT 25: Translate the following texts into English . ‘‘ §· s½n cã nh÷ng qui ®Þnh vÒ viÖc hîp t¸c trong khèi A SEAN. Thø tr-ëng Vò Khoan. Phã Thñ T-íng nãi thªm r»ng Hµ Néi sÏ lµm viÖc víi c¸c n-íc kh¸c t¹i §ong Nam ¸ ®Ó b¶o ®¶m nÒn an ninh khu vùc. bao gåm c¶ viÖc ph¸t ®éng khu vùc tù do mËu dÞch A SEAN trong vßng 10 n¨m. Phã Thñ T-íng Phan V¨n Kh¶i cho biÕt ViÖt Nam còng muèn tham gia vµo DiÔn §µn Hîp T¸c Kinh TÕ Ch©u ¸. Canada. A SEAN. Phillipine. Th¸i Lan. Phã Thñ t-íng nãi: ‘‘ Chóng t«i hiÓu ®-îc lµ ViÖt Nam ®ang ®èi phã víi nh÷ng thö th¸ch lín lao cña sù c¹nh tranh kinh tÕ toµn cÇu vµ nh. Mét khi chóng t«i lµ héi viªn th× chóng t«i sÏ tu©n theo mäi qui ®Þnh.ký A SEAN. Mét chÝnh thøc cña c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o c¸c n-íc tham tæ chøc t¹i Indonesia vµo th¸ng tíi. C¸c viªn chøc ASEAN còng ®· hy väng lµ ViÖt Nam cã lÏ sÏ gia nhËp A SEAN tr-íc khi c¸c nhµ l·nh ®¹o cña 6 quèc gia thµnh viªn tham dù cuéc häp th-îng ®Ønh tæ chøc t¹i Th¸i Lan vµo th¸ng 12 n¨m 1995. T¹i Jakarta. WEF lµ c¬ quan ®øng ra duy tr× cuéc häp kÐo dµi 3 ngµy ë ®©y. khi cã ®ñ ®iÒu kiÖn. NhËt vµ Trung Quèc.cïng cuéc häp kh«ng giaAPEC sÏ ®-îc ViÖt nam ®· ®¹t ®-îc kÕt qu¶ lµ trë thµnh quan s¸t viªn ASEAN trong cuéc héi nghÞ cña khèi nµy vµo n¨m 1992.v¨n phßng ®Æt t¹i JaKarta.n-íc ngoµi qua sù h×nh thµnh mét c¬ cÊu luËt ph¸p míi vµ c¸c thñ tôc hµnh ch¸nh thÝch hîp h¬n.122 trô së ®Æt t¹i Thôy SÜ.thÕ chóng t«i ph¶i cè g¾ng thËt tÝch cùc ®Ó g¹t bá ®i mèi nguy c¬ tôt hËu ®»ng sau c¸c n-íc l¸ng giÒng. Xingapore vµ c¸c n-íc Mü.

The big cities such as Can Tho. the Mekong Delta is one of the most fascinating tourist destinations in South-east Asia. .123 1. local producers have proposed several measures to the Government. First. dumping or price inflation that does not benefit consumers. The zones have helped to stimulate foreign investment in the Philippine economy. The positive legal changes have had a tremendous influence on the production. 4. Third. such as large industrial estates. In Vietnamese the word “nuoc” carry a double meaning of “country” and “water”. Vietnam ranked as the world‟s secondlargest rice exporter to Thailand because its agriculture responded dramatically to free market. in part because they are exempt from certain taxes and restrictions on foreign ownership of businesses. advanced technology or producing goods for export. is now a huge industrial-commercial zone in Manila. for example. marketing policies and preferences under the Foreign Investment Law. It offers the marvel of the glittering waters coupled with the gaiety of a culture demonstrated by the local lifestyle and commercial activities. the State should devise specific development plans for foreign investment in terms of business field and geographical area and should not encourage foreign investment in products which local enterprises can produce such as soft drink. most of whom had returned to Vietnam for their investment and contacts with their relatives. In the 1970s the government created four special economic zones designed to stimulate manufacturing for the export market. a law should be enacted against unfair competition that can lead to monopoly. Vietnam has sought to maintain socio-politic stability. have driven into the corner by giants such as Procter & Gamble and Unilever. Government controls on imports promoted the development of light industries that produced consumer goods for the domestic market. a linguistic association recognizable after a journey to the most fertile land in Vietnam. detergent. Much economic expansion was partially driven by an influx of investment and technology from some 2 million overseas Vietnamese in many different countries worldwide. financial and commercial situations. The manufacturing sector expanded significantly during the post-World War II reconstruction of the Philippine economy. The former U.S. licenses should be granted only to JVs or foreign-owned enterprises which involve in projects requiring large capital. The silt from the Mekong River helps to bring an ample granary representing the whole country source of food as well as the local inhabitants‟ riverside lifestyle. paper and cigarettes. Only a year after the US embargo was lifted. Its modern facilities and duty-free economic zone have attracted new export-focused industries and foreign investment 2. Local detergent producers. Industries in these export-processing zones receive incentives to produce traditional exports. naval base at Subic Bay. soft drink giants such as Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola. Businesses receive tax exemptions and other incentives in these zones. For tourists. The success of these zones has led to the creation of other types of special economic zones. In manufacturing and service activities the rapid growth and change occurred in and around HCM City. although capable of meeting domestic demand to the year 2005. Other products are also in the same situation. Saigon Beer has to compete fiercely with breweries of foreign Joint-ventures. 3. develop economic and diplomatic establishment in recent years. To protect domestic production.the Mekong Delta. Second. which have enjoyed superior advantages in capital. have gradually eaten into the market shares of local producers.

It takes only a three-hour drive( by bus. it does not suggest any difficulty in reaching the Mekong Delta to escape the excitement of the greatest city in Southern Vietnam. The exciting life in this region is not very similar to that in HCM City. though) on the National Highway Number 1 to get to My Tho. However.124 My Tho and Long Xuyen provide a vantage for the nine provinces of the Mekong Delta while the immense network of rivers and canals is regarded as the great boon second to none in this region. . the capital of Tien giang & an ideal departure point for exploring this delta region.

Mildred L. Catford. Halliday. New York. J. Oxford University Press. London. USA Palmer. London. Aspects of Language and Translation. Marilyn. Meaning and Form. UK. USA . London. G. UK. Longman. 1998. Longmans. Cultural Equivalences in Translation. 1975. Peter. 1982. Semantics. Cohesion in English. 1979. UK. The Hague.K.C. London. Hertfordside. Cambridge University Press. D. Newmark. UK. F. Dwight. UK. 1981. UK. USA. 1976. Syntactic Translation. M.A. State University of NY Press. London.125 REFERENCES Bolinger. Wayne. Translation Spectrum. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. 1985. Larson. Oxford University Press. Meaning-based Translation. Reyburn.University Press of America. London. 1977. Oxford University Press.R. Rose. Prentice Hall International. Tosh. 1985. Maryland. USA Steiner. 1989. A Textbook of Translation. Mouton.

CONTENTS Introduction Chapter 1: THEORY OF TRANSLATION Lesson 1: Form and Meaning Lesson 2: Kinds of Translation Lesson 3: Steps in a Translation Project Lesson 4: Strategies for Translators Lesson 5: Patterns and Sources of Errors Chapter 2: ASSIGNMENTS Assignment 1 Assignment 2 Assignment 3 Assignment 4 Assignment 5 Assignment 6 Assignment 7 Assignment 8 Assignment 9 Assignment 10 Assignment 11 Assignment 12 Assignment 13 Assignment 14 Assignment 15 Assignment 16 Assignment 17 Assignment 18 Assignment 19 Assignment 20 Assignment 21 Assignment 22 Assignment 23 Assignment 24 Assignment 25 Chapter 2: ASSIGNMENT KEYS Assignment 1 Assignment 2 Assignment 3 Assignment 4 Assignment 5 Assignment 6 Assignment 7 Assignment 8 Assignment 8 1 2 2 11 21 27 34 49 49 51 54 55 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 65 66 67 68 70 71 73 73 74 76 77 78 78 79 81 81 82 84 85 86 87 89 90 90 .

Assignment 10 Assignment 11 Assignment 12 Assignment 13 Assignment 14 Assignment 15 Assignment 16 Assignment 17 Assignment 18 Assignment 19 Assignment 20 Assignment 21 Assignment 22 Assignment 23 Assignment 24 Assignment 25 References 91 92 94 95 96 98 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 106 107 107 109 .

người học cần phải có kiến thức cơ bản về ngữ nghĩa. tái bản năm 2006 tại NXB Đà Nẵng .Thông tin về tác giả của giáo trình: . Translation errors. Trường Đại học Ngoại Ngữ Huế . Paraphrase. Học viện quan hệ quốc tế. Việt Nam học. Meaning-based translation.Đã xuất bản năm 2001 tại NXB Đại học Huế.Địa chỉ email: tuannguyen11863@yahoo. chuyên ngành Biên phiên dịch. Ngoài ra người học cần có kinh nghiệm ít nhiều về công tác biên-phiên dịch hoặc là đang tham gia công việc này hoặc là sinh viên đang học các môn biên-phiên dịch thực hành .Các từ khóa để tra cứu: Source language. Khoa Tiếng Anh.Giáo trình có thể dùng cho các trường Đại học ngoại ngữ.com Phạm vi và đối tượng sử dụng giáo trình: . The 4 T's in translation . Target language.Cơ quan công tác: Tổ Biên-phiên dịch. Strategies for translators. . Translation evaluation. Literal translation. . Đại học sư phạm ngoại ngữ. Giáo trình này còn có thể dùng để dạy hoặc dùng như nguồn tham khảo cho sinh viên ngành Quốc tế học.Họ và tên: Nguyễn Văn Tuấn .Yêu cầu kiến thức trước lúc học môn này: Để học tốt môn này.Sinh năm: 1963 .Giáo trình Translation 1&2 chủ yếu sử dụng để dạy cho sinh viên ngành Tiếng Anh. Exegesis. ngữ dụng và diễn ngôn.