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Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is one type of premix widely use in construction worldwide. It is considered by many engineers as premier paving product which available at any where with any cost and most popular with its high skid resistance, high comfort ability and low maintenance require. In short, HMA gain a lot of attention from engineer and researcher over the world because of its affordable material cost and high performance. Asphalt mix design method involved the concept that mixtures must be stable in mix and durable in any condition. It is a complex issue with a lot of variables involved. However two methods of mix design have become popular worldwide. They are the Marshall Mix Design and the Hveem Mix Design method. In Malaysia the Marshall Mix Design has become the norm in the road industry. Then, Marshall testing device applied a compression load on the circumference of a cylindrical sample through semi-circuit heads. The temperature of testing is 60°C and testing speed is rapid with the best being continue to failure, the maximum load is recorded as well as the deformation undergo by the sample in reaching max load. The value knows as Marshall Stability and Marshall Flow.


75mm – 1.18mm – 75um Total 2. 3. Weights. Apparatus: 1. Marshall Machine 3.5mm – 4.31 0. Specimen: 1.18mm 1. To prepare a standard specimens of asphalt mix. 2.23 0.5% Bitumen Weight (kg): 0. 6.Objective: 1. Oven 4.06 1.23 0. Aggregate.37 0.20 Procedures: 2 . graded according to the ASTM or BS standard: Sieve size: Passing retained 25mm – 9. To determine the stability and flow of specimen using the Marshall machine.3mm 9.75mm 4. Marshall Compaction Pedestal 2. To identity factors which influence the asphalt mix design.

A piece of filter paper is fitted in the bottom of the mould and the whole mix poured in three layers.1. 4. The specimen is measured and weighted in air and water (for volume determination).5mm when compacted in the mould. The specimen is removed carefully from the mould. The required quantity of asphalt is weighted and heated to a temperature of about 160ºC . 6. 9. 5. 2.45 . The aggregate which graded according to the ASTM or BS standard and a sufficient amount is prepared and weighted (about 1200g) for the sample preparation that may give a height of 63. The binder is poured in and mixing carried out until all the aggregate are coated. 3. The mould is placed on the Marshall Compaction pedestal and gives 75 blows. The aggregate in the oven is heated to a temperature not higher than 28ºC above the binder temperature. transferred to a smooth flat surface and allowed to cool to room temperature about 40 minutes. Result: Height of the sample (cm) 3 7. the prepared specimen is place into Marshall Machine to determine the flow and stability. The thoroughly cleaned mould is heated on a hot plate. The mix is then vigorously toweled 15 times round the perimeter and 10 in the centre leaving a slightly rounded surface.185ºC. Finally. 7. The mixing temperature shall be within the limit set for the binder temperature. 8.

V= п r²h = 585 cm³ In process to produce good pavement.0 6.86 4 .3 0.83 – X = 7 1.4mm.Diameter of the sample (cm) Flow(mm) Stability (unit) 10.0/2) ² × 7. have to duplicate the field condition with some correlation establish during the laboratory as: V = п × (10. From the graph.4 – 68.4 – 68.87 135 Calculation: Volume of the Specimen.3mm to 71. 71. it is in range of 68.83-0.7 0.7mm.45 Since the flow measure from the test is 68. the correlation ratio is obtain is : By interpolation method.

56 Discussion: 1.87cm which within the volume range of the sample.33 0. it is considered too brittle and rigid pavement.83-X X = 0. If the mixes with very low flow values and abnormal high Marshall Stability. It indicates the resistance of mix to deformation that higher stability means mixtures are stiffer.856 × 135 = 115. 7 = -103. it considered that this 6. Since the flow is 6. this result obtain is assume acceptable. the low stability and high flow value is considered that the mixture tend to rut and deform under a load. Conclusion: 5 . 2. it may conclude this sample in the second category stated. Marshall Stability value is a measurement of the load which the sample totally failed or yield. As the result obtain have a low stability and moderate flow. Whereas.5% bitumen hot mixed asphalt is not that strong. The high flow value is considered too plastic and have tendency to destroy easily under traffic load. 3.2. Whereas the Marshall Flow value is the total deformation of samples from its original shape which the measurement is in millimeter.856 The correlation ratio times stability = 0. This deformation will decrease in vertical diameter of the sample.56kg. Since this load applied to the sample is only around 115.

Third Edition. Highway And Bridge Engineering. 2003. and Amil Gupta. Khandal et. Gupta. References: • British Standard Methods of four determination of California Bearing Ratio (CBR). • Kenneth N. BS1377: Part 4: 1990. Materials for Civil and Highway Engineers. Prentice Hall.1. Korfiatis. Derucher and George P. the moisture content of the mixture. The stability and flow of specimen is 115. al Hot Mix Asphalt Materials. Standard Publishers Distributors. the workmanship of asphalt mixing and the compaction method. 6 . Design and construction NAPA Foundation Maryland 199. The factor influence the asphalt mix design is the compaction temperature. proportional of aggregate size and bitumen percentage. • B. 2.87cm. Mixtures.56 and 6.L.