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MBA (IB), Roll no: 20 School of Management Studies CUSAT, Kochi – 22 E – mail:email@example.com
Abstract: This report is on Database management and Relational database management systems. information about the various database concepts, database components and Normalisation. Key Words: DBMS, database models, RDBMS, Normalisation
1.0 INTRODUCTION Data is defined as unprocessed information. A database is any organized collection of data. Information is data that have been organized and communicated in a coherent and meaningful manner. Database management is converting unprocessed data into useful information and maintaining it. 1.1. Definition Database Management system is a set of computer programs that controls the creation, maintenance, and the use of the database of an organization and its end users. 2.0 FUNCTIONS OF DBMS: • The DBMS accepts requests for data from the application program and instructs the operating system to transfer the appropriate data.
When a DBMS is used, information systems can be changed much more easily as the organization's information requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system.
Data management involves both defining structures for storing information and providing mechanisms for manipulating the information. The database system must provide for the safety of the stored information, despite system crashes or attempts at unauthorized access. If data are to be shared among several users, the system must avoid possible anomalous results due to multiple users concurrently accessing the same data.
2.1 Pictorial representation
4.0 DBMS BUILDING BLOCKS A DBMS includes four main parts: modeling language, data structure, database query language, and transaction mechanisms:
4.1 Components of DBMS • • •
DBMS Engine accepts logical request from the various other DBMS subsystems, converts them into physical equivalent, and actually accesses the database and data dictionary as they exist on a storage device. Data Definition Subsystem helps user to create and maintain the data dictionary and define the structure of the files in a database. Data Manipulation Subsystem helps user to add, change, and delete information in a database and query it for valuable information. Software tools within the data manipulation
subsystem are most often the primary interface between user and the information contained in a database. It allows user to specify its logical information requirements. Application Generation Subsystem contains facilities to help users to develop transactions-intensive applications. It usually requires that user perform a detailed series of tasks to process a transaction. It facilities easy-to-use data entry screens, programming languages, and interfaces. Data Administration Subsystem helps users to manage the overall database environment by providing facilities for backup and recovery, security management, query optimization, concurrency control, and change management.
5.0 TYPES OF DATABASES 5.1 Relational Database
In relational databases, fields can be used in a number of ways (and can be of variable length), provided that they are linked in tables. It is developed based on a database model that provides for logical connections among files (known as tables) by including identifying KEY from one table in another table.
5.2 Non Relational Database
Non-relational databases place information in field categories that we create so that information is available for sorting and disseminating the way we need it. The data in a non-relational database, however, is limited to that program and cannot be extracted and applied to a number of other software programs, or other database files within a school or administrative system. The data can only be "copied and pasted.“ Example: a spread sheet.
6.0 DATABASE MODELS 6.1 Hierarchal Structure
The hierarchical structure was used in early mainframe DBMS. Records’ relationships form a treelike model. It is used primary today for storing geographic information and file systems.
6.2 Network Structure
• • The network structure consists of more complex relationships. Unlike the hierarchical structure, it can relate to many records and accesses them by following one of several paths. In other words, this structure allows for many-to-many relationships.
6.3 Object oriented structure
The object oriented structure has the ability to handle graphics, pictures, voice and text, types of data, without difficultly unlike the other database structures. This structure is popular for multimedia Web-based applications.
6.4 Relational Structure
The relational structure is the most commonly used today. It is used by mainframe, midrange and microcomputer systems. It uses two-dimensional rows and columns to store data. The tables of records can be connected by common key values.
6.5 Multidimensional Structure
• • The multidimensional structure is similar to the relational model. The dimensions of the cube looking model have data relating to elements in each cell. This structure gives a spreadsheet like view of data.
7.0 DATABASE CONCEPTS 7.1 Data Abstraction
Data abstraction is the process of distilling data down to its essentials. In an object schema, the abstract data model is implemented as a graph. It is achieved through several levels of abstraction. 1. 2. Physical level: This is the lowest level at which how data is stored is described. Conceptual level: The next higher level at which what data is stored is described along with the relationship between the data elements. View level: The highest level of abstraction at which only part of the database is described.
7.2 Data Modelling
A data model is a conceptual representation of the data structures that are required by a database. The goal of the data model is to make sure that all data objects required by the database are completely and accurately represented.
7.3 The Entity Relationship (ER) Model
The ER model is a conceptual data model that views the real world as entities and relationships.
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Entity: Entities are the principal data object about which information is to be collected. Strong Entity Type: An entity which exists independent of other entities is a strong entity. Weak entity Type: An entity type whose existence depends on another entity. Attributes: An attribute is a property or characteristic of an entity. Multi-valued attribute: Certain attributes may have more than one value for the same instance Derived attribute: Some attributes could be calculated or derived from other attributes. Relationships: A relationship represents an association between two or more entities. Unary relationship is a relationship between two instances of the same entity. Binary relationships, the association between two entities most common in real world. Ternary relationship involves three entities and is used when a relationship is inadequate.
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8.0 RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (RDBMS)
A relational database is a collection of relations (frequently called tables). Other items are frequently considered part of the database, as they help to organize and structure the data, in addition to forcing the database to conform to a set of requirements.
Normalisation is a design technique that is widely used as a guide in designing relational databases. The goal of normalisation is to create a set of relational tables that are free of redundant data and that can be consistently and correctly modified.
8.1.1 First Normal Form (1NF)
A relation is in First normal form, if it does not contain any multi-valued attributes. The following is a table given as an example:
Supplier S1 S1 S2 S3
Status 20 20 10 20
City Kochi Kochi TVM Kochi
Part P1 P2 P1 P2
Quantity 200 300 100 300
A table which has multi valued attributes, could be converted into first normal form by extending the data in the other columns which are empty because of the multi-valued columns. Although the table is in 1NF form, it contains redundant data. This redundancy causes update anomalies. Update anomalies are problems that arise when information is inserted, deleted or updated.
8.1.2 Second Normal Form (2NF)
A relation is in the second normal form if it is first normal form and every non-key attribute is fully functionally dependent on the primary key.
Transforming a 1NF table into 2NF form: • • • • • Identify any determinants other than the composite key and the columns they determine. Create and name a new table for each determinant and the unique columns it determines Move the determinant columns from the original table to the new table. Delete the column you just moved from the original table except the determinate. The original table may be renamed to maintain semantic meaning
Supplier S1 S2 S3
Status 20 10 20
City Kochi TVM Kochi
8.1.3 Third Normal Form (3NF)
The third normal requires that all columns in a relational table are dependent only upon the primary key. A relation is in third normal form if it is in second form and no transitive dependencies exist.
Supplier S1 S2 S3
City Kochi TVM Kochi
Status 20 10
City Kochi TVM
Advantages of 3NF form
• • Facts about the status of a city can be added even though there is no supplier in that city. Information about parts supplied can be deleted without destroying information about supplier or city.
1. Database management www.webopedia.com 2. relational database management system www.wikipedi.org 3. Database management system www.webopedia.co.in 4. Definition database www.answers.com 5. DBMS Features and Capabilities` www.searchsqlserver.com 6. Relational DBMS www.auditmypc.com 7. Database Normalization www.serverwatch.com 8. Description of the database www.databasedesign-resource.com 9. Introduction to database www.devshed.com 10. DBMS www.philip.greenspun.com 11. Introduction to Database Management www.sybase.com 12. Definitions of Database www.answers.com 13. ER Modelling www.docstoc.com
14. Summary of ER wwwctp.bilkent.edu 15. What is database? www.techtarget.com